ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0116.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: Available for sale securities, Realized gains and losses, Regulatory capital
Online: 11 December 2018 (09:10:16 CET)
Based on a large sample of publicly listed and non-listed US commercial banks from 1996 to 2011, we find robust evidence consistent with banks using realized available for sale (AFS) securities gains and losses to smooth earnings and increase low regulatory capital. We also find that (i) banks with positive earnings smooth earnings, and banks with negative earnings generally take big baths; (ii) regulatory capital constrains big baths; (iii) banks with more negative earnings and more unrealized beginning-of-quarter losses (gains) take big baths (smooth earnings); and (iv) banks with low regulatory capital and more unrealized gains realize more gains. Also, banks with negative earnings tak big baths (avoid or reduce the earnings loss) if their unrealized gains are insufficient (sufficient) to offset the negative earnings. Our inferences apply to listed and non-listed banks, which indicates that the earnings management incentives do not derive solely from public capital markets. Our findings reveal that the accounting for AFS securities gains and losses enables banks to manage regulatory capital and earnings in a variety of ways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0186.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: audit quality; previous working relationship; audit and audit cycle
Online: 11 July 2018 (03:37:49 CEST)
This study evaluates literature on the wheel of audit partners in Chinese companies and institutions by examining the impact of relationships before and after the rotation between the input and output partners. We consider the partners in the rotation before the rotation, before the work relationship. We find two different results from the previous working relationships: (a) increasing the likelihood of the outgoing partners after the cooling period, and (b) reducing the quality of the audit and lower accounting after the rotation. These findings ask whether the rotational partners are truly independent of the working relationships.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0004.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Neisseria gonorrhea; Zoliflodacin; Covid-19; Antibiotic-resistance; Treatment
Online: 1 April 2022 (07:26:28 CEST)
Background: Neisseria gonorrhea is a gram negative diplococci leads to sexually transmitted infection. N.gonorrhoeae is an obligate human pathogen that causes infection to the mucus-secreting epithelial cells both in male and female. In 2017 the centre of disease control and World Health Organization published the list of global priority pathogens-12 with denting therapeutic options, including antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae. Aim: During the covid-19 pandemic, excessive use of antibiotics is occurring which has lead to its resistance. The infection is widespread and intractable. If this happens, more people will be left with an incurable infection which may cause serious health problems. The possibility of untreatable gonorrhea is emerging larger, and hence, it is the need of an hour to develop new drug for treating it Methods and material: We characterized thoroughly zoliflodacin antibiotic, its clinical trials and effect on human health by using different keywords like “zoliflodacin”, “covid-19”, “clinical trials” from different data sources like Pub-Med, Google-Scholar, and Science-Direct. Result: Zoliflodacin targets antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea. Zoliflodacin shows therapeutic approach against N. gonorrhea. It acts by inhibiting bacterial type 2 topoisomerase with binding site in bacterial gyrase. It shows promising results against N. gonorrhea. Zoliflodacin is effective in treating gonococcal urogenital and rectal infection. Discussion: Antibiotic is the only option to treat N. gonorrhea. There is no vaccine available to treat gonorrhea. The new drug, zoliflodacin, specifically targets antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea. This is giving a hope to researchers. In this study, we elaborate the discovery of zoliflodacin, its mechanism of action, the current clinical trials, and the effectiveness of zoliflodacin.