BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0111.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Animal reservoirs; Leptospirosis; recreational area; rodents; Malaysia
Online: 10 October 2022 (02:56:52 CEST)
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease that is transmitted worldwide through infected small mammals such as rodents. In Malaysia, there is paucity of information on the animal reservoirs that are responsible for leptospirosis transmission, with only few studies focusing on leptospirosis risk in recreational areas. Therefore, in this study, we characterized the species composition and the prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in non-volant small mammals of Hutan Lipur Sekayu, Terengganu. We performed ten trapping sessions totaling 3,000 trapping efforts between September 2019 and October 2020. Kidney samples from captured individuals were extracted for the PCR detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Overall, we captured 45 individuals from 8 species (1.56% successful trapping effort), with 9 individuals testing positive for pathogenic Leptospira, that is 20% (n = 9/45) prevalence rate. Rattus tiomanicus (n = 22) was the most dominant captured species and was found to harbour the highest positive individual with pathogenic Leptospira (44.4%, n = 4/9). Despite the low successful trapping effort in this study, the result shows that the non-volant small mammals of Hutan Lipur Sekayu are capable of maintaining and transmitting pathogenic Leptospira, thus making this recreational area a potential infestation ground for leptospirosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0634.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Recreational water, spa, thermal water, innovative treatment
Online: 26 October 2018 (15:09:47 CEST)
Natural spa springs are diffused all over the world and their use in pools is known since ancient times. This review underlines the cultural and social spa context focusing on hygiene issues, public health guidelines and emerging concerns regarding water management in wellness or recreational settings. The question of the "untouchability" of therapeutic natural waters and their incompatibility with traditional disinfection processes is addressed considering the demand for effective treatments that would respect the natural properties. Available strategies and innovative treatments are reviewed, highlighting potentials and limits for a sustainable management. Alternative approaches comprise nanotechnologies, photocatalysis systems, advanced filtration. State of the art and promising perspectives are reported considering the chemical-physical component and the biological natural complexity of the spa water microbiota.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1357.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Recreational activities; water quality parameters; contamination; variation; Plettenberg Bay
Online: 21 August 2023 (03:09:55 CEST)
This study aimed to analyse the variation of recreational water quality in Plettenberg Bay in an attempt to comprehend the effects of pollution on the environment, and more specifically the potential impacts on the quality of surface water used for recreational activities. Plettenberg Bay is a major destination for tourists in South Africa, with recreational water activities representing an important attraction. For this study, data were obtained from Bitou Municipality, the local au-thority in charge of the water monitoring program in Plettenberg Bay. The selected datasets contained water quality data collected by the Bitou Municipality waterworks department in three sampling sites in Plettenberg Bay. The samples were tested for six water quality parameters namely, Ammonia, Suspended Solids, Conductivity, Nitrates/Nitrites, pH, and E coli. Water quality trends appeared stabile over the five years, with only a few parameters showing variation in their concentration levels. It is recommended that the Bitou Municipality increase the sampling frequency to allow a clearer understanding of water quality variation and to minimise potential uncertainties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0186.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Retail centers; interactional activities; recreational activities; urban social sustainability
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:10:26 CET)
Retails and shopping centers have become essential to today’s lifestyle. Furthermore, as modern shopping venues, retail centers' social role contributes to its popularity and profitability. The social motive of customers for shopping is beyond acquiring their crucial purchases. These advantages favor retail centers and improve the level of social sustainability and its relevant concepts. Given that relatively little study has been studied on the impact of retail centers' social role as places for interactional and recreational activities on customers' behavior in these centers and its relation to social sustainability. Two hypotheses were raised that show the effect of time travel duration and shop variety on increasing the percentage of users who spend their leisure time and recreational activities in two analogous retail centers. The result of research regarding the first hypothesis reveals that there is an interaction between time travel duration and shoppers' motivation. Furthermore, the results revealed that half of both retail center goers who spend more than 10 minutes to arrive at the retail centers prefer to do leisure activities and browsing than shopping. Therefore, the majority of individuals are from further distances, indicating longer trips can be one of the factors for willing to spend more leisure time and recreational activities. The second hypothesis reveals that shop variety can be one of the main reasons for attracting users to spend their leisure time and browse in both retail centers. There is a significant correlation between shop variety and customers’ motivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0331.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Alien Tiles; Coding Theory; Lights Out; Recreational Mathematics; Abstract Algebra
Online: 24 June 2022 (05:13:05 CEST)
The switching game Lights Out and its variants were studied extensively as recreational mathematics problems. The game board of the ordinary Lights Out is a rectangular grid of lights, where each light is either on or off. By clicking a light, the clicked light and its adjacent rectilinear neighbors are toggled. Given an arbitrary initial configuration of lights, the final mission is to “solve” this game by switching off all the lights. Most studies on Lights Out and its variants focused on the solvability of given games or the number of solvable games, but when the game is viewed in a coding-theoretical perspective, more interesting questions with special meanings in coding theory will naturally pop up, such as finding the minimal number of lit lights among all solvable games except the solved game, or finding the minimal number of lit lights that the player can achieve from a given unsolvable game, etc. However, these problems are usually hard to be solved in general in terms of algorithmic complexity. This study considers a natural extension of the Lights Out game, which enlarges the toggle pattern in a way that all the lights in the same row and those in the same column of the clicked light are toggled. This variant of Lights Out is a two-state version of a switching game called Alien Tiles. In this paper, we investigate the properties of the two-state Alien Tiles, and discuss several coding-theoretical problems about this game. Then, we apply this game as an error correction code and investigate its optimality. We also give a brief overview on algorithmic complexity and coding theory for readers who are not familiar with these topics. The purpose of this paper is to propose ways of playing switching games in a think-outside-the-box manner, which benefit the recreational mathematics community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0359.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Drinking water; rapid sand filtration; Recreational areas; Exposure; Microcystis and Dolichospermum; Microcystins
Online: 25 July 2022 (08:16:59 CEST)
Africa’s water needs are often supported by eutrophic waterbodies dominated by cyanobacteria posing health threats to riparian populations from cyanotoxins, and Lake Victoria is no exception. In two embayments of the lake (Murchison Bay and Napoleon Gulf), cyanobacterial surveys were conducted to characterize the dynamics of cyanotoxins in lake water and water treatment plants. Forty-six cyanobacterial taxa were recorded and out of these 14 were considered potentially toxigenic (i.e., from the genera Dolichospermum, Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Pseudanabaena and Raphidiopsis). A higher concentration (ranging from 5-10 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1) of microcystins (MCs) was detected in Murchison Bay compared to Napoleon Gulf, with a declining gradient from the inshore (max. 15 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1) to the open lake. In Murchison Bay, an increase either in Microcystis sp. biovolume and MC was observed over the last two decades. Despite high cell densities of toxigenic Microcystis and high MC concentrations, the water treatment plant in Murchison Bay efficiently removed the cyanobacterial biomass, intracellular and dissolved MC to below the lifetime guideline value for exposure via drinking water (< 1.0 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1). Thus, the potential health threats stem from the consumption of untreated water and recreational activities, along the shores of the lake embayments. MC concentrations were predicted from Microcystis cell numbers regulated by environmental factors such as solar radiation, wind speed in the N-S direction and turbidity. Thus, an early warning through microscopical counting of Microcystis cell numbers is proposed to better manage health risks from toxigenic cyanobacteria in Lake Victoria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Forest ecosystem services; Tourism; Recreational activities; Health; Methodological framework; Nature park; Protected area
Online: 3 March 2023 (13:31:15 CET)
Payments for Ecosystem Services are a voluntary market-based instrument to remunerate provider(s) of ecosystem services by those who benefit from them. Our research aimed to create an ex-post evaluation framework to identify bottlenecks and elements hindering the success of a solution-driven PES scheme. The framework was applied to a case study to test its feasibility and concerns the provision of health and recreational services in the Medvednica Nature Park (Zagreb, Croatia). The framework was set up through three main sources: the study of PES implementation project documentation, semi-structured interviews with visitors and key stakeholders and web-scraping of TripAdvisor reviews of the park. The main findings confirmed society's interest in the park, but the lack of mapping, quantification, economic valuation and accounting of the services analysed, society's little or no demand to pay for their provision and confused knowledge of the property rights of some ecosystem service providers in the area limit the success of the PES scheme. The framework was useful to describe the chosen PES scheme and to identify bottlenecks and fragilities of the system in place, allowing to correct its application flaws and, on the other hand, to demonstrate its replicability in other contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0086.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: contigent valuvation; Black Twin Lake of Abdanan; Recreational Value; Willingness to Pay; Logit Model
Online: 3 August 2021 (14:47:59 CEST)
As one of the unique destinations in Iran, Abdanan Black Twin Lake attracts many tourists yearly. Among striking features is the presence of minerals, boiling springs, and its beautiful landscape. Human beings are willing to spend money on such natural resources. An economic valuation can be interfered constructively and positively in improving environmental policies. So, quantifying these benefits is of the utmost importance. The paper mainly estimated the tourists' willingness to pay and their recreational value using the contingent valuation method. Random sampling was conducted on 384 people using the two-dimensional double-choice questionnaire in spring 2019. In the Twin Lake Recreational Value Questionnaire, the main questions were devoted to the visitors' willingness to pay, with three bids of 0.07 $, 0.14 $, and 0.22$. Among 384 respondents, 304 (79%) were willing to pay for recreational use of the lake, and 80 respondents (21%) were not. The likelihood, the model's parameters were estimated. The findings indicated the average tourists' willingness to pay for recreational value was estimated at 0.09$ per visit and the recreational value of this lake for each household was estimated at 0.40$. The findings revealed the effect of education, household income, household size and tourists' willingness to pay was significant.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0115.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: beaches; coastal avifauna; ecotourism; migratory birds; recreation ecology; recreational disturbance; shorebirds; tourism development; wetlands
Online: 11 September 2019 (05:17:14 CEST)
This data descriptor summarizes the process applied to identify, screen, select and gather data from the content of 142 peer-reviewed papers/sources that report on the sources and impacts of recreational disturbance on coastal avifauna. While populations of resident and migratory coastal avifauna are under threat and diminishing rapidly across the planet, and particularly in association with Asian flyways, many governments are leveraging booming global demand for coastal recreation and tourism in order to deliver economic development to regional communities. The summary data shared via this data description was extracted from papers collected in a systematic literature review that was designed to explore the global literature on the recreational disturbance of coastal avifauna in order to elucidate the state of the global knowledge regarding this issue and to identify management strategies that could be applied at tropical Asian destinations to minimize the impacts of recreational disturbance and thus enhance the ecological sustainability of coastal recreation and tourism across the region. The data shared via the Excel worksheet associated with this data descriptor was extracted from peer-reviewed articles published in English between 1 January 2000 and the 31 December 2018 with the full text of the article available online. These articles were found by searching several online indexing several databases including Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0336.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: noise of baseball stadium; recreational noise exposure; survey of noise exposure; noise-induced hearing loss
Online: 29 October 2019 (10:52:24 CET)
This study measures the noise levels in a baseball stadium and analyzes baseball fans’ attitude of effect of recreational noise exposure on their hearing. In the baseball stadium, noise levels were measured in four seating sections using a sound level meter during the games. The LAeq average of the 16 measures produced 91.7 dBA, showing a significantly high noise level in the red and navy sections. As a function of frequency by LZeq analysis, the noise levels were significantly higher in low frequencies than other frequencies. For the survey sample, 688 randomly selected participants completed a 16-question survey on their noise exposure during the game and on the potential risk of hearing loss. Despite the very high noise levels, 70% of the respondents preferred sitting in either the red or the navy section to be closer to the cheerleaders and to obtain a good view. Most respondents reported that they did not consider wearing earplugs, and one-third experienced hearing muffled speech after the game. We conclude that the noise levels in baseball stadiums are high enough to cause hearing damage and/or tinnitus later, but expect these results to improve public education regarding safe noise exposure during popular sports activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Recreational fisheries fishery management; introgressive hybridization; stocking; non-native species; allochthonous species; trout fishing; trout taxonomy
Online: 23 February 2022 (03:09:39 CET)
During the last 150 years, the trout-culture industry focused on enhancing trout populations by stocking, in response to the growing anglers’ demand and the habitat degradation associated to the rapid urbanization and hydropower development. The industrialized north of Italy, home to the Italian Alpine and subalpine trout populations, is the source of most of the revenues of the national trout-culture industry. Its rapid growth and the massive introduction of non-native interfertile trouts eroded the genetic diversity of native lineages, leading to harsh confrontations between scientists, institutions, and sportfishing associations. We review here the state of art of the taxonomy and distribution of the northern Italian native trouts, presenting both scientific results and historical documentation. We think the only native trouts in this region are Salmo marmoratus, widespread in this region, plus small and fragmented populations of S. ghigii, present only in the Southwestern Alps. We strongly recommend the interruption of stocking of domesticated interfertile non-native trouts in this area, and recommend the adoption of Evolutionary Significant Units for salmonid fishery management. We further propose future research directions for a sustainable approach to the conservation and ecosystem management of the fishery resources and inland waters of northern Italy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1599.v1
Subject: Environmental Science, Environmental And Earth Sciences Keywords: recreational harbour; harbor sediment; monitoring; hydrodynamic model; waste water; indicator; policy; Baltic Sea; Hanse Sail Rostock; Kiel Week
Online: 25 September 2023 (04:16:40 CEST)
The macro-litter (plastic) sea bottom pollution of 14 city harbors and marinas in North Africa and in the western Baltic Sea was investigated using a new simple mobile underwater camera system. The study was complemented by a harbor manager survey and 3D-hydrodynamic transport simulations. The average pollution in German marinas was 0.1 particles/m² sea floor (0.04–1.75). The pollution in North African marinas on average was 7 times higher (0.7 particles/m²) and exceeded 3 particles/m² in city center harbors. The resulting >100,000 litter particles per harbor indicate the existence of a problem. With 73%-74%, plastic particles are dominating. Existing legal and management frameworks explain the lack of plastic bottles and bags on sea floors in Germany and are one reason for the lower pollution levels. Items that indicate the role of untreated sewage water were not found. Harbor festivals seem not to be quantitatively relevant for open sea bottom pollution. Our method tends to underestimate the pollution level. Model simulations indicate that storms can cause litter reallocations and sediment cleanings. However, marina sea floor monitoring is recommendable, because it addresses pollution hot-spots, is cost-effective and takes place close to emission sources. Further, the effectiveness of land-based pollution reduction measures can easily be assessed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Recreational substance abuse; drug abuse; marijuana; amphetamine; acute ischemic stroke; risk factors; young adult; NIS; Stroke; Sudden Cardiac Death
Online: 27 September 2022 (09:41:00 CEST)
Background: Substance use continues to be on the rise in the United States and has been linked to new onset cardiovascular (CVDs) and cerebrovascular disorders (CeVDs) leading to hospitalizations. We aimed to study the association of different subtypes of substance use disorders (SUDs) among hospitalized patients, with the different subtypes of CVDs and CeVDs, using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database. Additionally, we aimed to assess the odds of hospitalizations with new onset CVDs and CeVDs among patients with different types of SUDs. Methods: A retrospective study of the NIS database (2016-2017) using the ICD-10-CM codes was performed. The hospitalizations with a secondary diagnosis of SUDs were identified. Weighted univariate analysis using the chi-square test and multivariate survey logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate for the incidence, prevalence, and odds of association between vascular events and SUDs. Results: There were a total of 58,259,589 hospitalizations, out of which 21.42% had SUDs. Out of all the hospitalized patients between the age 18-50, more patients had SUDs than not (31.83%, p< 0.0001). This difference existed for all the different subtypes of SUDs including alcohol related disorder (42.61%), amphetamine dependence (76.17% vs 31.83%), cannabis related disorder (75.17%), cocaine related disorders (57.87%), hallucinogen related disorder (82.91%), inhalant related disorders (67.25%), opioid related disorders (52.86%), and nicotine dependence (35.72%). We found a significant association of acute ischemic stroke with amphetamine dependence (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.14-1.33), cocaine related disorders (1.17, 1.12-1.23) and nicotine dependence (1.42, 1.40-1.43). Similarly, the association of intracerebral hemorrhage was higher with amphetamine dependence (2.58, 2.26-2.93), and cocaine related disorders (1.62, 1.46-1.79). The association of subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted to be higher with amphetamine dependence (1.82, 1.48-2.24) and nicotine dependence (1.47, 1.39-1.55). In terms of association of cardiovascular disorders with SUDs,the patients with myocardial infarction had higher odds of nicotine dependence (1.85, 1.83-1.87) than not, Similarly, the patients with angina pectoris were noted to have a higher association with cocaine related disorders (2.21, 1.86-2.62), and those with atrial fibrillation had a higher association alcohol related disorders (1.14, 1.11-1.17). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the variability of CVD and CeVD in patients hospitalized for SUD. Findings from our study may help promote increased awareness and early management of these events. Further studies are needed to evaluate specific effects of frequency and dose on the incidence and prevalence of CVD and CeVD in patients with SUD.