ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0696.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Help Seeking; Same-age Peer Tutoring; Revealed Preferences; Data analytics
Online: 29 June 2021 (11:36:26 CEST)
When in doubt, asking a peer can be very helpful. Students learn a lot of social strategies from peers. However, stated preference studies [Newman, 1993] have found that for elementary school students with math questions they prefer to ask the teacher. In this paper, we study revealed preferences instead of stated preferences. We analyze the behavior of fourth-grade students seeking face-to-face assistance while working on an online math platform. Students start by working independently on the platform before the teacher selects two or three tutors from among those who have answered 10 questions correctly. Each student is then able to choose between the teacher or one of these tutors when requesting assistance. We study the students’ preferences over 3 years, involving 88 fourth-grade classes, 2,700 students, 1,209 sessions with classmate tutors, and a total of 16,485 requests for help when there was an option to choose between a teacher or a classmate. We found that students prefer asking classmates for help 3 times more than asking their teachers when given the choice. Furthermore, this gap increases from the first to the second semester. We also found that students prefer to request help from classmates of the same sex and of higher academic performance. In this sense, students from the two highest tertiles sought help from classmates in the same two tertiles, and students from the medium tertile prefer to seek help from students of the highest tertile. However, students in the two lowest tertiles do not prefer asking for help from students from the top tertile more than from their own tertiles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0207.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: revealed comparative advantage; network theory; interdependence; international trade; reciprocity; dependence
Online: 15 March 2022 (11:02:09 CET)
Since the 1970s, researchers in international relations have asserted that the enhancement of interdependence between nations can reduce conflicts among them (Keohane and Nye 1973). Thus, interdependency between nations is regarded as desirable for the stability of the countries' networks. On the other hand, there has been no confirmation of empirical data on the benevolent effects of interdependency on the nations' networks. This article aims to analyze the concept of interdependence into reciprocity and dependence, leading to quantifying both of them. To assess the usefulness of this approach, the empirical analysis of trade relations among five countries, namely, THE U.S.., China, Germany, Japan, and Korea from 1992 to 2020 was empirically analyzed with the aid of reciprocity index (R) and dependency index (D).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: transport mode; revealed preference; stated preference; multinomial logit model; university students
Online: 8 May 2020 (08:42:54 CEST)
This work mainly aims to identify and understand the factors influencing the switching of transportation modes among higher-education students in Joinville, Brazil when traveling to universities. Furthermore, this study evaluates the possibility of switching from individual vehicles to other modes of transport (i.e., bus, bicycle, and walking) by employing a multinomial logit model. The results indicate that students would be interested in switching from individual motor vehicles to other options. The scenarios for switching to buses presented the highest switching probability. The bus cost was the most important factor for switching. Meanwhile, the parking space reduction does not affect the student's choice, indicating that restricting available spaces should not be an isolated measure for decreasing the car mode attractiveness. Finally, the transport mode switch would occur only if alternative modes to the car or their infrastructure are improved; otherwise, students maintain their usual choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0287.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Transition decisions; Secondary School; School tracks; Revealed students’ preferences; Satisfaction; Quantitative method; Optimization
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:33:25 CEST)
This study aims to better understand students who attend the Basic Vocational Training Cycles (FPB) regarding the measures to ensure diversity. This quantitative research project approximates the perception of students concerning their passage through their previous studies and their satisfaction and goals after finishing the school year. The sample con-sists of 352 students from Cordoba (Spain). A questionnaire has been used which follows the CIPP model. After the exploratory factor analysis was completed with the different groups of items and their descriptive analysis, various tests were carried out to consider the hypotheses (Pearson's correlation (r), one-factor analysis of variance and repeated ANOVA measures). The results indicate that the educational interest of the students is ac-ademic and professional. Likewise, there is no relationship detected between the appear-ance of socio-professional goals and average academic levels and the attributions with re-spect to repetitions of previous courses, although these goals vary depending on the satis-faction shown by the students with respect to the cycles. We conclude that the course of the FPB influences the adoption of decisions regarding academic-professional projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0253.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Trade, competitiveness, export, index, assessment, method, data, revealed, comparative advantage, development, diversification, centralization
Online: 15 June 2018 (12:27:03 CEST)
The competitiveness of domestic products at the regional or global market is one of the cornerstones of a country’s internationalcompetitiveness. In this regard, the assessment and analysis of the competitiveness of a country’s international trade becomes an important issue. Thus, development and diversification of the export potential of the country is viewed as one of the most important directions of the international trade policy of the given country. Therefore, another important task is the specialization of the country in the most efficient and competitive segments of the economy. The above-mentioned circumstances embody the fact, that the role of quantitative assessment of potential competitive advantages is important, as it allows determining to what extent certain factors influence on the formation of export capacity in the country. The main objective of the study is to determine the role of export competitiveness in the process of competitive advantages formation of a country. This study mainly focuses on quantitative analysis based on the calculation of Balassa index, determining the extent to which a country has a comparative advantage in producing and exporting certain goods. The study presents the example of the Republic of Armenia, the study covers the period between 2002- 2016. Based on the index calculation, it can be determined whether the country has "revealed" comparative advantage or not. The practical significance of the study lies in the fact that its main findings and conclusions arising from it can be used in assessing the export competitiveness of not only Armenia, but also for other countries or groups of countries.The outcomes and implication of the research can be used to improve the competitiveness of goods and services in the global market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: discrete choice modeling; mode choice; travel behavior; city tourism; sustainable tourism; revealed preference data
Online: 1 August 2022 (10:13:39 CEST)
With growing city tourism, there is an increasing need for urban travel demand models to consider traffic generated by visitors. Existing research has concentrated on socio-demographic and journey-related factors to determine what influences the mode choice of tourists. In contrast, revealed preference data, like travel time, is almost never considered. In this article, we present the results of discrete choice modeling of city tourists’ mode choice based on revealed preference data from a survey we conducted in Kassel, Germany. We used multinomial logit models and determined the model parameters using maximum likelihood estimations. Surprisingly, travel time played a smaller role in mode choice than understood from previously established knowledge about everyday mobility. In the final model, travel time was only significant for the alternative walking. Also, most other sociodemographic and journey-related variables showed no significant influence. The final model reproduced the mode choice, but the goodness of fit was lower than expected from other research. We conclude that modeling the travel behavior of tourists is more complex than everyday mobility. An alternative approach that we suggest would be to model trip chains rather than single trips.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0116.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: environmental benefits and costs, revealed preference, hedonic pricing, travel cost, trade-off game, opportunity cost
Online: 8 July 2019 (12:32:10 CEST)
The objective of this paper was to give an overview of the expressed preference (EP) techniques of environmental valuation. These methods offer estimation of the value of a resource not necessarily willingness to pay (WTP) or willingness to Accept (WTA) compensation rather upper and lower values. The method of measuring individuals’ willingness to pay is usually based on contingent valuation method (CVM). This research focuses on defining, categorizing, and applicability of various environmental valuation techniques that have been and can be applied in attaching value to a given resource using expressed/Revealed preference methods. The study serves as a supplementary synthesis and discussion to the board of knowledge of resource valuation methods. More specifically, selected methods to discussed herein include; contingent valuation method, hedonic pricing model, travel cost method, trade-off game method, the costless-choice method, Delphi method, Replacement Cost Method, Relocation Cost Method, Opportunity cost method, and Cost-benefit Method. In the last part, applicability of the methods is fully illustrated to support future studies on resource valuation.