ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0157.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: Guru-Shishya parampara; gharana; Indian Classical Music; MFDFA; MFDXA
Online: 15 April 2019 (10:46:10 CEST)
Indian classical music is entirely based on the “Raga” structures. In Indian classical music, a “Gharana” or school refers to the adherence of a group of musicians to a particular musical style of performing a raga. The objective of this work was to find out if any characteristic acoustic cues exist which discriminates a particular gharana from the other. Another intriguing fact is if the artists of the same gharana keep their singing style unchanged over generations or evolution of music takes place like everything else in nature. In this work, we chose to study the similarities and differences in singing style of some artists from at least four consecutive generations representing four different gharanas using robust non-linear methods. For this, alap parts of a particular raga sung by all the artists were analyzed with the help of non linear multifractal analysis (MFDFA and MFDXA) technique. The spectral width obtained from the MFDFA method gives an estimate of the complexity of the signal whereas the cross correlation coefficient obtained from the MFDXA technique gives the degree of correlation between two nonlinear time series. The observations give a cue in the direction to the scientific recognition of “Guru-Shisya Parampara” (teacher-student tradition)—a hitherto much-heard philosophical term. Moreover the variation in the complexity patterns among various gharanas will give a hint of the characteristic feature of that particular gharana as well as the effect of globalization in the field of classical music happening through past few decades.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cytosolic phospholipase A2; electron microscopy; C2 domain; Golgi; membrane bending; membrane curvature; oligomerization
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:10:52 CET)
Group IV phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) regulates the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes via the formation of arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids. The targeting and membrane binding of cPLA2α to the Golgi involves the N-terminal C2 domain whereas the catalytic domain produces arachidonic acid. Although most studies of cPLA2α concern its catalytic activity, it is also linked to homeostatic processes involving the generation of vesicles that traffic material from the Golgi to the plasma membrane. Here we investigate how membrane curvature influences the homeostatic role of cPLA2α in vesicular trafficking. The cPLA2α C2 domain is known to induce changes in positive membrane curvature, a process which is dependent on cPLA2α membrane penetration. We show that cPLA2α undergoes C2 domain-dependent oligomerization on membranes in vitro and in A549 cells. We found that the association of the cPLA2α C2 domain with membranes is limited to membranes with positive curvature, and enhanced C2 domain oligomerization was observed on vesicles ~50 nm in diameter. We demonstrated that the cPLA2α C2 domain generates cholesterol enriched Golgi-derived vesicles independently of cPLA2α catalytic activity. Our results therefore provide novel insight into the molecular forces that mediate C2 domain-dependent membrane localization in vitro and in cells.