ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0098.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: open review; open science; zero-blind review; peer review; methodology
Online: 16 August 2019 (05:27:55 CEST)
We present a discussion and analysis regarding the benefits and limitations of open and non-anonymized peer review based on literature results and responses to a survey on the reviewing process of alt.chi, a more or less open-review track within the CHI conference, the predominant conference in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). This track currently is the only implementation of an open-peer-review process in the field of HCI while, with the recent increase in interest in open science practices, open review is now being considered and used in other fields. We collected 30 responses from alt.chi authors and reviewers and found that, while the benefits are quite clear and the system is generally well liked by alt.chi participants, they are reluctant to see it used in other venues. This concurs with a number of recent studies that suggest a divergence between support for a more open review process and its practical implementation. The data and scripts are available on https://osf.io/vuw7h/, and the figures and follow-up work on http://tiny.cc/OpenReviews.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0522.v1
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:19:24 CEST)
With the integration of small unmanned aircraft systems into the U.S. National Airspace System, low altitude regions are being stressed in historically new ways. The FAA must understand and quantify the risk of collision between unmanned and manned aircraft during desired low altitude unmanned operations in order to produce regulations and standards. It is increasingly important to characterize how manned aircraft operate at these low altitudes, as historical assumptions are insufficient for modeling and simulation to support standards development. Yet technical challenges such as poor low altitude radar coverage and lack of required transponder equipage are significant barriers to characterizing the low altitude environment. In response, we conducted an extensive review of fixedwing and rotary-helicopter manned operations to characterize the low altitude environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: ethics; community; refusal; consent; peer review; community peer review
Online: 7 June 2018 (07:35:48 CEST)
Community peer review is a method that extends the ethics of consent into scientific practices. It gives communities affected by scientific research the ability to determine whether research may cause them harm and be part of determining how knowledge should best circulate to reduce or eliminate that harm. This paper introduces the method of community peer review by first looking at the concepts of consent and refusal, then outlining the steps to community peer review, using a case study of community meetings on a study of plastic ingestion by fish to elucidate the details of each step. Steps include: hiring a community member to the team; researching the social, cultural, and economic contexts of the community; identify the community; ensure skills for community conversation are in place; call the community meeting; conduct the community meeting; and analyze feedback for consent and refusal. Community peer review is premised on the idea that research is not inherently good and can cause harm, and that the best people to know whether and what kinds of harms are likely to occur are community members rather than researchers. The second premise is that the researcher’s “right” to research never supersedes a community’s right to not be harmed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0480.v1
Online: 21 August 2020 (11:03:52 CEST)
Due to breakthroughs in embedded system development, sensing technologies, and ubiquitous connectivity in recent years, technologies such as Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and Internet of Things (IoT) have captured the imagination of researchers, businesses, and general public. That resulted in the emergence of an enormous, difficult-to-navigate body of work related to WSN and IoT. To highlight trends and developments in these technologies and to see whether they are actually deployed rather than subjects of theoretical research with presumed potential use cases, we gathered and codified a dataset of scientific publications from a 5-year period from 2013 to 2017 involving actual sensor network deployments. In the first iteration, 15010 potentially relevant articles were identified in SCOPUS and Web of Science databases; after two iterations, 3059 actual sensor network deployments were extracted from those articles and classified in a consistent way according to different categories such as type of nodes, field of application, communication types, etc. We publish the resulting dataset with the intent that its further analysis may identify prospective research fields and future trends in WSN and IoT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1464.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Systematic review; Sarcopenia; aged; Nutrition
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:25:26 CET)
Background: Sarcopenia, a subject of extensive research, has led to numerous clinical trials and systematic reviews (SR). These reviews aid healthcare professionals by summarizing results and conducting meta-analyses, enhancing reliability. However, the abundance of reviews complicates decision-making on sarcopenia management. To address this, SR of SR have emerged, consolidating data from various sources into comprehensive documents. Objective: to assess the isolated impact of dietary interventions on sarcopenia's diagnostic criteria for older individuals. Methods: a study protocol for a SR of SR, following Cochrane and PRISMA recommendations. The search strategy includes the MeSH ‘sarcopenia’ and its subheadings; ‘aged’ and its subheadings; ‘nutrition’ and its subheadings; and filter ‘systematic review’, performed at main databases. Selected studies must include older adults, submitted to nutritional interventions compared to control groups. Quantitative analyses will use inverse variance statistic method (random effects); the effect measures mean difference. Heterogeneity measured with Q-Test. Results: The results of this SR of SR will may provide valuable information about the sarcopenia treatment, deepening the knowledge about. Conclusion: this protocol is reproducible, requires low cost and personnel, and may allow a higher understanding on sarcopenia treatment and management on older people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0705.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: IFRS; Literature review; Voluntary adoption
Online: 11 October 2023 (08:22:02 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the factors influencing the voluntary adoption of IFRS by examining, analyzing, and synthesizing findings from empirical studies conducted worldwide. The research scrutinizes 185 relevant studies on the voluntary adoption of IFRS published before August 2023. Our assessment reveals that, in prior research, the factors influencing the voluntary adoption of IFRS are categorized into seven main factors, including corporate operations, capital structure, ownership structure, internationalization, financial performance, corporate governance, and several other factors. These studies employ various methodologies, including data surveys, and cross-sectional data, to estimate the relationships between these factors and the voluntary adoption of IFRS. In addition to providing an evaluation of the research in this field, this study can serve as a framework for future researchers to link and compare the results of different studies. We anticipate that this research will be beneficial for future scholars interested in the factors influencing the voluntary adoption of IFRS. Furthermore, the study proposes essential guidance for future research considerations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0319.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: medication review; clinical pharmacist; hospital
Online: 5 July 2023 (15:13:02 CEST)
Clinical pharmacists are employed at many hospital departments in Denmark, but not yet on the Faroe Islands. The purpose of this study was to test feasibility of a clinical pharmacist-led medication review service at the surgical ward of the National Hospital on the Faroe Islands. Hospitalised surgical patients were offered a medication review service by a clinical pharmacist. Identified drug related problems (DRPs) were classified according to the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) model. The qualitative inputs from the ward’s staff were collected. In total, 42 patients with 171 identified DRPs were included. The majority of the DRPs concerned suboptimal effect and the safety of the drug treatment. The 49.6 % of the proposed medication changes were accepted by the ward physicians. According to the qualitative inputs, the interest for the service was greater among the younger physicians compared to the older ones, and among nurses compared to physicians. Identified barriers for the optimal service implementation were an absence of medication ordinations and poor visibility of pharmacist’s notes in electronic health records. For a successful implementation of the service, work on the physicians’ interest in an interdisciplinary cooperation and optimization of the electronic health records are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: ChatGPT; pharmacy; review; artificial intelligence
Online: 20 February 2023 (07:23:16 CET)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a breakthrough technology that has been widely applied in many fields and its use in pharmacy is also gaining increasing attentions. Recently, ChatGPT, a newly developed virtual assistant and large language model, is showing strong ability in writing, which makes it a potential tool for review writing. Here in our study, we employ the public available ChatGPT and try to instruct it to generate a mini review on the topic of “lipid-based drug delivery systems” by conversation. Our results showed that ChatGPT can give reasonable outline for this topic and give seemingly sentences with concluding wording, which can give useful information to the readers. However, the accuracy and consistence of the review are not fully guaranteed and there is lack of reliable citations. Therefore, it is concluded that ChatGPT can only give general knowledge on the selected topic, but not capable of giving in-depth discussion. The generated review article can be a useful but occasionally unprecise electronic encyclopedia instead of rigorous scientific literature, which can give benefit for pharmaceutical education and interchange to some extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0133.v1
Online: 10 May 2022 (10:02:40 CEST)
This study aims to understand the contents of debriefing performance in simulation education and its results by comprehensively examining the learning performance of the education ac-cording to the difference in the debriefing methods employed in domestic and overseas nursing simulation training. This is a literature review conducted to identify the effect of debriefing of simulation nursing practice education. The existing literature was found in electronic databases using Pubmed, Embase, MEDLINE complete, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, KoreaMed, National Discovery for Science Leaders, and Research Information Sharing Service and the key words were “nurse,” “nursing student,” “simulation,” “simulator,” “stand-ardized patient,” “debriefing.” Finally, 32 studies were analyzed. All the studies were conducted from 2012 to 2021. A total of 11 RCT, 17 quasi-experimental studies, 3 mixed method studies and 1 pilot study were identified. The debriefing process used media, structured questionnaires, and a method of teaching or peer-led debriefing. The outcome variables that were statistically significant were skill, performance, knowledge, problem-solving competency, critical thinking disposition, clinical judgement, self-confidence, satisfaction, and debriefing quality evaluation. It is necessary to educate the debriefers who are responsible for strategy development and meeting effective debriefing goals.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: review; games; field experiments; agriculture
Online: 12 August 2020 (14:47:11 CEST)
Framed experiments and games are a useful medium to understand how context affects individual and group decision-making. They are particularly relevant for field research in agriculture, where alternative experimental designs can be costly and unfeasible. After a systematic review of the literature, we found that the volume of published studies employing coordination and cooperation games increased during the 2000-2020 period. In recent years, there has been greater attention given to natural resource management, conservation, and ecology areas, especially in strategic regions for agriculture sustainability. Other games, such as trust and risk games, have come to be regarded as standards of framed field experiments in agriculture. Regardless of sectoral focus, most games' results are subject to internal and external validity criticism. In particular, a significant portion of the games showed potential recruitment biases against women and no opportunities for a continued impact assessment. However, games' validity should be judged on a case-by-case basis. Specific cultural aspects of games might reflect the real context, and generalizing games' conclusions to different settings is often constrained by cost and utility. Overall, games in agriculture could benefit from more significant, frequent, and inclusive experiments and data – all possibilities offered by digital technology. Present-day physical distance restrictions may accelerate this shift. New technologies and engaging ways to approach farmers might represent a turning point for games in agriculture in the 21st century.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0015.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Rehabilitation; Review; Patient-Centered Care
Online: 1 February 2019 (10:53:15 CET)
Objective: To map the literature pertaining to adult Person-Centered Rehabilitation (PCR).Data Sources: Following our previously published scoping review protocol, data were identified through: three major databases, snowball searches and expert consultation.Study Selection: Two independent reviewers identified English-language papers which addressed adult physical rehabilitation and met one or more of the six pre-defined inclusion categories for PCR content. Data Extraction: Two independent reviewers extracted key characteristics of included papers (e.g. aims, methods, participants). Quantitative methods (descriptive statistics, regression analysis) and qualitative content analyses were used to synthesize the results. Data synthesis: Of 5084 unique records initially screened, 145 papers were included: 111 empirical, including 11 systematic reviews. Empirical papers had data from 13498 clients and 3849 providers, in total. Yearly publications grew exponentially from 2000 to 2017 (r²= 0.65; p<0.01). Publications were unevenly distributed by countries (e.g. United States’ publications per population size was 45 times lower than New Zealand’s). Most papers focused in more than one profession, setting-type or health conditions, respectively 57.2%, 66.2%, and 60.7%. Finally, more than half of the empirical papers (53.2%) studied implementation of PCR approaches, including its effect. Conclusion: This scoping review synthesizes key characteristics and publication trends in the PCR literature, which is mainly empirical and growing exponentially over time. Stakeholders can use the identified trends, gaps, and literature map to guide further PCR research, and both clinical and organizational practices. The high prevalence of papers focused on multiple professions, settings-type, or health conditions reinforces the need for developing a transdisciplinary, trans-service model of PCR, which will be derived from a thematic analysis of this body of literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0505.v1
Online: 29 August 2018 (15:52:44 CEST)
Background: Alcohol is a psychoactive substance that leads to dependence and harmful drinking in worldwide. Alcohol use is the most prevalent among age from 13 to 29 year particularly in high school, college, and university students. It affected students mentally, physically, economically and their social issues. In low and middle-income countries particularly in Ethiopia, there is lack of data in systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among students. Methods: We will search studies using computerized search engine, main electronic databases and other applicable sources. PubMed/Medline, Global Health, Africa-wides, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and direct Google search will be searched to retrieve studies written in English language from 2010 to 2017. Observational studies (case control, cross-sectional, cohort or longitudinal survey, and surveillance reports) on the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among students in Ethiopia will be eligible. Data will be extracted by two authors independently. Data synthesis and statistical analysis will be carried out. Pooled estimate will be done to determine the prevalence of alcohol use by using comprehensive meta-analysis software. Protocol registration PROSPERO: 2017: CRD42018083222.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0074.v1
Online: 8 August 2016 (10:40:19 CEST)
Reflection in healthcare education is an emergent topic with many studies and reviews being published. The purpose of the present review is to map the literature in this field by performing a systematic review of reviews (umbrella review) and to explore which definitions and models are currently in use, how reflection impacts on design, evaluation and assessment and future challenges. Nineteen reviews were identified that satisfied inclusion criteria. Emerging themes were: reflection is currently portrayed as self-reflection and critical reflection with the epistemology-of-practice notion not being as much as expected in tandem with the evidence-based-medicine paradigm modern science advocates. Reflective techniques were recognised in multiple settings (e.g. summative, formative, group vs individual etc.) and have been associated with learning but assessment remains a research topic with issues of validity, reliability and replicability. Future challenges involve the epistemology of reflection in healthcare education and how to practice and assess reflection without losing its theoretical background.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: health equity; implementation; obesity; systematic review; CFIR; qualitative review; school-based interventions; children; facilitators
Online: 30 November 2022 (03:59:34 CET)
Background: Health inequity (HI) remains a major challenge in public health. Improving the health of children with low socioeconomic status (SES) can help to reduce overall HI in children. Childhood obesity is a global problem, entailing several adverse health effects. It is crucial to assess influencing factors for adoption, implementation and sustainment of interventions. This review aims to identify articles reporting about influencing factors for the implementation of school-based interventions promoting obesity prevention behaviors in children with low SES. It aims to critically appraise the articles’ quality, assess influencing factors, categorize and evaluate them, and to discuss possible implications. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in 7 databases with the following main inclusion criteria: 1) school-based interventions and 2) target group aged 5–14 years. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, its five domains (intervention characteristics, inner setting, outer setting, characteristics of individuals, process) along with 39 constructs within these domains were used to deductively analyze the data. We grouped the articles with regard to the characteristics of the interventions in simple and complex interventions. For each domain, and for the groups of simple and complex interventions, the most commonly reported influencing factors are identified. Results: 6452 articles were screened, and 16 met all eligibility criteria. Included articles applied mixed methods (n=10), qualitative (n=5) and quantitative design (n=1). Of these, five were considered to report simple interventions and eleven were considered to report complex interventions. In total, 295 influencing factors were assessed. Aspects of the inner setting were reported in every study, aspects of the outer setting were the least reported domain, and in the group of simple interventions not reported at all. In the inner setting, most reported influencing factors were time (n=7), scheduling (n=6) and communication (n=6). Conclusion: This review found a wide range of influencing factors for implementation. Most important influencing factors need to be assessed for every setting. Including all stakeholders involved in the implementation process enhances the prioritization of the most important influencing factors for the specific setting. More empirical research and practical guidance are needed to promote obesity prevention behaviors among children with low SES.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0451.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: systematic review; ADR assessment; elderly; aged-care facilities; medications monitoring; nursing home; drug review
Online: 29 February 2020 (03:41:22 CET)
Aim: this scoping review was designed to identify studies that assess the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) for older people in Australian aged-care facilities. This review critically evaluated each published study to identify the risk of, or actual adverse drug events in older people. Inclusion criteria: This review considered any clinical studies that examined the adverse effects of medications in older people who were living in aged-care facilities. This review considered qualitative studies, analytical studies, RCTs, descriptive cross-sectional studies, and analytic observational studies that explored the use of medications and their adverse effects on older people in clinical settings (including aged care facilities). Methods: An initial search of the PubMed, OvidSP, EBSCOHost, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, Wiley Online, SAGE, and SCOPUS databases, with full text was performed, followed by an analysis of the article’s title and abstract. Additionally, MeSH was used to describe the article. The initial round of the database search was based on inclusion criteria from studies that assessed tools or protocols aiming to identify the adverse effects of medications on the elderly population suffering chronic conditions or multiple co-morbidities. Two reviewers screened the retrieved papers for inclusion. The data presented in this review are in tabular forms and a narrative summary which aligns with the review’s objectives. Results: Seven studies were identified, and the extracted data from these studies were grouped according their characteristics and the auditing results of each study. Conclusion: There was no comprehensive or broadly adverse drug reaction assessment tool derived from Australian data that has been used on the elderly in an Australian healthcare setting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1024.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Characterization; Arazá; phenolic compounds; systematic review
Online: 17 October 2023 (05:43:06 CEST)
(1) Background: In Eugenia Stipitata Mac Vaugh (Arazá), there is an abundance of flavonoids, carotenoids, and phenolic acids, which are bioactive compounds with antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antiulcer, and cardiovascular disease prevention benefits. Therefore, the aim of this review is to compile the compounds that have been identified in the fruit and gather information about secondary metabolites to establish their potential preventive and therapeutic effects; (2) Methods: a literature search was conducted in repositories and databases such as Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Agriculture Collection Gale, SAGE, OXFORD University, DOAJ, among others. Articles identifying and quantifying bioactive compounds present in Arazá were included; (3) Results: Five studies meeting the inclusion criteria were incorporated, resulting in the compilation of 82 compounds, of which 24 were identified and quantified, while 58 were solely identified. This review was able to identify and report the concentration, and in some cases, the quantity, of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities present in Arazá; (4) Conclusions: With this scope, it was possible to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the fruit's potential to potentially enhance health aspects, thereby providing greater prominence and added value to this product, allowing for more frequent inclusion in the diets of consumers, and even enabling exportation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0873.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: waste concrete; recycled aggregate; enhance; review
Online: 13 October 2023 (09:49:35 CEST)
The performance of recycled aggregate concrete deteriorates due to the defects of adhesive mortar, pores and cracks on the surface of recycled aggregate. It is of great engineering significance to modify the reclaimed aggregate to improve its performance and adaptability. In this paper, the physical and chemical properties of waste concrete recycled aggregate are reviewed. Then, the existing modification methods and technologies of recycled aggregate, including physical, chemical and biological methods, are reviewed. Finally, the existing problems of the current modification technology are summarized, and the future research direction is proposed. It is expected to provide a new idea and method for the modification of waste concrete recycled aggregate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0333.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Agriculture; selective review; bibliometrics; bibliometric mapping
Online: 6 September 2023 (05:29:38 CEST)
Conservation agriculture and conservation tillage have drawn the attention not only of scientists but of politicians and societies worldwide. This paper aims to present a method for selecting re-search studies on conservation agriculture, conservation tillage, and the role of straw residues on soil health and soil stability against climatic hazards. VOSviewer version 1.6.18 free software tool was used in this study to achieve the bibliometric and mapping approach for studies on the effects of climate change in terms of conservation, tillage, soil health, and straw and microbe or straw and climate interaction or other paradigms. Scopus database (accessed July 7, 2023) indexed a total of 752.2018 bibliographic items classified into 15 paradigms e.g., Carbon (AND Straw) or Microbes (AND Straw). From the examination of the selected papers, it was concluded that straw residue has an impact on soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties and the environment in general.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0175.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: tooth agenesis; oligodontia; syndrome; systematic review
Online: 6 September 2023 (02:58:49 CEST)
The aim of this systematic review was to describe clinical and genetic features of syndromes showing oligodontia as a sign. The review was performed according to the PRISMA 2020 checklist guidelines, and the search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Lilacs, Web of science, Livivo and EMBASE and supplemented by a gray literature search on Google Scholar and ProQuest, applying key terms relevant to the research questions. The systematic review identified 49 types of syndromes in 91 studies, and the most common was hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, which was reported in 24 patients in 22 studies. Other commonest syndromes that reported oligodontia included Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, Witkop’s syndrome, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, blepharocheilodontic syndrome and oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome. The X-linked mode of inheritance was the most reported (n=14 studies), followed by the autosomal dominant (n=11 studies). The review describes the main syndromes that may have oligodontia as a clinical sign and reinforce the need of oro-dental-facial examining for adequate diagnosis and treatment of the affected patients. Molecular analysis in order to better understand the occurrence of oligodontia is imperative.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2200.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: ADHD; hyperactivity; impulsivity; treatment; narrative review
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:55:20 CEST)
Treatment of the ADHD types (hyperactive-impulsive, inattentive, and combined) in children has rarely been studied separately, although their prognostic courses differ widely. In addition, data show that improvements in hyperactivity/impulsivity are hard to achieve. Thus, we focused on treatments tailored for hyperactivity/impulsivity. We examined meta-analyses and systematic reviews within the inter- and intra-individual treatments and found that psychoeducation and training for parents, school-based interventions, reinforcement strategies, and neurofeedback consistently showed small to moderate effect sizes in reducing hyperactivity/impulsivity in children. Conversely, emotional self-regulation, social skills, and cognitive trainings showed unsatisfactory results. In summary, we found that the quality of usual care can be surpassed when the designated interventions are purposefully combined into a multimodal treatment program.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0475.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Osteoarthritis; Effectiveness; Safety; Glucosamine; systematic review
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:08:22 CEST)
Knee osteoarthritis is the most popular type of osteoarthritis that causes extreme pain in elderly. Currently there is no cure for osteoarthritis. To lessen clinical symptoms, glucosamine was suggested. The primary goal of our study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucosamine from recent studies. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane were used to assess RCT. From the beginning through March 2023, the papers were checked, and if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria, they were then examined. WOMAC and VAS scales were considered as main outcome measure. A total of 15 studies were selected. Global pain was significantly decreased in comparison to placebo, as measured by the VAS index, with an overall effect size SMD of -7.41 ([95% CI] 14.31, 0.51). The WOMAC scale confirmed that pain, stiffness, and physical function had improved, however the effects were insufficient. A statistical update also revealed that there were no reports of serious medication interactions or significant adverse events. To summarize, glucosamine is more effective than a placebo at reducing pain in knee osteoarthritis patients. In long-term treatment, oral glucosamine sulfate 1500 mg/day is believed to be well tolerated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0523.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Lightning Network; Business models; Narrative review
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:54:36 CEST)
The Lightning Network (LN), a second-layer protocol built on top of the Bitcoin blockchain, is an innovative digital payment solution that offers increased convenience, speed, and cost-effectiveness to consumers and businesses alike. However, there is limited literature available on the characteristics of this nascent technology, the depth and breadth of the various business LN-related applications as well as relevant adoption/implementation challenges. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the LN’s characteristics, its potential in enhancing business operations and its applicability across different sectors, while taking into account adoption and implementation challenges. We apply a narrative review methodology using a semi-systematic approach to examine new and emerging business models empowered by the LN and its characteristics, topology, performance, privacy, and security. We analyze the data to identify key themes and trends in the literature, offering a critical analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of the existing literature. Based on the findings, we provide several clusters of fruitful areas for future research directions. The findings of this study will help businesses make more informed decisions about adopting and leveraging the LN to improve their operations and enhance customer experience.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Entamoeba Gingivalis; Periodontal Disease; Prevalence; review
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:13:01 CEST)
The oral cavity is environment to a diverse range of organisms that make up an essential element of the human microbiota. There are 50-1000 kinds of microorganisms capable of colonizing the mouth. The entamoeba parasites have at minimum 7 species (E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. coli, E. polecki E. hartmann, E. gingivalis). These parasites are parasitic single-celled organisms and Entamoeba gingivalis was the first amoeba to be described in 1849 that was capable of existing in humans. It was shown that only Entamoeba gingivalis is able to colonize the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate prevalence of E. Gingivalis in periodontal disease using two electronic database search engines. In order to have a broader view of the subject, a comprehensive manual search was conducted on these content aggregators and the initial search resulted in 277 articles using the keywords „Entamoeba gingivalis”, „periodontitis”, „E. gingivalis”, „periodontal disease”, „prevalence”, and „incidence”, in different combinations. The results showed that 755 cases were infected with Entamoeba gingivalis out of a total number of 1,729 patients diagnosed with periodontal disease indicating a global prevalence of 43%. When comparing different stages of periodontal diseases results revealed that the prevalence in patients with gingivitis was 58% while in periodontitis group the prevalence was 44%. Overall prevalence of Entamoeba Gingivalis based on gender was 43 % in female patients whilst in male patients was 47%. Based on the results it can be concluded that the higher incidence of Entamoeba Gingivalis in people with periodontal disease compared to healthy people is more than just a sign of the disease; it may also be linked to the severity of the condition and its propensity to progress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0017.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: systematic review; aircrew; occupational risk factors
Online: 3 April 2023 (08:24:00 CEST)
The primary objective of this systematic review was to analyze the main physical agents representing risk factors for commercial aircrew, together with their consequences. The secondary objective was to identify the countries in which studies on the topic were conducted, as well as the quality of the publications available. Thirty-five articles, published between 1996 and 2020, were selected for the review, having met all inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in the United States, Germany and Finland and had moderate or low methodological quality of evidence. The main risk factors for aircrew identified in publications were exposure to abnormal air pressure, cosmic radiation, noise, and vibrations. Hypobaric pressure was explored in response to demands for studies on this agent, a factor which may lead to otic and ear barotraumas, as well as acceleration of atherosclerosis of the carotid artery. However, there is a dearth of research exploring this phenomenon.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: clinical diagnosis; immunodeficiency; systematic review; immunoglobulins
Online: 27 February 2023 (10:04:00 CET)
Background: Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of Infancy (THI) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a temporary decline of serum levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) greater than 2 standard deviations below the mean age-specific reference values in an infant between 5 and 24 months of age. Preterm infants are particularly susceptible to THI, as, in the third trimester of pregnancy, IgG is transferred across the placenta from mother to infant.Objective: To systematically review the diagnostic criteria of Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of infants.Design & Methods: Systematic Review. Manual searching of 3 electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, & Google Scholar) from September 2021 – April 2022. Abstracts were screened to assess fit to the inclusion criteria. Data was extracted from the selected studies by using an adapted extraction tool from Cochrane.org. Studies were then assessed for bias by using an assessment tool also adapted from Cochrane.org.Results: Of the 215 articles identified, 16 were eligible for examining the diagnostic criteria of THI. These studies were also assessed for bias in 6 domains. 5 studies (31%) had a low risk of bias, while 4 studies (25%) had a high risk of bias, & 7 studies (44%) were unclear for bias.Conclusion: We can conclude that THI is only definitively diagnosed after the abnormal IgG levels have normalized, hence THI is mostly a benign condition, but must be monitored for subsequent recurrent infections. The diagnostic criterion also includes vaccine & isohaemagglutinin responses to differentiate against other immunological disorders in infants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: bunyavirus; structure; genomics; immune response; review
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:49:30 CEST)
Bunyaviruses represent the largest group of RNA viruses, and are the causative agent of a variety of febrile and hemorrhagic illnesses. Originally characterized as a single serotype in Africa, the number of described bunyaviruses now exceeds over 500, with its presence detected around the world. These predominantly tri-segmented, single-stranded RNA viruses are transmitted primarily through arthropod and rodent vectors, and can infect a wide variety of animal and plants. Although encoding for a small number of proteins, these viruses can inflict potentially fatal disease outcomes, and have even developed strategies to suppress the innate antiviral immune mechanisms of the infected host. This short review will attempt to provide an overall description of the order Bunyavirales, describing the mechanisms behind their infection, replication and their evasion of the host immune response. Furthermore, the historical context of these virus will be presented, starting from their original discovery almost 80 years ago, to the most recent research pertaining to viral replication and host immune response.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0095.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: elderly study; mobility; transportation; scoping review
Online: 6 July 2022 (10:12:39 CEST)
The rapid development of transportation infrastructure in Malaysia had changed the mobility landscape of the country. While it would be a welcome advancement for many, older adults might find it difficult to keep up with their transportation uses and remain active. This study reviewed published articles on the travel behavior of older adults and its associated transportation determinants to explore how sustainable the transportation system is for this vulnerable cohort. Four databases were searched: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and EBSCOhost. Inclusion criteria were older respondents, living in a community in Malaysia, addressing any travel behavior characteristics and written in English language. Review paper, letters, book citations, comments, editorials, and experimental and animal studies were excluded from this study. All in all, this review included seven studies extending from the year 2007 to 2020. The result showed that transportation use of older adults had shifted from relying on public transports to driving their own vehicle to move around. According to the finding of this study, besides personal and health factors, transport use of older adults was affected mainly by cost, public transport availability, road traffic and safety, the complexity of the transportation system, distance to public transit, availability of parking space, road condition and signage. It is concluded that an effective strategy to improve the transportation system is lauded to prevent unmet travel needs among the older adults in Malaysia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Refugee, Asylum seeker, resettlement, scoping review
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:09:58 CET)
The aim of this scoping review is to conduct a systematic search of the literature as it pertains to interventions delivered by peers to refugees and asylum seekers during the resettlement process. A PRISMA-compliant scoping review based on Arskey and O'Malley's (2006) five steps was used. Four databases, Scopus, Embase, Ebsco, and ScienceDirect were searched for peer-reviewed articles published in English from 2000-2021. Studies were included if they reported on interventions, outcomes or the training received by adult peers to support refugees and asylum seekers during the resettlement process. Of an initial 632 journal articles retrieved, 14 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Most included studies were conducted in Western high-income countries, with the exception of one. Studies were heterogeneous in terms of the nationalities of peers and those receiving peer interventions; the outcomes reported on; the content of interventions, and the methodologies used. Findings suggest that peer interventions seem to be effective in addressing many of the challenges faced by refugees and asylum seekers. Community integration, acculturation and psychological distress are some of the key benefits. When such interventions are co-produced in participatory research involving refugees, asylum seekers and the civil society organisations that support this population, they are naturally culturally responsive and can therefore address issues relative to different ethnic needs during the resettlement process. This is the first scoping review to be conducted in this area and adds to what is a very limited body of research. Refugee, Asylum seeker, resettlement, scoping review
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0517.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: functional foods; consumer acceptance; scoping review
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:59:35 CET)
Chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease, cancer, diabetes) are of major public concern. Such chronic diseases are often caused by a dietary pattern characterized as relatively high in fat, refined sugar, salt, and cholesterol. Societal interest in consuming healthy foods and the demand for healthy food products has increased significantly. As a result, functional foods have gained significant research attention in the food health and technology innovations field. To date, many studies have investigated the factors that may predict consumer acceptance of functional foods, and a wide range of influential factors have been reported. However, studies conducted in different contexts pose challenges to gaining a clear understanding of the factors influencing consumer acceptance. This scoping review identified 75 articles published with varying populations around the globe that empirically investigated consumers’ acceptance of functional foods. We identified and categorized a wide range of determinants related to consumer acceptance of different types of functional foods. The five categories of determinants were product characteristics, socio-demographic characteristics, psychological characteristics, behavioral characteristics, and physical characteristics. Each of the determinants were more fully described by sub-determinants in our scoping review. These determinants should be considered and used by leaders and scientists in product development to aid decision making and, ultimately, the successful launch of novel functional foods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0511.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: review; misinformation; online education; research; discipline
Online: 30 August 2021 (10:26:50 CEST)
Misinformation research has grown to become a critical topic in all disciplines. Since the expanding of online media, misinformation has been spreading rapidly across the globe through social media and other information systems. Paralleling the rise of academic interest in misinformation, is the emergence of online education scholarship. Interest in the online educational implications of misinformation and its impact attracts an increase in scholarship on misinformation. This article presents the results of a review of 1172 publications with “Misinformation” across disciplines and a subset of 174 misinformation literature in online education that were published between 2009 and 2021. This review answers three questions: (1) What is the overall distribution of publication activity with "misinformation" publications? (2) What methodologies have scholars used to investigate misinformation involving online education? (3) What have scholars reported about the results of studies involving misinformation in online education? The review reveals that various methodologies were used in literature focusing on misinformation online education with leading numbers of content analysis and quantitative studies. This systematic review is particularly relevant to those online educators in various disciplines who are interested in learning what scholars from their own academic disciplines are writing about misinformation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; diet, education; systematic review.
Online: 8 July 2021 (09:57:01 CEST)
As the incidence and prevalence of diabetes increases, intervention through dietary education is becoming more important for diabetes control. This systematic review aimed to confirm the ef-fect of dietary intervention education on diabetes control. The study subjects were type 2 diabet-ic patients, and the main outcome variable was glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1c). The target studies were randomized controlled trials. Thirty-six studies were included in the analysis, of which 33 were included in the meta-analysis. The effect size between the dietary education and general intervention, was -0.42 (n=5,639, MD=-0.42; 95% CI -0.53 to -0.31) and was signifi-cantly different (Z=7.73, P<.001). When subgroup analyses were performed following the appli-cation periods, intervention methods, and intervention contents, the mean differences in 4–6-month application, individual education, diet-exercise-psychosocial intervention were -0.51, (n=2,742, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.32), -0.63 (n=627, 95% CI -1.00 to -0.26), and -0.51 (n=3.244, 95% CI -0.71 to -0.32), respectively. Dietary education interventions provided for at least 3 months were highly effective in controlling blood sugar levels. Regarding the education method, individual-ized education was more effective, and for this, contact or non-contact education may be applied. Combining diet, exercise, and psychosocial intervention is more effective than diet education alone.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: bio-aerosol; reduction; procedures; dentistry; review
Online: 25 June 2020 (12:24:48 CEST)
Microbe laden air particles, known as bio-aerosols, are routinely generated, in clinical dentistry due to the operative instrumentation within a milieu rich in salivary organisms. As the major mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be airborne aerosols and droplets, there has been an intense focus on such aerosol generating procedures (AGP). As there has been no systematic reviews on the efficacy of bio-aerosol reducing measure in dentistry, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature on three major AGPs, rubber dam application, pre-procedural oral rinse, and high-volume evacuation (HVE) aimed at reducing dental bio-aerosols. Method: PubMed via Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO host, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases between January 01, 1985, and April 30, 2020, were searched.Results: A total of 156 records in the English language literature were identified, of which 17 clinical studies with 724 patients were included in the final analyses. The eligible reviewed articles revealed the inadequacy of the afore mentioned three principal AGPs used in contemporary dental practice to minimise bio-aerosols. HVE appears to be the most efficacious method, although no single approach provides total elimination of bio-aerosols. Conclusion:This, the first systematic review on methods of controlling bio-aerosols in dental operatory settings, indicates that employing combination strategies of rubber dam, with a pre-procedural antimicrobial oral rinse, and HVE can significantly minimize bio-aerosols. As the quality of the currently available data on dental bio-aerosols are rather poor, further, controlled, multi-centre studies are essential to address this critical issue.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0405.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: caffeine; coffee; systematic review; pregnancy; safety
Online: 23 August 2018 (05:33:43 CEST)
In 2016–2017, we conducted and published a systematic review on caffeine safety  that set out to determine whether conclusions presented in the heavily cited Health Canada assessment, Nawrot et al. , remain supported by more recent data. To that end, we reviewed data from 380 studies published between June 2001 and June 2015, which were identified from an initial batch of over 5,000 articles through a stringent search and evaluation process . In the current paper, we use plain language to summarize our process and findings, with the intent of sharing additional context for broader reach to the general public. We addressed whether caffeine doses previously determined not to be associated with adverse effects by Health Canada (400 mg/day for healthy adults, 300 mg/day for pregnant women, 2. 5 mg/kg body weight/day for adolescents and children, and 10 g/day for acute effects) remain appropriate for five outcome areas (acute toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone & calcium effects, behavior, and development and reproduction) in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. We used a weight-of-evidence approach to draw conclusions for each of the five outcomes, as well as more specific endpoints within those outcomes, which considered study quality, consistency, level of adversity, and magnitude of response. In general, updated evidence confirms the levels of intake put forth by Nawrot et al., as not being associated with any adverse health effects, and our results support a shift in caffeine research from healthy to sensitive populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: systematic review; forest therapy; depression; adults
Online: 14 March 2017 (08:45:56 CET)
The purpose of this study was to systematically review forest therapy programs designed to decrease the level of depression among adults and subsequently identify the gaps in the literature. This systematic review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The authors independently screened full-text articles from various databases using the following criteria: 1) intervention studies assessing the effects of forest therapy on depression in adults aged 18 years and over; 2) studies including at least one control group or condition; 3) been peer-reviewed; and 4) been published either in English or Korean before July 2016. The Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) measurement tool was used to assess the risk of bias in each trial. In the final sample, a total of 28 articles (English: 13, Korean: 15) were included in the present systematic review. This review concluded that forest therapy is one of the emerging and effective interventions for decreasing the level of depression in adults. However, the studies included in this review lacked methodological rigor. Future studies assessing the long-term effect of forest therapy on depression using rigorous study designs are needed.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: depression; measurement scale; ratings; literature review
Online: 16 December 2016 (07:57:02 CET)
The range of rating instruments in depression measurement and the depth of their analytical relevance constitutes a major development in this psychiatric and psychotherapeutic field of mental health. Though the competition is acute amongst these various instruments, the results for the public have been outstandingly positive. A depression rating scale is essentially a psychiatric measuring instrument utilized in the identification and ranking of depression severity within the patient. The scale provides the practitioner, psychiatrist or psychotherapist, with sufficient information to assess the severity of the depression plotted on the scale. Not used as a “diagnostic tool” itself, nevertheless, the depression rating scale does function as an effective device for designating and assigning a behavioral score which may, then, be used in establishing the severity of depression of value in the designation of a diagnosis and treatment formula. In this paper, we will take a close look at the leading depression rating scales and briefly summarize their scope of assessment value in rating depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0612.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Academic journals; Growth of knowledge; Non-peer review; Paradigm change; Peer review; Scholarly communication; Science communication; Simplicity
Online: 30 August 2021 (12:02:53 CEST)
This article challenges the assumption that journals and peer review are essential for developing, evaluating and disseminating scientific and other academic knowledge. It suggests a more flexible ecosystem, and examines some of the possibilities this might facilitate. The market for academic outputs should be opened up by encouraging the separation of the dissemination service from the evaluation service. Publishing research in subject-specific journals encourages compartmentalising research into rigid categories. The dissemination of knowledge would be better served by an open access, web-based repository system encompassing all disciplines. There would then be a role for organisations to assess the items in this repository to help users find relevant, high-quality work. There could be a variety of such organisations which could enable reviews from peers to be supplemented with evaluation by non-peers from a variety of different perspectives: user reviews, statistical reviews, reviews from the perspective of different disciplines, and so on. This should reduce the inevitably conservative influence of relying on two or three peers, and make the evaluation system more critical, multi-dimensional and responsive to the requirements of different audience groups, changing circumstances, and new ideas. Non-peer review might make it easier to challenge dominant paradigms, and expanding the potential audience beyond a narrow group of peers might encourage the criterion of simplicity to be taken more seriously - which is essential if human knowledge is to continue to progress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1646.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: polyurethane; fire retardants; review; decomposition; smoke toxicity
Online: 27 November 2023 (04:40:09 CET)
Polyurethane is used extensively in the furniture industry, primarily in beds and sofas. There is a significant volume of research pertaining to the flammability of polyurethane materials, but very little regarding smoke toxicity. Given toxic fire effluents are a primary cause of injury and fatalities, more work needs to be done to test the toxicity of polyurethane materials and the fire retardants they are coated/bound with. The aim of the review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the decomposition of polyurethane and discuss the development and application of modern fire retardants and their effect on smoke toxicity. This work then provides discussion on the challenges faced when attempting to quantify the toxicity of the effluent produced during combustion. Future work should aim to reduce the toxicity and flammability of polyurethane simultaneously by; reducing the pyrolysis of the polymer, preventing the escape of volatile products, reducing radicals within the system and lowering the temperature of the system. Before this can be achieved, a better understanding of smoke toxicity and the ability to test materials is needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0571.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: post‐stroke; dependence variable; telerehabilitation; review; telecare
Online: 8 November 2023 (16:14:02 CET)
Introduction: Outcome measures using telerehabilitation (TR) in the context of post-stroke rehabilitation is an area of emerging research. The current review assesses the literature related to TR for patients requiring post-stroke rehabilitation. The purpose of this study additionally is to survey the outcome measures used in TR studies and to define which parts of the International Organization of Functioning are measured in trials. Methods: TR studies were searched in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from 2016 to June 2023. Two reviewers individually assessed the full text. Disagreements about inclusion or exclusion were determined by consensus or by checking with a third reviewer. Results: A total of 24 studies were included in the current review. The results were synthesized and reported considering the implications of the results within clinical practice, areas of investigation, and strategic implementation. Conclusions: The current scoping review recognized a wide range of outcome measures used in TR studies and helped elucidate gaps in the current use of outcome measures in the literature. The scoping review also informs researchers and end users (i.e. clinicians and policymakers) regarding the most suitable outcome measures for TR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0558.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colon cancer; metastasis; Liver Neoplasms; Review Literature
Online: 8 November 2023 (14:43:44 CET)
The current management of colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM) patients involves a multidisciplinary approach with surgical resection remaining the primary curative option. The advances in liver surgery have improved outcomes, enabling more patients to undergo surgery successfully. In addition, the development of imaging software has improved the preoperative planning and patient selection for surgery and other interventions. Systemic therapies, such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies have enhanced the chances of complete resection. Targeted agents in combination with chemotherapy, have shown efficacy in downstaging tumors and increasing resectability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0750.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: bone conduction implants; middle ear implant; review
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:29:01 CEST)
This review provides a comprehensive overview of two major advancements in hearing loss treatment: the middle ear implant (MEI) and bone conduction implants (BCIs). MEI, surgically inserted in the middle ear, directly stimulate the ossicles, and are primarily employed to treat sensorineural, conductive, or mixed hearing losses. BCIs work via bone conduction, bypassing the outer and middle ear to deliver sound vibrations to the inner ear, beneficial especially for conductive or mixed hearing losses and single-sided deafness. The decision to opt for these devices is a multifaceted process, considering audiological criteria, surgical feasibility, and patient expectations. The review also details the portfolio of available devices, their functioning, and audiological usage indications. While both MEI and BCIs prove beneficial for patients, the review emphasizes the need for careful preoperative planning and counselling, considering factors such as potential complications, surgical challenges, and patient suitability. Overall, the two types of implants, despite their individual complexities, provide an effective alternative to traditional hearing aids, offering a path to improved sound clarity and quality for patients with various types of hearing loss.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0533.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Emotional intelligence; job satisfaction; teacher; Scoping review
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:16:56 CEST)
Recent trends in assessing teachers' psychological aspects have led to considering emotional intelligence (EI) as one of the main factors determining teachers' job satisfaction. The present study aims to explore the different effects of emotional intelligence on teachers' job satisfaction. This study used the Scoping review method and focused specifically on studies conducted from January 2014 to February 2023, and 21 studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the results indicated that emotional intelligence has both direct and indirect positive effects on teachers' job satisfaction. However, the results on the effects of various EI models on teachers' job satisfaction were inconsistent. The findings suggest that more research is needed to investigate the impact of the ability model of EI on teachers’ job satisfaction, as well as longitudinal studies to understand the long-term effects of this relationship. Finally, studies are also needed to determine whether demographic factors influence the effects of EI on teachers’ job satisfaction in different countries and contexts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1630.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Fake News; Marketing; Bibliometric Literature Review; LRSB
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:51:09 CEST)
Fake news was conventionally assumed to mean fabricated information published in newspapers and other mass media. It was mostly done to increase the paper's sales and was unlikely to have long-term impacts on society. Fake news in marketing concerns intentionally delivering false or misleading information regarding a product or service to influence consumer behavior. Despite the severity of these impacts, we noted that there is very little scientific research on fake news in marketing and consumer behavior. This systematic literature review (LRSB) aims to bridge this knowledge gap by searching and analysing relevant publications on "fake news in marketing" and synthesising data from 117 relevant studies, providing a framework for marketers and business leaders to reduce the spread and impact of online misinformation. The main highlights identify that the implementation and use of social media, shaping a presence on the internet, diffusion, and consumption of fake news have become a serious challenge and a dominant problem in the marketing sector, especially with the growth of digital marketing. Strategically, fake news spread can be categorized into various types, and the use of these tactics can produce short-term benefits such as increased engagement and instant sales, but they can also have severe long-term costs such as reputational damage, loss of revenues and market share, and discouraged investors and shareholders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1538.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Industrialized Foods; Epidemiologic Factors; Adolescent; Brazil; Review.
Online: 23 May 2023 (03:02:36 CEST)
Background: Considering its deleterious effects on health, as well as the importance of information to support actions, strategies and public policies, this study was aimed to identify and classify the risk factors for consumption of ultra-processed foods among Brazilian adolescents. Data sources: targeting observational studies involving samples of Brazilian adolescents (11 to 19 years old), which evaluated possible associations between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and individual, interpersonal, environmental and public policies variables, in October 2022, a systematic review was conducted, consulting electronic databases (Lilacs, Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus and Web of Science), Google Scholar and the reference lists of included articles. Data synthesis: The descriptive synthesis consisted of 11 papers, representing nine original studies. In general, the consumption of ultra-processed foods was associated with different individual, interpersonal and environmental variables. More specifically, the following variables can be highlighted: sedentary behavior (specially screen time), studying at a private school, having a higher Body Mass Index and being female. Conclusions: Based on this evidence, it is important to direct actions, strategies and public policies aimed at confronting the consumption of ultra-processed foods for these groups.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0438.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ChatGPT; Review; Technical Novelties; Taxon-omy; Applications
Online: 27 March 2023 (03:36:47 CEST)
ChatGPT, a groundbreaking natural language processing technology released just three months ago, has attracted significant attention due to its remarkable capabilities. This AI milestone has urged researchers, industry, decision-makers, and governments to examine this technology, including its implications, threats, and benefits. Despite the short period since its release, several researchers have examined ChatGPT from different perspectives. This paper presents a comprehensive review of ChatGPT, highlighting its technical novelties compared to previous models and analyzing existing research from various perspectives. We followed a rigorous methodology to conduct a critical review of existing research on ChatGPT and developed a taxonomy for the different areas of study. Additionally, we identify future challenges and research trends associated with ChatGPT. Our paper is the first critical review of ChatGPT literature, providing valuable insights for practitioners and policymakers. This paper serves as a reference for researchers seeking to advance research on ChatGPT, including its applications and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0477.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: scholarly publication; international journals; referees; peer review
Online: 27 February 2023 (15:07:26 CET)
Scholarly publication in international journals depends on qualified, unbiased and available referees: (1) qualified in their ability to assume each role inherent to being a peer reviewer and in willingly and competently accepting the responsibilities that coincide with these roles; (2) unbiased in focusing on the submitted research content irrespective of their own research programs in judging the submission’s merit; and (3) available to devote time to read and understand the paper, check the accuracy and relevance of references, and write a comprehensive review commenting on the strengths and weaknesses of the manuscript, the ability of the research to be replicated, and the contribution of the work to the discipline. This study investigates the range of reviewer’s roles and responsibilities in relation to author’s own assessment as a frequent reviewer for fourteen journals representing five publishing houses—and as an active researcher—in comparison with a 2019 comprehensive study of the views of 224 authors on peer review. Based on this investigation, advice will be provided to potential reviewers regarding what is expected of them in undertaking their work. Recommendations will be offered for peer review to mitigate weaknesses in the process and increase the pool of qualified peer reviewers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0505.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: computer thinking; game design; programming; review; robotics
Online: 27 January 2023 (12:04:52 CET)
This study presents review of 7580 papers in 13 academic journals, published from January 2015 to January 2020. After a detailed analysis of all papers, 46 papers were further selected showing research on a student population aged between 6 and 15 years old. In order for the paper to be included in the research, the condition was that the paper deals with teaching at least one of the following content areas: programming languages, game design, computer thinking (CT), algorithmic thinking and robotics programming. This study shows the representation of the listed content area in reviewed papers for the specified time period as well as a detailed analysis of the selected papers. Available data about study, participants and education level, country (first author), learning domain, teaching tools, research questions, hypothesis, pre/post-test results, interviews, control groups, course duration, research design, previous experience, project or grant and re-search purpose in detected papers were analysed. In addition, impact of studying some of the listed content areas on student learning performance, motivation, attitude and perception were investigated.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: research; public health; innovation; decision making; review
Online: 21 October 2020 (11:26:17 CEST)
SIGNIFICANCE Putting worth on research and selection of studies by importance are crucial in medical innovation. Practical applications include choosing personal study topics, publication review, study grant selection, and decisions of spending or misspending billions in public health. Multiple studies raised alarm that current methods perform poorly in reproducibility, prediction of best research and objectivity. I propose using the metrics how much disease burden is reduced and calculating objective, numerical research value. The concept is that worth of medical research is not subjective but can be reproducible and numerically quantified. The method increases transparency by giving decision makers an externally accountable proof, and frees peer reviewers to check scientific integrity. Its numerical form can capture small differences important in competition between studies. ABSTRACT Finding value and selecting knowledge by importance are crucial in medical innovation. Applications include individuals designing research, funding organizations selecting grants, journals – publications, institutions – priorities in public health and health policy, and decision makers spending or misspending billions of research funds. Currently finding value of knowledge is done by peer review together with checking scientific integrity. Multiple studies raised alarm that it performs poorly in prediction of highest citations, bias, transparency and quality. The resulting problems include perception of slow medical progress and wasting funds and time. I introduce a standard, objective and numerical method for finding value of medical research. It measures disease burden prevented by new knowledge contained in a study or a publication. In its simple form, it is calculated by multiplying disease prevalence, disease burden, and efficacy of the therapy. It can be modified for risk of failure, multi-disease effect and for ethical considerations. The process is described step-by-step in terms common in medical practice. A quick estimate is often sufficient. The advantage is objectivity, since it is calculated from real world data. This gives transparency and externally accountability of decision making. The second advantage is a numerical form. This can measure small differences in research value which, in sharp competition, determine which studies are selected. A researcher can calculate the value of own future effort. Institutions might ask to provide it at submission. The method is also applicable to broad policy analysis, objective evaluation of scientific achievement and bibliometric studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0635.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; Beta-lactamase gene; Nigeria; Review
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:28:20 CEST)
This review was carried out to identify different beta-lactamase resistance genes reported in published literature from Nigeria and to determine the proportion estimates of the important beta-lactamase resistance genes in Nigeria. Sixty-three (63) articles were included in this review based on the eligibility criteria. All the beta-lactamases reported were detected from the Gram-negative bacteria, most especially from Enterobacteriaceae (n=53). Thirty-six different beta-lactamase genes have been reported from Nigeria. These genes belong to the narrow-spectrum, AmpC, extended-spectrum, and carbapenemase beta-lactamase resistance genes. Eight (8) genes (blaDHA, blaCTXM-1, blaCTXM-14, blaGES-1, blaVEB-1, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-2, and blaTEM-1) were shared between animals and humans, 5 genes (blaSHV-1, blaSHV-2, blaSHV-11, blaSHV-12, and blaNDM-1) were common to both humans and environment while none of the genes was unique to both animals and environment. Four genes including blaCMY, blaTEM-1, blaAmpC, and internationally pandemic blaCTXM-15 gene were unique to animals, humans, and the environment. No carbapenemase gene was reported from animals yet. The pooled proportion estimate of ESBL genes in Nigeria was 31% (95% CI: 26-36%, P<0.0001), while the estimate of blaCTXM-15 gene in Nigeria was 46% (95% CI: 36-57%, P<0.0001). The proportion estimate of AmpC genes was 32% (95% CI: 11-52%, P<0.001), while the estimate for carbapenemases was 8% (95% CI: 5-12%, P<0.001). This study has provided information on the beta-lactamases distribution in Nigeria. This is necessary for a better understanding of molecular epidemiology of clinically important beta-lactamases especially the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases in Nigeria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Mycobacterium abscessus, drug treatment, experimental therapy, review,
Online: 12 August 2020 (08:01:41 CEST)
Mycobacterium abscessus is a non-tuberculous mycobacteria notoriously known for causing severe, chronic infections. Treatment of these infections is challenging due to either intrinsic or acquired resistance of M. abscessus to multiple antibiotics. Despite prolonged poly-antimicrobial therapy, treatment of M. abscessus infections often fails, leading to progressive morbidity and eventual mortality. Great research efforts are invested in finding new therapeutic options for M. abscessus. Clofazimine and rifabutin are known anti-mycobacterial antibiotics, repurposed for use against M. abscessus. Novel antimicrobials active against M. abscessus include delamanid, pretomanid and PIPD1 and the recently approved beta-lactamase inhibitors avibactam, relebactam and vaborbactam. Previously unused antimicrobial combinations e.g. vancomycin-clarithromycin and dual beta-lactam therapy have been shown to have synergistic effect against M. abscessus in experimental models, suggesting their possible use in multiple-drug regimens. Finally, engineered phage therapy has been reported to be clinically successful in a severe case of disseminated M. abscessus infection. While many of these experimental therapeutics have shown activity against M. abscessus in vitro, as well as intracellular and/or animal models, most have little if any evidence of effect in humans infections. Clinical studies of M. abscesssus treatments are needed in order to reliably determine the value of their incorporation in therapeutic regimens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0011.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: alternative food networks; systematic literature review; sustainability
Online: 29 January 2019 (10:34:36 CET)
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to individuals organizing themselves and managing food systems in an ‘alternative’ and more sustainable way. Such emerging food initiatives are most commonly known as ‘Alternative Food Networks’ (AFNs). However, there is an ongoing debate concerning the extent to which AFNs facilitate social, economic and environmental change. There are criticisms of the overall sustainability promise of AFNs related to sufficiency of impact, possible counter effects and relevance of impacts. Because often empirical studies only focus on specific sustainability issues or AFNs, it has been difficult to develop more robust theories about the relations between diverse AFNs arrangements and sustainability. Thus, the aim of this paper is to contribute towards reducing this knowledge gap through a systematic literature review on AFNs in relation to sustainability. We summarize main methodological approaches, types of AFNs studied and sustainability dimensions addressed in literature to date. Findings serve as reference to propose opportunities for future research regarding sustainability in AFNs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: dengue fever; transverse myelitis; risk; systematic review
Online: 12 December 2018 (05:22:13 CET)
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most common arbovirus disease, with wide spectrum of presentation. Spinal cord involvement in dengue infection (DF) is rare. However, the risk of transverse myelitis (TM) following Dengue has not been systematically assessed. Methods: We undertook a systematic review of the English literature published from January 1974 to December 2017 to assess risk of TM and outcomes following DF. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE Cochrane library, and references within identified articles. Results: We identified 242 potential studies, 62 were duplicates. A further 136 were excluded on the basis of title and abstract and 19 studies did not meet the eligibility criteria on full text screening. We included 25 publications involving 2672 cases of DF. 10.8% (289/2672) had neurological complications, of which 2.3% (61/2672) was TM. For articles reporting epidemiological data, the neurological complication was twice in males compared to female 67.7% (130/192) vs 32.7% (62/192) and 1.5 fold increase TM for males 59.3% (32/54) vs 40.7% (22/54). The mean age at presentation was 33.1years (Range 0.75 – 61), with onset at 11.7days. The method of diagnosing TM due to DF was mainly IgM seropositivity 92% (n=23/25) and the commonest treatment modality was steroid 78.3% (n=18/23). Only half had full recovery 50.8% (n=31/61). There was no mortality following dengue, however, the crude case fatality rate following TM was 3.3% (n=2/61). Conclusion: This review highlights the risk of TM following dengue. Although neurological complications are rare, especially TM, once set in, it is associated with a significant morbidity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0136.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: blockchain; consensus; distributed systems; healthcare; systematic review.
Online: 7 September 2018 (12:55:42 CEST)
Blockchain technology enables a decentralized and distributed environment with no need for a central authority. Transactions are simultaneously secure and trustworthy due to the use of cryptographic principles. In recent years, blockchain technology has become very trendy and penetrated different domains, mostly due to the popularity of cryptocurrencies. One field where blockchain technology has tremendous potential is healthcare, due to the need for a more patient-centric approach to healthcare systems and to connect disparate systems and increase the accuracy of electronic healthcare records (EHRs). In this systematic review, an analysis of state-of-the-art blockchain research in the field of healthcare is conducted. The aim is to reveal the potential applications of the technology and to highlight the challenges and possible directions of blockchain research in healthcare. First, background information is discussed, followed by a description of the exact methodology used in this paper. Next, an analysis of the results is given, which includes a bibliometric overview, an analysis of gathered data and its properties, and the results of a literature quality assessment. Lastly, there is a discussion of the results from the analysis. The findings indicate that blockchain technology research in healthcare is increasing and it is mostly used for data sharing, managing health records and access control. Other scenarios are very rare. Most research is aimed at presenting novel structural designs in the form of frameworks, architectures or models. Findings also show that technical details about the used blockchain elements are not given in most of the analyzed publications and that most research does not present any prototype implementation or implementation details. Often even with a prototype implementation, no details about blockchain elements are given.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1771.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: forensic dentistry; age estimation; dental maturation; umbrella review
Online: 27 October 2023 (09:26:27 CEST)
Age estimation is an important tool when dealing with human remains or undocumented minors. Although the skull, the skeleton or the hand-wrist are used on age estimation as maturity indicators, they often present lack of good conditions for a correct identification or estimation. Few systematic reviews (SRs) have been recently published; therefore, this umbrella review critically assesses their level of evidence and provides a general comprehensive view. An electronic database search was conducted in four databases (PubMed, Cochrane, WoS, LILACS) up to December 2022, focusing on SRs of age estimation through forensic dentistry procedures. The methodological quality was analyzed using the measurement tool to assess SRs criteria (AMSTAR2). Eighteen SRs were included, five of critically low quality, six of low quality, three of moderate quality and four of high quality. The SRs posited that Willems’ method is more accurate and less prone to overestimation; most methods seem to be geographically sensitive; and 3D-Imaging and artificial intelligence tools demonstrate high potential. The quality of evidence on age estimation using dental approaches was rated as low to moderate. Well-designed clinical trials and high standard systematic reviews are essential to corroborate the accuracy of the different procedures of age estimation in forensic dentistry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0943.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Dengue, Dengue virus, Systematic review, Meta-analysis, Ethiopia
Online: 16 October 2023 (10:16:02 CEST)
Dengue virus infection is caused by a positive stranded RNA virus called Dengue virus, which is spread by arthropods. It is a fast growing acute febrile disease with potentially lethal consequences that is a global public health problem, mostly in tropical and subtropical countries. In Ethiopia dengue fever is understudied despite the fact that the virus is still being transmitted and viral infection rates are rising. This systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of DENV infection in Ethiopia. A literature search was done on PubMed, Hinari and Google Scholar databases to identify studies published before July, 2023. Random effects and fixed effects models were used to estimate pooled prevalence of all the three markers. The Inconsistency Index was used to assess the level of heterogeneity. A total of 11 articles were included in this review. Majority of the studies had moderate risk of bias and no study had a high risk of bias. A meta-analysis estimated pooled IgG prevalence of 21% (95% CI: 19-23), a pooled prevalence of IgM 9% (95%CI: 4-13) and a pooled DENV-RNA prevalence of 48% (95% CI: 33-62). There is evidence of possible publication bias in IgG but not found in the rest of markers. The prevalence of DENV infection is high in Ethiopia. Healthcare providers, researchers and policymakers should give more attention to dengue fever.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: personalized; individualized; open heart surgery; implantation; systematic review
Online: 5 October 2023 (13:45:08 CEST)
Personalized surgery is not just a new trend but rather a patient-specific approach to therapy that makes it possible to adopt a targeted approach for a specific patient and closely mirrors the approach of personalized medicine. However, the application of tailored surgery in the context of cardiovascular replacement surgery was not systematically reviewed. The ability to customize a device is highly dependent on the collection of radiological image data for precise prosthesis modelling. These facts are essential to "tailor-made" device design for precise prosthesis implantation. According to this study, computed tomography (CT) was the most prominent imaging modality; however, transoesophageal echocardiography and echocardiography were also found to be helpful. Additionally, a dynamic finite element simulation is also an attractive alternative to the finite element analysis for an in-silico experiment. Nonetheless, there is a paucity of relevant publications and sporadic evidence. More clinical studies have been warranted, notwithstanding that the derived data and results from the insight into the use of therapeutic interventions may be of multiple directives in clinical practices and beyond. This study may help the integration of personalized devices for better comprehending predicted clinical outcomes, thus leading towards enhanced performance gains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0048.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: steel structure; shape memory alloy (SMA); reinforcement; review
Online: 2 October 2023 (07:29:05 CEST)
Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) have emerged as a revolutionary material that holds the potential to change the design and construction methods of buildings and other structures. One of the most promising applications of SMAs in civil engineering is their use as reinforcements for steel structures. This paper presents the latest research progress, opportunities and challenges of SMA in the field of steel structural reinforcement, both in terms of basic components and applications. In terms of components, the construction forms and working mechanisms of Fe-SMA strips, SMA/CFRP composite patches and SMA dampers are introduced. On this basis, the application of SMA in steel structures reinforcement is introduced, and its effect is analyzed from three aspects: crack restoration, seismic retrofitting and structural strengthening. Finally, the results of the current research are summarized and the shortcomings are analyzed, hoping to provide a reference for the research of SMA in the field of steel structures reinforcement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1963.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: sexual health; psychological well-being; women; systematic review
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:57:48 CEST)
(1) Background: Psychological well-being (PWB) and female sexual health are two important areas for women’s quality of life and research, and they are closely related. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the existing literature to explore the association between PWB and sexual health in women. (2) Methods: This review was carried out following PRISMA. The inclusion criteria were studies with samples of adult women, that evaluated and associated sexual functioning and mental health. Scientific articles were identified on Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO (PsycInfo, PsycArticles, and Psicodoc), ProQuest, and PubMed. The search was limited to years between 2010 and 2023. (3) Results: 14 selected articles were analyzed, in which population samples and variables related to mental and sexual health were examined. 42.9% of the studies included clinical samples, 71.4% focused on anxiety and depression as main mental health variables, and 50% examined female sexual functioning as a sexual health variable. (4) Conclusions: This review provides more up-to-date information about valuable insights into the possible determinants of female sexual health. The association between PWB and female sexual health has been demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1633.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: radon, radon action plan, indicators, review, radiation, assessment
Online: 25 September 2023 (12:54:41 CEST)
Radon, a carcinogenic radioactive gas, is a leading cause of lung cancer according to the World Health Organization. European Member States are required to develop and implement National Radon Action Plans (RAPs) to address its dangerous health effects. However, assessing the effectiveness of these RAPs presents challenges for authorities. This study aims to explore the possibility for a systematic and standardised assessment method to evaluate the effectiveness of RAPs strategies and its implementation. The method involved analysing the strategies of 27 EU Member States and the UK, conducting legal document analysis and group interviews with responsible authorities. Additionally, four regional workshops and one final European workshop were held. The research took place from March 2021 to May 2023. Findings indicate that evaluating RAP effectiveness is challenging due to limited existing common criteria or indicators. To address this, the study proposes guiding questions for each element required by the EU Directive, as well as additional questions related to education and training. This contribution benefits RAP owners and European regulatory authorities, supporting the development of effectiveness indicators for RAPs. BY improving assessment methods, we can enhance the effectiveness of strategies in mitigating the risks associated with radon exposure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1081.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Reminisce; Older Adults; Qualitative; Narrative; Life review; Oman
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:03:19 CEST)
Background: Reminiscence studies and life reviews have a number of proven advantages. Future generations gain by learning from elders' life experiences, as do older adults themselves who share their memories. Despite Oman's sizable geriatric population, research on older individuals' life experiences is scarce. Therefore, this study aims to explore the life experiences of older Omani individuals across their many life stages, from childhood to the present. Methods: This was a qualitative study design. A total of 13 Omani older adults (9 females and 4 males) with an average age of 68 years were recruited for this study. Socio-demographic and life review information was gathered according to a set of semi-structured guiding questions. The responses were then captured on audio recordings, which underwent transcription and translation. Thematic analysis techniques were applied to the extracted data. Results: Three main themes were evident in the study’s findings: Childhood memories, Friendships, and Relationships, as well as the elders’ past. Additionally, older adults passed on a number of gems of wisdom to be shared with the younger generations. Conclusion: This study aided in revealing the resiliency, social connections, and life reflections of Omani older adults. Based on these findings, future studies might explore particular aspects of older experiences and pinpoint solutions to improve their quality of life and well-being.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0166.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: review; aromatic azo compounds; advances; synthesis; functional nanomaterials
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:46:15 CEST)
Aromatic azo compounds have -N=N- double bonds as well as larger π electron conjugation system, which endows aromatic azo compounds with wide applications in the fields of functional materials. The properties of aromatic azo compounds are closely related to the substituents on their aromatic rings. However, traditional synthesis methods, such as the coupling of diazo salts, have a great limitation on the structural design of aromatic azo compounds. Therefore, many scientists have devoted their efforts to developing new synthetic methods. Moreover, recent advances in the synthesis of aromatic azo compounds led to the improvement of design and preparation of light-response materials at molecular level. This review summarizes the important synthetic progress of aromatic azo compounds in recent years, with an emphasis on the pioneering contribution of functional nanomaterials in the field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1964.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: economic evaluation; cost-effectiveness; glucosamine; osteoarthritis; systematic review
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:25:01 CEST)
The osteoarthritis (OA), the main cause of disability, is a chronic condition that most frequently affects older adults. As the population ages, the cost of treatment is placing pressure on the healthcare budget. As a result, it is imperative to evaluate the medicines' cost-effectiveness and the influence they have on health resource allocation. Hence, our study aims to summarize the cost and outcome of utilizing glucosamine in OA treatment. Authentic databases like Medline, Cochrane, and Scopus were adopted for the identification process up until July 2023. Our primary inclusion criteria centered on the economic evaluation of Glucosamine in OA treatments with provided the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at least. The Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) instrument was applied to grade the quality of the studies. A total of 7 qualified studies were selected and discussed the cost-effectiveness of glucosamine with or without other formulations. All of them demonstrated that glucosamine was cost-effective. There was an in-creasement of QALY when incorporating Glucosamine into conventional care. Moreover, Crystalline Glucosamine Sulfate (pCGS) was more cost-effective than the Other Formulations of Glucosamine (OFG). In overall, utilizing pCGS was more beneficial than OFG in terms both of cost and quality of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1903.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Industry 4.0; Safety; Smart Factory; Resilience; Literature review.
Online: 27 July 2023 (12:07:45 CEST)
The Industry 4.0 represents new era of production, characterized by a deep integration between digital technologies and physical systems. Cyber physical systems, cyber resilience protection and workers' safety are key elements of this transformation. To ensure the benefits of Industry 4.0 realized in a secure way, it is crucial to focus on workers' safety, cyber resilience protection and human-centric and CPS systems security and privacy. However, to fully realize the potential of Industry 4.0, it is important to address these challenges and ensure that the benefits of digitalization are balanced with the needs of workers and the protection of critical infrastructure. The concept of Industry 5.0 is emerging as the next step in this evolution, emphasizing the importance of sustainability, human-centered design, and a focus on creating a better future for all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1519.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: pelvic injury; hemorrhage; angioembolization; meta-analysis; systematic review
Online: 21 July 2023 (13:30:06 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Angioembolization has emerged as an effective therapeutic approach for pelvic hemorrhages; however, its exact effect size remains uncertain. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect size of embolization-related pelvic complications after nonselective angioembolization compared to that after selective angioembolization in patients with pelvic injury accompanying hemorrhage. Materials and Methods Relevant articles were collected by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases until June 24, 2023. Meta-analyses were conducted using odds ratios (ORs) for binary outcomes. Quality assessment was conducted using the risk of bias tool in non-randomized studies of interventions. Results: Five studies examining 357 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Embolization-related pelvic complications did not significantly differ between patients with nonselective and selective angioembolization (OR 1.581, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.592 to 4.225, I2 = 0%). However, in-hospital mortality was more likely to be higher in the nonselective group (OR 2.232, 95% CI 1.014 to 4.913, I2 = 0%) than in the selective group. In the quality assessment, two studies were found to have a moderate risk of bias, whereas two studies exhibited a serious risk of bias. Conclusions: Despite the favorable outcomes observed with nonselective angioembolization concerning embolization-related pelvic complications, determining the exact effect sizes was limited owing to the significant risk of bias and heterogeneity. Nonetheless, the low incidence of ischemic pelvic complications appears to be a promising result.
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Geography; International Politics; Book Review; The Geopolitical Landscape
Online: 4 July 2023 (02:25:49 CEST)
This book review essay looks at Tim Marshall’s “Prisoners of Geography” and its in-depth examination of the interplay between geography and international politics. The aim is to highlight the book's key themes, including geopolitics, borders, trade routes, geopolitical conflict and colonial legacies. Through insightful analysis and engaging text, Marshall uncovers the central role that geography plays in shaping our world. The book’s continuing relevance is underlined by its links to significant global events and the author’s forward-looking questions. By recognising the practical factors that influence decision-making, rather than the purely ideological, the book offers a fresh perspective on current political and economic turmoil. The examination of the influence of geography and the call for increased international cooperation makes it a valuable resource for students of geography and anyone interested in political geography and globalisation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Thermal management; PEMFC; PCM; Heat pipes; critical review
Online: 30 June 2023 (08:53:43 CEST)
Converting chemical energy from green hydrogen to electricity using Membrane Exchange Protons Fuel cell (PEMFC) is a promising solution in various applications such e-mobility and building facilities. The electrical efficiency of PEMFCs can reach 60%. However, they are immensely sensitive to the working temperature, requiring good thermal management. Active thermal management systems are expensive and energy-consuming. Passive thermal management systems enable PEMFC thermal management without additional energy consumption. Here various passive thermal management technologies are reviewed. Different techniques are thorougly described and critically compared in terms of complexity, efficiency, cooling rate, scope of applicability, and the sizes of PEMFCs to which they apply. The conclusions provide a solid background for further investigations, and recommendations for future work are suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1380.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Review; Grounded Theory; Social Constructivism; Meta-ethnography; Qualitative
Online: 20 June 2023 (03:14:41 CEST)
Objective: The objective of this review was to establish a modified meta-ethnography framework by integrating the traditional phases with methods from social constructivist grounded theory. The modified version was required to identify methods which can ensure analytic generalisability and honour critical inquiry. Method: A narrative synthesis review was undertaken using 4 electronic databases. Articles were located that described the methods and methodologies of meta-ethnography and social constructivist grounded theory. A synthesis was undertaken which integrated the methods of social constructivist grounded theory. Results: The meta-ethnography was undertaken in 5 phases: (1) The positionality of the researcher and the area of interest identified. (2) Identifying what is relevant. (3) Reading the study and determining how studies are related. (4) The iterative process of idea generation required for theory generation. And (5) Expression of the theory, model, or process. Conclusion: The current study provides a useful tool to support the development of a substantive theory (a theory in one area) which can be used then to consider its application in other areas. This approach will help create new lines of research and aid the explanation of problems in other areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0296.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: COVID-19; Deep learning; Artificial Intelligence; Ultrasound, Review
Online: 25 May 2023 (02:41:35 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected millions of people globally, with respiratory organs being strongly affected in individuals with comorbidities. Medical imaging-based diagnosis and prognosis have become increasingly popular in clinical settings to detect COVID-19 lung infections. Among various medical imaging modalities, ultrasound stands out as low-cost, mobile, and radiation-safe imaging technology. In this comprehensive review, we focus on ultrasound-based AI studies for COVID-19 detection that use public or private lung ultrasound datasets. We surveyed articles that used publicly available lung ultrasound datasets for COVID-19 and reviewed publicly available datasets and organize ultrasound-based AI studies per dataset. We analyzed and tabulated studies in several dimensions, such as data preprocessing, AI models, cross-validation, and evaluation criteria. In total, we reviewed 42 articles, where 28 articles used public datasets, and the rest used private data. Our findings suggest that ultrasound-based AI studies for the detection of COVID-19 have great potential for clinical use, especially for children and pregnant women. Our review also provides a useful summary for future researchers and clinicians who may be interested in the field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0139.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis; Onset; Progression; Secondhand Smoke; Systematic Review
Online: 10 April 2023 (04:05:31 CEST)
Introduction: Unlike cigarette smoking, secondhand smoke (SHS) has not been as well described as an environmental risk for Multiple sclerosis (MS) nor as a risk factor for disease progression. We systematically reviewed the association between SHS and the risk of onset and/or progression of MS.Methods: We systematically screened MEDLINE/PUBMED, Science Direct, LILACs, and SCIELO searching for publications between January 1st , 2010, and July 5, 2021 with the following keywords: “multiple sclerosis and smoking”; “multiple sclerosis and passive smoking”; “multiple sclerosis and secondhand smoking”. An 11-year filter was applied from 2010 to 2021. Results: Fifteen articles were included in this review, which consisted of systematic reviews with meta-analysis (N = 2), systematic reviews (N = 2), and observational studies (N = 11). Both meta-analyses reported an impact of SHS on MS onset among secondhand smokers. One of the systematic reviews selected two observational studies showing the association between SHS and MS development, and one study that did not find a significant association between SHS and the risk of MS development. The other systematic review identified selected eight articles showing a relationship between SHS and MS. Seven observational studies reported higher odds of MS onset when associated with SHS. Four observational studies did not show a relationship between SHS and MS onset or progression.Discussion: Most articles showed a positive association between SHS exposure and the risk of developing MS. On the other hand, an association between SHS and a higher risk for MS progression could not be established.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0563.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: physical environment; conduct disorders; intellectual disabilities; aggression; review
Online: 30 November 2022 (04:19:22 CET)
The physical environment is of critical importance to child development. Understanding how exposure to domains of the physical environment such as greenspace, urbanicity, air pollution or noise affects externalising problems in typical and neurodiverse children is of particular importance given the significant long-term impact of those problems. In this narrative review we investigated the evidence for domains of the physical environment that may ameliorate or contribute to the display of externalising behaviours. We have considered a broad range of study designs that include typically developing and neurodiverse children and young people aged 0-18 years. We used the GRADE system to appraise the evidence. Searches were performed in 8 databases in July 2020 and updated in June 2022. Additional articles were further identified by hand-searching reference lists of included papers. The protocol for the review was preregistered with PROSPERO. Results: We retrieved 7174 studies of which 67 are included in this review. The studies reported on green space, environmental noise and music, air pollution, meteorological effects, spatial density, urban or rural setting, and home elements (e.g., damp/sensory aspects/colour). They all used well validated parent and child reported measures of externalising problems. Most of the studies were rated as having high or probably high risk of bias. Greenspace rurality and interior design had most evidence, although the certainty of the association was low. As expected, noise, air pollution, urbanicity, spatial density, colour and humidity appeared to increase the display of externalising behaviours. There was a dearth of studies on the role of the physical environment in neurodiverse children. The studies were heterogeneous and measured a range of externalising behaviours from symptoms to full syndromes. Greenspace exposure was the most common domain studied but certainty of evidence for the association between environmental exposures and externalising problems in the child or young person was low across all domains. We found a large knowledge gap in the literature concerning neurodiverse children, which suggests that future studies should focus on these children, who are also more likely to experience adverse early life experiences including living in more deprived environments as well as being highly vulnerable to the onset of mental ill health. Such research should also aim to dis-aggregate the mechanisms of action for both environmental influences on the externalising problems the results of which may point to pathways for public health interventions and policy development to address inequities that can be relevant to ill health in neurodiverse young people.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: TMDs; temporomandibular; TMJ; network meta-analysis; systematic review
Online: 11 November 2022 (07:04:36 CET)
Abstract: Background: Pain management is one of the main parts of treatments for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMDs). However, there is still a lack of high-quality evidence that compare the overall effects of these non-surgical treatments. The objective of this systematic review is to identify the most potential treatment protocol in dealing with pain caused by TMDs through a mixed comparison of interventions based on network meta-analysis. Methods: A systematic review and network meta-analysis of studies identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Medline, Ovid, and CINAHL. All the included studies should have characteristics that: (1) participants with TMDs of any age; (2) non-surgical treatments; (3) score of Visual Analog Scale (VAS) as the outcome measure; (4) randomized controlled trials. The Cochrane Bias Assessment Toll was used to assess the bias, the CINeMA website was applied to rate the confidence of evidence, and ADDIS software was used to conduct the network meta-analysis. Results: 46 studies were included in this review. The agreement between authors reached a kappa value of 0.78. The results of the network meta-analysis showed that wearable therapy devices are more likely to be the best choice for reducing the pain of patients with myogenic TMDs, whereas a combination of platelet-rich plasma injection and wearable therapy devices is more likely to be the best choice for reducing the pain in a long term after treatment for patients with mix-type TMDs. Moreover, the application of therapy equipment has the most potential in reducing pain in a long term after treatment for patients with articular TMDs. Discussion: Wearable devices have a great potential for pain syndrome caused by TMDs, the mechanism might come from a biomechanical perspective. However, the overall confidence rating of evidence is low. Studies with high quality are still needed in the future. Other: The PROSPERO Registration Number of this systematic review is CRD42021253442.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0375.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electrical bioimpedance; error compensations; parasitic capacitances; critical review
Online: 25 October 2022 (03:16:35 CEST)
Parasitic capacitance represents the main error source in measurement systems based on electrical impedance spectroscopy. The capacitive nature of electrodes’ impedance in tetrapolar configuration can give origin to phase errors when electrodes are coupled to parasitic capacitances. Nevertheless, reactive charges in tissue excitation systems are susceptible to instability. Based on such a scenario, mitigating capacitive effects associated with the electrode is a requirement in order to reduce errors in the measurement system. A literature review about the main compensation techniques for parasitic capacitance was carried out. The selected studies were categorized into three groups: (i) compensation in electronic instrumentation; (ii) compensation in measurement processing, and (iii) compensation by negative impedance converters. The three analyzed methods emerged as effective against fixed capacitance. No method seemed capable of mitigating the effects of electrodes’ capacitance, that changes in the frequency spectrum. The analysis has revealed the need for a method to compensate varying capacitances, since electrodes’ impedance is unknown.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Bactericidal; Bacteriostatic; Antibiotic(s); Antimicrobial Therapy; Narrative review
Online: 17 October 2022 (02:05:28 CEST)
Sepsis is a serious and life-threatening medical emergency associated with dysregulated host immune responses to infection. Like cerebral vascular or acute cardiovascular incidents, sepsis is considered a time-dependent condition having severe and long-term consequences on human health. Apart from organ support, prompt administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial to limit the burden of complications related to sepsis in ICU patients. The management of septic patients requires comprehensive and multi-disciplinary strategies for an adequate diagnosis. Most of the ICU population receives empirical antibiotic therapy without having a confirmed diagnosis. The misuse of antibiotics in intensive care units may increase the possibility of developing multidrug resistance along with considerable ecological side effects. The first doses of empirical anti-microbial therapy are slightly higher, regardless of the presence or absence of organ dysfunction, which may upregulate the production of circulating pro-and-anti-inflammatory mediators, having negative effects on the general well-being of the patients. This notion supports the introduction of individualized antimicrobial approaches based on local patterns of resistance to ensure the appropriate dosage of empirical therapy, as well as to limit the emergence of multidrug resistance in advanced-care patients. The adequacy and treatment duration must be viewed at regular intervals for effective de-escalation, and novel diagnostic approaches must be introduced to improve the quality of care in the ICU population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: steel slag; alkali activated; ProKnow-C; review; bibliometric.
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:18:06 CEST)
Steel slag is a co-product of the steelmaking industry, this material is rarely used as a binder due to its low cementitious properties. Thus, it´s believed that the alkaline activation of steel slag can enable its use as a cementitious material. This work has the objective of making a systematic bibliographic review on the theme "slag melt as a precursor in activated alkali binders". To this end, the ProKnow-C method was used for the selection and analysis of relevant research on the topic. The portfolio resulted in 71 texts, mostly journals paper. Bibliometrics showed that the country with the most publications is China and the journal with the most publications is Construction and Building Materials. The critical analysis concluded that the XRD, XRF, and compressive strength tests are the most used for the characterization of the material. It is possible to establish that there are some knowledge gaps on the subject, such as better mechanical characterization and greater production of works with dosing by the one-part method.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Drive tourism; Routes; Sustainable; Systematic Literature Review; PRISMA.
Online: 19 September 2022 (10:37:29 CEST)
Drive tourism (DT) have become an attractive way of tourist destination for an increasing number of visitors along driving routes. This flow of visitors has made sustainability a major issue that is, the way by which tourism development ensure economic benefits for local communities and preserves local identity, along the route, without compromising the environmental resources. Many studies focused the topic of DT, mainly the analysis of a particular angle, either be economic sustainability, e.g., advantages of the ones related to economic and environment sustainability [e.g., 2,4,5,10], such as the impact of tourists along the route environment. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the social consequences of DT in the local entrepreneurial environment and ensuing over enhancing of their cultural representativeness in terms of authenticity. Our aim is to summon these points of view and achieve, through a systematic literature review, a clear and integrative picture of the driving tourism impacts in terms of sustainability along the routes throughout local communities. A systematic literature review was performed using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) methodology. This systematic literature review sought to consolidate knowledge on the subject. In order to illustrate the link between major categories and their corresponding trends, authors used VOSviewer scientific software. The gathering of existing knowledge around the three components of sustainability highlighted the importance of community involvement and collaboration among DT stakeholders to ensure a trade-off between the protection and promotion of DT routes. Opportunities for future studies are suggested.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: eastern Mediterranean; EMR; hospital; malnutrition; prevalence; systematic review
Online: 7 September 2022 (11:06:27 CEST)
Background: Malnutrition has negative consequences in hospitals, like poor disease recovery, increased mortality, length of hospitalization, readmission, and health care costs.Aims: This review was designed to determine malnutrition prevalence in hospitals located in eastern Mediterranean region (EMR).Study design: To conduct this systematic review, papers, including original articles, related references and conference proceedings on the prevalence of malnutrition in adult hospitalized patients published in international journals and scientific databases from 1 Jan 2017 to 31 Jan 2022 will be included. The following keywords and their alternatives will be used in the literature search: malnutrition, patient, and EMR. The protocol has been registered at PROSPERO (code: CRD42022339426).Methods: After initial screening based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, the full text articles will be read carefully and eligible documents will be selected according to the defined objectives. Afterward, the selected papers will be reviewed for methodological quality and the required information will be extracted. Finally, in case of sufficient data, a meta-analysis will be performed. Screening, selection, quality assessment, and data extraction will be done by at least two independent reviewers.Results: This review is ongoing and will be completed until the end of year 2023.Conclusion: This review aims to provide comprehensive evidence about the prevalence of malnutrition among adult inpatients in EMR hospitals. This can provide regional authorities, health managers and policy makers good information regarding current status to make appropriate decisions for promoting the health status in hospitals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0373.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: review; article; perception; practice; challenge; design; methodology; findings
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:32:03 CEST)
This review paper aimed at reviewing English language teaching articles on EFL teachers’ perceptions, practices and challenges towards communicative language teaching. In this review, two ELT articles, which have been conducted on teachers’ perceptions, practices and challenges towards communicative language teaching in EFL classes, were reviewed in detail. While reviewing the articles, the researcher adapted Rideley’s (2008) checklist to evaluate elements of article. Thus, articles were reviewed by focusing on the title, abstract, introduction, research questions, objectives, research design, participants, sample and sampling techniques, data collecting instruments, methods of data analyses, findings and references based on the checklist provided above. The review revealed that the articles had clear objectives, researchable questions, appropriate methods and inevitable conclusions. They tried to answer the questions which were raised in each article, and the objectives went along with the overall research findings. The review, on the other hand, revealed that the participants in the articles were not representative so as to conclude and generalize the overall population by taking only few participants which were selected even by using non probability sampling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Misconceptions; errors; learning; place value; mathematics; literature review
Online: 20 May 2021 (08:26:09 CEST)
Children’s learning of place value is critical to their future study of mathematics. However, its learning presents a huge challenge for many learners. As result they develop misconceptions and thencommit errors that become an encumbrance to their understanding of place value. It is therefore important to identify these misconceptions and their associated errors early and help children to overcome them. This article reports the findings from literature on what misconceptions learners display in the learning of place value and how they can best be supported to overcome them. The results show that despite the importance of this topic there are limited studies devoted to its research. The dearth of these studies creates a gap in the study of place value.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0661.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: spatial econometrics; literature review; socioeconomic drivers; environmental pollution.
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:10:50 CEST)
The interest in spatial analysis has been growing in recent years, mainly due to communication technology advance, economic globalization, and the development of new statistical and econometric methods. The main aim of this article is to contribute to the dissemination of spatial econometric applications by presenting some basic theoretical aspects and a literature review of articles that address the socio-economic drivers that lead to environmental pollution. Three spatial regression models are reviewed here: the spatial lag model (SLM), the spatial error model (SEM), and the spatial Durbin model (SDM). A literature search was conducted using specific terms of interest in eight databases, from 1996 to February 2021, where 22 articles were considered for analysis. The results showed that most articles studied environmental problems in China. The most used exploratory spatial analysis model was Moran Index and the most used explanatory spatial analysis models were SDM and SLM.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: creativity; ideation; architectural design studio; education; systematic review
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:58:29 CET)
Creativity is fundamental to design problem-solving. This paper sets out a systematic review of the literature in relation to its role in the architectural design studio in order to identify central issues that impact upon this activity. Challenges and best practice in relation to systematic reviews are outlined, and the procedure followed in this context is set out in detail. This involves an iterative evaluation process that resulted in a pool of 17 papers for analysis. Eleven themes emerged in the analysis of the papers, which were organized into 5 key categories dealing with: pedagogy, cognitive approach, interaction and socialization, information representation, and measuring ideation and creativity. A discussion of these categories contributed to the comparison and connections between the selected papers, and the identification of critical issues and directions for promoting creativity in the architectural design studio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0418.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Security patterns; Software patterns; Systematic literature review (SLR)
Online: 16 November 2020 (12:13:53 CET)
Security patterns encompass security-related issues in secure software system development and operations that often appear in certain contexts. Since the late 1990s about 500 security patterns have been proposed. Although the technical components are well investigated, the direction, overall picture, and barriers to implementation are not. Here, a systematic literature review of 240 papers is used to devise a taxonomy for security pattern research. Our taxonomy and the survey results should improve communications among practitioners and researchers, standardize the terminology, and increase the effectiveness of security patterns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0043.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Electrodermal activity; Stress detection; Machine learning; Scoping review
Online: 2 November 2020 (13:37:08 CET)
Early detection of stress can prevent us from suffering from a long-term illness such as depression and anxiety. This article presents a scoping review of stress detection based on electrodermal activity (EDA) and machine learning (ML). From an initial set of 395 articles searched in six scientific databases, 58 were finally selected according to various criteria established. The scoping review has made it possible to analyse all the steps to which the EDA signals are subjected: acquisition, preprocessing, processing and feature extraction. Finally, all the ML techniques applied to the features of this signal have been studied for stress detection. It has been found that support vector machines and artificial neural networks stand out within the supervised learning methods given their high performance values. On the contrary, it has been evidenced that unsupervised learning is not very common in the detection of stress through EDA. This scoping review concludes that the use of EDA for the detection of arousal variation (and stress detection) is widely spread, with very good results in its prediction with the ML methods found during this review.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0044.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Circular Economy; Social Aspects; Systematic Review; Sustainable Development
Online: 2 September 2020 (11:42:04 CEST)
Circular Economy (CE) is a growing topic among scholars, industry and government aiming at decoupling economic growth and development from the consumption of finite resources. CE incorporates different meanings, from reduce, reuse and recycle activities to environmental degradation or resource scarcity, and supported by specific indicators to attain sustainable development. However, so far, there has been no agreement to measure how effective an industry/product is in making the transition from linear to circular approaches, particularly those affected the society. This research work aims to perform a systematic literature review (n=60) to analyze and discuss how social aspects have been considered and integrated in the CE research so far. Moreover, this review provides and overview of the literature on social impact within CE, that resulted in three main outputs: a knowledge map of the CE, an analysis of social aspects within CE, and the theories/frameworks used to evaluate social impact of CE. Finally, this study brings to light how CE implementation can affect society and highlights the importance of social dimension in the domains of CE and policy-making community, which could help moving CE towards a sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2030065
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: coins; review; problems; data corpus; grade; preservation; condition
Online: 20 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Automatic ancient Roman coin analysis only recently emerged as a topic of computer science research. Nevertheless, owing to its ever-increasing popularity, the field is already reaching a certain degree of maturity, as witnessed by a substantial publication output in the last decade. At the same time, it is becoming evident that research progress is being limited by a somewhat veering direction of effort and the lack of a coherent framework which facilitates the acquisition and dissemination of robust, repeatable, and rigorous evidence. Thus, in the present article, we seek to address several associated challenges. To start with, (i) we provide a first overview and discussion of different challenges in the field, some of which have been scarcely investigated to date, and others which have hitherto been unrecognized and unaddressed. Secondly, (ii) we introduce the first data set, carefully curated and collected for the purpose of facilitating methodological evaluation of algorithms and, specifically, the effects of coin preservation grades on the performance of automatic methods. Indeed, until now, only one published work at all recognized the need for this kind of analysis, which, to any numismatist, would be a trivially obvious fact. We also discuss a wide range of considerations which had to be taken into account in collecting this corpus, explain our decisions, and describe its content in detail. Briefly, the data set comprises 100 different coin issues, all with multiple examples in Fine, Very Fine, and Extremely Fine conditions, giving a total of over 650 different specimens. These correspond to 44 issuing authorities and span the time period of approximately 300 years (from 27 BC until 244 AD). In summary, the present article should be an invaluable resource to researchers in the field, and we encourage the community to adopt the collected corpus, freely available for research purposes, as a standard evaluation benchmark.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Obesity; Eating Disorders; Adolescents; Prevention programs; Systematic Review
Online: 13 August 2020 (10:38:34 CEST)
An effective behavior changes program is the first-line of prevention for youth obesity. However, effectiveness in prevention of adolescent obesity requires several approaches, with special attention paid to disordered eating behaviors and psychological support among other environmental factors. The aim of this systematic review was to compare the impact of two types of obesity prevention programs, inclusive of behavior change components on weight outcomes. Energy-balance studies were aimed at reducing calories from high-energy sources and increasing PA levels, while “shared risk factors for obesity and eating disorders” focused on reducing disordered eating behaviors to promote a positive relationship with food and eating. A systematic search of ProQuest, PubMed, PsycInfo, SciELO, and Web of Science identified 8825 articles. Twenty were considered “energy-balance” and fifteen “shared-risk factors for obesity and eating disorders”. Overall, energy-balance studies were unable to support a maintenance weight status, diet, and PA over time. Shared risk factors programs also did not result in significant differences in weight status over time. However, the majority of shared risk factors studies demonstrated reduced body dissatisfaction, dieting, and weight-control behaviors. More research is needed to examine how a shared risk factor approach can address both obesity and eating disorder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0051.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; WHO; database; systematic review; data quality
Online: 2 August 2020 (17:43:38 CEST)
Introduction: A large number of COVID-19 publications has created a need to collect all research-related material in practical and reliable centralized databases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functionality and quality of the compiled World Health Organisation COVID-19 database and compare it to Pubmed and Scopus. Methods: Article metadata for COVID-19 articles and articles on 8 specific topics related to COVID-19 was exported from the WHO global research database, Scopus and Pubmed. The analysis was conducted in R to investigate the number and overlapping of the articles between the databases and the missingness of values in the metadata. Results: The WHO database contains the largest number of COVID-19 related articles overall but retrieved the same number of articles on 8 specific topics as Scopus and Pubmed. Despite having the smallest number of exclusive articles overall, the highest number of exclusive articles on specific COVID-19 related topics was retrieved from the Scopus database. Further investigation revealed that PubMed and Scopus have more comprehensive structure than the WHO database, and less missing values in the categories searched by the information retrieval systems. Discussion: This study suggests that the WHO COVID-19 database, even though it is compiled from multiple databases, has a very simple and limited structure, and significant problems with data quality. As a consequence, relying on this database as a source of articles for systematic reviews or bibliometric analyses is undesirable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Coral; Health; Bleaching; Review; Hyperspectral Imaging; Survey methods
Online: 2 August 2020 (16:37:46 CEST)
Rapidly and repeatedly ascertaining the health status of coral reefs is an ever more pressing issue as part of activities to understand and monitor the damaging impacts of climate change. A combination of increasing ocean temperatures, acidity and frequency of extreme storm events continues to alter the marine environment beyond what sensitive organisms, such as coral, can cope with. It is therefore vital to establish technologies and validated methods to provide a metric or indication into the health of these organisms. There are currently many surveys and techniques used by coral scientists to uncover insights into the status and assessment of coral reefs, from colour wheels to multispectral satellite surveys. Here we outline an array of current techniques and methods focused specifically on coral monitoring and health diagnosis, ranging across the length scales from simple diver-based surveyance to satellite remote sensing. The technique of using hyperspectral fluorescence imaging is also introduced as a viable novel addition to aid and extend the current toolbox of available technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: fibromyalgia; comprehensive review; neurophysiological abnormalities; psychosocial processes; integration
Online: 11 July 2020 (03:45:54 CEST)
Research into the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms involved in fibromyalgia (FM) has progressed remarkably in recent years. Despite this, currents accounts of FM fail to capture the complex, dynamic and mutual crosstalk between neurophysiological and psychosocial domains. We conducted a comprehensive review of the existing literature in order to synthesise current knowledge on FM, explore and highlight multi-level links and pathways among different systems and build bridges between existing approaches. An extensive panel of international experts in neurophysiology and psychosocial aspects of FM discussed the collected evidence and progressively refined and conceptualized its interpretation. Fibromyalgia is a complex condition resulting from the dynamic interplay between multiple systems and processes. We provided an updated overview of the most relevant observations in FM to date as well as the potential pathways by which they exert they are related and exert their mutual influence, to produce the manifestations commonly associated with FM. This review constituted the first step towards and supported the development of a much needed model capable of integrating the main factors implicated in FM into a single, unified model that may prove valuable in understanding and managing FM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Covid-19; coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; review; pandemic
Online: 16 April 2020 (15:55:12 CEST)
Coronaviruses are an extensive family of viruses that can cause disease in both animals and humans. The current classification of coronaviruses recognizes 39 species in 27 subgenera that belong to the family Coronaviridae. From those, at least seven coronaviruses are known to cause respiratory infections in humans. Four of these viruses can cause common cold-like symptoms, while others that infect animals can evolve and become infectious to humans. Three recent examples of this viral jumps include SARS CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS CoV-2 virus. They are responsible for causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and the most recently discovered coronavirus disease during 2019 (COVID-19).COVID-19, a respiratory disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. The rapid spread of the disease has taken the scientific and medical community by surprise. Latest figures from 14 April 2020 show more than 2 million people had been infected with the virus, causing more than 120,000 deaths in over 210 countries worldwide. The large amount of information we receive every day concerning this new disease is so abundant and dynamic that medical staff, health authorities, academics and the media are not able to keep up with this new pandemic. In order to offer a clear insight of the extensive literature available, we have conducted a comprehensive literature review of the SARS CoV-2 Virus and the Coronavirus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19).
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: 2019-nCoV; epidemiology; causes; prevention and control; review
Online: 6 February 2020 (08:54:11 CET)
The 2019-nCoV has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China beginning in December 2019. This epidemic had spread to 19 countries with 11,791 confirmed cases, including 213 deaths, as of January 31, 2020. The World Health Organization declared it as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This study analyzed and discussed 70 research articles published until January 31, 2020 for a better understanding of the epidemiology, causes, clinical diagnosis, prevention and control of this virus. Studies thus far have shown origination in connection to a seafood market in Wuhan, but specific animal association has not been confirmed. The reported symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, pneumonia, headache, diarrhea, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines are effective for reducing the transmission. To date, no specific antiviral treatment is proven effective, hence, infected people primarily rely on symptomatic treatment and supportive care. Although these studies had relevance to control a public emergency, more research need to be conducted to provide valid and reliable ways to manage this kind of public health emergency in both short- and long- term.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: dental caries; prevention; clinical trials; herbal; scoping review
Online: 27 November 2019 (03:57:04 CET)
It is currently recognized that an injudicious strategy in the last decades has been not only focusing of research typically on caries in children, but also the narrow focusing on fluoride, because despite sufficient availability of fluoride in water and oral healthcare products, caries levels escalate steadily as people get older and caries remain a main public health issue to be settled. In the last two decades the scientific community intensified efforts of exploring other products for caries prevention, herbal products being one of these approaches. Because preliminary evidence indicated that clinical trials for caries prevention with herbal products are heterogeneous in design, quality and products evaluated, we performed a scoping review intended to explore the main characteristics of such clinical trials. From an initial collection of 1986 unique papers from different literature databases, 56 articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The species investigated, dosage forms, study designs, duration of intervention, controls, endpoints, quality of reporting and risk of bias are discussed. 85.71% of the trials reviewed here reported positive results but given the methodological flaws and biases affecting them, it is difficult to conclude on the efficacy of those products based on the studies published thus far.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0117.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: : antianxiety; antidepression; panax notoginseng saponins; network pharmacology; review
Online: 15 March 2018 (05:20:34 CET)
Panax notoginseng, as traditional Chinese medicine, has a long history of high clinical value, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, inhibition of platelet aggregation, regulation of blood glucose and blood pressure, inhibition of neuronal apoptosis and neuronal protection, and its main ingredients are Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS). Currently, Panax notoginseng may improve mental function, have anti-insomnia and anti-depression effects, alleviate anxiety, and decrease neural network excitation. However, the underlying effects and the mechanisms of Panax notoginseng and its containing chemical constituents (PNS) on these depression-related or anxiety-related diseases has not been completely established. This review summarized the antidepressant or anxiolytic effects and mechanisms of PNS, and analyzed network targets of antidepressant or anxiolytic actions with network pharmacology tools to provide directions and references for further pharmacological studies and new ideas for clinical treatment of nervous system diseases and drug studies and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0164.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: pre-hospital emergency; review; qualitative study; patient satisfaction
Online: 25 December 2017 (06:41:26 CET)
Objective. To describe patient satisfaction with pre-hospital emergency knowledge and determine if patients and professionals share a common vision on the satisfaction predictors. Methods. A qualitative study conducted in two phases. First, a systematic review following the PRISMA protocol was carried out searching publications between January 2000 and July 2016 in Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane. Second, three focus groups involving professionals (advisers and healthcare providers) and a total of 79 semi-structured interviews involving patients were conducted to obtain information about what dimensions of care were a priority for patients. Results. Thirty-three relevant studies were identified. A majority conducted in Europe using questionnaires. They pointed out a very high level of satisfaction of callers and patients. Delay with the assistance and the ability for resolution of the case are the elements that overlap in fostering satisfaction. The published studies neither reviewed the overall care process nor related the measurement of the real time in responding to an emergency with the satisfaction. The patients and professionals concurred in their assessments about the most relevant elements for patient satisfaction, although safety was not a predictive factor for patients. Response capacity and perceived capacity for resolving the situation were crucial factors for satisfaction. This qualitative approach yielded assistance targets to be improved. Conclusions. Published studies have assessed similar dimensions of satisfaction. Furthermore, despite the fact that few explanations may be given due to the no face to face attention, taking into account the patient’s emotional needs or maintaining contact with the patient until the emergency services arrive are high predictors of the satisfaction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0143.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: coping strategies; children; imprisoned parents; interventions; systematic review
Online: 19 May 2017 (06:14:31 CEST)
Children of imprisoned parents have a two times greater risk for health problems, including difficulties in their environment, academic and behavioural problems as well as social stigma. Focusing on children who have parents in prison has not been a priority for research. This review aims to describe current knowledge on children who have imprisoned parents in a global context and highlight areas for additional research. This review highlights the coping strategies that children of imprisoned parents use and explore interventions that exist to support children of imprisoned parents. This review employed a qualitative narrative synthesis. The database search yielded 1989 articles, of which 11 met inclusion and quality criteria. Stigmatizing children due to parental imprisonment was a widespread problem. Children’s coping strategies included maintaining distance from the imprisoned parent, normalizing the parent’s situation and taking better control over their lives through distraction, sports, supportive people and therapy. Children received the best support in school-based interventions or mentoring programmes. The overall low quality of the included studies indicates a need for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dietary pattern; prostate cancer; systematic review; meta-analysis
Online: 6 August 2016 (12:30:38 CEST)
Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. Search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risk estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for a 1st-percentile increase in dietary pattern score were combined by a dose response meta-analysis. 12 observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified “Healthy pattern” and “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR=0.96; 95% CI: 0.88-1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR=1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65). In addition, a “Carbohydrate pattern”, identified in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.35-2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western (p=0.011) and the Carbohydrate (p=0.005) pattern and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small numbers of studies included suggest that further investigations are necessary to support these findings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Hallux Valgus Deformity; Midfoot Instability, WBCT; Systematic Review; Imaging
Online: 23 November 2023 (09:41:30 CET)
Hallux valgus deformity (HVD) involves subluxation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. While HVD is primarily considered a forefoot condition, midfoot instability may play a significant role in its development and severity. Therefore, this review had a particular focus on understanding midfoot instability based upon weightbearing imaging assessments of the TMT joint. This review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and searched five databases for studies on midfoot instability in HVD patients. Severity of HVD was defined by hallux valgus angle (HVA) and distal metatarsal articular angle (DMAA). Data was extracted, and articles were graded using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS). Of 547 initially retrieved articles, 23 met inclusion criteria. Patients with HVD showed higher HVA and DMAA on weight-bearing radiographs (WBRG) and weight-bearing computed tomography (WBCT) compared to healthy individuals. Midfoot instability was assessed through intermetatarsal angle (IMA) and tarsometatarsal angle (TMT angle). Patients with HVD exhibited greater IMA and TMT angles on both WBRG and WBCT. This review highlights the importance of weight-bearing imaging assessments for midfoot instability in HVD. IMA and TMT angles can differentiate between healthy individuals and HVD patients, emphasizing the significance of midfoot assessment in understanding HVD pathology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1075.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: bibliometric review; corporate social responsibility; family firms; content analysis
Online: 17 November 2023 (04:29:55 CET)
The field of CSR has witnessed considerable growth and established itself as a significant subject in family business literature. However, despite previous reviews exploring this topic from various angles, there remains a crucial gap in understanding the influence of diverse regulatory frameworks and cultural values on the development of literature production and research streams across different regions. This gap holds particular significance for comprehending the latest advancements in this dynamic field, particularly in emerging economies, where cultural norms play a substantial role in shaping the relationship between family firms and CSR. To bridge this gap, this paper conducts a comprehensive review of empirical studies focusing on sustainability in family firms. These studies are organized based on the country of study, and our review encompasses 232 articles published between 1996 and 2023. Utilizing bibliometric software, we systematically group these articles into three distinct clusters: North American studies, European studies, and Asian studies, adhering strictly to our inclusion criteria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0572.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Family Business; Bangladesh; Review; Succession planning; Entrepreneurship; Small Business
Online: 9 November 2023 (07:26:31 CET)
In Bangladesh, family businesses play a significant role in the country's business landscape because so few private companies are set up as large-scale, non-family ownership firms. Thus, it is vital to comprehend family businesses in order to comprehend Bangladeshi company dynamics. In this paper, authors attempted to survey the existing research in the area of family business in Bangladesh. It was found that the area as a research is totally an open field and a lot of new research can be done in the said area. Although a good number of studies can be classified as focused on the SME (small and medium enterprise) domain, a major shortcoming of those SME studies is that the SMEs themselves vary greatly in terms of size, scope, and technology. Whereas most of the family businesses can be predominantly put in the SME category, the particular issue of family business and family dynamics is not very common in those studies. This paper suggests that a good amount of research or studies can be done focusing on family business constitution, family members' participation norm, recruitment and promotion norm, family business succession rules and succession planning, training for family business leadership and management, training for board and directorial supervision, and so on.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: psoriasis; PDE4 inhibitor; apremilast; roflumilast; crisaborole; clinical trials; review
Online: 6 November 2023 (07:07:05 CET)
Psoriasis is a common chronic immune-mediated disease with many comorbidities and impacts on quality of life. Among the treatment options for psoriasis, phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibi-tors are emerging with expanding options. PDE4 inhibitors play a pivotal role in the inflamma-tory cascade by degrading cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), contributing to pro-inflammatory mediator production. Apremilast, an oral PDE4 inhibitor, is an approved class for psoriasis. While effective, its adverse effects can limit its utility. Roflumilast, a topical PDE4 inhibitor, was recently also approved for psoriasis and shows promise in clinical trials. Crisaborole, approved for atopic dermatitis, has also been studied in psoriasis. This updated re-view summarizes evidence from randomized clinical trials regarding the efficacy and safety of PDE4 inhibitors in psoriasis treatment. By highlighting their potential benefits and limitations, this review provides valuable insights for clinicians and researchers aiming to optimize psoriasis therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0055.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: AI; artificial intelligence; higher education; learning; teaching; systematic review
Online: 2 November 2023 (00:04:02 CET)
With the emergence of artificial intelligence (AI), many aspects of our lives, from how we work to how we interact with each other and the world around us is showing dramatic changes. Education is one of the key areas that may be impacted by the rise of AI. Although a large number of studies have been conducted in recent years to shed light on how AI may influence various dimensions of education, a very little work has been carried out to consolidate and synthesis empirical studies on the application of AI in higher education. The present study reviewed empirical studies published between 2013 and 2022 to 1) examine the characteristics of published research in the field, and 2) to present thorough insights on the promises and challenges of this dramatic technology in higher and professional education. This review included 44 empirical studies published as peer-reviewed journal articles. The results indicated that there is rapid increase in the publications focusing on AI in higher education in last a few years. However, a big proportion of these publications are technically theoretical and conceptual proposals for AI intervention. The areas of AI applications in higher education that are supported by evidence based research are presented. Imperative implications are also highlighted for future research and implementation of AI based interventions in higher education.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0838.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Systematic review; Optimization; Heuristic algorithm; Multi-objective; Building façade
Online: 13 September 2023 (07:55:38 CEST)
Building facade design plays an essential role in enhancing energy efficiency and reducing environmental impact in high-performance building design. Balancing the conflicts among various building facade design parameters to satisfy different optimization objectives constitutes a highly complex optimization problem. The rapidly increasing number of studies demonstrates a significant interest in implementing multi-objective optimization methods to tackle building facade optimization problems. This study conducts a systematic review of optimization methods for building facade optimization (BFO). The optimization objectives and design variables are categorized based on their characteristics. The efficiency and effectiveness of optimization algorithms in addressing BFO problems are compared. Building optimization techniques and tools are showcased, along with their functions and limitations. Key findings highlight the robust feasibility and effectiveness of optimization algorithms, methods, and techniques in resolving a diverse range of BFO challenges. The limitations, challenges, and future potential of these methods are summarized and proposed.