ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: human mobility; COVID-19 spread; global pandemic; social restriction policy; Australia
Online: 8 September 2020 (11:31:16 CEST)
Policy induced decline of human mobility has been recognised to be effective in controlling the COVID-19 spread especially in the initial stage of the outbreak, although the relationship among mobility, policy implementation, and virus spread remains contentious. Coupling data of confirmed COVID-19 cases with Google mobility data in Australia, we present a state-level empirical study to: 1) inspect the temporal variation of COVID-19 spread and the change of mobility adherent to social restriction policies; 2) examine the extent that different types of mobility are associated with the COVID-19 spread in eight Australian states/territories; and 3) analyse the time-lag effect of mobility restriction on the COVID-19 spread. We find that social restriction policies implemented in the early stage of the pandemic controlled the COVID-19 spread effectively; the restriction of human mobility has a time-lag effect on growth rates, and the strength of the mobility-spread correlation increases up to seven days after policy implementation but decreases afterwards. The association between mobility and COVID-19 spread varies across space and time, and subjects to the types of mobility. Thus, it is important for governments to consider the degree to which lockdown conditions can be eased by accounting for this dynamic mobility-spread relationship.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0401.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: calorie restriction; longevity; environmental fluctuation; senescence
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:22:37 CEST)
The world’s human population is reaching record longevities. Consequently, societies are experiencing the tangible impacts of prolonged longevity, such as increased retirement age. A major hypothesised influence on ageing patterns is resource availability and calorie restriction, considered by many to extend longevity in any organism. Here, we highlight challenges facing the field of calorie restriction research as it pertains to ageing and how more realistic environments can impact the role calorie restriction plays in longevity of species. We reviewed 120 peer-reviewed published studies to quantify calorie restriction effects on longevity. We show that calorie restriction research does not always have positive effects on ageing with 27% of studies having no, negative or neutral effects. Additionally, research is biased towards short-lived species and lacks realism. We argue that only by taking a more realistic approach can the impacts of calorie restriction on longevity under climate change be understood. We conclude by discussing Planarians and Hydra as model species that allow for future research to have a better understanding of calorie restriction effects on long-lived species, while incorporating climate change impacts. Steering future calorie restriction research towards integrating interaction effects across a broader range of species will begin addressing the challenges of calorie restriction research. Crucial insights from future research can contribute to the fundamental and translational understanding of human senescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1493.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: machine learning; preeclampsia; intrauterine growth restriction; prediction; screening
Online: 23 November 2023 (08:45:26 CET)
1) Background: The screening of preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) represents a constant challenge for obstetricians. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the predictive performance of 4 machine learning-based algorithms for the prediction of PE, IUGR, and their association in a cohort of singleton pregnancies; (2) Methods This prospective study was conducted at a tertiary maternity hospital in Romania, and included 210 pregnancies that underwent first trimester screening. We included clinical and paraclinical data into 4 machine learning-based algorithms decision tree (DT), naïve Bayes (NB), support vector machine (SVM), and random forest (RF), and calculated their predictive performance; (3) Results: RF performed the best when used to predict PE, IUGR, and its subtypes, as well as the association between PE and IUGR. The overall predictive performance of DT for all these disorders was inferior to RF, NB, and SVM. Both SVM and NB had similar accuracy for the prediction of PE, while NB performed better than SVM for the prediction of IUGR; (4) Conclusions: Machine-learning-based algorithms could be useful for the prediction of ischemic placental disease and need to be validated on large cohorts of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0091.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: calorie restriction; aging; inflammation; autophagy; senescence.; skeletal muscle
Online: 6 September 2022 (11:01:40 CEST)
Calorie restriction (CR), defined as a reduction of the total calorie intake of 30% to 60% without malnutrition, is the only nutritional strategy that has proven to extend lifespan, prevent or delay the onset of age-associated diseases, and delay the functional decline in a wide range of species. However, little is known about the effects of CR when started early in life. We sought to analyze the effects of CR in the skeletal muscle of young Wistar rats. For this, 3-month-old male and female rats were subjected to 40% CR or fed ad libitum for 3 months. Gastrocnemius muscles were used to extract RNA and total protein. Western blot and RT-qPCR were performed to evaluate the expression of key markers/pathways modulated by CR and affected by aging. CR decreased body and skeletal muscle weight in both sexes. No differences were found in most senescence, antioxidant, and nutrient sensing pathways analyzed. However, we found a sexual dimorphism in markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function in response to CR. Our data show that young female rats treated with CR exhibit similar expression patterns of key genes/pathways associated with healthy aging when compared to old animals treated with CR, while in male rats these effects are reduced. Additional studies are needed to understand how early or later life CR exerts positive effects on health- and lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0088.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Amino acids; cancer; cancer metabolism; cancer therapy; kidney cancer; renal adenocarcinoma; renal cancer; metastasis; selective amino acid restriction therapy; restriction
Online: 3 August 2022 (11:16:39 CEST)
Targeted therapies with antiangiogenic drugs (e.g., sunitinib) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (e.g., anti-PD-1 antibodies) are the standard of care for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Although these treatments improve patient survival, they are rarely curative. We previously hypothesized that advanced cancers might be treated without drugs by using artificial diets in which the levels of specific amino acids (AAs) are manipulated. In this work, after showing that AA manipulation induces selective anticancer activity in renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro, we evaluated the anticancer activity of 17 artificial diets in a challenging animal model of renal cell carcinoma. The model was stablished by injecting murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) cells into the peritoneum of immunocompetent BALB/cAnNRj mice. Mice survival was markedly improved when their normal diet was replaced with our artificial diets. Mice fed a diet lacking six AAs (diet T2) lived longer than mice treated with sunitinib or anti-PD-1 immunotherapy; several animals lived very long or were cured. Controlling the levels of several AAs (e.g., cysteine, methionine and leucine) and lipids was important for the anticancer activity of the diets. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate the therapeutic potential of this simple and inexpensive anticancer strategy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0439.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: HIV; Macrophages; MDM; restriction factors; transcription factors; macrophage polarization
Online: 23 November 2021 (16:19:11 CET)
In addition to CD4+ T lymphocytes, myeloid cells, and, particularly, differentiated macrophages, are targets of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection via interaction of gp120Env with CD4 and CCR5 or CXCR4. Both T cells and macrophages support virus replication although with substantial differences. In contrast to activated CD4+ T lymphocytes, HIV-1 replication in macrophages occurs in nondividing cells and it is characterized by virtual absence of cytopathicity both in vitro and in vivo. These general features should be considered in evaluating the role of cell-associated restriction factors aiming at preventing of curtailing virus replication in macrophages and T cells particularly in the context of designing strategies to tackle the viral reservoir in infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. In this regard, we will here also discuss a model of reversible HIV-1 latency in primary human macrophages and the role of host factor determining restriction or reactivation of virus replication in myeloid cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: FGR; fetal programming; food restriction; metabolic disorders; liver proteomics
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:54:56 CET)
1) Background: Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and epigenetic modifications that impact gene expression leading to permanent changes of fetal metabolic pathways and thereby influence development of disease in childhood and adult life. Both clinical and experimental studies showed that maternal nutrition during pregnancy is critical since malnutrition adversely affects fetal growth and physiology. In this study, we investigated the result of maternal food restriction on liver protein expression in Wistar male newborn pups. (2) Materials & methods: Pups born to food restricted mothers were subdivided to FGR and non-FGR groups. Livers of control, FGR and non-FGR groups were analyzed using quantitative proteomics. (3) Results: In total 6665 proteins were profiled. Of these, 451 and 751 were differentially expressed in FGR and non-FGR vs. control respectively, whereas 229 were common between the two groups. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in FGR vs. control revealed: induction of the super-pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis and inhibition of thyroid hormone metabolism, fatty acid beta oxidation and apelin liver signaling pathway. In the DEPs of non-FGR vs. control groups there was inhibition of thyroid hormone metabolism, fatty acid beta oxidation and apelin liver signaling pathway as well. (4) Conclusion: This study demonstrates the impact of prenatal food restriction on the proteomic liver profile of FGR and non-FGR offspring underlying the importance of both prenatal adversities and birth weight on liver dependent postnatal disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0561.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: leptin; cord leptin; pregnancy; intrauterine growth restriction; birth weight
Online: 23 November 2020 (08:39:13 CET)
Introduction: Leptin is a polypeptide hormone and in pregnancy it is secreted by the placenta and maternal and fetal adipose tissues. The expression of leptin and its specific receptors is observed in the uterine endometrium which indicates leptin involvement in the implantation process and embryonic/fetal development. Normal leptin production is a factor responsible for uncomplicated gestation, embryo development and fetal growth. Objective: To compare at delivery maternal serum and cord blood leptin concentrations in normal pregnancies and in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Material and methods: The study was performed in 25 pregnant women with isolated IUGR diagnosed by ultrasonography (study subjects) and in 194 pregnant women without any comorbid health conditions (controls). Leptin concentrations in maternal serum and in cord blood samples collected at delivery were measured by ELISA and subsequently analyzed by maternal Body Mass Index (BMI), mode of delivery, and infant gender and birth weight. For comparative analyses of normally distributed variables, parametric tests were used, i.e. the Student-t to test the assumption of homogeneity or non-homogeneity of variance and a One-Way ANOVA when more than two groups were compared. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney test was used when the distribution was not normal. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between normally distributed variables (p<0.05). Results: In pregnancies complicated by IUGR, the mean maternal serum leptin concentration at delivery was significantly higher (52.73 ± 30.49 ng/mL) than in normal pregnancies (37.17 ± 28.07 ng/mL) (p=0.01). The mean cord blood leptin concentration in pregnancies complicated by IUGR was 7.97 ± 4.46 ng/mL and significantly lower than in normal pregnancies (14.78 ± 15.97 ng/mL) (p=0.04). In normal pregnancies, but not in pregnancies complicated by IUGR, a statistically significant correlation was established between maternal serum leptin concentrations and maternal BMI at delivery (r=0,22; p=0.00). No statistically significant correlation was found between cord blood leptin concentrations and maternal BMI in either study subjects or controls. In normal pregnancies, but not in pregnancies complicated by IUGR, a strong correlation was observed between cord blood leptin concentrations and birth weight (r=0,23; p=0.00). In both study subjects and controls, there were no correlations between leptin concentrations in maternal serum and cord blood and infant gender and mode of delivery. Conclusions: Elevated maternal blood leptin concentrations in pregnancies complicated by IUGR may indicate a significant adverse effect of elevated leptin on fetal growth. Enhanced leptin production by the placenta suggests leptin as a candidate marker of placental insufficiency. The differences in leptin concentrations, measured in maternal serum and in cord blood, between the study subjects and controls suggest that deregulated leptin levels may increase the risk of obstetric complications associated with placental insufficiency.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: h. pylori; restriction modification system; virulence; il-8; apoptosis
Online: 1 November 2019 (12:52:39 CET)
Helicobacter pylori is a common human pathogen that causes gastroduodenal diseases. H. pylori genome consists of numerous restriction-modification (R-M) genes. It is established that N6-adenine methylation plays a crucial role in bacterial gene regulation and virulence, but not much is known about the role of C5-cytosine methylation. In this study, we examined the influence of an orphan cytosine methyltransferase, hpyAVIBM on gastric infection in mice and cultured cells. Histopathological staining showed that the deletion of hpyAVIBM in H. pylori strain SS1 had increased damaging hemorrhagic effects on the mice stomach. The gelatin-zymography result demonstrated that the mice infected with mutant SS1ΔhpyAVIBM had significantly up-regulated pro-MMP-9 than those infected with SS1. Additionally, ELISA results of pro-inflammatory cytokines proved that mutant strain caused significantly more inflammatory effect on mice stomach than its wild-type counterpart. The immunohistochemistry data showed that mutant strain caused attenuated epithelial cell damage. Co-culture studies of H. pylori with AGS (Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma cell line) cells revealed that SS1ΔhpyAVIBM instigated significantly more apoptotic death in the AGS cells compared to the wild-type strain. Our results indicated that DNA methylation by hpyAVIBM plays a crucial role in modulating virulence factors in bacterial cells and their interaction with the host cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: calorie restriction; PUFA; meal replacement; metabolic syndrome; middle age
Online: 13 August 2016 (03:39:38 CEST)
The increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyles has led to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) worldwide. In Taiwan, middle-aged women are at a greater risk of MetS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than men are because they have more subcutaneous fat and larger waist circumferences compared to men with equal visceral fat levels. This study investigated the effects of calorie restriction supplemented with fish oil (CRF) in middle-aged women with MetS. For 12 weeks, 75 eligible participants were randomly assigned either calorie restriction (CR) or CRF. Both dietary intervention groups were further divided into two age groups: ≤45 and >45 years. The changes in MetS severity, inflammatory status, iron status, and red blood cell fatty acid profile were evaluated. Seventy-one participants completed the trial. Both dietary interventions significantly ameliorated MetS and improved the participants’ inflammatory status. CR significantly increased total iron binding capacity, whereas CRF increased hepcidin levels. Furthermore, CRF significantly increased the n-6/n-3 and arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratios. In conclusion, CR and CRF improved the anthropometric and MetS characteristics of early-middle aged women, including body weight, blood glucose levels, triglyceride levels, as well as the scores for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity cheque index. Dietary intervention was more effective in >45-year-old women than ≤45-year-old women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: Self-aspirated flotation cells; WEMCO cells; flotation banks; air restriction
Online: 3 October 2023 (07:19:53 CEST)
This article describes the impact of restricting the air intake in industrial 250 m3 WEMCO flotation cells at Los Pelambres concentrator. The influence of this air restriction on the hydrodynamic and metallurgical performance of this type of machine was evaluated. The experiments were conducted in single flotation cells and in entire rougher banks. In all cases, the gas holdup was measured to estimate the effectiveness of the obstruction system to decrease the air concentration. In single cells, axial profiles for solid percentage and particle size were evaluated. In addition, a mass balance was conducted to assess the copper recovery and concentrate features. In individual cells, the air restriction led to a decrease in the gas holdup. However, this slight change was enough to obtain a more stable froth zone and a better solids suspension. The latter was observed as a higher P80 below the pulp-froth interface, a less diluted pulp at this level, a slightly higher Cu recovery, and a coarser concentrate product. A mineralogical analysis of the concentrate sample also showed the presence of coarser liberated Cu-sulfide particles. The results in single cells suggested an improvement in the recovery of coarse particles by a more intense solids suspension. The air intake was also restricted in 3 rougher banks to assess the impact of the air obstruction on the overall performance of the respective circuit. Eleven out of fourteen cells were operated with air restriction, which led to a significant recovery improvement of 0.9%-1.6% (absolute) with a 95% confidence level. Size-by-size mass balances were also conducted for the rougher circuits, which proved that the recovery improvements were justified by the simultaneous increase in the recovery of coarse and fine particles. Thus, a restriction of the air intake showed that the decrease in the gas holdup (and in the bubble surface area flux) was compensated by a better solids suspension and a higher turbulence in the impeller. The former promotes the recovery of coarse particles, whereas the latter improves the interaction between bubbles and fine particles. Further developments are being made to implement a regulatory control strategy to control the air intake in self-aspirated flotation cells, and to use this approach for optimizing industrial flotation banks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1808.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV-1; HERV-K; elite controllers; viremic controllers; restriction factors
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:09:21 CEST)
HIV-1 infection can activate the expression of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), particularly HERV-K (HML-2). HIV controllers (HICs) are rare people living with HIV (PLWH) who naturally control HIV-1 replication. The ability of HICs to control the expression of endogenous retroviruses has not been previously addressed. In this study, we measured ERVK-6 RNA expression in PBMCs of HICs (n = 23), antiretroviral (ART)-suppressed subjects (n = 8), and HIV-1-negative (NEG) individuals (n = 10) and correlated the transcript expression of ERVK-6 with multiple HIV-1 restriction factors. Our study reveals that ERVK-6 RNA expression in PBMCs from HICs was significantly downregulated compared with both ART and NEG control groups. Moreover, we detected that ERVK-6 RNA levels in PBMCs across all groups were negatively correlated with the expression levels of p21 and MCPIP1. In our previous study, these two cellular restriction factors were upregulated in HICs compared with control groups. Interestingly, p21 and MCPIP1 limit the activation of macrophages and T cells by downregulating the activity of NF-kB, a transcription factor that stimulates the LTR-driven transcription of HIV-1 and HERV-K proviruses. These findings support that HICs activate innate antiviral mechanisms that may simultaneously downregulate the transcription of both HIV-1 and endogenous retroviruses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0239.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Social Impact; Fear Response; Healthcare; Restriction; Control Measures
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:45:23 CEST)
Covid-19 has had a significant impact on the lives of populations across the world. Since the first reported case of the coronavirus in Wuhan, China, the world faced a situation of dealing with a novel virus. While the physical health effects of the coronavirus was the center of focus for much of the pandemic, Covid-19 was accompanied with significant social and psychological consequences on the world populations. In this review, we aim to assess how the coronavirus pandemic has affected the African continent at large, highlighting the socio-psychological consequences. Through citing some examples of a few countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, the review will detail the experiences of the populations within this region which remain plagued with economic and health vulnerabilities that were further exposed by the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1520.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Neuromuscular performance; blood flow restriction; occlusion; resistance training; velocity; EMG
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:31:23 CEST)
The aim of this study was to verify the effects of blood flow restriction on movement velocity and muscle activity during the back-squat exercise. Methods: Twenty-four university students participated in this study. In two randomized 72-hours apart sessions, participants performed a 4-set protocol consisting of 30-15-15-15 repetitions performed at 30% of their one-repetition maximum in the back-squat exercise. In both sessions, neuromuscular function was monitored by surface electromyography (EMG) and movement velocity (mean propulsive velocity [MPV], peak concentric velocity [Vmax] and the effort index [EI]). Blood flow restriction (BFR) was applied during exercise in one of the experimental sessions with 80% of full arterial occlusion pressure over lower limbs. Results: BFR condition showed higher (p<0.05) EI, peak and rooted mean square normalized EMG in set 1 compared to set 2. Similar MPV and Vmax were observed at each set for both BFR and control conditions. No significant differences were observed between conditions at any set. Conclusions: BFR did not imply changes in neuromuscular performance during low-intensity resistance training, but it might induce greater intra-series velocity loss and less activation of the muscles involved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0281.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Intermittent fasting; Caloric restriction; Time-restricted eating; Menopausal; Women’s health
Online: 13 April 2023 (02:59:21 CEST)
By shifting eating hours from daytime to nighttime, Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) illustrates how religious beliefs influence human dietary behavior and subsequent anthropometric and metabolic measures. This study aimed to investigate socioeconomic characteristics and examine how observing RIF affects dietary intake, anthropometric indices, and metabolic markers in healthy premenopausal (PRE-M) and post-menopausal (POST-M) Saudi women. Before starting the study, the authors hypothesized that the RIF improves some nutritional aspects and health in respondents, but not after breaking the fast.. The study includes 62 women (31 PRE-M, 21-43 years, and 31 POST-M, 44-68 years). A structured questionnaire was used to collect socioeconomic data. Physical activity, anthropometric, dietary, and biochemical assessments were undertaken before RIF and at the end of the third week of Ramadan fasting month. Socioeconomic data varied among respondents. Observing RIF was associated with significantly (at either p ≤ 0.01 or p ≤ 0.05) lower intake of calories, macronutrients, minerals (except for Na), and vitamins than before RIF for both groups. In terms of body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for PRE-M, the percentage of overweight decreased significantly (p≤0.01) while obesity remained unchanged. In contrast, for POST-M, the percentage of overweight increased significantly (p≤0.05), but obesity decreased after RIF. Both groups' waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), body fat (BF), and fat mass (FM) decreased after RIF. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglycerides (TG), and blood pressure (SBP, DBP) were generally maintained at acceptable normal levels in most responders before and after RIF. However, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was significantly decreased during RIF than before, especially for POST-M. Age, occupation, and monthly income were the most important factors influencing women’s nutritional status and body fat. In conclusion, observing RIF by PRE- and POST-M Saudi women was associated with significant improvements in variable health indicators, with a few exceptions, particularly POST-M, and may help lower risk factors for chronic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: pregnancy; newborn; obstetric outcome; birth weight; foetal growth restriction; thinness
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:39:35 CET)
The pre-pregnancy BMI and the gestational weight gain are two important determinants of pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine obstetric outcomes associated with insufficient gestational weight gain in women with a pre-pregnancy BMI < 18.5 kg/m2. This study was based on observational routinely-collected data from a University Hospital Maternity. The participants were allocated to the group sufficient or insufficient gestational weight gain: ≥ 12.5 kg and < 12.5 kg respectively. Primary outcomes were the adjusted birth weight in percentiles (%) and the proportion of SGA newborns. Secondary outcomes were obstetric and perinatal outcomes. A total of 135 participants with a median age of 28±8 years were included. The adjusted birth weight in percentiles was significantly lower in the insufficient gestational weight gain group (27.2±45.4 vs 42.6±48.8 %; P<0.001). Moreover, the insufficient gestational weight gain is associated with a higher risk of SGA (28.1% vs 11.3%; P=0.017). Our study also showed increased risks of premature rupture of membranes, anaemia and intrauterine growth restriction in women with an insufficient weight gain. Future studies should explore the risk factors associated with insufficient weight gain, in order to develop specific care for underweight pregnant women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0425.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; Restriction policies; Air pollution; Environmental science; Sustainability.
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:06:26 CEST)
The goal of this study is to develop a global analysis, based on data from 2015 to 2022, that clarifies the impact of containment policies (e.g., lockdown and quarantine) for Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) on the air pollution between countries of different continents. In this context, average changes of CO, NO2, SO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10 concentrations based on measurements at ground level in January, February, and March for 2019, 2020, 2021, and 2022 are compared with average values of 2015-2018 period between 300 cities of 19 countries in 5 continents. Results show that the maximum reduction in pollutant concentrations during this period is given by: CO (-4,367.5%) in France, NO2 (-150.5%) in China and Australia, SO2 (-154.1%) in Israel, O3 (-94.1%) in China, PM2.5 (-41.4%) in Germany and PM10 (-157.4%) in Turkey. Findings reveal that the effects of containment policies on air quality vary significantly between countries depending on different geographical characteristics of regions. This study has main environmental policy implications because it clarifies the critical role of severe control measure to reduce air pollution and support sustainable environment and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Airflow restriction, Physical exercise, Respiratory Muscle Training, Endurance performance, VEGF, EPO
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:04:27 CEST)
Introduction: The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) has been introduced as a novel tool to allow for respiratory muscle training and altitude exposure during exercise that can improve performance and hematological markers in elite and well-trained athletes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of wearing ETM while training on erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), peak oxygen consumption (VO2max), lactate, and 1000-m kayaking performance in elite Kayaking girls. Methods: Thirty elite Kayaking girls (14 to 18-year-old) were equally and randomly assigned into mask, no mask, and control groups. The mask and no-mask groups completed 8 weeks of repeated sprint training, while the control group performed their routine kayaking training programs. Pre- and post-training tests included EPO, VEGF, VO2max, lactate, and 1000-m kayaking performance. Results: 1000-m time trial significantly decreased for mask (p < 0.001) and control (p = 0.035) groups, and was significantly lower in mask group than control (p = 0.014) and no mask (p = 0.009) groups. EPO did not show any significant changes for all groups. VEGF was increased significantly for mask (p = 0.04) and no mask (p = 0.014) groups. Lactate was decreased significantly for mask group (p = 0.025). VO2max increased significantly for no mask group (p = 0.021). Conclusion: Wearing the ETM while participating in 8 weeks of repeated sprint training might improve specific blood markers and endurance performance, especially anaerobic pathways. Performing repeated sprint training while wearing ETM has the potential to enhance performance in Kayak racing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0730.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); metabolism; cell stress; cell death; metabolic syndrome
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:19:23 CEST)
Disruption of the in utero environment can have dire consequences on fetal growth and development. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a pathological condition by which the fetus deviates from its expected growth trajectory, resulting in low birth weight and impaired organ function. The developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) postulates that IUGR has lifelong consequences on offspring well-being, as human studies have established an inverse relationship between birth weight and long-term metabolic health. While these trends are apparent in epidemiological data, animal studies have been essential in defining the molecular mechanisms that contribute to this relationship. One such mechanism is cellular stress, a prominent underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome. As such, this review considers the role of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and inflammation in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease in IUGR offspring. In addition, we summarize how uncontrolled cellular stress can lead to programmed cell death within the metabolic organs of IUGR offspring.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Covid-19; lockdown; preventive restriction; rate of transmission; public health policy
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:23:56 CEST)
In the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, if a preventive restriction (PR), intended to arrest the transmission of the virus, is effective we expect a decrease in the rate of transmission. If an effective PR is lifted or relaxed, the rate may show some increase. We test this expectation in the history of PR imposition and relaxation in all countries based on available public database. We found marginal or no negative correlation between standing stringency index of PR and change in slope of the local curve. A change in stringency index was significantly negatively correlated with change in slope, but change in stringency of PRs could explain only 6.1 percent of the variance in rates of transmission. The distribution of slope changes after imposing versus after relaxing PRs was highly overlapping with only a tail consisting of 4.5 % PR impositions being clearly non-overlapping with PR relaxation. Non-parametrically, only 9.4% of PR impositions were associated with a reduction in the slope above the expectation of a null hypothesis. In brief, globally, preventive restrictions have played a very small role in the pandemic process over the one year period. This feedback needs to be considered in making policy for disease prevention in the further course of the pandemic as well as in any future threats of respiratory disease epidemics.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Azanucleoside; DMSO; DNA methylation, epigenetics; phosphorylation; restriction factor; triphosphohydrolase; methyltransferase inhibitor
Online: 4 January 2021 (08:19:38 CET)
Sterile α motif and histidine-aspartate domain–containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a multifunctional protein that limits cellular dNTP availability, interacts with specific retroviral proteins to induce degradation. Regulation of dNTP availability is crucial for cell cycle regulation and DNA stability. Demethylating agents such as azacytidine are in clinical use for cancer therapy, and reduce methylation of the SAMHD1 promoter and SAMHD1 gene expression. Here, we evaluated the effect of azacytidine on global DNA methylation in feline lymphocytes, and specifically on the abundance and cellular distribution of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated SAMHD1. Azacytidine increased cellular and nuclear SAMHD1 but did not increase phosphorylated SAMHD1. Phosphorylation is essential for SAMHD1 stability and function but is unaffected by demethylation. The findings suggest that treatment with azacytidine could increase viral restriction, and they lend support to development of in vivo models utilizing azacytidine to modulate SAMHD1 activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0819.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Preeclampsia; Fetal growth restriction; sFlt-1; Inhibin-A; Placental growth factor
Online: 31 December 2020 (14:23:21 CET)
Objective: We previously provided evidence to confirm that soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and their ratio, are useful tools to direct the management of preeclampsia (PE), fetal growth restriction (FGR), and PE+FGR near delivery. In this study we examine the potential additive value of Inhibin-A, a hormone marker of the transforming growth factor family. Methods: We used a cohort of 125 pregnant women enrolled near delivery at clinics of the University Medical Center of Ljubljana, Slovenia. There were 31 cases of PE, 16 of FGR, 42 of PE+FGR, 15 iatrogenic preterm delivery (PTD), and 21 unaffected controls with delivery of a healthy baby at term. Cases delivered before 34 weeks’ gestation included 13 of PE, 12 of FGR, 22 of PE+FGR, and 6 of PTD. We recorded demographic characteristics and medical history and the levels of PlGF, sFlt-1 and Inhibin-A. The predictive accuracy of each biomarker, their ratios, and combinations was estimated from areas under the curve (AUC) of Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves. We estimated accuracy by the continuous marker model and a cut-off model. Results: Combining Inhibin-A with PlGF or with the sFlt-1 / PlGF ratio showed a 10-20% increase in AUCs and 5-15% increase in the detection rate, at 10% false positive rate, of PE, and a lower, but significant, increase for PE+FGR but not for FGR alone. The use of a cut-off model was adequate, although a bit higher accuracy was obtained from the continuous model. Highest correlation was found for PlGF with all three complications. Conclusion: Inhibin-A improves the accuracy of predicting PE and PE+FGR provided by the angiogenic markers alone, bringing the results to a diagnostic level, thus assisting in directing clinical management. Inhibin-A had no added value for the accuracy of predicting FGR alone.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Integrative review; Short-term Calorie Reduction; Fasting; Cancer; Chemotherapy; Calorie Restriction
Online: 15 August 2020 (09:41:11 CEST)
Recent preclinical studies have shown the potential benefits of short-term calorie reduction (SCR) on cancer treatment. In this integrative review, we aimed to identify and synthesize current evidence regarding the feasibility, process, and effects of SCR in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ovid Medline, PsychINFO, and Embase were searched for original research articles using various combinations of Medical Subject Heading terms. Among the 311 articles identified, seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the reviewed studies was small randomized controlled trials or cohort study with fair quality. The results suggest that SCR is safe and feasible. SCR is typically arranged around the chemotherapy with the duration ranging from 24 to 96 hours. Most studies examined the protective effects of SCR on normal cells during chemotherapy. The evidence supports that SCR had the potential to enhance both physical and psychological wellbeing of patients during chemotherapy. SCR is a cost-effective intervention with great potential. Future well-controlled studies with sufficient sample sizes are needed to examine the full and long-term effects of SCR and its mechanism of action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0947.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: food grinding； Brandt’s voles； food restriction； short-chain fatty acids； fecal microbiota
Online: 14 September 2023 (09:05:05 CEST)
Food-grinding occurs in rodents and is influenced by multiple-factors. However, the factors affecting this behavior remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of food restriction on food grinding by Brandt’s voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii), as well as the potential role of the gut microbiota in this process, through a comparison of the variations between voles with different food supplies. Food restriction reduced the relative amount of ground food to a greater extent than it lowered the relative food consumption, and altered the abundance of Staphylococcus, Aerococcus, Jeotgalicoccus, and Un--s-Clostridiaceae bacterium GM1. Strong correlations between the ground-to-consumed food ratio and the abundance of fecal microbiota were found for Un--s-Clostridiaceae bacterium GM1 and Aerococcus. The content of fecal acetate and propionate for the 7.5 g-food supply group was lower than that for the 15 g-food supply group. Further, the relative amount of ground food and ground-to-consumed food ratio were both positively correlated with the acetate content. Our study indicated that food restriction can effectively inhibit food grinding. Further, Un--s-Clostridiaceae bacterium GM1 abundance, Aerococcus abundance, and acetate content were strongly related to food grinding. Variations in gut microbial abundance and metabolite short-chain fatty acid content induced by food restriction likely promote the inhibition of food grinding. These results could potentially provide guidance for reducing food waste during laboratory rodent maintenance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0067.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: acute kidney injury; ischemia-reperfusion injury; dietary restriction; nutrition; preconditioning; endocannabinoids; AEA
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:59:13 CEST)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and critical complication in the clinical setting. In rodents AKI can be prevented effectively through caloric restriction (CR), which has also been shown to increase lifespan in many species. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) longevity studies revealed that a marked CR-induced reduction of endocannabinoids may be a key mechanism. Thus, we hypothesized that regulation of endocannabinoids, in particular arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA), might also play a role in CR-mediated protection from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in mammals including humans. In male C57Bl6J mice, CR significantly reduced renal IRI and led to a significant decrease of AEA. Supplementation of AEA to near-normal serum concentrations by repetitive intraperitoneal administration in CR mice, however, did not abrogate the protective effect of CR. We also analyzed serum samples taken before and after CR from patients of three different pilot trials of dietary interventions. In contrast to mice and C. elegans, we detected an increase of AEA. We conclude that endocannabinoid levels in mice are modulated by CR, but CR-mediated renal protection does not depend on this effect. Moreover, our results indicate that modulation of endocannabinoids by CR in humans may differ fundamentally from the effects in animal models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: lncRNA; LINC00961; SPAAR; scRNASeq; CRISPR/Cas9; cardiovascular physiology; fetal growth restriction; myocardial infarction
Online: 5 October 2020 (17:47:46 CEST)
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have structural and functional roles in development and disease. We have previously shown that the LINC00961/SPAAR locus regulates endothelial cell function, and that both the lncRNA and micropeptide counter-regulate angiogenesis. To assess human cardiac cell SPAAR expression we mined a publicly available scRNSeq dataset and confirmed LINC00961 locus expression and hypoxic response in a murine endothelial cell line. We investigated post-natal growth and development, basal cardiac function, the cardiac functional response and tissue-specific response to myocardial infarction. To investigate the contribution of the LINC00961/SPAAR locus to determination of longitudinal growth, cardiac function, and response to myocardial infarction, we used a novel CRISPR/Cas9 locus knockout mouse line. Data mining suggested that SPAAR is predominantly expressed in human cardiac endothelial cells and fibroblasts, while murine LINC00961 expression is hypoxia-responsive in mouse endothelial cells. LINC00961-/- mice displayed a sex-specific delay in longitudinal growth and development, smaller left ventricular systolic and diastolic areas and volumes, and greater risk area following myocardial infarction compared with wildtype littermates. These data suggest a role for the LINC00961/SPAAR locus in cardiac endothelial cell and fibroblast cell function and hypoxic-response, and in growth and development, and basal cardiovascular function in adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: intermittent food-restriction; mindfulness; self-efficacy; well-being; mixed methods; health behaviour; coping ability; religiously motivated fasting
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:58:32 CET)
Background / Objective: Historically, fasting has not only been practiced for medical but also for religious reasons. Bahá’ís follow an annual religious fast of 19 days. We assessed motivation behind and subjective health impacts of Bahá’í fasting. Methods: A convergent parallel mixed methods design was embedded in a clinical single arm observational study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six fasters before, during and after fasting. Three months after the fasting period, two focus group interviews were conducted. 146 Bahá’í volunteers answered an online survey at five time points before, during and after fasting. Results: Interviews: Fasting was found to play a central role for the religiosity of interviewees, implying changes in daily structures, spending time alone, engaging in religious practices, and experiencing social belonging. Results show an increase in mindfulness and well-being, accompanied by behavioural changes and experiences of self-efficacy and inner freedom. Survey: Scores point to an increase in mindfulness and well-being during fasting, while stress, anxiety and fatigue decreased. Mindfulness remained elevated even three months after the fast. Conclusion: Bahá'í intermittent dry fast seems to enhance participants’ mindfulness and well-being, lowering stress levels and reducing fatigue. Some of these effects lasted more than three months after fasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0544.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Bodybuilding; Drug Free; Competing; Peaking; Carbohydrate Loading; Water Loading; Sodium Loading; Fat Loading: Vitamin C; Fibre Restriction
Online: 27 September 2018 (12:58:34 CEST)
Bodybuilders utilize peaking strategies in a bid to fine-tune their aesthetics for competition day. The most prevalent peaking strategies utilized by natural bodybuilders are unreported in the current literature. Eighty-one (M - 59, F - 22) natural bodybuilders were recruited from competitions during the 2016 and 2017 British Natural Bodybuilder Federation seasons. Competitors completed a 34-item questionnaire designed to investigate peaking and contest day strategies. The questionnaire listed commonly utilized peaking strategies and provided additional space for qualitative information. Analysis of the data indicated that carbohydrate (CHO), water and sodium manipulation were the most commonly utilized peak week strategies. The consumption of high glycemic index CHO was the most common competition day strategy. Only 6.2 % of competitors reported following their regular diet the week prior to competition. The CHO manipulation strategies were similar to classical CHO loading, whereby bodybuilders attempt to maximize muscle glycogen concentrations. Furthermore, bodybuilders attempted to remove superfluous water by exploiting the diuretic/polyuria effect associated with water loading/restriction. The potentially deleterious effects of peaking on bodybuilders' health is considered and the efficacy of these strategies to enhance appearance is discussed. The findings of the present investigation are likely to be of interest to bodybuilders and their coaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0726.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, intrauterine growth restriction, liver, metabolism, triglycerides, oxidative stress, mitochondria, miR-203a-3p, miR-29a/b/c
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:50:15 CEST)
Rates of gestational cannabis use have increased despite limited evidence for its safety in fetal life. Recent animal studies demonstrate that prenatal exposure to 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC, the psychoactive component of cannabis) promotes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), culminating in postnatal metabolic deficits. Given IUGR is associated with impaired hepatic function, we hypothesized that 9-THC offspring would exhibit hepatic dyslipidemia. Pregnant Wistar rat dams received daily injections of vehicular control or 3 mg/kg 9-THC i.p. from embryonic day (E) 6.5 through E22. Exposure to 9-THC decreased the liver to body weight ratio at birth, followed by catch-up growth by three weeks of age. At six months, 9-THC-exposed male offspring exhibited increased visceral adiposity and higher hepatic triglycerides. This was instigated by augmented expression of enzymes involved in triglyceride synthesis (ACC, SCD, FABP1, and DGAT2) at three weeks. Furthermore, the expression of hepatic DGAT1/DGAT2 was sustained at six months, concomitant with mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e., elevated p66shc) and oxidative stress. Interestingly, decreases in miR-203a-3p and miR-29a/b/c, both implicated in dyslipidemia, was also observed in these 9-THC-exposed offspring. Collectively, these findings indicate that prenatal 9-THC exposure results in long-term dyslipidemia associated with enhanced hepatic lipogenesis. This is attributed by mitochondrial dysfunction and epigenetic mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: intermittent fasting; time-restricted eating; bitter taste receptors; appetite; satiety; bitter brake; Amarasate®; water fasting; dietary supplement; calorie restriction
Online: 6 September 2023 (11:20:19 CEST)
Dietary restrictions or reductions such as fasting for weight loss, are often difficult to adhere to in the long term due to increased appetite and food cravings. Recently, gastrointestinal delivery of bitter hops extract has been shown to be effective at reducing appetite in men. Our aim was to determine the effect of bitter hops on appetite and cravings in women, using a day-long, water-only fast. Thirty adult women were recruited and required to fast for 24 h from 1800 h to 1800 h on three occasions and given an ad libitum meal to break each fast. Treatments of either a placebo or one of two doses (high dose; HD: 250 mg or low dose; LD: 125 mg) of a bitter hops-based appetite suppressant (Amarasate®) were given twice per day at 16 and 20 h into the fast. Treatment with both the HD and LD treatment groups exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in appetite and cravings for food. Two participants reported loose stools and one reported heart-burn while on the HD treatment, and one participant reported loose stools while on the LD treatment. These data suggest that appetite suppressant co-therapy may be useful in reducing hunger during fasting in women and shows that gastrointestinal delivery of bitter compounds may also be an effective method of reducing cravings for food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0480.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19 death rates; COVID-19 vaccines; hydroxychloroquine; ivermectin; rates of COVID-19 testing; containment measures; social distancing; travel restriction,
Online: 25 November 2022 (10:16:41 CET)
Objectives to assess COVID-19 mortality rates per country population. To determine what if any independent country-specific variables from 9 different databases were correlated. Design population based retrospective cohort study. Setting analysis of global COVID-19 treatment and containment strategies using data from 9 worldwide websites. Participants 108 countries worldwide. Interventions none. Main Outcome Measures were COVID-19 death rates per country population analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. The main outcome parameters were to determine if there are any correlations between the percentage of countrywide COVID-19 deaths/population by the countries’ percent vaccinated. Secondary outcome measures include the effect of other independent variables on COVID-19 death rates per country population including: health expenditures per capita, annual income per capita, COVID-19 tests per 1000 people, stringency index (a measure of each countries containment strategies), hydroxychloroquine score (a measure of each countries use), ivermectin score (a measure of each countries use), hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and specific countries and geographic locations. Results COVID-19 vaccination rates ranged from 0-99% in 108 countries. Univariate analysis demonstrates the following independent variables to correlate with COVID-19 deaths/population (correlation coefficient, p value): countrywide COVID-19 vaccination rates (+0.2936, p=0.002); healthcare costs per capita (+0.3212, p=0.0007), income per capita (+0.3051, p=0.0013), COVID-19 tests per 1000 population (+0.6981 p=0.0307); stringency index (+0.3098, p=0.0011); hydroxychloroquine index (-0.1337, p=0.0678); and ivermectin index (-0.1383, p=0.1535). Conclusions Increasing rates of COVID-19 vaccination are associated with increase COVID-19 death rates per country population (p=0.002). Other variables associated include healthcare costs per capita (+0.3212, p=0.0007), income per capita (+0.3051, p=0.0013), COVID-19 tests per 1000 population (+0.6981 p=0.0307); and stringency index (+0.3098, p=0.0011).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0571.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: diet; calorie restriction; ketosis; fasting; health span; lifespan; metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance; chronic non-communicable diseases; low-calorie; low-carb
Online: 12 April 2021 (13:06:01 CEST)
As Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (CNCD) increase, preventive approaches become more crucial. In this review, Calorie Restriction (CR) effects on human beings were evaluated, comparing benefits and risks of different CR diets: classic CR vs ketosis-inducing diets, including Intermittent Fasting (IF), Classic Ketogenic Diet (CKD), Fasting Mimicking Diet (FMD), Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) and Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet (SKMD). Special emphasis on Insulin Resistance (IR) was placed, as it mediates Metabolic Syndrome (MS), a risk factor for CNCD, and predicts MS diagnosis. CR is the most robust intervention known to increase lifespan and health span, with high evidence and known biochemical mechanisms. CR improves cardiometabolic risk parameters, boosts exercise insulin sensitivity response, and there may be benefits of implementing moderate CR on healthy young and middle-aged individuals. However, there is insufficient evidence to support long-term CR. CKD is effective for weight and MS management, and may have additional benefits such as prevention of muscle loss and appetite control. SKMD has extreme significance benefits for all the metabolic parameters studied. Studies show inconsistent benefits of IF compared to classic CR. More studies are required to study biochemical parameters, reinforce evidence, identify risks, and seek effective and safe nutritional CR approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0950.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: fasting; caloric restriction; osteoarthritis; dietary intervention; fasting-mimicking diet; integrative medicine; complementary medicine; Traditional European Medicine; nutrition; multimodal in-tegrative treatment
Online: 26 April 2023 (03:52:40 CEST)
Preliminary clinical data suggest pain reduction through fasting in different diagnoses. This uncontrolled observational clinical study examined the effects of prolonged modified fasting on pain and functional parameters in hip and knee osteoarthritis. Patients admitted to the inpatient department of Internal Medicine and Nature-based Therapies of the Immanuel Hospital Berlin between February 2018 and March 2020, answered questionnaires at the beginning and end of inpatient treatment, as well as 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge. Additionally, selected blood and anthropometric parameters were routinely assessed during the inpatient stay. Fasting was performed as part of a multimodal integrative treatment program, with daily caloric intake of <600 kcal for 7.7 ± 1.7 days. N=125 consecutive patients were included. Results revealed an amelioration of overall symptomatology (WOMAC Index score: -14.8±13.31; p<0.001; d=0.78), and pain alleviation (NRS Pain: -2.7±1.98, p<0.001, d=1.48). Pain medication was reduced, stopped, or replaced by herbal remedies in 36% of patients. Improvements were also observed in secondary outcome parameters, including increased quality of life (WHO-5: +4.5±4.94, p<0.001, d=0.94), reduced anxiety (HADS-A: -2.1±2.91, p<0001, d=0.55) and depression (HADS-D: -2.3±3.01, p<0.001, d=0.65), decreases in body weight (-3.6 kg ± 1.65, p< 0.001, d=0.21), and blood pressure (systolic: -6.2±15.93, p<0.001, d= 0.43; diastolic: -3.7±10.55, p<0.001, d=0.43). Results suggest that patients with osteoarthritis of the lower extremities may profit from a prolonged fast embedded in a multimodal integrative treatment regarding quality of life, pain, and disease-specific functional parameters. Confirmatory RCTs are warranted to further investigate these hypotheses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0179.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: calorie restriction mimetics; anti-aging; lifespan extension; glucose metabolism modulation; chitosan; acarbose; SGLT2 inhibitor; 2-deoxy-D-glucose; D-allulose; D-glucosamine
Online: 7 November 2018 (15:26:42 CET)
Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to prolong the lifespan of humans, but enforcing long-term CR is difficult. Therefore, a compound that reproduces the effect of CR without CR is needed. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on compounds with CR mimetic (CRM) effects. More than 10 compounds have been listed as CRMs, some of which are conventionally categorized as upstream-type CRMs showing glycolytic inhibition while the others are categorized as downstream-type CRMs that regulate or genetically modulate intracellular signaling proteins. Among these, we focus on upstream-type CRMs and propose their classification as compounds with energy metabolism inhibition effects, particularly glucose metabolism modulation effects. The upstream-type CRMs reviewed include chitosan, acarbose, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, and hexose analogs such as 2-deoxy-D-glucose, D-glucosamine, and D-allulose, which show anti-aging and longevity effects. Finally, we discuss the molecular definition of upstream-type CRMs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1033.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Disabilities; Oral health; Vulnerable population; Poor oral hygiene; Barriers to oral care; Oral health needs assessment; Technological advancement; Social determinants; Upper extremity movement restriction
Online: 17 July 2023 (08:26:59 CEST)
Abstract: Background: This research aims to investigate the oral health status and needs of individuals with disabilities, a vulnerable population that is facing barriers in accessing and maintaining oral care. Methods: Data for this study were obtained through self-administered questionnaires distributed to individuals with disabilities who were receiving assistance from Helping Restore Ability and Neuro Assistance Foundation. The data were analyzed using statistical methods using SPSS and Microsoft Excel to identify patterns and associations related to oral health maintenance among individuals with disabilities. Results: The findings of this research indicate a high prevalence of poor oral hygiene, periodontal diseases, and untreated dental caries, risk factors of oral cancer among individuals with disabilities. Social determinants were found to have a significant influence on the oral health status of this population. The study also highlights the crucial role of caregivers in ensuring oral health maintenance. Conclusion: The results of this study underscore the urgent need for targeted interventions and improved caregiver awareness to address the oral health needs of individuals with disabilities. By addressing the disparities and barriers faced by people with disabilities in accessing dental care, we can mitigate the health, social, and economic burdens associated with poor oral health in this vulnerable population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer metabolism; anticancer activity; artificial diets; in vivo; mice; essential amino acids; non-essential amino acids; restriction; leucine; methionine; cysteine; arginine; serine; glutamine; asparagine
Online: 30 May 2023 (13:24:11 CEST)
Cancer cells cannot proliferate and survive unless they obtain sufficient levels of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids (AAs). Unlike normal cells, cancer cells have genetic and metabolic alterations that may limit their capacity to obtain adequate levels of the 20 AAs under challenging metabolic environments. However, since normal diets provide all AAs at relatively constant levels and ratios, these potentially lethal genetic and metabolic defects are eventually harmless to cancer cells. If we temporarily replace the normal diet of cancer patients with artificial diets in which the levels of specific AAs are manipulated, cancer cells may be unable to proliferate and survive. This article reviews in vivo studies that have evaluated the antitumor activity of diets restricted or supplemented with the 20 proteinogenic AAs, individually and in combinations. It also reviews our recent studies that show that manipulating the levels of several AAs simultaneously can lead to marked survival improvements in mice with metastatic cancers.