ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0163.v2
Online: 24 March 2022 (14:30:25 CET)
Soil erosion and sediment transport are quite complex processes as they depend on physical, biological, mechanical, and chemical processes within a particular catchment. Therefore, it is highly essential to better explain engaged physical processes and means of accounting for site-specific conditions, for soil loss and sediment yield estimation. This paper mainly focuses on physical explanations behind soil erosion and common soil erosion models like Universal or Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation(USLE/RUSLE) and Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation(MUSLE). Based on the physical explanations and overall limitations, the MUSLE is selected for the application of sediment yield estimation. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the best exponent of the MUSLE, and to estimate the best combination of the exponent and topographic factor of the MUSLE under hydro-climatic conditions of Ethiopia. For the sake of calibration procedure, the main parameters of the MUSLE which directly affect soil erosion process such as cover, conservation practice, soil erodibility, and topographic factors are estimated based on the past experiences from literature and comparative approaches, whereas the other parameters which do not directly affect the erosion process or which have no any physical meaning (i.e coefficient a and exponent b) are estimated through calibration. It is verified that the best exponent of the MUSLE is 1 irrespective of the topographic factor, which results in the maximum performance of the MUSLE (i.e approximately 100\%). For the best combination of the exponent and topographic factor, the performance of the MUSLE is greater than or equal to 80\% for all four watersheds under our consideration, we expect the same for other watersheds of Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0298.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Soil erosion; GIS; RUSLE model; Iraq
Online: 16 November 2022 (08:17:28 CET)
Abstract: The empirical soil loss model, RUSLE, was used with a conjunction of remotely sensed data and geographic information system technology to delineate the soil erosion and watershed priorities in terms of conservation practices at seven boundary sub-watersheds (labeled as SW-00, SW-01, …, SW-06) between Iraq and Iran at Ali Al-Gharbi area, southern Iraq. The six factors of the RUSLE model, ie. the rainfall erosivity, the soil erodibility, the slope steepness length, the crop management, and management practice, were calculated or estimated using information from different data sources such as remotely sensed data and previous studies. The finding showed that the annual soil erosion loss ranges from 0 - 1890 (tons h-1 y-1) with an average of 0.66 (tons h-1 y-1). Values of soil erosion were classified into five classes: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. The potential soil loss in the high and very high classes ranges from 14.84 to 1890 (tons h-1 y-1), and these classes occupy only 27 km2 of the study area, indicating that the soil loss is very low in the area being examined. In terms of the spatial distribution of soil loss, the northern and northeastern parts (mountains and hills) of the sub-watersheds where the slope is steeper are more likely to erode than the plain area in the southern and southeastern portions, indicating that slope, in addition to rainfall erosivity, has a dominant effect on the soil erosion rate. The study of soil erosion in the watersheds under consideration reveals that only the northern portions of the SW-00, SW-02, and SW-04 watersheds require high priority conservation plans; however, these portions are primarily located in mountain regions, making conservation plans implementation in these areas impractical. Due to low soil loss, other sub-watersheds, particularly SW-01, SW-03, SW-05, and SW-06, are given low priority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0480.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: GIS; RUSLE; Sediment Yield; Spatial Variation; Temporal Variation
Online: 22 February 2021 (14:57:30 CET)
Sediment accumulation in a dam reservoir is a common happening environmental problem throughout the world. Topographic conditions, land use land cover change, the intensity of rainfall, and the soil characteristics are the major driving factors for sedimentation to occur. The effect of sedimentation in a dam reservoir is very visible in the watershed as a result of hilly topographic conditions, high rainfall intensity, thin land cover, and less soil infiltration capacity. In this paper, an integrated RUSLE and GIS technique was implemented to estimate a mean annual sediment yield based on spatial and temporal variations in Nashe dam reservoir situated in Fincha catchment, Abaya River basin, Ethiopia. Spatial and temporal estimation of mean annual sediment yield was estimated using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model and GIS. Historical 6-year (2014-2019) rainfall for the temporal variations and other physical factors such as soil erodibility, slope and length steepness, management and land used land cover, and support practice for spatial variations were used as sediment driving factors. The mean annual sediment yield ranges from 0 to 2712.65 t ha-1 year-1 was seen. Spatially, Very high, high, moderate, low, and very low sediment yield severity with total area coverage with 25%, 10%, 30%, 15%, and 20% in 2017, 2015, 2019, 2014, and 2018 respectively. The information about the spatial and temporal variations of the severity of sediment yield in RUSLE model has a paramount role to control the entry of sediment into the dam reservoir in this watershed. The results of the RUSLE model can also be further considered along with the watershed for planning strategies for dam reservoirs in the catchment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0082.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: soil erosion; land cover change; RUSLE; the northeastern
Online: 4 September 2020 (05:00:23 CEST)
Impact of land use and land cover (LULC) change on soil erosion is still imperfectly understood, especially in northeastern China (NEC). Based on the Revised Universal Loss Equation (RUSLE), the variability of soil erosion at different spatial scales following land use changes in1980, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2017 was analyzed. The regionally spatial patterns of soil loss coincided with the topography, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, and use patterns, and around 45% soil loss came from arable land. Regionally, soil erosion rates increased from 1980 to 2010 and decreased from 2010 to 2017, ranging from 3.91 to 4.45 t ha-1 yr-1 with an average of 4.22 t ha-1 yr-1 in 1980-2017. The rates of soil erosion less than 1.41 t ha-1 yr-1 decreased from 1980 to 2010, and increased from 2010 to 2017, and opposite changing patterns occurred in higher erosion classes (i.e., above 5 t ha-1 yr-1). At a provincial scale, Liaoning Province experienced the highest soil erosion rate of 9.43 t ha-1 yr-1, followed by Jilin Province, the east Inner Mongolia, and Heilongjing Province. Arable land continuously increased at the expense of forest in the high-elevation and steep-slope areas from 1980 to 2010, and decreased from 2010 to 2017, resulting in increased areas with erosion rates higher than 7.05 t ha-1 yr-1. At a county scale, around 75% of the countries had soil erosion rate higher than its tolerance level. The county numbers with higher erosion rate increased in 1980-2010 and decreased in 2010- 2017, resulting from the sprawl and withdrawal of arable land. The results indicate that appropriate policies can control soil loss through limiting arable land sprawl in areas of unfavorable regions in the NEC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0526.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: RUSLE; Quantification; Severity; Significant Factors; Soil Erosion; Soil Loss
Online: 23 February 2021 (15:54:25 CET)
The quantity of soil loss as a result of soil erosion is dramatically increasing in catchment where land resources management is very weak. In this paper, a RUSLE model-based soil loss quanti-fication technique is presented to estimate the annual soil loss and identify the severity of the erosion in the catchment. This study uses Fincha catchment in Abay river basin as the study area to quantify the annual soil loss by implementing Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model developed in ArcGIS version 10.4. Digital Elevation Model (12.5 x 12.5), LANDSAT 8 of Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), Annual Rainfall of 10 stations and soil maps of the catchment were used as input parameters to generate the significant factors. Rainfall erosivity factor (R), soil erodibility factor (K), cover and management factor (C), slope length and steepness factor (LS) and support practice factor (P) were used as soil loss quantification significant factors. A model builder for the RUSLE model was developed and raster map calcula-tion algebra was applied in ArcGIS version 10.4 to quantify the total annual soil loss. It was found that the quantified average annual soil loss ranges from 0.0 to 76.5 t ha-1 yr-1 was obtained in the catchment. The area coverage of soil erosion severity with 55%, 35% and 10% as low to moderate, high and very high respectively were identified. The information about the spatial variation of soil loss severity map generated in RUSLE model has a paramount role to alert land resources man-agers and all stakeholders in controlling the effects via implementation of both structural and non-structural mitigations. The results of the RUSLE model can also be further considered along with the catchment for practical soil loss quantification that can help for protection practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0435.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Soil Erosion Estimation; Quantitative Calculation; RUSLE; Remote Sensing; GIS
Online: 16 November 2020 (16:19:22 CET)
The accurate assessment and monitoring of soil erosion is of great significance for guiding food production and ensuring ecological security, and it is a current research hotspot. In this paper, remote sensing and geographic information systems (GISs) are combined with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model) to carry out research on soil erosion monitoring and make a quantitative evaluation. According to five factors, including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, topography, vegetation cover, crop management and water and soil conservation measures, the distribution of the soil erosion rate in Jilin Province in 2019 was mapped, and the soil erosion rate was divided into 5 levels according to the degree of erosion, including very slight, slight, moderate, severe and extremely severe erosion. Based on the segmented S-slope factor model and the unique topographical features of the study area, the relationships among the soil erosion rate, erosion risk level, erosion area, erosion amount and slope angle (θ) were systematically analysed, and a slope angle of 15° was identified as the threshold for soil erosion on sloped farmland in Jilin Province. The total soil erosion in Jilin Province was 402.14×106 t in 2019, the average soil erosion rate was 21.6 t·ha-1·a-1, and the average soil loss thickness was 1.6 mm·a-1; these values were far greater than the soil erosion rate risk threshold of 10 t ·Ha-1·a-1. Thus, the province has a strong level of soil erosion. We conclude that soil degradation is accelerating, and food production and the ecological environment will face severe challenges. It is suggested that soil erosion control should be carried out according to different types and slopes of land, with an emphasis on the management of forestland and farmland because forestland and farmland are currently the first types of land to be managed in Jilin Province. This paper aims to explore a timely, fast, efficient and convenient soil erosion monitoring and evaluation method and provide effective monitoring tools for agricultural water and soil conservation, ecological safety management and stable food production in Jilin Province and similar black soil areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0072.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: LULCC; SWC; soil erosion risk; Erer Sub-Basin; RUSLE; ArcGIS; SWC; MCDR
Online: 6 August 2019 (09:03:58 CEST)
Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is a critical factor for enhancing the soil erosion risk and land degradation process in the Wabi Shebelle Basin. Up-to-date spatial and statistical data on basin-wide erosion rates can provide an important basis for planning and conservation of soil and water ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to examine the magnitude of LULCC and consequent changes in the spatial extent of soil erosion risk, and identify priority areas for Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) in the Erer Sub-Basin, Wabi Shebelle Basin, Ethiopia. The soil loss rates were estimated using an empirical prediction model of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) outlined in the ArcGIS environment. The estimated total annual actual soil loss at the sub-basin level was 1.01 million tons in 2000 and 1.52 million tons in 2018 with a mean erosion rate of 75.85 t ha–1 y–1 and 107.07 t ha–1 y–1, respectively. The most extensive soil loss rates were estimated in croplands and bare land cover, with a mean soil loss rate of 37.60 t ha–1 y–1 and 15.78 t ha−1 y−1, respectively. The soil erosion risk has increased by 18.28% of the total area, and decreased by 15.93%, showing that the overall soil erosion situation is worsening in the study area. We determined SWC priority areas using the Multi-Criteria Decision Rule (MCDR) approach, indicates that the top three levels identified for intense SWC account for about 2.50%, 2.38%, and 2.14%, respectively. These priority levels are typically situated along the steep slopes in Babile, Fedis, Fik, Gursum, Gola Oda, Haramaya, Jarso, and Kombolcha districts that need emergency SWC measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0101.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: RUSLE model; GIS; soil water erosion; integrated approach; sustainable development; land degradation; vulnerable areas; soil loss rate
Online: 6 February 2023 (10:51:54 CET)
Soil erosion is one of the most important environmental problems which can have various negative consequences, such as land degradation affecting the sustainable development and the agricultural production, especially for developing countries like Tunisia. Moreover, soil erosion is a major problem around the world because of its effects on soil fertility by nutriment loss and siltation in water bodies. Apart from this, soil erosion by water is the most serious type of land loss in several regions both locally and globally. This study evaluated regional soil erosion risk through the derivation of appropriate factors, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), which was applied to establish a soil erosion risk map of the whole Tunisian territory and to identify the vulnerable areas of the country. RUSLE model take into account all the factors playing a major role in erosion processes, namely the erodibility of soils, topography, land use, rainfall erosivity and anti-erosion farming practices. The equation is thus implemented under Geographic Information System (GIS) “Arc GIS Desktop”. The results indicated that Tunisia has a serious risk of soil water erosion, showing that 6.43% of the total area of the country is affected by a very high soil loss rate estimated at more than 30 t/ha/year and 4.20% are affected by high mean annual soil loss ranging from 20 to 30 t/ha/year. The most eroded areas were identified in west southern, central and western parts of the country. The spatial erosion map can be used as a decision support document to guide decision-makers towards better land management and provide the opportunity to develop management strategies for soil erosion prevention and control in the global scale of Tunisia.