ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0048.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Machine Learning; Reinforced Learning; Optimisation; Metaheuristic; Metaheuristic Generation
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:31:05 CET)
Machine learning research has been able to solve problems in multiple aspects. An open area of research is machine learning for solving optimisation problems. An optimisation problem can be solved using a metaheuristic algorithm, which is able to find a solution in a reasonable amount of time. However, there is a problem, the time required to find an appropriate metaheuristic algorithm, that would have the convenient configurations to solve a set of optimisation problems properly. A solution approach is shown here, using a proposal that automatically creates metaheuristic algorithms aided by a reinforced learning approach. Based on the experiments performed, the approach succeeded in creating a metaheuristic algorithm that managed to solve a large number of different continuous domain optimisation problems. This work's implications are immediate because they describe a basis for the generation of metaheuristic algorithms in real-time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: machine learning; CNT-reinforced cement-based composites; mechanical attributes
Online: 15 March 2022 (16:50:44 CET)
Time and cost-efficient techniques are essential to avoid extra conventional experimental studies with large date-set to characterize the mechanical properties of composite materials. Correlation between the structural performance and mechanical properties could be captured through the efficient predictive models. Several ensembled Machine Learning (ML) methods were implemented in this study, to materially characterize carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced cement-based composites. Proposed models were compared with each other to represent the accuracy of each method. The Flexural and Compressive Strength (target values) of CNT reinforced composites were predicted based on the data-rich framework provided in previous experimental investigations. These data were utilized for training of the proposed models by employing SciKit-Learn library in Python, followed by hyper-parameter tuning and k-fold cross-validation method for obtaining an efficient model to predict the target values. Random Forest (RF) and Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM) were developed for this purpose. The findings of this study would be useful for prospective composite designers in case of sufficient experimental data availability for ML model training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: safety; maintenance; reinforced concrete; heritage
Online: 6 September 2018 (00:30:57 CEST)
The Canal of Aragon and Catalonia (CAC) is 134 km long and irrigates 105,000 ha (131 irrigation user communities) and it is own by the River Ebro’s Water Agency. The aqueducts are located between km 67 and 71 of the canal and were designed by the Civil Engineer Félix de los Ríos Martín in 1907. The cross-section of both aqueducts, Coll de Foix and Capedevila, was extended within the framework of the project by Fernando Hué Herrero in 1962 in order to reach design flows of 26.1 m3/s and 25.7 m3/s, respectively. The structural performance of the aqueducts has been satisfactory, nevertheless the hydraulic capacity has reduced over the years. As a result, the irrigation user communities have expressed the need to extend the cross-section of the aqueducts to meet the irrigation demands. Given the age of the structure and the different design considerations at the time, it is paramount to verify the structural reliability of the aqueducts in the new load configuration. Therefore, the objective of the paper is to present the structural safety analysis conducted and describe the new extended cross-section for both aqueducts (maintaining the original structural typology).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0005.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Durability; Reinforced concrete; Automated visualization; Risk
Online: 1 August 2022 (05:09:38 CEST)
Reinforced Concrete (RC) durability is a crucial feature to estimate the long-term quality and structural performance. Since life span estimation is vital for maintenance resource planning, a degradation model of RC component extracts by updating the status of structures and trending the components’ state over time in terms of durability. Surface erosion, spalling, cracks, and other expose defects on the RC component lead to increase factors adversely affecting concrete durability in structures. This research presents an approach based on automated visualization for extracting quantitative indexes beside or instead of visual inspection without subjective interspersion of humans or probable human errors during the inspection. The durability index (D_i) will extract based on damage probability and its growth in order to extract the severity of failure and risk. Measurement operation by automated software has been double-checked by manual measurement tools, and data will verify randomly in this method. The result shows damage growth in this load-bearing component by 24 percentages over the definite time. According to degradation models, it shows this component may pass the relative thresholds as a limit state of operation to fail. This significant difference between expected time and designing time determines the D_i equal to 5 out of 10.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0132.v1
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:51:29 CEST)
Henry Vidal first introduced the concept of using strips, grids, and sheets for reinforcing soil masses. Since then, a large variety of materials such as steel bars, tire shreds, polypropylene, polyester, glass fibers, coir, jute fibers etc. have been widely added to the soil mass randomly or in a regular, oriented manner. In this investigation, a new concept of multi-oriented plastic reinforcement (hexa-pods), is discussed. A systematic and comprehensive laboratory tests were conducted on unreinforced and reinforced soil samples. Laboratory tests such as direct shear teat and California bearing ratio (CBR) test were analyzed on soil samples consisting of only soil samples, soil sample with random inclusion of hexapods and soil samples with layered inclusion of hexapods. From the results obtained through direct shear test it could be observed that cohesion value of both the soil sample has increased and the angle of internal friction has been decreased after reinforcing it with inclusions in both randomly and layered conditions. CBR test indicates that for same amount of compactive effort, both random and layered inclusions of hexapods show improvement in strength and stiffness. Random inclusions of hexapods give better resistance to penetration as compared to layered inclusions. The hexa-pods also changed the brittle behavior of unreinforced sand samples to ductile ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: piezoceramic sensor; reinforced concrete; force; earthquake; damage.
Online: 16 June 2020 (08:34:24 CEST)
To quantify damage to reinforced concrete (RC) column members after an earthquake, an engineer needs to know the maximum applied force that was generated by the earthquake. Therefore, in this work, piezoceramic transducers are used to detect the applied force on an RC column member under dynamic loading. To investigate the use of post-embedded piezoceramic sensors in detecting the force that is applied to RC columns, eight full-size RC column specimens with various failure modes are tested under specific earthquake loadings. Post-embedded piezoceramic sensors are installed at a range of depths (70-80 mm) beneath the surface of a column specimen to examine the relationship between the signals that are obtained from them and the force applied by the dynamic actuator. The signals that are generated by the post-embedded piezoceramic sensors, which correlate with the applied force, are presented. These results indicate that the post-embedded piezoceramic sensors have great potential as tools for measuring the maximum applied force on an RC column in an earthquake. Restated, signals that are obtained from post-embedded piezoceramic sensors on an RC column in an earthquake can be used to determine the applied force and corresponding damage or residual seismic capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0105.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: concrete, textile reinforced mortar, strengthening, shear, bending
Online: 30 August 2017 (15:27:16 CEST)
Increasing traffic loads and changes in code provisions lead to deficits in shear and flexural capacity of many existing highway bridges. Therefore, a lot of structures in Europe and North America are expected to require refurbishment and strengthening in the future. This projection is based on the current condition of many older road bridges. Different strengthening methods for bridges exist to extent their service life, all having specific advantages and disadvantages. By applying a thin layer of carbon textile reinforced mortar (CTRM) to bridge deck slabs and the webs of prestressed concrete bridges, the fatigue and ultimate strength of these members can be increased significantly. The CTRM-layer is a combination of a corrosion resistant carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) fabric and an efficient mortar. In this paper, the strengthening method and the experimental results obtained at RWTH Aachen University are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0050.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: cohesive fracture of fibre reinforced concrete; softening functions; fracture behaviour; glass fibre reinforced concrete; polyolefin fibre; steel fibres
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:46:47 CEST)
Fibre reinforced cementitious materials (FRC) have become an attractive alternative for structural applications. Among such FRC, steel and polyolefin fibre reinforced concrete and glass fibre reinforced concrete are the most used ones. However, in order to exploit the properties of such materials structural designers need constitutive relations that reproduce FRC fracture behaviour accurately. This contribution analyses the suitability of multilinear softening functions combined with a cohesive crack approach for reproducing the fracture behaviour of the FRC previously mentioned. The implementation performed accurately simulates the fracture behaviour while being versatile, robust and efficient from a numerical point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0372.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Fiber-reinforced composite post; Short-glass fiber reinforced composite; Endodontically-treated teeth; Intra-radicular adhesion; Push-out bond strength
Online: 21 December 2022 (02:08:24 CET)
: This study was aimed at assessing adaptation and bonding of discontinuous (short) glass fiber-reinforced composite to intraradicular dentin EverX Flow (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), when used as intracanal composite filling and anchorage instead of traditional fiber posts. (2) Methods: Seventy intact extracted human teeth were endodontically treated and randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10), depending on the materials used in the post space. In Group 1, a 2-bottle universal adhesive G2 Bond Universal + EverX Flow were tested. In group 2, a single-component universal adhesive G-Premio Bond + EverX Flow were used. In groups 3 and 4 the same materials are tested, but after cleaning of the canal walls with 17% EDTA and final irrigation with 5.25% NaOCl Ultrasound Activated. In the last three Groups (5-7) traditional prefabricated GC Fiber Posts 1.6 mm silanized with G-Multi Primer for 1 minute are cemented with a dual-cured composite resin cement (GradiaCore), after ultrasonic irrigation in the groups 6 and 7. In each group, 1 mm-thick slices from each sample (n=10) were cut for light microscope and SEM inspection for study materials adaption to the dentin and for measuring push-out strength of post / cemement material to the dentin / prefabricated post. These results were statistically analyzed: as the data distribution was not normal, the Kruskal-Wallis Analysis of Variance by Ranks had to be applied. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Push-out forces varied between 6.66-8.37 MPa. No statistically significant differences were recorded among the groups. Microscopic examination showed that ultrasonic irri-gation increased adaptation of the materials to the dentin surface. There was a trend of higher bond strength among the tested groups when EverX Flow was used. Also, the type of failure was more often cohesive when ultrasonic irrigation and two-step adhesive system were used. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it may be concluded that when EverX Flow was used for intracanal anchorage in the post-endodontic recon-struction, similar push-out retentive forces and strength to those of traditional fiber posts cemented with particulate filler resin composite cements were achieved. Although further studies are necessary, EverX Flow represents an effective alternative to traditional fiber post adhesion in particular when used in combination with the two-step adhesive system and ultrasonic activation.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete; Fresh properties
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:50:18 CEST)
UHPC is a cement-based composite that is used in new construction and/or renovation of existing structures to increase their service life. It is a unique composite material that may be used as an alternative to concrete in harsh conditions. Following decades of research and development, a wide range of commercial UHPC compositions are now accessible across the world to fulfill the growing number of applications and demand for high-quality construction materials. Although UHPC has significant advantages over conventional concrete, its use is limited because of rigid design restrictions and excessive pricing. As a consequence, a detailed analysis of UHPC's durability qualities is necessary to provide critical information for material testing requirements and methods, as well as to widen its practical applications. The goal of this study is to learn more about UHPC and to encourage more research and use of UHPC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0566.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: fibre reinforced concrete; simulation; cohesive crack; fibre cocktail
Online: 30 November 2021 (12:08:45 CET)
Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) has become an alternative for structural applications due its outstanding mechanical properties. The appearance of new types of fibres and the fibre cocktails that can be configured mixing them has created FRC that clearly exceed the minimum mechanical properties required in the standards. Consequently, in order to take full advantage of the contribution of the fibres in construction projects, it is of great interest to have constitutive models that simulate the behaviour of the materials. This study aimed to simulate the fracture behaviour of five types of FRC, three with steel hooked fibres, one with a combination of two types of steel fibres and one with a combination of polyolefin fibres and two types of steel fibres, by means of an inverse analysis based on the cohesive crack approach. The results of the numerical simulations defined the softening functions of each FRC formulation and have pointed out the synergies that are created through use of fibre cocktails. The information obtained might suppose a remarkable advance for designers using high-performance FRC in structural elements.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry; seismic retrofitting; textile reinforced mortar; thermal insulation
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:11:06 CET)
Taking into consideration the seismic vulnerability of older buildings and the increasing need for reducing their carbon footprint and energy consumption, the application of an innovative system is investigated; the system is based on the use of textile reinforced mortars (TRM) and thermal insulation as a means of combined seismic and energy retrofitting of existing masonry walls. Medium scale tests were carried out on masonry walls subjected to out-of-plane cyclic loading. The following parameters were investigated experimentally: placement of the TRM in a sandwich form (over and under the insulation) or outside the insulation, one-sided or two-sided TRM jacketing and/or insulation, and the displacement amplitude of the loading cycles. A simple analytical method is developed and is found in good agreement with test results. Additionally, numerical modeling is carried out and is also found in good agreement with test results. From the results obtained in this study the authors believe that TRM jacketing may be combined effectively with thermal insulation, increasing the overall strength and energy efficiency of the masonry panels in buildings.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: textile reinforced composite; shape memory alloy; robust stability
Online: 22 December 2019 (01:56:09 CET)
This paper develops the mathematical modeling and deflection control of a textile-reinforced composite integrated with shape memory actuators. The model of the system is derived using identification method and unstructured uncertainty approach. Based on this model and robust stability analysis a robust proportional-integral controller is designed for controlling the deflection of the composite. The performance of the proposed controller is compared with a classical one through experimental analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Short fiber-reinforced composite; Random fields; Plasticity; Numerical simulation
Online: 6 September 2022 (10:11:54 CEST)
For the numerical simulation of components made of short fiber-reinforced composites the correct prediction of the deformation including the elastic and plastic behavior and its spatial distribution is essential. When using purely deterministic modeling approaches the information of the probabilistic microstructure is not included in the simulation process. One possible approach for the integration of stochastic information is the use of random fields. In this study numerical simulations of tensile test specimens are conducted utilizing a finite deformation elastic-ideal plastic material model. A selection of the material parameters covering the elastic and plastic domain are represented by cross-correlated second-order Gaussian random fields to incorporate the probabilistic nature of the material parameters. To validate the modeling approach tensile tests until failure are carried out experimentally, that confirm the assumption of spatially distributed material behavior in both the elastic and plastic domain. Since the correlation lengths of the random fields cannot be determined by pure analytic treatments, additionally numerical simulations are performed for different values of the correlation length. The numerical simulations endorse the influence of the correlation length on the overall behavior. For a correlation length of 5mm a good conformity with the experimental results is obtained. Therefore, it is concluded, that the presented modeling approach is suitable to predict the elastic and plastic deformation of a set of tensile test specimens made of short fiber-reinforced composite sufficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Reinforced Concrete; Raft Foundation; Temperature Effects; Finite Element Modelling
Online: 16 May 2022 (03:59:22 CEST)
This article presents a case study on the structural assessment of a reinforced concrete (RC) foundation exposed to low temperatures. The foundation supports a 19,500 m³-capacity tank with low-temperature (-89°C) ethane. Icing and bubbling were observed on the tank’s surface soon after it started operations. Condensation was also observed at the bottom of the 0.8 m-depth RC slab, which raised concerns about the structural condition of the concrete. This study provides details of the field and analytical investigations conducted to assess the structural condition of the foundation. Heat transfer finite element (FE) analyses were performed to examine the concrete sections subjected to low temperatures. It was found that the ethane leakage produced a low temperature on the top side of the concrete foundation of +9.7°C. Overall, the temperatures calculated by the FE analyses were in good agreement with actual field measurements, within a ±5% accuracy. The simplified heat transfer equation for porous media used in this study was sufficiently accurate to model the effects of the ethane leakage in the concrete foundation, provided the ambient temperature at the site is taken into account in the analysis. The results also confirm that reinforcing bars can be neglected in the thermal analysis of massive concrete slabs. The results from the field measurements and FE analyses confirmed that the structural integrity of the RC foundation was never compromised. The approaches, methods and techniques discussed in this article are deemed suitable to solve the practical and scientific challenges involved in the structural assessment and repairs of large special structures. Accordingly, they can serve as useful reference and guidance for engineers and practitioners working in the field of forensic engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0341.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: resistance; bending; axial force; reinforced concrete; composite; section models
Online: 19 November 2021 (08:26:27 CET)
The paper presents section models for analysis of the resistance of RC members subjected to bending moment with or without axial force. To determine the section resistance the nonlinear stress-strain relationship for concrete in compression is assumed, taking into account the concrete softening. It adequately describes the behavior of RC members up to failure. For the reinforcing steel linear elastic-ideal plastic model is applied. For the ring cross-section subjected to bending with axial force the normalized resistances are derived in the analytical form by integrating the cross-sectional equilibrium equations. They are presented in the form of interaction diagrams and compared with the results obtained by testing conducted on RC columns under eccentric compression. Furthermore, the ultimate normalized bending moment has been derived for the rectangular cross-section subjected to bending without axial force. It was applied in the cross-sectional analysis of steel and concrete composite beams, named BH beams, consisting of the RC rectangular core placed inside a reversed TT welded profile. The comparisons made indicated good agreements between the proposed section models and experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reinforced concrete; columns; confinement; CFRP; load bearing capacity; standards
Online: 20 June 2019 (11:50:22 CEST)
Reinforced concrete (RC) columns are often placed under confinement to increase their strength and ductility. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials have recently been recognized as favorable confinement systems. At present, a number of national standards and codes dedicated to the design of concrete components strengthened with CFRP in general and CFRP confinement in particular are available. These sets of rules provide design equations for confined reinforced concrete columns with circular and rectangular cross sections. Most of the standards and codes exhibit significant differences, including the used predictive models limitations, observed effects, and covered loading conditions. In this paper, five international standards and design guidelines are introduced and discussed. The purpose is to present a constructive and critical assessment of the state-of-the-art design methodologies available for CFRP confined RC columns and to discuss effects not previously considered properly. Therefore, some recent research efforts and findings from the Leipzig University of Applied Sciences are also introduced. The obtained data is used for a comparative study of the guideline predictive equations. Furthermore, it is shown that some new findings concerning the rupture strength and the maximum strength plus accompanying axial strain of a CFRP confined column are suitable to improve the current guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: beams; database; experiments; flexure; shear; steel fiber reinforced concrete
Online: 28 February 2019 (07:10:10 CET)
Adding steel fibers to concrete improves the capacity in tension-driven failure modes. An example is the shear capacity in steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams with longitudinal reinforcement and without shear reinforcement. Since no mechanical models exist that can fully describe the behavior of SFRC beams without shear reinforcement failing in shear, a number of empirical equations have been suggested in the past. This paper compiles the existing empirical equations and code provisions for the prediction of the shear capacity of SFRC beams failing in shear as well as a database of 487 experiments reported in the literature. The experimental shear capacities from the database are then compared to the prediction equations. This comparison shows a large scatter on the ratio of experimental to predicted values. The practice of defining the tensile strength of SFRC based on different experiments internationally makes the comparison difficult. For design purposes, the code prediction methods based on the Eurocode shear expression provide reasonable results (with coefficients of variation on the ratio of tested to predicted results of 27% - 29%). None of the currently available methods properly describe the behavior of SFRC beams failing in shear. As such, this work shows the need for studies that address the different shear-carrying mechanisms in SFRC and its crack kinematics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Fiber reinforced polymer; repair; retrofit; durability; aramid fiber; wrapping.
Online: 11 October 2018 (13:03:57 CEST)
Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) is one of the important material used for strengthening and retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures. The commonly used fibers are glass, carbon and aramid fibers. Durability of structures can be extended by selecting appropriate method of strengthening. FRP wrapping is one of the easiest methods for repair, retrofit and maintenance of structural element. Deterioration of structures may be due to moisture content, salt water, or contact with alkali solutions. There is significant effect of permeability, rise in temperature, chemical attack, fatigue action, micro pores on members of structures. Using FRP additional strength can be gained by structural elements. This paper investigates durability of aramid fiber subjected to acid attack and temperature rise. Concrete cubes are prepared as specimens with double wrapping of aramid fibers. Diluted hydrochloric acid solution is used for immersion of specimen for curing period of 7, 30 and 70 days. In case of fire resistance test, such specimens are kept in hot air oven at a temperature of 2000C at different time intervals. The effect of aramid fiber wrapping on compressive strength and weight loss of specimen is studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0786.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Hybrid fibre-reinforced concrete; thermal conductivity; spalling; residual mechanical strength.
Online: 30 April 2021 (11:13:43 CEST)
Over the years, leaked fluids from the aircraft caused severe deterioration of the airfield pavement. The combined effect of hot exhaust from the auxiliary power unit of military aircraft and spilt aviation oils caused rapid pavement spalling. If the disintegrated concreted pieces caused by spalling is sucked into the jet engine, it may cause catastrophic damage to the aircraft engine or physical injury to maintenance crews. This study investigates the effectiveness of incorporating hybrid fibres into ordinary concrete to improve the residual mechanical and thermal properties to prevent spalling damage of pavement. Three fibre reinforced concrete samples made with micro steel fibre and polyvinyl alcohol fibre with a fibre content of zero, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% by volume fraction. These samples were exposed to recurring high temperature and aviation oils. Tests were conducted to measure the effects of repeated exposure on the concrete's mechanical, thermal and chemical characteristics. The results showed that polyvinyl alcohol fibre reinforced concrete suffered a significant loss of thermal properties and residual mechanical strength than the micro steel fibre reinforced concrete. However, hybrid fibre reinforced concrete performed better in retaining higher residual properties, and no spalling of concrete was observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0128.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reinforced concrete; deep beams; Strut-and-Tie models; experimental research
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:44:20 CEST)
This paper presents the results of the experimental research and numerical analysis of three reinforced concrete deep beams with openings, designed by the Strut-and-Tie method according to the EN 1992-1-1 recommendations. All tested specimens were made in full size, with the same geometric characteristics and quality of the materials. The specimens, constructed as simply supported beams, were loaded with two concentrated forces and were tested for bending until failure. Each specimen was reinforced with different reinforcement layout determined by parameter variation within the Strut-and-Tie method. Based on the results of experimental research, it was concluded that the behavior of loaded members was in agreement with the proposed forms of the Strut-and-Tie models that were used for their design.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: polyolefin fibre reinforced concrete; fracture behaviour; size effect; bending tests
Online: 18 March 2019 (10:36:28 CET)
The reinforcement of concrete by using polyolefin fibres may be considered in structural design to meet the requirements of the applicable code rules. In order to achieve a reliable use of such a composite material, use of full-scale real structures is needed. The conversion of lab testing data into real practice properties is challenging and significantly influenced by various aspects, among which the size effect is a key one. Given that the available literature does not report coinciding conclusions about such an effect on quasi-brittle materials reinforced with fibres, further research is justified. Therefore, this work studies the behaviour of notched beams with three proportional sizes by using self-compacting polyolefin reinforced concrete with a fibre volume fraction of 1.1%. Flexural testing was carried out according to the standard EN-14651, with the results revealing the existence of the size effect. In addition, a reduction of the residual strength identified in the larger specimens was observed in fracture surfaces with equal fibre content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: corrosion; ductility; mechanical properties; reinforced concrete; tensile strength; equivalent steel
Online: 28 January 2019 (12:15:09 CET)
In this work 144 reinforcing bars of high-ductility steel named B500SD were subjected to an accelerated corrosion treatment and then tested under tension at different loading speeds in order to assess the effect of corrosion on the ductility properties of the rebars. Results showed that the bars with a corrosion level as low as the one reducing the steel mass by 1% gave rise to a significant degradation on the ductility properties with strain-stress curves losing the yield plateau and behaving practically as cold deformed steel bars. This effect took place at every tested loading speed. Thus, the research significance relies on the assessment of the influence of the loading speed at which the tensile test is performed given that it affects the ductility properties of the reinforcement bars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0180.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: SMA reinforced composite; low-velocity impact; vibrating boundary; numerical analysis
Online: 7 November 2018 (16:08:13 CET)
Structural vibration induced by dynamic load or natural vibration is a nonnegligible factor in failure analysis. Based on vibrating boundary condition, impact resistance of shape memory alloy reinforced composites is investigated. In this investigation, modified Hashin’s failure criterion, Brinson’s model and visco-hyperelastic model are implemented into the numerical model to charactering the mechanical behavior of glass fiber/epoxy resin laminates, SMAs and interphase, respectively. First, fixed boundary condition is maintained in simulation to verify the accuracy of material parameters and procedures by comparing with experimental data. Then, a series of vibrating boundaries with different frequencies and amplitudes are applied during the simulation process to reveals the effect on impact resistances. The statistics of absorbed energy and contact force indicate that impact resistance of the composite under high frequency and large amplitude is lower than that under low frequency and small amplitude, and summarized by a mathematical expression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0764.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: concrete sustainable evaluations; flyover bridge; reinforced concrete slab; polyolefin fibres.
Online: 2 November 2018 (10:06:42 CET)
The use of polyolefin fibre reinforced concrete (PFRC) as an alternative for reducing or even eliminating the reinforcing steel bars employed in reinforced concrete has become real in the past years. This contribution analyses the improvements in sustainability that a change in the aforementioned reinforcement configuration might provide in a flyover bridge. Economic, environmental and social parameters of both possibilities were studied by means of the integrated value model for sustainable assessment use (Modelo Integrado de Valor para una Evaluación Sostenible, MIVES) used in Spain, which is a multi-criteria decision-making method based on the value function concept and the seminars delivered by experts. The results of the MIVES method showed that the use of PFRC in combination with reinforced concrete (RC) has a sustainability index 22% higher. An analysis of the parameters that form this evaluation shows that there are no remarkable differences in the financial costs between the two possibilities studied. Nevertheless, social and environmental aspects provide with a better qualification the option of building a bridge by using PFRC combined with RC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: joint shear capacity; ACI-318-19; ductility factor; IMRF; reinforced concrete
Online: 21 October 2022 (08:37:06 CEST)
Multi-level shaking table tests were performed on 1:3 reduced scale two-story RC IMRF frames conforming to ACI-318-19. The exterior joints lacked shear reinforcement to assess the viability of the ACI model recommended for determining the design shear strength of the beam-column joint panel. The Northridge-1994 earthquake accelerogram was input to the frame for multi-level shaking table testing. Plastic hinges developed in beams under base input motion with a maximum acceleration equal to 0.40g. The exterior joints incurred extensive damage under base input motion with a maximum acceleration equal to 0.70g. The frame achieved displacement ductility and overstrength factors equal to 2.40 and 2.50 respectively. This gives a response modification factor equal to 6. The satisfactory performance of the frame is attributed to the high efficiency of the beam-column joint, which was confined by spandrel beams on two faces, and the high strength of the concrete. The inherent minimal confinement is sufficient to ensure good seismic behavior. The analysis confirmed overstrength equal to 1.58 for joint shear strength in comparison to the design strength determined using the ACI model. The data might serve as a reference for calibrating and validating numerical modeling techniques for performance evaluation, which are crucial in the context of performance-based engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0289.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: database; eccentric punching shear; experiments; flat slab; punching; reinforced concrete; shear
Online: 21 June 2022 (05:42:44 CEST)
Eccentric punching shear can occur in concrete slab-column connections when the connection is subjected to shear and unbalanced moments. Typically, this situation results in edge and corner columns and is thus a common practical case. However, most punching experiments in the literature are concentric punching shear. This paper presents a developed database of eighty-eight experiments of flat slabs under eccentric punching shear, including a summary of the testing procedure of each reference and a description of the slab specimens. Additionally, a linear finite element analysis of all the specimens is included to determine the relevant sectional shear forces and moments. Finally, the ultimate shear stresses from the database experiments are compared to the shear capacities determined with ACI 318-19, Eurocode 2 NEN-EN 1992-1-1:2005, and the Model Code 2010. The comparison shows that the Model Code 2010 is the most precise in the predictions with an average tested over predicted ratio of 0.96 and a coefficient of variation of 27.96%. It can be concluded that this study represents the inconsistencies of the currently used design methods and the lack of experimental information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0470.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Size effect; Polyolefin fibre reinforced concrete; Trilinear softening function; Cohesive model
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:03:06 CEST)
Size effect on plain concrete specimens is well known and can be correctly captured when performing numerical simulations by using a well characterised softening function, but in the case of fibre reinforced concrete this is not directly applicable, since an only diagram cannot capture the material behaviour on elements with different size due to dependence of the orientation factor of the fibres with the size of the specimen. In previous works, the use of a trilinear softening diagram proved to be very convenient for reproducing fracture of polyolefin fibre reinforced concrete elements, but only if it is previously adapted for each specimen size. In this work, a predictive methodology is used to reproduce fracture of polyolefin fibre reinforced concrete specimens of different sizes under three-point bending. Fracture is reproduced by means of a well known embedded cohesive model, with a trilinear softening function that is defined specifically for each specimen size. The fundamental points of these softening functions are defined a priori by using empirical expressions proposed in past works, based on an extensive experimental background. Therefore, the numerical results are obtained in a predictive manner, and then compared with a previous experimental campaign, showing that this approach properly captures the size effect, although some values of the fundamental points in the trilinear diagram could be defined more accurately.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: basalt-polypropylene fiber-reinforced concrete; flexural performance; residual strength; optimal ratio
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:06:48 CEST)
The bending performance of a basalt-polypropylene fiber-reinforced concrete (HBPFRC) was characterized by testing 24 400×100×100 mm3 prismatic specimens in a four-point bending test JSCE-SF4 configuration. The type and content of both fibers was varied in order to guarantee different target levels of post-cracking flexural performance. The results evidenced that mono-micro basalt fiber reinforced concrete (BFRC) allows the increase of the flexural strength (pre-cracking stage), while macro polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete can effectively improve both bearing capacity and ductility of the composite for a wide crack width range. Compared with the plain concrete specimens, flexural toughness and equivalent flexural strength of macro polypropylene fiber-reinforced concrete (PPFRC) and the hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete (HFRC) increased by 3.7~7.1 times and 10%~42.5%, respectively. From both technical and economic points of view, the optimal mass ratio of basalt fiber to polypropylene fiber resulted to be 1:2, with a total content of 6 kg/m3. This HFRC is seen as a suitable material to be used in sewerage pipes where cracking control (crack formation and crack width control) is of paramount importance to guarantee the durability and functionality of the pipeline as well as the ductility of the system in case of local failures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0065.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Pile design; Fiber Reinforced Polymer; GFRP; FRP; Composite Piles; Bridge design
Online: 5 February 2020 (11:42:09 CET)
This paper deals with analyzing the structural responses of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) tubes filled with recycled and concrete material for developing composite piles, as an alternative to traditional steel reinforced piles in bridge foundations. The Full-scale GFRP composite piles included three inner and outer layers, using a fiber-oriented material that was inclined longitudinally, almost 40 degrees from the horizontal axis of the pile. The segment between these two layers was inclined 80 degrees from the longitudinal axis of the tube. The behavior of the filled GFRP tubes was semi-linear, and resulted in increasing the total ductility and strength of the piles. Adjusting the material’s properties, such as the EAxial, EHoop, and Poisson ratios optimized the results. The lateral strength of the GFRP composite pile and pre-stressed piles are comparable in both axial and lateral loading conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0065.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: fibre reinforced concrete; polyolefin fibres; fibre distribution; fracture behaviour; structural fibres
Online: 5 December 2018 (07:57:24 CET)
Polyolefin fibre reinforced concrete (PFRC) has become an attractive alternative to steel for the reinforcement of concrete elements mainly due to its chemical stability and the residual strengths that can be reached with lower weights. The use of polyolefin fibres can meet the requirements in the standards, although the main constitutive relations are based on the experience with steel fibres. Therefore, the structural contributions of the fibres should be assessed by inverse analysis. In this study, the fibre dosage has been fixed at 6kg/m³ and both self-compacting concrete and conventional concrete have been used to compare the influence of the positioning of the fibres. An idealized homogeneous distribution of the fibres with such fibres crossing from side to side of the specimen has been added to self-compacting concrete. The experimental results of three-point bending tests on notched specimens have been reproduced by using the cohesive crack approach. Hence, the constitutive relations were found. The significance of this research relies on the verification of the formulations found to build the constitutive relations. Moreover, with these results it is possible to establish the higher threshold of the performance of PFRC and the difficulties of limiting the first unloading branch typical of fracture tests of PFRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reinforced concrete bridge (RCB); chloride corrosion; seismic performance; plastic hinge; overload analysis
Online: 28 October 2022 (03:48:18 CEST)
One of the influential factors in estimating the service life of reinforced concrete bridges (RCB) is determining the long-term seismic performance of these structures. Corrosion due to chloride ion diffusion leads to the destruction of critical members of the RCB during the useful life of the structure. So, the long-term seismic performance of the bridge deteriorates as a result. It is essential to study the effect of corrosion deterioration on the long-term seismic performance of bridges in the southern regions of Iran, near the coasts of the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea, because of the seismicity of the region and high corrosion rate of reinforced concrete (RC) members is the result of environmental conditions. In order to investigate this issue, considering studies about environmental conditions of southern Iran, the onset time of corrosion in the columns, as seismic critical members of the bridge, was determined. Based on that, the corrosion's effect on characteristics of RC at specific time points during the bridge's useful life (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 years) have been calculated. The effects of corrosion include deterioration of the core and cover concrete properties, steel bar and the connection between concrete and steel bar. In the next step, at each time point, according to the modified stress-strain relationships, the moment-curvature analysis of the bridge pier was done, and the properties of the plastic hinge were determined. Finally, based on the obtained data about plastic hinge characteristics at each time point, overload analysis of the bridge was performed in both longitudinal and transverse directions. Then the capacity curves of RCB were compared at the mentioned time-points. The results show that the capacity of the bridge deteriorates over time due to corrosion. Therefore, a proposal to increase the value of base shear design has been made to ensure the long-term seismic performance of RCB in corrosive environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0301.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: experiments; fiber factor; fiber volume fraction; flexure; shear; steel fiber reinforced concrete
Online: 29 August 2019 (04:32:29 CEST)
For shear-critical structural elements where the use of stirrups is not desirable, such as slabs or beams with reinforcement congestion, steel fibers can be used as shear reinforcement. The contribution of the steel fibers to the shear capacity lies in the action of the steel fibers bridging the shear crack, which increases the shear capacity and prevents a brittle failure mode. This study evaluates the effect of the amount of fibers in a concrete mix on the shear capacity of steel fiber reinforced concrete beams with mild steel tension reinforcement and without stirrups. For this purpose, twelve beams were tested. Five different fiber volume fractions were studied: 0.0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, and 1.2%. For each different steel fiber concrete mix, the concrete compressive strength was determined on cylinders and the tensile strength was determined in a flexural test on beam specimens. Additionally, the influence of fibers on the shear capacity is analyzed based on results reported in the literature, as well as based on the expressions derived for estimating the shear capacity of steel fiber reinforced concrete beams. The outcome of these experiments is that a fiber percentage of 1.2% or fiber factor of 0.96 can be used to replace minimum stirrups according to ACI 318-14 and a 0.6% fiber volume fraction or fiber factor of 0.48 to replace minimum stirrups according to Eurocode 2. A fiber percentage of 1.2% or fiber factor of 0.96 was observed to change the failure mode from shear failure to flexural failure. The results of this presented study support the inclusion of provisions for steel fiber reinforced concrete in building codes and provides recommendations for inclusion in ACI 318-14 and Eurocode 2, so that a wider adoption of steel fiber reinforced concrete can be achieved in the construction industry.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0292.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: computational fluid dynamics; glass fiber reinforced composites; heavy crude oil; pressure waves
Online: 15 October 2018 (08:58:29 CEST)
Filament wound composite pipes are frequently used in the field were transmission of high pressured chemical fluids, disposal of industrial wastes, oil and natural gas transmission takes place. In oil and gas industry, the pipelines transporting heavy crude oil are subjected to variable pressure waves causing fluctuating stress levels in the pipes. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis was performed using Ansys 15.0 Fluent software to study the effects of these pressure waves on some specified joints in the pipes. Depending on the type of heavy crude oil being used, the flow behavior indicated a considerable degree of stress levels in certain connecting joints, causing the joints to become weak over a prolonged period of use. In this research comparison of various pipe joints was done by using different material and the output result of the stress levels of the pipe joints were checked so that the life of the pipe joints can be optimized by the change of material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0171.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: particulate-reinforced composite materials; homogenization; effective field method; numerical analysis; optimal design
Online: 25 December 2017 (08:37:21 CET)
A microstructure-based model is developed to study the effective anisotropic properties (magnetic, dielectric or thermal) of two phase particle-filled composites. The Green’s function technique and the effective field method are used to derive theoretically the homogenized (averaged) properties for a representative volume element containing isolated inclusion and an infinite, chain-structured particles. Those results are compared with the FE approximations conducted for the assumed representative volume element. In addition, as a special case, the Maxwell–Garnett model is retrieved when particle interactions are not taken into consideration. We shall also give some information on the optimal design of the effective anisotropic properties taking into account the shape of magnetic particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0390.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: 3D concrete printing; engineered geopolymer composite; strain-hardening; permanent formwork; reinforced concrete beam
Online: 30 March 2022 (14:14:26 CEST)
The extrusion-based 3D concrete printing (3DCP) technology allows the fabrication of permanent formwork with intricate shapes, into which fresh concrete is cast to build structural members with complex geometry. This significantly enhances the geometric freedom of concrete structures without the use of expensive temporary formwork. In addition, with proper material choice for the permanent formwork, the load-bearing capacity and durability of the resulting structure can be improved. This paper investigates 3DCP of permanent formwork for reinforced concrete (RC) beam construction. A 3D-printable engineered geopolymer composite (3DP-EGC, or strain-hardening geopolymer composite, 3DP-SHGC) recently developed by the authors was used for fabrication of the permanent formwork. The 3DP-EGC exhibits strain-hardening behaviour under direct tension. Two different printing patterns were used for the soffit of the permanent formwork to investigate the effect of this parameter on the flexural performance of RC beams. A conventionally mould-cast RC beam was also prepared as the control beam for comparison purposes. The results showed that the RC beams constructed using the 3DP-EGC permanent formwork exhibited superior flexural performance to the control beam. Such beams yielded significantly higher cracking load (up to 43%), deflection at ultimate load (up to 60%), ductility index (50%) and absorbed energy (up to 107%) than those of the control beam. The ultimate load was comparable with or slightly higher than that of the control beam. Furthermore, the printing pattern at the soffit of the permanent formwork was found to have a significant influence on the flexural performance of the RC beams.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0194.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: fiber-reinforced poly(ether-ether-ketone); surface modification; shear bond strength; surface analtsis
Online: 12 March 2020 (03:49:18 CET)
We investigated the effect of helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (PL) and deep-ultraviolet (UV) light treatments on the adhesive properties of fiber-reinforced poly(ether-ether-ketone)polymer (PEEK). PEEK disks reinforced with carbon (CPEEK) or glass (GPEEK) fibers were polished, modified with PL and UV for 60 s, and the surface energy was calculated by measuring the contact angles. The disk surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Shear bond strength testing was performed using a universal testing machine, and the fracture surfaces were observed by electron probe microanalyzer. Data were analyzed with one and two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test (p < 0.05). The surface energies were increased by the modifications, which created OH functional groups on the surfaces. The bond strengths of CPEEK were increased by PL and those of GPEEK were increased by PL and UV, owing to chemical bonding at the interface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: recycled carbon fiber (RCF); fibers reinforced epoxy composites (FRE); plasma treatment; me-chanical properties
Online: 3 August 2022 (11:50:41 CEST)
The interfacial interface between the fibers and the matrix plays a key role for epoxy matrix composites and short recycled randomly arranged fibres. This study used short recycled carbon fiber (RCF) as a filler. Plasma treatment was used for carbon fiber surface treatment. This treat-ment was performed using radio (RF) and microwave (MW) frequencies at the same pressure and atmosphere. Appropriate chemical modification of the fiber surfaces helps to improve the wettability of the carbon fibers and, at the same time, allows the necessary covalent bonds to form between the fibers and the epoxy matrix. The effect of the plasma treatment was analyzed and confirmed by XPS analysis, Raman microscopy, SEM, TEM and wettability measurements. Composite samples filled with recycled carbon fibers with low concentrations (1 wt%, 2.5 wt% and 5 wt%) and high concentrations (20 wt% and 30 wt%) were made from selected treated fi-bers. The mechanical properties (impact toughness, 3PB) were analyzed on these samples. It was found that the modulus of elasticity and bending stress increase with the increasing content of recycled carbon fibers. A more significant change in impact strength occurred in samples with low concentration.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fracture behaviour; fibre reinforced concrete; high temperature; melting point; flexural tensile strength; polyolefin fibres
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:05:10 CET)
Concrete has become the most common construction material showing among other advantages good behaviour when subjected to high temperatures. Nevertheless, concrete is usually reinforced with elements of other materials such as steel in the form of rebars or fibres. Thus, the behaviour under high temperatures of these other materials can be critical for structural elements. In addition, concrete spalling occurs when concrete is subjected to high temperature due to internal pressures. Micro polypropylene fibres (PP) have shown to be effective for reducing such spalling although this type of fibres barely improve any of the mechanical properties of the element. Hence, a combination of PP with steel rebars or fibres can be effective for the structural design of elements exposed to high temperatures. New polyolefin fibres (PF) have become an alternative to steel fibres. PF meet the requirements of the standards to consider the contributions of the fibres in the structural design. However, there is a lack of evidence about the behaviour of PF and elements made of polyolefin fibre reinforced concrete (PFRC) subjected to high temperatures. Given that these polymer fibres would be melt above 250 °C, the behaviour in the intermediate temperatures was assessed in this study. Uni-axial tests on individual fibres and three-point bending tests of PFRC specimens were performed. The results have shown that the residual load-bearing capacity of the material is gradually lost up to 200 °C, though the PFRC showed structural performance up to 185°C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0234.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete; direct tensile test; push-off test; polyolefin fiber; digital image correlation
Online: 19 June 2020 (04:24:48 CEST)
This work proposes a novel methodology for the complete characterization of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC). The method includes bending tests of prismatic notched specimens, based on the Standards for FRC, tensile and pure shear tests. The values adopted by the standards for designing FRC are the obtained from bending tests, typically fR3, even for shear and pure tension loading. This paper shows that the remaining strength of FRC, supplied by the fibers, depends on the type of loading. In the case of shear and tensile loading the prescriptions of the standards may be unsafe. In this work, the remaining halves of specimens subjected to bending test are prepared and used for shear and tension tests. This means significant savings in specimen preparation and a greater amount of information for structural use of FRC. The results provide relevant information for the design of structural elements of FRC compared with the only use of data supplied by bending tests. In addition, a video-extensometry system was used to analyze the crack generation and cracking patterns. The video-extensometry applied to shear tests allowed the assessment of the sliding values and crack opening values at the crack discontinuity. These values may be quite relevant for the study of the FRC behavior when subjected to shear according to the shear-friction model theories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0377.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC); mechanical properties; extrusion; 3D concrete printing (3DCP)
Online: 29 November 2019 (10:45:46 CET)
This paper presents the systematic development and performance characterization of a non-proprietary 3D-printable ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) for digital construction. Several fresh and hardened properties of the developed 3D-printable UHPFRC matrix (without fiber) and composite (with 2% volume fraction of steel fibers) were evaluated and compared to that of conventionally mold-cast UHPFRC. Additionally, the effects of testing direction on the compressive and flexural strengths of the printed UHPFRC were investigated. The fresh properties of the UHPFRC developed in this study satisfied the criteria for extrudability, buildability, and shape-retention-ability, which are relevant for ensuring printability. The printed UHPFRC exhibited superior flexural performance to the mold-cast UHPFRC due to alignment of the short fibers in the printing direction. The high compressive and flexural strengths, along with the deflection-hardening behavior, of the developed UHPFRC can enable the production of thin 3D-printed components with significant reduction or complete elimination of conventional steel bars.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0147.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: alternative materials, fibre reinforced polymer, insulation, precast concrete sandwich panel, shear connection, thermal efficiency
Online: 8 October 2018 (12:50:05 CEST)
Precast concrete sandwich panels (PCSP) are energy efficient building system that is achieved through an insulation layer created between the concrete wythes. The insulation layer is usually of low bearing strength material making it more applicable for non-structural building systems. Hence, shear connectors are introduced to improve its structural capacity, which subsequently degrades it thermal performance by serving as thermal bridges across the panel. This article review researches of alternative materials and methods used to improve the thermal efficiency as well as reduced the strength loss due to insulation in PCSP. The alternative materials are basalt fibre reinforced polymer (BFRP), carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP), and foam concrete which are selected due to their low thermal conductivity for use in shear connection. While thermal path method has been used to prevent the effect of thermal bridges. Although, some of these materials have successfully achieved the desirable behaviours, however, several undesirable properties such as brittleness, bond slip, the sudden crushing of the panel system, and FRP failure below its ultimate strength were observed. Hence, the practicality of the alternative materials is still questionable despite its higher cost compared to the conventional steel and concrete used in the PCSP system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: artificial neural networks; pattern recognition; reinforced concrete buildings; seismic damage; rapid assessment; seismic incident angle
Online: 10 December 2021 (13:13:50 CET)
The angle of seismic excitation is a significant factor of the seismic response of RC buildings. The procedure required for the calculation of the angle for which the potential seismic damage is maximized (critical angle) contains multiple nonlinear time history analyses using in each one of them different angles of incidence. Moreover, the seismic codes recommend the application of more than one accelerograms for the evaluation of seismic response. Thus, the whole procedure becomes time consuming. Herein, a method to reduce the time required for the estimation of the critical angle based on Multilayered Feedforward Perceptron Neural Networks is proposed. The basic idea is the detection of cases in which the critical angle increases the class of seismic damage compared to the class which arises from the application of the seismic motion along the buildings’ structural axes. To this end, the problem is expressed and solved as Pattern Recognition problem. As inputs of networks the ratios of seismic parameters’ values along the two horizontal seismic records' components, as well as appropriately chosen structural parameters, were used. The results of analyses show that the neural networks can reliably detect the cases in which the calculation of the critical angle is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Meta-analysis; Effect size; Precision; Ultra-high strength concrete; Ultra-high strength fiber reinforced concrete
Online: 7 April 2020 (13:28:16 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis that shows the influence of fiber on ultimate compressive strength and tensile strength of ultra-high performance concrete. The internet scholarly search engines and ScienceDirect article references were used to illustrate the papers concerning the experimental investigations of mechanical properties of ultra-high strength concrete with and without fiber with clearly, completely and comparative raw data. The normal concrete test results were dismissed from this search. Seven trials were identified based on the adopted inclusion and exclusion criteria above. The meta-analysis based on standardized mean difference was carried out on the basis of a fixed-effects model for the major outcomes of the ultimate compressive and tensile properties of ultra-high performance concrete. A total of 888 test specimens were enrolled in these seven trials. The combined analysis yielded a sign of a significant improvement in ultimate compressive strength and tensile strength of ultra-high strength concrete with fiber addition of 2% by concrete volume. The summary effect size of ultimate compressive strength was 2.34 while a more improvement in term of tensile strength with effect size of 2.64. By addition fiber of 2% provides a significant benefit in mechanical properties of ultra-high performance concrete.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: boat design; experimental mechanics; stress-strain analysis; numerical modelling; rigid inflatable boat; fiber-reinforced composite
Online: 8 October 2018 (07:43:41 CEST)
Rigid-hulled inflatable boats are extremely practical and popular nowadays. They offer a effective conciliation among usability and costs. Their stable and seaworthy behaviour is guaranteed by performing hydroplaning hulls coupled with unsinkable inflated tubes. At the same time, their design is often based on tradition and preconceptions. Rarely, the design assumptions are validated by the reality or, even, by deeper investigations. In this article, both numerical methods and experimental mechanics techniques are proposed as an essential way for supporting the designers in their decisive tasks. Three different situations are detailed where a numerical or an experimental approach shows its benefit inside the engineering design process: firstly permitting to investigate the behaviour of materials driving the fiberglass selection; then measuring the levels of stress and strain in the hull during sailing; finally, using all available information as a base for developing numerical models of the hull slamming in waves. Even if the discussion is focused on a rigid inflatable boat, large part of its considerations is relevant beyond this special case.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0118.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: halloysite nanotube(HNT); hybrid composite; aramid fiber; basalt fiber; interfacial property; fiber reinforced composite; aggregation
Online: 16 May 2017 (07:39:07 CEST)
Hybrid fiber reinforced composites can be controlled by price, weight and various mechanical properties depending on fiber ratio and lamination method. Despite these excellent hybrid properties, there is a disadvantage that inter-laminar fracture due to external impact, which is the biggest weakness of fiber reinforced composite materials, is weak. The test specimens were prepared by using a vacuum bag method, which is manufactured by using an autoclave device. The pre-preg is manufactured in the form of a B-stage. In the process of fabricating the nanoparticle pre-preg, the homogeneizer using an ultrasonic wave was used to disperse the epoxy subject without the curing agent into nanoparticles. The dispersion of the nanoparticles was dispersed by the weight of the epoxy resin. This is to take into account the cohesion of HNT and to understand the range of cohesion of HNT in a matrix with viscosity and its phenomenon. According to the Comparison of the interlayer interfacial properties and mechanical properties of Aramid / Basalt fiber hybrid composites by HNT addition, the fracture toughness, ILSS and bending strength of specimens with HNT content of more than a certain level were decreased because of the aggregation of HNT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0461.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: additive manufacturing; fabrication temperature; porosity effects; carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composites; mechanical properties; micro CT scan
Online: 26 December 2022 (02:33:37 CET)
The use of additive manufacturing in fabricating composite components has been gaining traction in the past decade. However, some issues with mechanical perfor-mance still need to be resolved. The issue of material porosity remains a pertinent one that needs more understanding to be able to determine viable solutions. Different re-searchers have examined the subject of porosity issues in AM-fabricated CFRP compo-sites. However, more research to quantitatively determine the effects of fabrication temperatures at the micro-scale is still needed. This study employed micro CT scan analysis to quantitatively compare the effects of fabrication temperatures at 230°C, 250°C, 270°C, and 290°C for CF-PA and CF-ABS composites. This followed an SEM evaluation which was used to determine the effects of the temperatures on interlayer and intralayer porosity generation. The porosity volume was related to the mechanical properties results in which it was determined how deposition temperatures affect the porosity volumes. It was also determined that semicrystalline composites are generally more affected by fabrication temperatures than amorphous composites, with the rela-tionship between porosity and mechanical properties also established. The overall po-rosity volume from the interlayer and intralayer voids was also determined, with the interlayer voids found to play a more determinant role in influencing the mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0070.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: nondestructive testing; thermographic surveys; monitoring of structures; reinforced concrete chimney; corrosion processes; service life of structure
Online: 10 June 2019 (08:15:14 CEST)
The nondestructive testing of reinforced concrete chimneys, especially the high ones, is an important element of the assessment of their condition, making it possible to forecast their safe service lifespan. Industrial chimneys are often exposed to the strong action of acidic substances – they are adversely affected by the flue gas condensate on the inside and by acid precipitation on the outside. Initially, this results in the corrosion of the shell concrete and then in the corrosion of the reinforcing steel. During the service life of such chimneys their condition should monitored in order to prevent structural failures and indicate the most endangered parts of the structure. Owing to thermographic surveys one can monitor the hazards leading to the degradation of the chimney structure, which is particularly vital when due to the character of the production process the chimney cannot be put out of operation. The methods for the interpretation of results from thermovision studies to determine the safety and durability of industrial chimneys are shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0090.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Self-reinforced composites (SRCs); UHMWPE fibers; hot compaction; Avizo; Herman’s 37 factor; Digital Image Correlation (DIC); ImageJ
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:23:02 CEST)
The structure of self-reinforced composites (SRCs) based on ultra-high molecular weight 21 polyethylene (UHMWPE) was studied by means of Wide-Angle X-Ray Scattering (WAXS), X-Ray 22 tomography, Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and in situ tensile testing 23 in combination with advanced processing tools like Avizo, ImageJ, and Ncorr to determine the cor-24 relation between the processing conditions, on the one hand, and the molecular structure and 25 mechanical properties, on the other. SRCs were fabricated by hot compaction of UHMWPE fibers at 26 different pressure and temperature combinations without addition of polymer matrix or softener. 27 It was found by WAXS that higher compaction temperatures led to more extensive melting of 28 fibers with the corresponding reduction of the Herman’s factor reflecting the degree of molecular 29 orientation, while the increase of hot compaction pressure suppressed the melting of fibers within 30 SRCs at a given temperature. X-Ray tomography proved the absence of porosity while polarized 31 light Raman spectroscopy measurements for both longitudinal and perpendicular fiber orienta-32 tions showed qualitatively the anisotropy of SRC samples. SEM revealed that the matrix was 33 formed by interlayers of molten polymer entrapped between fibers in SRCs. Moreover, in situ 34 tensile tests demonstrated the increase of Young’s modulus and tensile strength with increasing 35 temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Buildings; earthquake safety assessment; extreme events; urban sustainability; seismic 16 assessment; rapid visual screening; reinforced concrete buildings
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:50:33 CET)
Earthquake is among the most devastating natural disasters causing severe economic, environmental, and social destruction. Earthquake safety assessment and building hazard monitoring can highly contribute to urban sustainable development through identification and insight into optimum materials and structures. While the vulnerability of structures mainly depends on the structural resistance, the safety assessment of buildings can be highly challenging. In this paper, we consider Rapid Visual Screening (RVS) method which is a qualitative procedure for estimating structural scores for buildings suitable for medium- to high-seismic cases. This paper presents an overview of the common RVS methods, i.e., FEMA P-154, IITK-GGSDMA, and EMPI. To examine the accuracy and validation, a practical comparison is performed between their assessment and observed damage of reinforced concrete buildings from a street survey in the Bingöl region, Turkey, after the 11 May 2003 earthquake. The results demonstrate that the application of RVS methods for preliminary damage estimation is a vital tool. Furthermore, the comparative analysis showed that FEMA P-154 creates an assessment that overestimates damage states and is not economically viable while EMPI and IITK-GGSDMA provide for more accurate and practical estimation, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0259.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: lightweight aggregate concrete; reinforced concrete; flexural elements; curvature; short-term loading; tension stiffening; constitutive model; numerical modelling.
Online: 22 November 2019 (08:28:04 CET)
In the present trend of constructing taller and longer structures, the application of lightweight aggregate concrete is becoming an increasing important advanced solution in the modern construction industry. In engineering practice, the analysis of lightweight concrete elements is performed using the same algorithms used for normal concrete elements. As an alternative to traditional engineering methods, nonlinear numerical algorithms based on constitutive material models may be used. The paper presents a comparative analysis of curvature calculations for flexural lightweight concrete elements, incorporating analytical code methods EN 1992-1 and ACI 318-14, as well as a numerical analysis using the constitutive model of cracked tensile lightweight concrete recently proposed by the authors. To evaluate the adequacy of the theoretical predictions, experimental data of 51 lightweight concrete beams tested during five different programmes were collected. A comparison of theoretical and experimental results showed that the most accurate predictions are obtained using numerical analysis and the constitutive model proposed by the authors. In the future, the latter algorithm can be used as a reliable tool for improving the design standard methods or numerical modelling of lightweight concrete elements subjected to short-term loading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fiber-reinforced composites; porous materials; thermal stresses; repre-sentative cell method; high-fidelity generalized method of cells
Online: 25 May 2017 (07:57:40 CEST)
A multiscale (micro-macro) approach is proposed for the establishment of the full thermal and induced stress fields in cracked composites that are subjected to heat flow. Both the temperature and stresses distributions are determined by the solution of a boundary value problem with one-way coupling. In the micro level and for combined thermomechanical loading, a micromechanical analysis is employed to determine the effective moduli, coefficients of thermal expansion and thermal conductivities of the undamaged composite. In the macro level, the representative cell method is employed according to which the periodic damaged composite region is reduced, in conjunction with the discrete Fourier transform, to a finite domain problem. As a result, a boundary value problem is obtained in the Fourier transform domain which is appropriately discretized and solved. The inverse transform and an iterative procedure provide the full thermal and stress fields. The proposed method is verified by comparisons with exact solutions. Applications are given for the determination of the thermal and stress fields in cracked fiber-reinforced polymeric composite, cracked porous ceramic material and cracked periodically layered ceramic composite caused by the application of heat flow. The presented formulation admits however the application of a combined mechanical and heat flux on cracked composites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: lightweight aggregate concrete; reinforced concrete; slab; bridge girder; curvature; short-term loading; tension stiffening; constitutive model; numerical modelling.
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:33:27 CET)
In the modern construction industry, lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) is often used in the production of load-bearing structural members. LWAC can be up to 40% lighter by volume in comparison to normal strength concrete. On the other hand, the lack of adequate numerical models often limits the practical application of innovative building materials, such as lightweight concrete, in real projects. This trend is due to the uncertainties in design standard methods and calculation errors, the level of which is generally unacceptable to civil engineers in terms of safety and reliability. In the present paper, a comparative numerical deformation analysis of a full-scale bridge deck slab and girder has been carried out. Using the physical model proposed by the authors and the finite element software ATENA, the deformations of full–scale lightweight and traditional reinforced concrete elements under short-term effects of permanent and variable loads was compared. Depending on the safety and serviceability limit requirements, it was found that the amount of longitudinal reinforcement in lightweight reinforced concrete elements can be reduced compared to normal reinforced concrete elements with the same parameters. The results of the numerical analysis show that the deformation analysis model proposed by the authors can be a reliable tool for the design of lightweight concrete flexural members by selecting the optimum geometrical and reinforcement parameters limited by the stiffness condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0340.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: masonry buildings; hammering actions; out-of-plane strengthening; three-dimensional strengthening systems; CFRP strips; textile reinforced mortar (TRM)
Online: 26 August 2019 (09:03:00 CEST)
The present paper deals with an improvement of the strengthening technique consisting in the combined use of straps—made of stainless steel ribbons—and CFRP strips, to increase the out-of-plane strength of masonry walls. The straps of both the previous and the new combined technique pass from one face to the opposite face of the masonry wall through some holes made along the thickness, giving rise to a three-dimensional net of loop-shaped straps, closed on themselves. The new technique replaces the stainless steel ribbons with steel wire ropes, which form closed loops around the masonry units and the CFRP strips as in the previous technique. A turnbuckle for each steel wire rope allows the closure of the loops and provides the desired pre-tension to the straps. The mechanical coupling—given by the frictional forces—between the straps and the CFRP strips placed on the two faces of the masonry wall gives rise to an I-beam behavior of the facing CFRP strips, which begin to resist the load as if they were the two flanges of the same I-beam. Even the previous combined technique exploits the ideal I-beam mechanism, but the greater stiffness of the steel wire ropes compared to the stiffness of the steel ribbons makes the constraint between the facing CFRP strips stiffer. This gives the reinforced structural element greater stiffness and delamination load. In particular, the experimental results show that the maximum load achievable with the second combined technique is much greater than the maximum load provided by the CFRP strips. Even the ultimate displacement turns out to be increased, allowing us to state that the second combined technique improves both strength and ductility. Since the CFRP strips of the combined technique run along the vertical direction of the wall, the ideal I-beam mechanism is particularly useful to counteract the hammering actions provided by the floors on the perimeter walls, during an earthquake. Lastly, after the building went out of service, the box-type behavior offered by the three-dimensional net of straps prevents the building from collapsing, acting as a device for safeguarding life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Response Surface Methodology; Hybrid; Genetic Algorithm Artificial Neural Network; Concrete; Flexural Strength; Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete; Civil Engineering
Online: 15 March 2019 (09:54:22 CET)
The study presents a comparative approach between response surface methodology (RSM) and hybridized, genetic algorithm artificial neural network (GA-ANN) in predicting the water absorption, compressive strength, flexural strength split tensile strength and slump for steel fiber reinforced concrete. The effect of process variables such as aspect ratio, water cement ratio and cement content were investigated using the central composite design of response surface methodology. This same experimental design was used in training the hybrid-training approach of artificial neural network. The predicting ability of both methodologies were compared using the root mean sqaured error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), model predictive error (MPE) and absolute average deviation (AAD). The RSM model was found more accurate in prediction compared to hybrid GA-ANN.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0381.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: surface erosion; polymer; nanocomposite; fiber-reinforced composites; thermoplastic polymers; thermoset polymers; surface protection; erosive wear; erosion rate; erosion efficiency
Online: 28 June 2022 (08:13:04 CEST)
Erosion caused by the repeated impact of particles on a substance surface is a usual wear method resulting in gradual and continual loss of objects. It is a crucial problem in several modern industries because their surfaces are frequently subjected to destructive erosive situations. Polymers and their hybrid materials include several applications to be used as a coating in the form of powder for different applications. This review paper aims to provide extensive information on the erosion behavior of thermoset and thermoplastic neat resin and their hybrid materials composites. Focus is specifically paid to highlight the influence of properties of selected materials, impingnation parameters such as incident Angle of erodent, impact velocity of erodent, erodent nature, and the erosion mechanism. The review further extends the information about the erosion techniques and numerical simulation methods used for wear studies of surfaces. An investigation has been carried out for researchers to explore the selection of materials and methods in terms of conditions and parameters to meet the current and future needs and challenges for the protection of surfaces of the advanced industries. During review according to the findings achieved from the literature of the past fifty years, it has been noted that the thermoplastic nature of the composite is a key component to determine the anti-wear properties, the composites with lower glass transition, higher ductility, and greater crystallinity can provide better protection to erosion in advance surface applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0236.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polymers; polymer composites; glass fiber reinforced plastics; elasticity; modulus of elasticity; thermal expansivity; coefficient of thermal expansion; relaxation; thermo-relaxation
Online: 13 January 2023 (06:26:49 CET)
This research is completed in development of researches devoted to relations between elastic modulus (MoE) and thermal expansivity (CTe) of different materials. This study experimentally confirmed the relation of MoE and CTe for thermosetting polymers and FRPs both under normal and heating temperatures. As the thermosetting polymers, the epoxy compositions were used and glass fiber and mineral additives for FRP. The experiment was based on dilatometric and elastic deformations’ testing. Also, the relaxation model of MoE/CTe was proposed, that is based on physical properties of polymers’ supramolecular structures. The comparative analyzing of MoE/CTes’ different models is done. The most accurate models are determined, and the relaxation model has demonstrated the high accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0064.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reinforced concrete moment-resisting frame; steel damper column; peak response; cumulative response; passive control structure; momentary energy input; pushover analysis
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:08:38 CET)
A steel damper column is an energy-dissipating member that is suitable for reinforced concrete (RC) buildings and multistory housing. To assess the seismic performance of buildings with steel damper columns, the peak displacement of the whole building and the energy dissipation demand of the dampers must be evaluated. This article proposes an energy-based prediction procedure for the peak and cumulative response of an RC frame building with steel damper columns. The proposed procedure considers two energy-related seismic intensity parameters, namely the maximum momentary input energy and the total input energy. The peak displacement is predicted considering the energy balance during a half cycle of the structural response, using the maximum momentary input energy. The energy dissipation demand of the dampers is then predicted considering the energy balance during a whole response cycle using the total input energy. The local responses (e.g., peak drift, maximum plastic rotation of beams, maximum shear strain, and energy dissipation demand of dampers) are predicted using pushover analysis. Numerical analysis results for 8- and 16-story RC buildings show that the proposed prediction method achieves satisfactory accuracy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0524.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Curved FRP bars; bent fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP); bend capacity; bend strength; Bent test; strength & testing of materials; material characterisation
Online: 22 July 2020 (11:27:22 CEST)
Steel reinforcement in concrete has the tendency to corrode and this process can lead to structural damage. FRP reinforcement represents a viable alternative for structures exposed to aggressive environments and has many possible applications where superior corrosion resistance properties are required. The use of FRP rebars as internal reinforcements for concrete, however, is limited to specific structural elements and does not yet extend to the whole structure. The reasons for this relate to the limited availability of curved or shaped reinforcing elements on the market and their reduced structural performance. Various studies, in fact, have shown that the mechanical performance of bent portions of composite bars is reduced significantly under a multiaxial combination of stresses and that the tensile strength can be as low as 25% of the maximum tensile strength that can be developed in the straight part. In a significant number of cases, the current design recommendations for concrete structures reinforced with FRP, however, were found to overestimate the bend capacity of FRP rebar. This paper presents the state-of-the art review of the research works on the strength degradation in curved FRP composites and highlighted the performance of exiting predictive models for the bend capacity of FRP reinforcement. Recent practical predictive model based on the Tsai-Hill failure criteria by considering the material at marcromechanical level is also discussed and highlighted. The review also identifies the challenges and highlights the future directions of research to explore the use of shaped FRP composites in civil engineering applications and the trends for future research in this area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0109.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Non-crimp fabrics; Epoxy composites reinforced with NCFs; Silane coupling agent; Surface-modified SiO2 nanoparticles; Mechanical properties; Interfacial bonding; Thermal stability
Online: 6 October 2020 (08:42:56 CEST)
To expand the application scope and increase the demand for non-crimp fabrics (NCFs) as a lightweight vehicle material, the delamination and thermal strain in NCF composites must be restricted. Accordingly, to simultaneously improve the interfacial bonding and thermal stability of the NCF composites, in this study the epoxy resin, in which SiO2 nanoparticles was modified by a silane coupling agent, were infused to the stacked NCFs and between the layers of NCFs through the vacuum-assisted resin infusion molding (VARIM) process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0343.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reinforced-concrete moment-resisting frame; steel damper column; seismic sequence; peak response; cumulative response; cyclic degradation; passive control structure; momentary energy input
Online: 25 February 2022 (09:33:07 CET)
The steel damper column is an energy-dissipating member that is suitable for reinforced concrete (RC) buildings, and those used for multistory housing in particular. However, the effectiveness of steel damper columns may be affected by the behavior of surrounding members, and this effect can be severe in the case of seismic sequences. This article investigates the nonlinear response of building models having an RC moment-resisting frame (MRF) with and without steel damper columns under seismic sequences. The applicability of the concept of the momentary energy input to the prediction of the peak response of RC MRFs with damper columns under seismic sequences is also investigated. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows. (1) The peak response of RC MRFs with damper columns subjected to sequential accelerations is similar to the peak response obtained considering only the mainshock, whereas the cumulative strain energy of RC MRFs accumulates more for sequential accelerations. (2) The steel damper column is effective in reducing the peak and cumulative responses of RC MRFs in the case of sequential seismic input. (3) The relation of the hysteretic dissipated energy during a half cycle of the structural response and the peak displacement of the first modal response can be properly evaluated using the simple model proposed in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0417.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: heating and cooling of injection mold; melt flow control; carbon fiber reinforced semi-aromatic polyamide; fiber orientation; bending strength; weld line; crystallization
Online: 21 January 2021 (12:29:40 CET)
Fiber reinforced thermoplastics (FRTP), which is reinforced with glass or carbon fibers, are used to improve the mechanical strength of injection-molded products. However, FRTP has problems such as the formation of weld lines, the deterioration of the appearance due to the exposure of fibers on the molded product surface, and the deterioration of the strength of molded products due to the fiber orientation in the molded products. We have designed and fabricated an injection mold capable of melt flow control and induction heating and cooling that has the functions of both heating and cooling the injection mold as well as the function of controlling the melt flow direction using a movable core pin. In this study, the above-mentioned mold was used for the molding of carbon fiber reinforced semi-aromatic polyamide. As a result, we found that increasing the heating temperature of the mold and increasing melt flow control volume contribute to the prevention of the generation of a weld line and the exposure of fibers on the molded product surface, as well as to the formation of a flat surface and increased bending strength. The relationships of these results with the carbon fiber orientation in the molded products and the crystallization of semi-aromatic polyamide were also examined in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: beam-column joint; fibre-based section modeling; joint shear hinge; substandard beam-column joints; stiffness and strength deterioration; reinforced concrete; seismic vulnerability; risk
Online: 4 October 2022 (10:38:02 CEST)
The paper discusses how joint damage and deterioration affect the seismic response of existing reinforced concrete frames with sub-standard beam-column joints. The available simplified modeling techniques are critically reviewed to propose a robust, yet computationally efficient technique for simulating the nonlinear behavior of substandard beam-column joints. Improvements over the existing models include simulation of the cyclic deterioration of joint stiffness and strength as well as pinching in the hysteretic response, implemented considering a deteriorating hysteretic rule. A fibre-section forced-based inelastic beam-column element is developed; considering improved material models and fixed-end rotation due to bond failure, rebars-slip and inelastic extension, to simulate the deteriorating cyclic behavior of existing pre-cracked beam-column members. For the assessment of frames with substandard exterior beam-column joints, a nonlinear model for the exterior joint is developed and validated through a full-scale quasi-static cyclic test performed on a substandard T-joint connection. The proposed model allows considering structural performance in risk assessment while accounting for true inelastic mechanisms at the joints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0395.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: polymeric composite drilling; GFRP reinforced with Ti interlayers; hole drilling quality; delaminations; defect severity prediction; ANN based prognosis of the quality; tool geometry and machining conditions.
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:32:05 CET)
The main purpose of this study was to develop a model for predicting the quality of holes drilled in the root part of a spar of helicopter main rotor blades made of the Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP)-Ti multilayer polymer composite. As the main quality criterion, delaminations at the entry and exit of the drill from the hole were taken. In the experimental study a conventional drill and two modified geometry drills: a double-point angle drill and a dagger drill were used. Preliminary experiments showed the best hole quality when using modified drills, which allowed further detailed study only with both modified drills at different drilling speeds and feed rates. Its results in the form of training sets were used to build the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to predict delamination at the entry and exit of drilled holes. The analysis of the fitted response functions, presented as 3D surfaces plots and superimposed contour plots, made it possible to choose the better tool - a double-point angle drill and determine the optimal area for drilling speed and feed rates, confirming that the prediction of the quality and productivity of machining composites based on ANN is an effective tool to search and quantify the quality criteria of such technologies.