ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0575.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Religious and spiritual struggles; open-ended items; closed-ended items; religious belief salience
Online: 24 July 2020 (10:06:08 CEST)
Religious and spiritual struggles are typically assessed by self-report scales using closed-ended items, yet nascent research suggests that using open-ended items may complement and advance assessment. In the current study, undergraduate participants (N = 976) completed open-ended descriptions of their religious and spiritual struggles, the Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS), and a standardized measures of religious belief salience. Qualitative coding showed that the themes emerging from open-ended descriptions generally fell within the broad domains of the RSS though some descriptions reflected more contextualized struggles. Scores derived from the open-ended responses to assess RSS domains achieved evidence of reliability as well as convergent and discriminant validity with the RSS . Correlations revealed a mix of similar and divergent associations between methods of assessing religious and spiritual struggles and religious belief salience. Open-ended descriptions of religious and spiritual struggles may yield reliable and valid information that is related to but distinct from assessments relying on closed-ended items.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0055.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: religious, children, Reading books, school, Iran
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:48:05 CEST)
Transmission of values and religious concepts to children is one of the most important issues in the third millennium and it has drawn varied and different views among experts and scholars in the world. Research specialized in religious literature for children and adolescents create new capacities in the presentation of religious concepts to the group. Plans have been considered to transfer values and religious concepts in the curricula of primary school children in the group in Iran. It is one of the topics that the authors note to the introduction of the minutiae of religion in the first three elementary grades. In this study, the collection and analysis methods providing content related to the minutiae of religion in reading books the first till third sections of the years 2013-2015. In addition, the plan includes aspects of other branches of religion in these books on information collected from text books that collected and classified. The result is that "definitely good and forbidding the evil" and "prayer" have the highest frequency of applications in the selected books. Further branches made of branches of religion in these books, represents the values of religious, moral and social as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0060.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: religious confrontation; religious submission; Biblical political theology
Online: 5 December 2018 (04:09:59 CET)
The book of Job presents a unique and detailed contrastive study of two fundamental and fundamentally opposed religious personae: Job, on the one hand, and the collective image of his friends on the other. It is a normative dispute about the religion’s most basic norm of disposition. How is one to respond to inexplicable disaster when one believes one is blameless? What is the religiously appropriate response to catastrophe? To confront God’s judgment as did Job, or to submissively surrender to it, as his four friends insist he should? Is one supposed to question divine justice when deemed to be wanting, as did Job, or to suppress any thought to the contrary and deem it to be just, come what may? Rather than expound (once again) upon the theological implications of the Job dispute, this paper focuses on its theological-political dimensions, and its looming and vivid, yet largely overlooked presence in the Hebrew Bible’s master narrative; and more specifically, on the marked, if inevitable antinomian nature of the Jobian side to the divide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: educational impacts; emotional impacts; behavioral impacts; psychological impacts; physical impacts; religious impacts
Online: 29 August 2016 (12:24:27 CEST)
Cartoons in the era of digital media are among the most prevalent medium of entertainment for the children, parents also encourage them to view such contents to engage the children which make an area need to be explained exhaustively by adopting new approaches. There are lot of studies in the past conducted to explain the impacts of the cartoons on the children however, it is remarkable fact that there is lack of the studies in the literature which directly address the observation about the above mentioned impacts in view of the teacher’s. This study deals with the educational, emotional, behavioral and Religious etc. impacts of cartoons on kids in view of teachers of the primary schools as they are considered as the one who can observer these impacts in a profound way. of the of Multan. Different areas of impacts have been analyzed in this study by using survey technique and analysis is conducted and presented in the teacher’s views in this study to examine what they feel that how cartoons are effecting the personalities of the children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: religious pluralism; decolonization of mind; semi-structured interview; psychological features; Hinduism; Indian culture; religious rights of human
Online: 29 May 2019 (05:03:27 CEST)
This article presents the study of religious pluralism and decolonization of Indian mind in Russia. The paper analyzes the investigation results concerning psychological features of modern Indian students from universities in Russia and India. For measuring of connection between religious pluralism and decolonization of Indian mind we made socio-psychological investigation of Indian students. We made 254 semi-structured interview with Indian students who are studying in Russia and India. According to the result of investigation that decolonization of Indian mind is connected with the level of religious pluralism. Among the values principles of religious pluralism get more significance and importance in decolonizing mind of Indian students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0547.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: military; IDF; female soldiers; religion and the military; religious considerations; religious women’s conscription
Online: 25 August 2020 (11:26:52 CEST)
Women serve in diverse roles in the 21st century militaries of the world. They are no longer banned exclusively from combat. The presence of women on the battlefield has raised religious arguments and considerations. What role do religious arguments play in the discussion regarding women’s military service? The current paper examines this question in the context of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF): a conscription-based military that conscripts both men and women, religious and secular, for both combat and non-combat postings. Using the case of the pilot program in the IDF attempting to integrate women in the Israeli tank corps, the paper argues that religious considerations serve the same purpose as functional considerations and can be amplified or lessened, as needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0268.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: heritage; conservation; sustainability; monastic spaces; religious architecture.
Online: 19 January 2022 (10:16:52 CET)
The different technical and legal tools intended for heritage protection have introduced the novel possibility of enjoying important monumental complexes. The divergence lies in the artistic contexts in which, due to the genesis of their programmatic typology, they require residential uses, as is the case of monasteries. This article collects the results of a long-span research, whose main objective has been to find a tool that could allow us to measure different indicators on a continuous basis in which both the protection of the elements, and the capacity for habitation, are safeguarded. To this aim we have set in context the research at the Monastery of Santa Clara de la Columna in Belalcázar (Córdoba), a location with the highest possible heritage protection of Spanish ranking which, in turn, accommodates a religious community. The results have allowed us to design innovative parameters for habitation, within a protected and endangered heritage context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban beggars; spatial movement; socio-religious
Online: 9 May 2017 (11:04:35 CEST)
Urban beggars are social problems that are related to the poverty of citizen. In Denpasar City Bali Province, particularly in West Denpasar District, the beggars have specificity in activities of begging. Studies in this article demonstrate their specificity begging activity which can be evaluated from the spatial movement of beggars based on the place, time and the distance. Through the method of grounded research with qualitative analysis showed that: (1) the beggars have permanent objects to visit, which consist of shops, settlement and places of worship of the Muslim community, (2) begging activities performed every Friday for 6 hours from 08.00 to at 14.00, and (3) beggars not only walking, but also using public transportation to visiting the object that is relatively far from beggars lane. The findings of this study reinforces that begging has become a profession that is conducted in a structured and well-organized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0876.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Planetary Health; Muslim Religious Leaders; Islam; Anthropocene; Ecological crises
Online: 25 April 2023 (03:50:32 CEST)
The Anthropocene epoch marks a critical phase in the history of humanity, where anthropogenic activities have significantly impacted our planet. Along the unpreceedendent ecological crises, the Anthropocene worldview has raised existential questions with a cultural and ethical discourse that recognises intrinsic value and calls for more responsible sustainable living. To address these challenges collectively, a broader perspective is required, guided by a unified sense of purpose towards personal and planetary health. In this context, the role of religious leaders in shaping the social and environmental worldviews of their followers cannot be underestimated. Religious teachings provide a moral framework for promoting climate action, global ethics, indigenous people, peace, and justice, and many other aspects of planetary health. By assessing the global ecological crises through the lens of Islam; Religion of Nature, or Din al-Fitra, and its environmental teachings across all realms, we can gain insights into humanity’s connection to the fabric of creation and its interaction with this world. These value-leden principles are integrated with accountability; thus, the role of Muslim religious leaders considering the planetary-scale threats warrant further elucidation; recognizing that many other faiths and faith leaders can similarly contribute together for common good.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0153.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Shoah, Christology, post-Shoah Christology, religious pluralism, witness, genocide
Online: 10 May 2021 (09:50:57 CEST)
Post-Shoah Christology is embedded in the unique relationship of Jews and Christians, especially Jesus’ Jewishness and the Jewish roots of Christianity, as well as Christian moral failures towards Jews before and during the Shoah. Essential for contemporary Christianity, a vibrant post-Shoah Christology confronts three main challenges, each demanding a different response. The first challenge is the reality that soon there will be no more first-generation witnesses to the Final Solution. Such is an inevitable challenge that has to be faced and prepared for. Religious pluralism is the second challenge, and includes a number of related threads, yet should ultimately be embraced. The third challenge is the (inevitable?) loss of memory, passion, and urgency, a willful forgetfulness by Christians towards the importance of the Jewish-Christian relationship, and especially, Christian failure in the Shoah. This challenge demands robust refutation and ongoing struggle. Before addressing these challenges, I will first further define and highlight the need for a post-Shoah Christology and will conclude this article with three general and three concrete hopes for a viable post-Shoah Christology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Catholic education; Catholic schools; Religious Education; de-traditionalised culture
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:37:19 CEST)
Philip Phenix’s (1964) book Realms of meaning started the ever growing movement concerned with how school education might help young people in their search for meaning in times of rapid social change. Today, in globalised, digital, secularised, de-traditionalised culture, the importance and urgency of this role have never been greater. Cultural change has accelerated exponentially, and for many – including students in religious/Catholic schools – traditional religious sources of meaning are no longer prominent or plausible reference points. Catholic schools, whether independent or semi-state institutions because of government funding, can make a valuable contribution young people’s spiritual/moral education, no matter what their level of religious affiliation or practice. This article argues that such a contribution requires change to the discourse or narrative of Catholic school Religious Education, with corresponding adjustments to content and pedagogy. Its present trajectory, which is excessively concerned with promoting a Catholic identity in students, needs to be modified. Both the religious and non-religious students, especially in the senior classes, would derive greater spiritual and religious benefit from the inclusion of more life-relevant and issue-related content, together with a critical, research-oriented pedagogy. Such an approach proposes that the Catholic Church’s schools should offer unconditionally a meaningful spiritual/moral education that is relevant to all students, rather than a traditional one which seemed to presume that all students are, or should be practising Catholics. This does not minimise attention to the Catholic tradition, but it allows for a study of how people negotiate the task of constructing meaning and values in a complex culture. The article also looks at the ‘headwinds’ that hinder the implementation of this approach. The article is focused specifically on the Australian context where Catholic schools are semi-state institutions because they are funded by both state and federal governments. The issues are still likely to be pertinent to Catholic education in other countries, while taking into account significant contextual differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0207.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: tomb; religious heritage; cultural heritage; Sheikh Zahed Gilani; indigenous architecture; dome
Online: 12 March 2020 (09:16:57 CET)
Tombs and mausoleums as a cultural-religious heritage have a key role in attracting cultural tourists, as a result, they have been of great interest to researchers and academics in recent years. This paper argues the tomb of Sheikh Zahed Gilani, who was once a great mystic and is reputable due to his influence on the formation of the Safavid dynasty. Through a qualitative evaluation, this paper assesses the history, indigenous architecture, brick decorations and the significant geometry of Sheikh Zahed’ tomb. The results indicate that the dome has eight diverse geometric levels with dissimilar decorations, which is a unique design in the region. The paper also investigates the construction inscriptions and preservation projects to better comprehend the history of the tomb. Examination and understanding the characteristics of this monument alongside assessing the typology in comparison to other historical buildings can support the development of a local structure of the tomb as well as the geometric dome in similar climates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0284.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: Religious beliefs; Public pro-environmental behavior; Environmental risk perception; China
Online: 24 January 2020 (14:35:21 CET)
Although the positive relationship between religion and environmental behavior is well-argued, empirical research about the relationship between religion and public pro-environmental behavior is relatively lacking. This paper aims to explore the group differences in the influence of religion on public pro-environmental behavior and the mediating role of environmental risk perception in religion and public pro-environmental behavior. Using the Chinese General Social Survey data in 2013 for empirical analysis, this study’s results show that there are group differences in the impact of religion on public pro-environmental behavior. Women with religious beliefs are more willing to engage in public pro-environmental behavior than those without religious beliefs. Religious believers over the age of 45 are more willing to participate in public pro-environmental behavior than those without religious beliefs. Political participants with religious beliefs are more willing to practice public pro-environmental behavior than those without religious beliefs. In addition, we found that environmental risk perception can act as partial mediation in religious and public pro-environmental behavior. In other words, religious beliefs are deeply embedded in local political and social culture. In order to correctly understand the relationship between religion and public pro-environmental behavior, it is necessary to consider religion in a specific cultural background.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0392.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Music; Metaphisics; Theology; Philosophy; clasical music; religious music; mystic extasis; Archetype
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:34:14 CEST)
This article aims to analyze music from a philosophical and theological perspective, using the principles of multi- and transdisciplinary methodology. After a brief introduction, which presents the main moments in the history of the musical phenomenon, a first chapter addresses the metaphysical dimension of music in classical composers. The second chapter shows the position of philosophers towards music, starting with Pythagoras and ending with Schopenhauer. The third chapter focuses on music theology in general, but also on the theology and metaphysics of music to the French philosopher of Romanian origin, Emil Cioran, who, after Augustin and Schopenhauer, wrote probably the deepest pages on the ontology of music. The last chapter refers to to the archetypal character of music.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0050.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Religious Education; Catholic schools; Catholic education; ecclesiastical drift
Online: 2 November 2022 (08:39:55 CET)
Just when Catholic school Religious Education (RE) needs to be more outwardly focused on the contemporary search for meaning, its discourse has ‘drifted’ almost so exclusively into ecclesiastical terminology that its value as a spiritual/moral subject is being eroded –creating an ever widening discontinuity with classroom realities and young people’s spirituality. Religious educators’ perceptions of this problem, labelled as ‘ecclesiastical drift’, were investigated. While ecclesiastical terms were respected, issues related to their excessive usage were identified. By contrast, the unanimous, positive endorsement of educational terms raises the question why such language is largely missing from many Catholic accounts of RE.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0143.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Family Resilience; Caregiving; Elderly; Religious Coping; Nursing Philosophy
Online: 15 April 2022 (10:38:34 CEST)
This article presents an overview of the philosophical and theoretical foundations of the Family Resilience, The Resiliency Model of Family Stress, the Adjustment, and Adaptation Model in families caring for the elderly, The Concept of Religious Coping and its application in order to strengthen family resilience. It is based on the phenomenon the increasing elderly population worldwide has become a global problem, along with the fact that the extension of life expectancy in a person is also accompanied by a decrease in function due to degenerative processes, that require complex health care services. So far, the family is still the primary care setting of choice in the care of the elderly. However, as an informal caregiver, the family also has many limitations that cause the burden of caring for the elderly to become a source of stress in itself. Hence, it impacts the quality of care and the quality of life of the elderly themselves. Meanwhile, from various sources, it is known that religious coping is one of the sources of overcoming stress. So that a strategy is needed to strengthen family resilience in accepting the responsibility of health care for the elderly with a religious coping approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: religious fasting; daytime dry fasting; energy expenditure; body composition; microdialysis
Online: 14 December 2021 (13:06:26 CET)
Each year in March, adherents of the Bahá’í faith abstain from eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset for 19 days. Thus, Bahá’í fasting (BF) can be considered as a form of daytime dry fasting. We tested if BF decreases energy expenditure after a meal and improves anthropometric measures, and systemic and tissue-level metabolic parameters. This was a self-controlled cohort study with 11 healthy men. We measured anthropometric parameters, metabolic markers in venous blood, and pre- and postprandial energy metabolism at systemic (indirect calorimetry) and tissue (adipose tissue and skeletal muscle microdialysis) level, both before and during BF. During BF, we found reduced body weight, body mass index, body fat and blood glucose. Postprandial increase in energy expenditure was lower, diet-induced thermogenesis tended to be lower. In adipose tissue, perfusion, glucose supply and lipolysis were increased. In skeletal muscle, tissue perfusion did not change. Glucose supply and lipolysis were decreased. Glucose oxidation was increased, indicating an improved insulin sensitivity. BF may be a promising approach to losing weight and improving metabolism and health. However, outside the context of religiously-motivated fasting, skipping a meal rather in the evening (dinner cancelling) might be recommended, as metabolism appears to be reduced in the evening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0197.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Literature And Literary Theory Keywords: post-2003 Iraq; fiction; Iraqi diaspora; sectarianism; secularism; Shīʿism; ethno-religious identity; alterity
Online: 21 January 2019 (08:00:48 CET)
The prerogative to narrate the experience of marginal identities, particularly ethno-religious ones, appeared only in the post-occupation era in Iraqi fiction. Traditionally, secular Iraqi discourse struggled to openly address “sectarianism” due to the prevalent notion that sectarian identities are mutually exclusive and oppositional to national identity. It is distinctly in post-2003 Iraq—more precisely, since the sectarian violence of 2006–2007 began to cut across class, civil society, and urban identities—that works which consciously refuse to depict normative Iraqi identities with their mainstream formulations become noticeable. We witness this development first in the Western diaspora, where Iraqi novels exhibit a fascination with the ethno-religious culture of the Iraqi margins or subalterns and impart a message of pluralistic secularism. This paper investigates the origins of the taboo that proscribed articulations of ethno-religious subjectivities in 20th-century Iraqi fiction, and then culls examples of recent diasporic Iraqi novels in which these subjectivities are encoded and amplified in distinct ways. In the diasporic novel, I argue, modern Iraqi intellectuals attain the conceptual and political distance necessary for contending retrospectively with their formative socialization experiences in Iraq. Through a new medium of marginalization—the diasporic experience of the authors themselves—they are equipped with a newfound desire to unmask subcultures in Iraq and to write more effectively about marginal aspects of Iraqi identity inside and outside the country. These new diasporic writings showcase processes of ethnic and religious socialization in the Iraqi public sphere. The result is deconstruction of mainstream Iraqi identity narratives and instrumentalization of marginal identities in a nonviolent struggle against sectarian violence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0634.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Age; Artificial intelligence; Christianity; Religious Orientation; Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology
Online: 29 January 2021 (15:55:49 CET)
Artificial Intelligence innovations, such as chatbots and specialized education suggestion tools, provide potential interactive and on-demand pedagogical engagement between non-Christians and Christians with Christianity. However, there is little empirical research on the readiness, acceptance, and adoption of A.I.'s involvement in religious education in a secular state, such as Vietnam. This research addresses the literature gap by providing an entrepreneurial analysis and customer perspectives on the ideas of A.I.'s involvement in religious education. Specifically, the study explores whether the Vietnamese across different ages and religious orientations accept and have enough skills to adopt A.I.'s religious education innovation. The interview sample is 32 participants, selected based on their religious orientation (Christians & Non-Christians) and age (Generation X, Generation Y & Generation Z). Most respondents are open to A.I. application in religious education except for the Church's personnel. However, only gen Z generations are fully prepared to adopt this innovation. Theoretically, the research customizes the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology model into religious innovation context. Practically, this research acts as market research on the demand for A.I.'s religious innovation in Vietnam, an insight for future religious tech entrepreneurs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0092.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Heritage of Buddhism; religious heritage; tangible cultural heritage; intangible cultural heritage; Vietnam
Online: 5 March 2020 (12:16:31 CET)
In history and the present, Buddhism holds an important position in the spiritual life of Vietnamese people. For about two thousand years of existence and development with the Vietnamese people, Buddhism has left many valuable (tangible and intangible) heritage, has contributed a significant part in creating the cultural values of the nation. This research focuses on analyzing how did Buddhism creates heritages, how that Buddhism religion heritage becomes the cultural heritage of the Vietnamese people, the values that Buddhism religious heritage contributed to the culture of Vietnam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1493.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: Middle Ages symbolism; Latin inscriptions; Tuscany monuments; Saint Michael; religious epigraphy; inscription decipherment
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:01:35 CEST)
At the entrance of some churches of Tuscany (Italy), there is the reproduction of an apparently mysterious inscription. Minimally from XVIII Century, this has induced a debate on its interpretation. This study proposes a hypothesis based on the Latin alpha-bet used in texts contemporary to the churches where the inscription is reproduced and a meaning of the message coherent with the official religious doctrine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0496.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cultural competence; evolution teaching; religious cultural competence in evolution education; action research; resistance to evolution learning
Online: 21 September 2020 (04:33:34 CEST)
Acknowledging the diverse perceptions about science-religion relationships among learners who come from various religious environments may increase learners’ willingness to learn about evolution. This study is based on a zoology course designed for in-service teachers, which aimed to provide basic scientific knowledge about evolution using the Religious Cultural Competence in Evolution Education framework. The study explores whether learners who were resistant to evolution modify their attitudes and willingness to learn about it, and whether they develop respect toward learners who hold contradicting views. Using qualitative methods, the findings indicate that using the Religious Cultural Competence in Evolution Education framework increased some formerly "resistant" learners’ willingness to learn about evolution and include it in their own teaching, albeit in varying degrees and with various reservations. The learners appreciated the freedom to express their challenges concerning evolution learning or teaching and became more willing to respect opposing perspectives, even though not all the religious learners accepted evolution as an explanation for the development of organisms. This study has international implications for bridging the gap between science and religion, thus reducing resistance to learning and teaching about evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0382.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; India; Indian states; International travels; Local transmission; Community transmission; Delhi religious conference
Online: 24 May 2020 (15:56:44 CEST)
Social network analysis is an essential means to uncover and examine infectious contact relations between individuals. This paper aims to investigate the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from international to the national level and find a few super spreaders which played a central role in the transmission of disease in India. Our network metrics calculated from 30 January to 6 April 2020 revealed that the maximum numbers of connections were established from Dubai (degree-144) and UK (degree-64). These two countries played a crucial role in diffusing the disease in Indian states. The eigenvector centrality of Dubai is found to be the highest, and this marked it the most influential node. However, based on the modularity class, we found that the different clusters were formed across Indian states which demonstrated the forming of a multi-layered social network structure.A significant increase in the confirmed cases was reported during the first lockdown 1.0 (22 March 2020) primarily attributed to a gathering in Delhi Religious Conference (DRC) known as Tabliqui Jamaat. As of 6 April 2020, the overall structure of the network has encompassed local transmission, and it was significantly seen in the states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Karnataka. An important conclusion drawn from the presented social network reveals that the COVID-19 spread till 6 April was mainly due to the local transmission across Indian states. The timely quarantine of infected cases in DRC has not led it to spread at the level of community transmission.