ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0369.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Security practice; Healthcare; Questionnaire design; Questionnaire pretesting
Online: 20 December 2022 (14:58:41 CET)
Questionnaires are useful instruments for gathering responses to specific factual questions. However, the problems of questionnaire responses impede the effective use of the questionnaire. Some of these problems including non-responses, non-completion, issues of judgement, and social desirability such as information that the respondent is not willing to disclose need to be dealt with. The situation is more compounded in a scenario where an information security practice study in a typical hospital consists of broad categories of respondents and the survey findings are to be relied on to actually address information security compliance issues. This study, therefore, shares "pitfalls" to watch when preparing a questionnaire to measure the information security practice level in a hospital which is characterized by different respondents with varying domain knowledge such as knowledge in information security, information communication technology, and that of the domain knowledge of healthcare. A synergy of a conventional pretesting method and behaviour coding were therefore used to pretest the questionnaire. Questionnaire problems including a lack of understanding of the healthcare information systems’ structure of all hospitals, unclear questions, the insignificant difference between questions, problematic questions, inadequate questions, and complex terms were among the identified pitfalls to watch. Out of a total of 118 questionnaire items that were used in the pretesting, a total of 50 questionnaire items (representing 42%) were identified to have problems after the pretesting was conducted with a total of 36 respondents in behavior coding and 21 respondents in conventional pretesting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Security practice; Healthcare; Questionnaire design; Questionnaire pretesting
Online: 17 March 2022 (08:47:36 CET)
Recent reports have it that over 85\% of data breaches are still caused by the human element, of which healthcare is one of the suitable organizations mostly targeted by cybercriminals. The work of healthcare staff is often associated with high workloads, high emergency cases, and a broad range of psychological, social, and cultural factors. The significance of these factors could undermine conscious care information security (IS) practice leading to serious violations. This study comprehensively examined the correlation between the psycho-social-cultural factors, work factors with IS and privacy behaviour in a hospital that has fully adopted electronic health records (EHR) management system. The findings are to facilitate the decision-making process towards improving the cyber-security practice in healthcare. A quantitative approach was adopted where we collected responses from 212 healthcare staff through an online questionnaire survey. A broad range of constructs was selected from psychological, social, cultural perception and work factors based on earlier review work. These were therefore related to some security practices, to assess the IS knowledge, attitude and behaviour gaps among healthcare staff in a comprehensive way. From the study, IS self-reported conscious care behaviour (ISCCB) risk was relatively higher as compared to information security knowledge (ISK) risks and information security attitude (ISA) risk. Furthermore, the study revealed that work emergency has a positive correlation with ISCCB (r=1.95, p-value =0.001) risk. Conscientiousness also had positive correlation with ISCCB risk (r=0.157, p-value=0.05) however agreeableness negatively correlated with ISK risk (r=-0.166, p-value =0.05), and ISA risk (r=-0.140, p-value =0.05). Based on these findings, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation methods combined with cutting-edge technologies can be explored to discourage IS risks behaviours while enhancing conscious care security practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0189.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: aggression questionnaire; machine learning; short-form questionnaire; adolescents
Online: 2 August 2023 (11:19:27 CEST)
For adolescents, high aggression is often associated with suicide, physical injury, worse academic performance, and crime. Therefore, there is a need for early identification and intervention for highly aggressive adolescents. The Buss-Warren Aggression Questionnaire (BWAQ) consists of 34 items, and the longer the scale, the more likely participants are to make an insufficient effort response (IER), which reduces the credibility of the results and increases the cost of implementation. The study aimed to develop a shorter BWAQ using machine learning (ML) techniques to reduce the frequency of IER and decrease implementation costs meantime. First, an initial version of the short-form questionnaire was determined using Stepwise Regression and ANOVA F-test. Then, a machine learning algorithm determined the optimal short-form questionnaire (BWAQ-ML). Finally, the reliability and validity of the optimal short-form questionnaire were tested using independent samples. The BWAQ-ML has 88% fewer items than the BWAQ. It has AUC, accuracy, recall, precision, and F1 scores of 0.85, 0.85, 0.89, 0.83, and 0.86, respectively, and good psychometric properties. The BWAQ-ML can effectively measure individual aggression and can be used as a simplified version of BWAQ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0563.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Dietary fiber; food frequency questionnaire; questionnaire screening; validation
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:22:50 CET)
Dietary fiber has been associated with health benefits, therefore, the availability of validated tools to assess food consumption associated with high-fiber foods would allow the quantification of the intake of this functional nutrient, the identification of risk groups and target populations, and the development of public policies and/or programs aimed at improving the health of the population. In this study, a fiber intake short food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was translated into Spanish and its content validity was determined by a group of experts, to subsequently conduct a pilot test including 198 subjects aged 36+12.5 years, residing in Chile (46 men and 150 women), with the purpose of quantifying dietary fiber intake. The global assessment of the FFQ revealed a validity coefficient of 0.98+0.02; after the application of the pilot, mean dietary fiber intake in adult Chilean residents was of 13 g per day, with similar results to those found in the National Food Consumption Survey 2010 (12.5 g per day in men, and 11.5 g in women). The FFQ is a quick and valid tool to classify people on the basis of their habitual dietary fiber intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Suicide; questionnaire; validity; reliability
Online: 18 November 2021 (11:17:37 CET)
Objective: Our goal is to develop an online questionnaire to survey the prevalence of suicidal behavior. Methods: We developed a questionnaire with 51 variables and proceeded with validations. Validations were performed using face validity, content validity, and construct validity. Reliability was performed by test-rest. Results: The face validity was 1.0 and the content validity was 0.91. The exploratory factor analysis got KMO = 0.86 and extracted one principal factor. The confirmatory factor analysis demonstrates RMSEA= 0.000 and CFI=1.000. The test-retest had an intraclass correlated coefficient of 0.98. Conclusion: The adequate development questionnaire was validated, and we have an instrument to survey suicide behaviors in the pandemic time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: adherence; instrument; leprosy; MDT; questionnaire
Online: 17 November 2023 (09:49:18 CET)
Adherence with multidrug therapy (MDT) is one of the keys to successful treatment of leprosy. In order to understand the treatment behavior, reasons for non-adherence, and efforts to improve medication adherence, it is necessary to use a valid and reliable instrument to measure adherence to MDT in multibacillary leprosy patients on regular basis. This study used a mixed method de-sign. The instrument development phase involved 10 experts using 4 rounds of Delphi method. Assessment items that are considered relevant are those that meet 4-5 Likert scale by a minimum of 75% of experts or meet assessment score >3.75. We did the pilot testing and the questionnaire was revised if invalid. After obtaining a valid and reliable instrument, it was tested to 100 sub-jects in 4 health centers. For internal validity test, 9 valid assessment items were obtained, with the correlation coefficient values of each item >0.3, and -Cronbach's reliability of 0.723. The instru-ment produced had sensitivity of 88.46% and specificity of 78.37%. From 100 subjects enrolled, 61% had good adherence and 39% had poor adherence based on questionnaire assessment. A valid and reliable questionnaire for evaluating adherence with MDT in Indonesian patients has been composed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1562.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Lower Urinary Tract Syndrome; LOH; Questionnaire
Online: 25 October 2023 (07:31:48 CEST)
Background Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a condition caused by the decline of testosterone with aging, and is associated with various symptoms, including lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Although some reports have shown that testosterone replacement treatment for LOH improved LUTS, no large study has revealed a correlation between LUTS and LOH. This study investigated the correlation between the severity of LOH and LUTS in Asian Japanese males of >40 years of age using a web-based questionnaire. Methods We asked a total of 2,000 Japanese male individuals to answer both the AMS and IPSS/QOL questionnaires using a web-based survey. Among these 2,000 individuals, 500 individuals were assigned to each of the following age groups: 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and ≥70 years. LOH symptoms were assessed by AMS score as no/little (17-26 points), mild (27-36 points), moderate (37-49 points), and severe (≥50 points). To compare the risk of voiding and storage dysfunction according to the severity of AMS, voiding dysfunction was assessed by the sum of IPSS Q1, Q3, Q5, and Q6, while storage dysfunction was assessed by the sum of IPSS Q2, Q4, and Q7. Results The IPSS total score was positively correlated with the severity of AMS (shown as median [mean±SD]): no/little group, 2 (3.67±5.36); mild group, 6 (7.98±6.91); moderate group, 11 (12.49±8.63); and severe group, 16 (14.83±9.24) (p<0.0001). The prevalence of an IPSS total score of ≥8 in the AMS severity groups was as follows: no/little group, 13.3% (111 of 834); mild group, 38.3% (225 of 587); moderate group, 64.2% (244 of 380); severe group, 72.4% (144/199). The prevalence of nocturia in the AMS severity groups was as follows: no/little group, 19.8% (165 of 834); mild group, 31.5% (185 of 587); moderate group, 43.9% (167 of 380); and severe group, 50.8% (101 of 199). Conclusions Individuals with higher AMS values, which represents severe LOH symptoms, showed a higher risk of nocturia and LUTS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: questionnaire development; osteoporosis; osteoporosis education; attitude; behaviors
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:37:04 CET)
This research develops the Osteoporosis Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviors Questionnaire (OKABQ) with the intent to evaluate levels of osteoporosis knowledge, attitude and behavior change. The aims of the study were to develop and validate the OKABQ; and to establish a mediation model of the research. A quantitative, descriptive, and instrumental study was conducted in two phases: Phase I—development of the scale through Delphi Method by osteoporosis experts; Phase II—evaluation of the validity and reliability of the scale and construction of a mediation model using SmartPLS. In Phase I, the content validity index (CVI) of the questionnaire was higher than 0.96 and the inter-rater reliability (IRR) kappa was 1.00. In Phase II, exploratory factor analysis showed that two predominating factors of attitude as a mediation were addressed by the 26-item OKABQ. The indirect effect results from the estimated model indicates that attitude mediates the relationship between knowledge and behaviors (β = 0.114, t = 2.627, p < 0.001), which is positive and statistically significant. We concluded that the OKABQ is a valid measure of osteoporosis knowledge, attitude and behaviors for women with osteoporosis. These assessment results could assist healthcare providers in mitigating insufficiency on health education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0484.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Eustachian tube dysfunction; ETDQ7 questionnaire; validation; cultural adaptation
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:41:03 CEST)
Eustachian Tube Dysfunction is considered a common condition among ENT patients and requires careful history, clinical examination and appropriate investigations to obtain a diagnosis. The ETDQ-7 questionnaire is a useful tool to subjectively score severity of symptoms that are related to this pathology (Appendix A). This study aimed to adapt and validate the ETDQ-7 questionnaire in Greece to ensure correct and efficient use in the outpatient setting (Appendix B). The ETDQ-7 was translated into the Greek language following appropriate methodology. Data for the main study were collected from a sample of 75 Greek patients diagnosed with ETD as well as 25 patients that did not have ETD and who served as a control group. The participants completed the adapted ETDQ-7 questionnaire and underwent a clinical examination that was statistically correlated with their ETDQ-7 answers. Face and content validity were confirmed and the questionnaire was found easy to administer and to be completed by our patients. Test-retest reliability revealed similar internal consistency for the questions and good correlation between individual items and total score. Discriminative validity confirmed statistically significant difference between the two patient groups to ensure that the Greek version of ETDQ-7 is useful to confirm the diagnosis. The Greek version of the ETDQ-7 is safe and efficient to use among a variety of investigation methods for the diagnosis of ETD in the Greek speaking population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0119.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: nosocomial infections; questionnaire; veterinarians; small Animals; nntimicrobial use.
Online: 3 July 2023 (15:19:39 CEST)
Appropriate use of perioperative antimicrobials can significantly reduce the risk of postoperative infections. However, inappropriate antimicrobial use can result in the creation of multidrug resistant bacteria, increased costs, host flora disruption, side effects, and increased risk of hospital-acquired infections This survey evaluated the current perioperative use of antimicrobials in small animals by Spanish veterinarians using a web-based questionnaire. Responses were represented using descriptive statistics and a statistical analysis of the association between demographic data and perioperative antimicrobial use was performed. Preoperative antimicrobials were administered in clean surgery by up to 68.3% of participants, 81.0% in clean-contaminated surgery and 71.3% in dirty surgery, while in the postoperative period, antimicrobials were administered by up to 86.3% of participants in clean surgery, 93.2% in clean-contaminated surgery and 87.5% in dirty surgery. Factors considered “very important” for antimicrobial selection were the degree of wound contamination, patient immunosuppression, and use of prosthesis. The most frequently used antimicrobial was beta-lactamase-resistant penicillin. Postoperative antimicrobial use was associated with participants without postgraduate training. This study highlights an overuse of antimicrobials in perioperative procedures in small animal surgery in Spain. Therefore, evidence-based guidelines and further education regarding the correct use of antimicrobial prophylaxis are recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0343.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Wasfaty Service; e-Prescription Transfer; Medicines Collection; Questionnaire
Online: 20 March 2023 (04:32:49 CET)
This study aimed to assess prescription transfer and medicines collection through Wasfaty, an electronic prescription service recently introduced in Saudi Arabia. A link to a cross-sectional online questionnaire was sent to all students and staff at the University of Jeddah, targeting beneficiaries who received e-prescriptions at the University Medical Centre (n = 2067). The questionnaire comprised 20 items under the following sections; demographics, patient perceptions and satisfaction with the Wasfaty service, and the availability of medicines. Of the 217 questionnaires received, the majority were filled by females (n = 125, 57.6%). Most were satisfied with the initial registration process of Wasfaty (n = 183, 84.1%). However, almost one-third of the participants reported that they could not find the prescribed medicines (n = 64, 29.7%), and most of them had to look for another pharmacy to obtain their treatment (n = 138, 63.9%). Respondents voiced their displeasure owing to the lack of access to certain pharmaceuticals, including anti-hypertensives and antidiabetics. This pilot study identified some challenges relating to the use of the Wasfaty service. Further attention to these challenges is required from the service providers, and a large-scale national study is warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0487.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccine; Knowledge; Attitude; perception; Survey; Questionnaire
Online: 28 November 2022 (02:48:18 CET)
Background Several vaccines have been approved for prevention of the coronavirus disease discovered on 31st December in Wuhan, China. Pakistan procured vaccines from various countries. However, the lack of knowledge and reluctance of the general population to embrace the use of the vaccines are considered to be the major determinants of the slow vaccination rate. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the willingness of the general population about their perception of the COVID-19 vaccination. Methods A cross sectional survey based on a self-structured questionnaire comprising 18 questions was conducted (from April 21-June 21) on 400 Pakistani participants to evaluate their knowledge, attitude and perception towards the COVID-19 vaccination. Chi-square independent t-test and one-way Anova including a multiple step wise linear regression were used to draw conclusions about the results. P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 400 participants responded in the KAP survey of which 46.5% were female and 53.5% were male. The mean age of participants was 36.08 years. This survey showed a poor knowledge (50.5%), a fair attitude (75.1%) and a poor perception (58.1%) towards the COVID-19 vaccination. Higher mean knowledge and attitude scores was reported in the age group 21-40, females and unmarried urban citizens. Regression analysis showed that age, education, residence and employment status influenced the knowledge and perception score to a considerable extent. Conclusions The findings reflect an inadequate knowledge and perception on the one hand but a better attitude towards the COVID-19 vaccination. This KAP survey will help in better understanding the opinion of the general population towards vaccination and will be useful for policy makers and health care authorities aiming to increase the vaccination rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0326.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: violence; young athletes; sport; self-report; questionnaire; magnitude
Online: 18 August 2022 (03:21:37 CEST)
Initiatives to safeguard athletes from interpersonal violence (IV) are rapidly growing. In Belgium, the knowledge on the magnitude of IV in sport is based on one retrospective prevalence study from 2016 (n=2.043 adults), who participated in organized sport before 18 years. Data on victimization rates in current youth sport populations are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the magnitude of IV in a sample of 769 athletes (13-21 years old), using the Violence Towards Athletes Questionnaire (VTAQ). All types of IV are prevalent in this sample, ranging from 27% (sexual violence) to 79% (psychological violence and neglect). Boys reported significantly more physical violence, while girls reported significantly more sexual violence. IV perpetrated by peer athletes was reported to the same degree as IV perpetrated by a coach (70%), while IV perpetrated by a parent in the context of sport was somewhat less common, but still prevalent (48%). These findings, including factors associated with elevated exposure rates, can serve as a baseline measurement to monitor and evaluate current and future safeguarding interventions in Belgian sport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: university students; electronic cigarettes (ECs); questionnaire survey; Slovakia
Online: 9 February 2020 (14:37:40 CET)
Young adults are more likely to have experimented with electronic cigarettes (EC) and underestimate their risks. The on-line survey adapted from American Survey on Tobacco and Alternative Tobacco Products included questions about the personal use of EC, perceptions about the harms and their role in disease causation, education and cessation training and practices related to classical cigarettes (CC), electronic cigarettes (EC) and alternative tobacco products (ATP). The questionnaire filled in 577 medical students (71.9% women) from Comenius University in Bratislava, the average age was 23±2yrs. The sample comprised of 486 (84.2%) Slovak and 91 (15.8%) foreign students; 385 were (66.7%) non-smokers, 111 (19.3%) ex-smokers and 81 (14 %) current smokers. EC currently use 13.5 % medical students, more males than females (22.2% vs 10.12%; OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.55−4.13), more foreign students than Slovak students (24.2% vs 11.52; OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.41−4.26), more smokers of classical cigarettes than non-smokers (46.9% vs 8.06%; OR 10.07, 95% CI 5.85−17.34). EC seems to be less harmful to 59.97 % students, mostly in the age groups ≤ 24 (61.76% vs 51.49%; OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03−2.07), 41.25% of students consider EC to be less addictive, 55.6% think they do not get enough education on EC during their medical study. The results show the high consumption of tobacco products and the lack of knowledge and awareness among medical students.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Validation; communication; questionnaire; healthcare attention; patient satisfaction; nursing.
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:40:45 CET)
Background: Healthcare attention is sometimes considered purely technical, but communication has proven to be closely related to clinical results and patient satisfaction. Therefore, evaluation of communication in the scope of healthcare is a priority. The purpose of this study was to validate and adapt, if necessary, the Spanish version of the Communication Styles Inventory (CSI) in a sample of nursing professionals. (2) Methods: The sample was made up of 2313 nursing professionals selected at random from various medical centers in Spain, and is therefore a sample actively employed at the time data were acquired. We started out from the Communication Style Inventory, a questionnaire for evaluating the predominance of certain individual communication behaviors on six scales (expressiveness, preciseness, verbal aggressiveness, questioningness, emotionality and impression manipulativeness). (3) Results: Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the model proposed showed god fit indices. The reliability of the model shown by the Cronbach’s alpha of α=.81 was adequate, and so was single-level and aggregate consistency. Finally, in the analysis of variance by type of contract, configural, metric and scalar invariance was acceptable, but not strict invariance. (4) Conclusions: This instrument progresses in measuring non-technical attributes, such as communication styles, in nursing personnel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0564.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: orthographic literacy; questionnaire research; Croatian orthography; (de)standardisation
Online: 30 July 2018 (08:05:51 CEST)
This paper discusses the impact of orthographic manuals on the state of literacy, i.e. the relation of orthographic literacy and orthographic standardisation. The established hypothesis claims that frequent changes of orthographic rules during the pupils’ primary and secondary education do not have any considerable impact on their orthographic habits. In other words, the quantity of orthographic mistakes observed during a longer period of time and in conditions of changed orthographic rules would not show significant oscillations in their spelling. In order to confirm the hypothesis, a questionnaire was conducted encompassing 41 tests among 526 students of a technical study programme during four consecutive academic years, pursuant to whose results a writing uniformity index and a categorisation of orthographic controversy into six classes is established. The Croatian language has been selected for the observation due to multiple orthographic changes in the last 30 years in the three major orthographic points: writing of the covered r, writing of d and t in front of c and č in declination of words ending in -tak, -tac, -dak and -dac, and the issue of compound or separate spelling of the negation particle and the auxiliary biti (to be). Moreover, the paper methodologically and quantitatively establishes criteria according to which the second established hypothesis on evolutionary orthographic literacy can be confirmed. The conclusions are expected to be able to contribute to the better understanding of orthographic planning and application of orthographic norms in schools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Medication-related burden; Questionnaire; chronic disease conditions; adherence
Online: 25 June 2018 (14:35:31 CEST)
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the perceived medication-related burden among patients with multiple non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and to investigate the association between perceived burden and adherence to medication therapy. Medication-related burden was measured in three primary care clinics in Qatar using the Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) among adults with diabetes, with or without other comorbidities. Adherence was measured using the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS). Two hundred ninety-three eligible patients participated in the study. Majority of participants reported experiencing minimum (66.6%) to moderate (24.1%) medication-related burden. There was a significant positive correlation between the medication-related burden (measured by the LWQ) and medication adherence (measured by ARMS) (rs (253) = 0.317, p <0.0005). The duration of diabetes diagnosis, adherence score, marital status, employment status, and presence diagnosis of hypertension were significant predictors of medication burden. A considerable proportion of the patients in this study have reported experiencing medication-related burden. Healthcare providers should seek strategies to address this burden especially among patients with risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, non-adherent to their medication therapy, living alone, or non-employed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1831.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Vitamin K; Food Frequency Questionnaire; Dietary Intake; Mediterranean Diet
Online: 26 June 2023 (15:06:28 CEST)
Vitamin K is a multifunctional micronutrient essential for human health, and deficiency has been linked to multiple pathological conditions. In this study we aimed to develop and validate a new food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to estimate total vitamin K intake, over the course of a 30-day interval, in a Portuguese, Mediterranean-based, population. We conducted a prospective study in a non-random sample of 38 healthy adult volunteers. The FFQ was designed based on a validated Portuguese FFQ used in nationally representative studies and on literature reviews, to include foods containing ≥ 5μg of vitamin K/100g and foods with a lower vitamin K content, yet commonly in-cluded in a Mediterranean diet. Vitamin K intake was estimated from 24h recalls and six days of food records. The final FFQ included 54 food items which, according to regression analyses, explains 90% of vitamin K intake. Mean differences in vitamin K intake based on food records (80±47.7 μg/day) and on FFQ (96.5±64.3 μg/day) were statistically non-significant. Further, we found a strong correlation between both methods (r= 0.7; p=0.003). Our results suggest that our new FFQ is a valid instrument to assess the last 30-days of vitamin K intake in the Portuguese Mediterranean population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0168.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Central venous pressure; intensive care units; questionnaire; reliability; validity
Online: 10 April 2023 (10:27:04 CEST)
Although, central venous pressure (CVP) is among the most frequent estimated hemodynamic parameters in the critically ill setting, extremely little is known on how intensive care unit (ICU) nurses use this index in their decision-making process. The purpose of the study was to develop a new questionnaire for accessing how ICU nurses use CVP measurements to address patients’ he-modynamics investigating its validity and reliability. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 ICU nurses from four ICUs of Greece. Based on a comprehensive literature review and the evaluation of a five-experts panel a new questionnaire, named “CVP-Score”, was created having 8 items. The construct validity and the reliability of the questionnaire were examined. The half of the study participants’ (51.7%) was working at a specialized ICU, and they had a mean [±Standard Deviation (SD)] ICU experience of 13(±7.1) years. The estimated construct validity of the new-developed tool was acceptable, while the internal consistency reliability as measured by Cronbach alpha was excellent (0.901). CVP Score had acceptable test-retest reliability (r=0.996, p<0.001) and split-half reliability (0.855). CVP Score is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring how critical care nurses use CVP measurements in their decision-making process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0038.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: keratoconus; lifetime expenditure; economic burden; Keratoconus Economic Burden Questionnaire
Online: 2 March 2023 (08:48:53 CET)
Aim: This study measures and evaluates the socioeconomic burden of people living with keratoconus in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study employed a cross-sectional design, a Keratoconus Economic Burden Questionnaire, and a convenient sample of 89 keratoconus patients (58.4% male) drawn from multiple regions in Saudi Arabia. It was conducted using online surveys and the data was analysed using appropriate quantitative techniques. Results: The mean age and annual income of participants were 33.24 years and Saudi Riyal (SAR) 33,505.6180 (SD=62,215.29), respectively, with only 37% being employed for wages. Up to 94.4% needed glasses or contact lenses at least once a week and 73.0% received care from optometrists. The condition forced 45.9% of the respondents to change careers or leisure activities, with a further 51.3% having to take time off work. The mean annual out-of-pocket expenses for buying and maintaining glasses or contact lenses as well as traveling and accommodation for keratoconus-related treatment were SAR 8,673.19 (SD=11,307.73), with 48.32 incurring upwards of SAR 12,000 over the period. The treatment costs increased with disease duration, r(89) = .216, p < .05. Regression results show that the existence of comorbid eye disease, changing glasses at least once a year, and wearing either glasses or contact lenses at least once a week individually have statistically significant, negative effects on the total annual keratoconus treatment costs, while disease duration, utilisation of optometrists, and taking time off had a statistically significant increase on the total cost (p<.05). Conclusion: With a prevalence rate of 1 in 375, progressive debilitation, and the lifetime nature of the disease, keratoconus is a critical public health concern in Saudi Arabia. The resulting visual impairment and discomfort as well as both direct and indirect economic burdens have considerable impacts on the patient's quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Informed consent; Pediatrics; Elective Surgery; Quality improvement; Activity questionnaire
Online: 13 February 2023 (14:36:14 CET)
Introduction: The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate parents’/guardians’ late recall of surgical procedures and risks of elective surgery after pre-operative interview with surgeons. Materials and Methods: All parents/guardians of patients <18 years of age undergoing elective procedures from January 15th to September 1st, 2022, were prospectively enrolled in the study. Before discharge, parents/guardians were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the duration of the consent procedure, duration of the interview, quality of the informative handouts, and their ability to recall the type of disease, type of surgical procedure, and surgical risks. Answers were graded from 1 to 4. Results: One hundred and two questionnaires were returned. In all cases, informed consent was obtained between 24 and 72 hours prior to surgery. The following responses were collected: 98/102 (96%) parents/guardians reported that the duration of the consent process was adequate; 95/102 (93%) reported that the handouts were fully informative, and 7/102 (7%) reported that they were partially informative regarding explanation of the disease and surgical procedure; regarding complications, 93/102 (91%) perceived the handouts to be fully/partially informative, while 4/102 (4%) perceived the handouts to be poorly/non-informative, and 5/102 (5%) did not provide a response; 94/102 (92%) stated that they remembered the pathology, but only 87/94 (93%) recalled it correctly; 90/102 (88%) stated that they remembered the type of procedure, but only 76/90 (84%) recalled it correctly; and 53/102 (52%) stated that they remembered the surgical risks, but only 20/53 (38%) could recall more than one complication. Conclusions: Late recall of surgical complications by parents was poor despite the high perceived quality of the surgical risk handouts and medical interview.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: systems thinking; privacy; questionnaire reliability; skills evaluation; systems engineers
Online: 1 March 2021 (17:19:52 CET)
Systems thinking is a valuable skill that may be required for an individual to be promoted in the business arena to managerial or leading positions. Thus, assessing systems thinking skills is an essential transaction for decision-makers in the organization as a preceding step to the promotion decision. One of the well-known and validated tools for this task is a questionnaire. However, because some of the questions invade the employee / candidate’s privacy, the answer may be biased. In this paper, we consider this potential bias, a phenomenon that is becoming more and more significant as privacy concerns and awareness continuously increase in the modern digital world. We propose a formal methodology to optimize the questionnaire based on the privacy sensitivity of each question, thereby providing a more reliable assessment. We conducted an empirical study (n=142), and showed that a systems skills questionnaire can be enhanced. This research has a significant contribution to improving the systems skills assessment process in particular, and also lays the foundations for improving the evaluation of other skills / traits.
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Validation; Questionnaire Design; Self-Perception; Diabetes Mellitus; Self Care.
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:00:07 CET)
Background: Level of perceived competence as a basic psychological need could trigger achievement of diabetes self-management goals. Due to lack of a specific data collection tool to measure level of self-competence among Persian speaking patients with diabetes this study was conducted for cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric assessment of the Persian version of Perceived Competence Scale for Diabetes (PCSD-P). Methods: Standard translation/back-translation procedure was carried out to prepare a preliminary draft of the PCSD-P. Content and face validity of the early draft were checked by an expert panel including 15 scholars in the field of health education and promotion as well as nursing education with experience of working and research on diabetes. The final drafted questionnaire was completed by 177 randomly selected patients with type 2 diabetes. Based on the collected data structural validity of the contrived version was appraised using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA, CFA). Cronbach's alpha and Intraclass Correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to check the scale’s reliability and internal consistency. ; (3) Results: The estimated measures of Content Validity Index (CVI= 0.95) and Content Validity Ratio (CVR= 0.8) were in the range of acceptable recommended limits. The EFA analysis results demonstrated a single factor solution according to the items’ loadings for the component. The model fit indices i.e. RMSEA= 0.000, CFI=1, TLI=1, GFI= 0.998, NFI= 0.999 RFI= 0.995 confirmed consistency of the hypothesized one-factor solution. Values of the internal consistency and reliability coefficients were also in the vicinity of acceptable range (α= 0.892, ICC=0. 886, P= 0.001). Conclusions: The study findings revealed good internal validity and applicability of the PCSD-P to measure degree of self-competence among Persian speaking type 2 diabetes patients to manage the chronic disease. Due to unrepresentativeness of the study sample future cross-cultural test of PCSD-P on diverse and broader Persian speaking populations is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dietary patterns, food-frequency questionnaire, dietary, lifestyle practices, adolescents
Online: 5 September 2016 (14:46:56 CEST)
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to identify dietary patterns and its association with socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle practices among adolescents in Malaysia. Methods: A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary patterns. Results: Multivariate analyses show that age and physical activity (PA) levels were emerged as positive determinants of healthy-based food pattern in Malay (All, p<0.001), whereas higher consumption of eating-out from home (EatOut) and fast food (All, p<0.05) were negative determinants. High weekly breakfast skipping (p<0.001) and EatOut (p<0.01) were positively associated with a western-based pattern, whereas age (p<0.001) and household income (p<0.05) were negative determinants. Higher frequency of daily snacking (p<0.05) was emerged as positive determinant of local-based food pattern. For Chinese adolescents, age (p<0.001), PA levels (p<0.001) and maternal education level (p<0.05) emerged as positive determinants for the healthy-based pattern, whereas high EatOut and fast food intakes (All, p<0.01) were negative determinants. Higher weekly consumption of EatOut (p<0.01), fast food (p<0.05) and carbonated beverages (p<0.05), and daily snacking practice (p<0.01) were positively associated with higher western-based food pattern, whereas age (p<0.01) was inversely associated. Conclusion: These findings suggest that unhealthy dietary and lifestyle practices could increase the risk of adherence to unhealthy western-based food pattern that is high in fat, sugar and salt contents, and consequently increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic-related disorders during these critical years of growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1324.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; physiotherapeutic specific exercises; questionnaire; quality of life
Online: 21 November 2023 (13:43:07 CET)
Study design: Creating and psychometric testing of a new QoL Questionnaire about Physiotherapeutic Specific Exercises of Scoliosis (Questionnaire of Physiotherapeutic Specific Exercises of Scoliosis -QPSSE). Purpose: The purpose of this study is to create a reliable and valid questionnaire for patients suffering mild and moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who have been treated with Physiotherapeutic Specific Exercises of Scoliosis (PSSE) in order to evaluate their quality of life. Materials and Methods: The developed questionnaire was based on a thorough literature review as well as on authors experience. It consists of 53 questions, of which 37 have a positive meaning, 15 have a negative meaning, and one is multiple choice question, additionally there are six “open” questions. Except for the multiple choice question, all other questions are answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 5 scores. 5 represents a positive meaning or very much, whereas 1 stands for a negative meaning or not at all. Questions were developed by the authors who subsequently categorized the 53 questions into the following 8 domains: physical functioning, self-image, Physiotherapeutic Scoliosis-Specific Exercises (PSSEs), psychosocial functioning, cognitive functioning, compliance, motivation and pain. A pilot study was conducted so that we could calculate Cronbach’s Alpha based on the outcome. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the authors worked through the Zoom online platform to structure the questionnaire. Results: Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for all correlations evaluated. P values of less than 0.05 were considered to be significant. Internal consistency was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha. Although there were very few missing values, accounting for 0.78% of the total values of the questionnaire, expectation maximization likelihood algorithm was used to impute data. IBM® SPSS® Statistics Software v.25 was used for the analysis. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the overall score was 0.84. Conclusion: This original QPSSE was found to be a reliable and valid tool for AIS treated conservatively with PSSE and for their clinicians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0069.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Consumer behaviour; Customer Perception; questionnaire survey; Car segment; Automotive Industry
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:08:39 CEST)
This research paper examines the evolution of car purchasing behaviour among consumers in India from 2010 to the present. Through extensive literature review and questionnaire survey, it explores the reasons behind the changing preferences and decision-making processes of consumers in the Indian automobile market. The study draws upon various sources, including market research reports, industry publications, academic studies, and consumer surveys, to provide a comprehensive analysis of the factors influencing car purchasing behaviour in India over the last decade. The findings of this research paper can help automakers and marketers better understand consumer preferences and develop effective strategies to cater to the evolving needs of the Indian car market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0412.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: non-nutritive sweeteners; food frequency questionnaire; survey validation; pregnant women
Online: 6 May 2023 (10:20:17 CEST)
: Studies on the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) in pregnant women are scarce are conflicting. A major challenge is to accurately assess NNS intake, especially in countries where many foods and beverages have been reformulated with the progressive replacement of sugar by NNSs, due to the implementation of new nutrition labelling policies for preventing obesity. This study aimed to develop and valid a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to examine the intake of NNSs in pregnant women. This questionnaire was tested in 29 women in their eighth month of gestation, compared to a 3-day dietary records (3-DR). FFQ validity was assessed using Spearman´s correlation coefficient, Lin´s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Spearman correlations between NNS FFQ and 3-DR ranged from 0.50 for acesulfame K to 0.83 for saccharin. The CCC ranged from 0.22 to 0.66. Bland-Altman plots showed an overestimation of saccharin, sucralose and steviol glycosides intake by the NNS FFQ, and an underestimation of acesulfame K and aspartame, compared to 3-DR. Overall, the most frequently consumed NNS was sucralose None of the participants exceeded the acceptable daily intake for any of the NNSs evaluated. The FFQ of NNSs appears to be a reasonably valid tool for assessing NNS consumption in pregnant women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0512.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: MSDs; exoskeleton; upper limb assistance; EMG; balance test; subjective questionnaire
Online: 26 November 2021 (18:09:02 CET)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the Hapo ms, a passive upper limbs exoskeleton developed to assist workers for tasks with arms in front of the body. Twelve participants had to perform a static task, a manual handling task and a load carrying task two times: with and without the exoskeleton. In all cases subjective (perceived effort in arm and back areas, comfort) and objective (muscular activity, postural balance) criteria were evaluated. Results have shown a decrease in anterior deltoid (-12 to -18% depending of the task) and in biceps brachii (-19% to -33% depending of the task) muscular activity. No significant difference was pointed out in back muscle and postural balance was not significantly perturbed due to the wear of the exoskeleton. Finally, perceived effort reduction was observed during the three tasks (except in back area for task 1). To conclude, the Hapo ms seems well adapted to assist upper arms during tasks with arms in front of the body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0077.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: questionnaire development; lactation; breastfeeding; analgesics; education; knowledge assessment; midwife; nurse
Online: 5 October 2021 (10:57:49 CEST)
There is a need to assess the knowledge of healthcare providers on the use of maternal analgesics during lactation, while a valid instrument is not yet available. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire on the knowledge of analgesics (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin, tramadol, codeine, oxycodone) during lactation, using a prospective, stepwise approach. To generate a pool of item subgroups, literature was assessed as first step. This preliminary version was subsequently reviewed in two focus groups [midwives (n=4), pediatric nurses (n=6)], followed by an expert panel (n=7, 2 rounds) to confirm content validity [item-level and scale content validity]. This resulted in a instrument consisting of 33 questions, and 5 clincial case descriptions specific for both disciplines. Based on known-groups validity between midwives and pediatric nurses (assuming an a priori difference related to their curricula), high construct validity was subsequently demonstrated in a pilot e-survey (86 midwives, 73 pediatric nurses). We therefore conclude that an instrument to assess knowledge on lactation-related exposure to analgesics was generated, that can be further developed and validated. Furthermore, pilot findings suggest suboptimal knowledge for both professions, so that adaptations in their curricula and postgraduate training are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Acute Cystitis Symptom Score; cystitis; patient-reported outcome; questionnaire; women
Online: 6 September 2021 (17:02:05 CEST)
The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) is a patient self-reporting questionnaire for the clinical diagnosis and patient-reported outcome (PRO) in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis (AC). The aim of the current study (part II) was the clinical validation of the Greek ACSS questionnaire. After linguistic validation according to internationally accepted guidelines and cognitive assessment (part I), the clinical validation was performed after ethical approval by using the Greek ACSS study version in 92 evaluable female participants including 53 patients with symptoms suspicious of AC and 39 controls. The clinical outcome using the ACSS questionnaire at different time points after the start of treatment was demonstrated as well. The age (mean±SD) of the 53 patients (44.7±17.0) and 39 controls (49.3±15.9) and their additional conditions at baseline visits, such as menstruation, premenstrual syndrome, pregnancy, menopause, diabetes mellitus, were comparable. There was, however, a significant difference (p<0.001) between patients and controls at baseline visit regarding sum score of the ACSS domains, such as typical symptoms and quality of life. The clinical outcome of up to 7 days showed a fast reduction of the symptom scores and improvement of quality of life. The optimal thresholds for the patient-reported outcome of successful therapy could be established. The linguistically and clinically validated Greek ACSS questionnaire can now be used for clinical or epidemiological studies and also for patient’s self-diagnosis of AC and as a PRO measure tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0219.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Questionnaire; back health; assessment; cross-cultural adaptation; adolescents; secondary school
Online: 22 December 2020 (16:03:09 CET)
The prevalence of back pain (BP) among children and adolescents has increased over recent years. Some authors advocate promoting back-health education in the school setting. It is therefore important to adopt a uniform suite of assessment instruments to measure the various constructs. The present study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of a validated measurement instrument (BackPEI), beginning with a translation and cultural adaptation phase, followed by a second phase to test reliability using a test-retest design. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed based on the guidelines. Reliability was tested by applying the questionnaire to 224 secondary school students, at two different times with a 7-day interval between the tests. In general, the Spanish version presented adequate agreement for questions 1–20, with only question 9 achieving a low Kappa range of .312 [-.152- .189]. The question about pain intensity did not show differences between the averages for the test (4.72 ± 2.33) and re-test (4.58 ± 2.37) (p = .333), and the responses for these two tests were highly correlated (ICC= .951 [.928- .966]; p= .0001). Psychometric testing indicated that the Spanish version of the BackPEI is well-adapted and reliable, based on the test-retest design, providing similar results to the original Brazilian version.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0429.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Mixed forests; Questionnaire Survey; Ecosystem Services; Stepwise Regression; Climate Change
Online: 26 June 2018 (15:48:31 CEST)
Scientific studies had shown that mixed forests of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provide higher ecosystem services than monospecific forests. Mixed forests are known for their high resilience to climate change impacts and superior biodiversity compared to monospecific forests. In many countries, promotion of mixed forests in forest management is becoming a government policy since they can contribute to fulfill the Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nation, respectively Goal 13 and 15. However, not much is known about public perceptions on mixed forests compared to monoculture forests. Our study on ecosystem services provided by mixed and monospecific forests in southwest Germany fill this gap. Based on a survey with 520 valid responses we analyzed people’s perception on 18 different supporting, cultural, regulating and provisioning ecosystem services measured by Likert scale. Stepwise regression analyses show relations between social profiles (gender, age, education, profession) and preferences on respondents’ perceptions. Our findings show that people perceive that mixed forests provide better cultural, regulating and supporting ecosystem services than monospecific forests of fir and beech whereas provisioning services were perceived as being equally or better provided by monospecific forests. Significant effects towards a positive perception on ecosystem services provided by mixed forests were mainly influenced by the perceived abundance of old trees, feeling of pleasantness in mixed forests, age, profession, and education. Our findings indicate that there is a high public support for the promotion of silver fir and beech mixed forests in Southwest Germany.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0063.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire; French translation; France; Canada; psychometrics
Online: 14 June 2017 (06:36:48 CEST)
This study presents a French translation and validation of the Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), an instrument for assessing adaptive traits known to correlate with the psychopathic personality. Bilingual (French and English) individuals from France and Canada (N = 141, 52% in France, Mage = 29.73, SD = 9.09) completed both versions of the DAPTQ (French and English), alongside measurements of perceived stress, trait anxiety, authentic leadership and creativity. Correlation between the DAPTQ total and subscales across versions showed strong associations (r = .84 to .96). The DAPTQ – French version also demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .87), convergent validity, and concurrent validity. These findings support the cross-cultural equivalence of the DAPTQ and therefore its effectiveness as a valid assessment method of adaptive traits.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1508.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: zoom dysmorphia; body dysmorphic disorder; screening; scale; questionnaire; telehealth; body image
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:41:57 CEST)
Zoom dysmorphia (ZD) is a facial dysmorphia triggered or aggravated by frequent virtual meetings. The frequent use of videoconferencing platforms has been linked to a distorted perception of facial images as individuals have an increased awareness of their appearance, given constant video feedback. As a result, dysmorphic concerns can develop. It is crucial to identify ZD as the condition interferes with the individual’s life and can trigger or aggravate body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). A standardized approach for screening ZD in non-psychiatric settings has yet to be defined. We discuss the features of ZD and the challenges of screening for ZD in a virtual setting. To facilitate the recognition of ZD in telehealth consultations, we propose a comprehensive ZD screening questionnaire that includes questions related to typical ZD features and a BDD-focused question. The questionnaire is concise and allows the identification of individuals with a potential ZD. A BDD assessment in such individuals should follow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: brown-throated sloth; human-animal interactions; questionnaire; urban wildlife; Bradypus variegatus
Online: 8 May 2018 (10:53:37 CEST)
Free-range sloths living in an urban environment is rare. In this study, human opinions, attitudes and interactions with a population of Bradypus variegatus in a public square were investigated. A questionnaire was applied to people in the square where the sloths reside, and informal, opportunistic observations of human-sloth interactions were made. 95% of respondents knew of the sloths’ existence in the square and 87.8% likes their presence. Opinions about population size differed greatly and younger people were concerned if the square was appropriate place for them. Some human-sloth interactions showed the consequence of lack of biological knowledge. People initiated all sloth-human interactions. The fact that sloths are strictly folivorous has limited their interactions with humans and consequently minimised negative impact of the human-animal interaction on their wellbeing. These results demonstrate that while there is a harmonious relationship between people and sloths, actions in environmental education of the square’s public could be beneficial for the sloths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1384.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cognitive reserve 2; Cognitive Reserve Index Questionnaire (CRIq); Arabic; Lebanon; psychometric validation
Online: 23 October 2023 (05:03:13 CEST)
Cognitive reserve is the adaptability of cognitive processes in the face of brain aging and pathology. This study aimed to validate the Arabic version of the Cognitive Reserve Index Questionnaire (CRIq) in a healthy Lebanese sample. CRIq assesses cognitive reserve through three domains: education, working activity, and leisure time. Statistical measures, including descriptive and regression analysis along with structural equation modeling, were utilized to investigate the convergent and discriminant validity of CRIq, incorporating fluid intelligence (Gf) and measures of cognitive function, long-term memory encoding and retrieval (Glr), and processing speed (Gs). Results from 174 participants revealed that the activities assessed by CRIq-Arabic were comparable to the original CRIq study, with slight cultural differences. The internal consistency of CRIq-Arabic was good (Cronbach's α = 0.88), indicating reliability. Convergent validity was confirmed, with moderate to high loadings on the cognitive reserve latent construct. Discriminant validity was supported as correlations between cognitive reserve variables and non-target constructs (Gf, Glr, Gs) were less than 1. The findings provide an initial psychometric validation of the CRIq-Arabic. Further research in clinical samples is needed to enhance its utility in neuropsychological practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: ME/CFS; chronic fatigue syndrome; functional capacity; post exertional malaise; questionnaire; survey
Online: 29 September 2023 (09:21:59 CEST)
: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is an acquired disease with significant morbidity that affects both children and adults. Effective tools to assess functional capacity (FC) are severely lacking which has significant consequences for timely diagnosis, assessments for patient disability benefits and assessing the impact and effectiveness of interventions. In interventional research the inability to assess FC can result in an incomplete assessment of the potential effect of the intervention. Specifically of concern is that if an intervention is effective in reducing symptom load, patients may increase their activity level to reach a pre-intervention symptom load. Thus, if FC is not accurately assessed, beneficial treatment outcomes may be missed. To address this issue, using extensive, repeated patient feedback we have developed a new questionnaire, FUNCAP, to achieve optimal FC assessment in ME/CFS patients. The questionnaire covers eight domains and activity types: A. Personal hygiene / basic functions, B. Walking / movement, C. Being upright, D. Activities in the home, E. Communication, F. Activities outside the home, G. Reactions to light and sound, and H. Concentration. Through five rounds of anonymous web-based surveys and a further test - retest validation round, two versions of the questionnaire were developed; a longer version comprising 55 questions (FUNCAP55) to improve diagnostic and disability benefit/ insurance FC assessments and a shorter version (FUNCAP27) for interventional research and less extensive FC assessments. FUNCAP may also be useful in other conditions where fatigue and PEM is present, such as Long Covid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1005.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: metaverse environment; auditory presence; AUX evaluation; evaluation questionnaire design; principal component analysis
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:33:24 CEST)
This study aims to develop an auditory experience evaluation questionnaire to improve the presence of metaverse environments, and to derive evaluation components considering auditory presence and auditory user experience (AUX) through a survey. After conducting a survey with a total of 232 participants, five evaluation components were extracted from auditory presence and AUX evaluation factors through principal component analysis (PCA) and reliability analysis (RA): 'realistic auditory background', 'acoustic aesthetics', 'consideration of acoustic control and accessibility', 'auditory utility and minimalist design', and 'auditory consistency'. In particular, although AUX evaluation factors such as 'ease of access to sound control' have limitations in improving the sense of presence, negative factors of presence such as 'distraction due to sound' can be improved by utilizing AUX evaluation factors, so it is judged that the sense of presence in the metaverse environments can be improved by enhancing the auditory sense of presence and AUX evaluation factors according to the composition of the five evaluation components derived in this study. This study can be used as a basis for developing an auditory experience evaluation questionnaire for the metaverse platform, creating sound design guidelines, and identifying sound development priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Learning behaviours; Eating disorders; SCOFF questionnaire; Medical Students; COVID-19 Pandemic; Barbados
Online: 17 February 2023 (07:30:16 CET)
Background: The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic has transformed medical education and is likely to have long-lasting effects on student learning, mental well-being, and eating behaviour. This study aimed to examine the learning behaviors of medical students at the American University of Integrative Sciences (AUIS), Barbados, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based online survey was administered to medical students at AUIS from July until November 2021. The data collecting instrument recorded students’ demographic and learning behaviour information (Meo et al. 2020), and eating disorders (SCOFF questionnaire). Results: The overall response rate was 55% (n=120). In relation to learning behaviour, students agreed with the following statements: ‘deterioration in work performance and studying’ (48.4%), ‘remember subject’s contents appropriately’ (40.4%), ‘concentration on the studies’ (40.3%), ‘difficulty in performing two tasks simultaneously’ (38.7%), ‘difficulty in performing mental calculations’ (33.9%), ‘difficulty in recalling recent information’ (32.3%), and ‘difficulty in recalling old information’ (38.7%). Among the 8 dimensions of learning behaviors, deterioration in work performance or studying, and difficulties in recalling recent information were found to be significantly associated with the gender of the students. For SCOFF questionnaire, approximately 24.2% screened positive for eating disorders. Screening with the SCOFF test demonstrated that female, older (>25 years), overweight + obese, Clinical Sciences + PreMed, and non-USA-based students were at more risk of eating disorders. Conclusions: The results indicate that during the COVID-19 pandemic AUIS students have developed learning difficulties, and are likely to have eating disorders. University policymakers should take appropriate measures to support a healthy learning environment and improve students' mental well-being and eating behaviours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0165.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS); pregnant women; questionnaire; urinary cotinine; oxidative stress parameters
Online: 15 March 2019 (14:03:35 CET)
Abstract: Background: Exposure to ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke) is one of the most toxic environmental exposures. Objective: To investigate the impact of ETS on physiological, biochemical, psychological indicators, on the urine antioxidant capacity (AC) and oxidative damage to lipids in a pilot sample of healthy pregnant women. Methods: The exposure to ETS was investigated by a validated questionnaire, urine cotinine and the marker of oxidative damage to lipids - 8-isoprostane concentrations using an ELISA kit. Urine AC was determined by the spectrophotometric TEAC method. From the sample of pregnant women (n=319, average age 30.84 ± 5.09 years) in 80 the levels of cotinine and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. Results: From our sample, 5 % individuals (7.4 % objectified by cotinine) were current smokers and 25 % reported passive smoking in the household (18.8 % objectified by cotinine). The Kappa was 0.78 for smokers and 0.22 for ETS exposed non-smokers. Smokers as well as non-smokers had significantly higher (p<0.05) urine AC than ETS exposed non-smokers. Non-smokers had significantly lower levels of 8-isoprostane than smokers (p<0.01) and ETS-exposed non-smokers (p<0.05). Correlations between urine levels of cotinine and AC were positive in ETS exposed non-smokers. Conclusion: The harmful effect of active and passive smoking on oxidative stress parameters has been indicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; positive pressure; indoor air quality; mycobiota; indoor air questionnaire; moisture damage
Online: 1 December 2017 (07:06:04 CET)
This case study investigates the effects of ventilation intervention on measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a repaired school where occupants reported IAQ problems. Occupants´ symptoms were suspected to be related to the impurities leaked indoors through the building envelope. The study’s aim was to determine whether a positive pressure of 5-7 Pa prevents the infiltration of harmful chemical and microbiological agents from structures, thus decreasing symptoms and discomfort. Ventilation intervention was conducted in a building section comprising 12 classrooms and was completed with IAQ measurements and occupants´ questionnaires. After intervention, the concentration of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) decreased, and occupants´ negative perceptions became more moderate compared to those for other parts of the building. The indoor mycobiota differed in species composition from the outdoor mycobiota, and changed remarkably with the intervention, indicating that some species may have emanated from an indoor source before the intervention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: oxytocin; CD38; OXTR; rs3796863; rs53576; polymorphism; adolescents; psychosocial characteristics; Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:30:29 CEST)
Oxytocin (OT) is regarded as an extremely important prosocial neuropeptide that dramatically affects the establishment of social connections from infancy to adulthood. OT effects on the psychoemotional state are pretty individual and may be dependent on age, gender, ethnocultural factors, social environment, the presence of stress factors, and features of personality. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a brief psychopathological screening tool and is recommended for the detection and classification of psychosocial problems in adolescents. The current field school-based study, conducted among urban Siberian adolescents (n = 298 aged 12–18) explored the relation of SDQ scales in relation to genotypes of CD38 gene that controls oxytocin release, rs3796863, and oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576. The results of our study show that during the adolescence period, OT pathway high activity can cause some negative effects, such as emotional instability in young (aged 12–14) adolescent girls in the case of carriage of the rs3796863 A allele and emotional disturbances in older (aged 15–18) adolescent boys who are carriers of a GG variant of rs53576. Our results support the hypothesis of OT-mediated excessive social sensitivity which can lead to some age-sex depending psychosocial problems during adolescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Type 2 diabetes; urea albumin excretion; food frequency questionnaire survey; β-cryptoxanthin; fruits
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:44:24 CEST)
Background: The dietary factors and nutrients contributing to the prevention of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic nephropathy is unclear, so we investigated dietary factors affecting urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: 42 patients with type 2 diabetes were participated, the subjects were divided to a normal albuminuria group (urinary albumin / creatinine ratio of less than 30 mg / g Cr) and a microalbuminuria group of 30 mg / g to 299 mg / g Cr. We performed casual blood sampling and conducted a food frequency questionnaire survey. Results: There were no significant differences in age, BMI and other physiological and biochemical data, the average daily intake of energy and many of nutrients, while β-cryptoxanthin was significantly lower in the microalbuminuria group than in the normal group (506.4 ± 793.9 μg/day vs. 715.3 ± 500.3 μg/day, p <0.05). The intake of 17 food groups per day showed that the intakes of fruits were significantly lower in the microalbuminuria group than in the normal group (76.9 ± 134.1 g vs. 111.9 ± 84.5 g, p <0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that fruits and foods rich in β-cryptoxanthin would make it possible to prevent diabetic nephropathy progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0566.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Awareness; KAP survey; Leishmaniasis; neglected tropical Diseases; Questionnaire; Socio-economic factors; Vector borne diseases
Online: 14 October 2023 (20:24:02 CEST)
Leishmaniasis is one of the Neglected tropical diseases. Studies show that the poor knowledge about epidemiological aspects of Leishmaniasis within communities causes the collapse of existing disease control programs. Therefore, the present study focuses on a detailed survey of the existing awareness among the threatened population in the Medawachchiya PHI Area in the Anuradhapura District, Sri Lanka aiming to assist the health staff to organize community-based vector control programs effectively in the future. Assessment of the awareness of the two hundred and seventy households (n=270) residents from ten GNDs was carried out by using a structured questionnaire. Among 143 females and 134 males, only 75.1% have knowledge about the disease. 5.8%(n=16) of the participants know only about the vector and 28.9% (n=80) know their control methods. The study shows a shortage of a considerable amount of awareness about the disease among the studied population The study found that age and education levels had significant impacts on knowledge, attitudes, and practices. However, factors like gender, marital status, occupation, income, and expenses did not show significant correlations. The present study suggests the huge scope for community-related vector control methods for greater achievements in vector control methods by implementing a continuous educational program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1893.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: the Model of Human Occupation; experience sampling method; Occupational Questionnaire; life balance; life satisfaction
Online: 27 July 2023 (09:41:34 CEST)
Our lives are comprised of moment-to-moment activity experiences. According to the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO), our occupational experiences can be affected by volition, which consists of personal causation, values, and interests. This study investigated how momentary volition affected occupational satisfaction and mind-wandering while performing occupations. This study also examined the relationship between momentary volition and the overall life perspectives of life satisfaction and life balance. Undergraduate students participated in this cross-sectional study. The experience sampling method (ESM) was used to measure students’ momentary states such as activity, volition, occupational satisfaction, and mind-wandering. After conducting the ESM, the participants’ life satisfaction was measured using the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), and their life balance was measured by the Life Balance Inventory (LBI). Forty-two participants and 1,092 sampling data were included in the analysis. Momentary personal causation, values, and interests contributed to occupational satisfaction. Mind-wandering was predicted negatively by interests but positively by personal causation. Momentary interests were positively correlated with SWLS and LBI scores. This study demonstrated that momentary volition was associated with occupational satisfaction and engagement, as well as life satisfaction and balance, in undergraduate students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0007.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ventilation; hybrid ventilation; indoor air quality; mycobiota; indoor air questionnaire; school building; Trichoderma citrinoviride
Online: 1 March 2018 (12:19:08 CET)
This paper describes a case study of ventilation as well as measured and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) in a Finnish comprehensive school with a hybrid ventilation system and reported IAQ problems. An operational error was found when investigating the ventilation system that prevented air from coming into classrooms, except for short periods of high carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations. However, results indicated that hybrid ventilation system was able to provide adequate ventilation and sufficient IAQ once properly designed and maintained. After ventilation operation was improved, occupants reported less unpleasant odors and stuffy air. The amount of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and some single volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decreased. Indoor mycobiota was observed in settled dust in the classrooms, from which ventilation improvement eliminated the dominant, opportunistic human pathogen species Trichoderma citrinoviride found before improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0178.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: artificial intelligence; data mining; diagnostic decision support; rare diseases; questionnaire anamnesis; neuromuscular diseases; high latencies
Online: 14 March 2022 (08:58:29 CET)
During the COVID-19 pandemic, individuals with symptoms other than cough or fever have refrained from seeking medical advice. However, a delay in treatment might lead to serious consequences. At the same time, digital health initiatives have emerged to overcome this bottleneck of healthcare. Herein, we report the results of a multi-center initiative using a combination of patient history and artificial intelligence (AI) to identify individuals with rare neuromuscular diseases. First, a questionnaire with 46 items was developed by interviewing patients with muscular dystrophies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Morbus Pompe, neuropathies, and myasthenia gravis. Second, patients with proven neurological diseases answered the questionnaire. Third, a combination of classifiers (artificial neural network, support vector, and random forest) was trained and, finally, the system was challenged with new questionnaires. Users with an abnormal questionnaire pattern received a unique code for data privacy and contact details for a neurologist for further advice. The neurologists confirmed or refuted the AI-based diagnosis. The questionnaire was accessed 3122 times, leading to 853 unique codes. Only for a few patients the computer-based diagnoses and the confirmed final diagnoses were reported to us. However, for these few patients, the genetic testing and high CK levels finally ended their long-lasting diagnostic odyssey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; eating habits; physical activity; MEDAS-14; Emotional eating questionnaire (EEQ) and university population.
Online: 2 December 2021 (12:52:17 CET)
(1) Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic, eating and physical activity behaviours, in a University population. A healthy diet such as the Mediterranean Diet (MD) pattern, rich in fruit and vegetables can prevent degenerative diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, data were collected by an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants completed a survey consisting of 3 sections: sociodemographic data; dietary and physical activity behaviour; questionnaire of the Mediterranean Diet (MEDAS-14) and the emotional eater questionnaire Garaulet (EEQ). (3) Results: A total of 168 participants completed the questionnaire 66.7% women, from Spain 79.2%, 76.8% students, living in family home 76.2% and in normal weight 66.1% . Our population did the grocery 1 or less per week (76.8%); decreased or stay the same the consumption of fruits (57.1%), vegetables (58.9%), dairy products (74.4%), pulses (73.2%), fish/seafood (76.8%), white meat (83.3%), red and processed meat (91.1%), snacks (78.6%), rice/pasta/potatoes (78.6%), nuts (83.9%), low alcohol drinks (89.3%), spirits (98.8%) and sugary drinks (91.7%) . Increased cooking time (73.2%) and decreased or stay the same their physical activity (63.7%). University Employees increased more weight (1.01±0.02) than students (0.99±0.03) (p<0.05). 79.8% of the participant obtained a Medium/High Adherence to the MD. Emotional and very emotional eaters were higher in women group (p<0.01). (4) Conclusions: In the event of further confinement, strategies should be implemented to promote a balanced and healthy diet together with the practice of physical activity, taking special care of the group of women and University Employees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0072.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: cervical cancer; human papilloma virus; KAP study; questionnaire survey; knowledge and perception; cancer screening test; vaccination
Online: 4 January 2023 (07:45:11 CET)
Cervical cancer is mostly diagnosed cancer of women worldwide and the second most common cancer among middle-aged women in Bangladesh. Knowledge and perception of women are considered one of the major components of prevention strategy. We carried out this survey to assess the existing knowledge level of students and their perception to the role of vaccination in preventing cervical cancer. The participants were female undergraduate students studying Public Health in a university in Chattogram city of Bangladesh. A total of 275 female students were interviewed through prescribed questionnaire possessing questions on basic information of cervical cancer, its causal agent, risk factors, prevention methods, and vaccination. We marked the responses of participants with zero for wrong answer and one for every correct answer and ranked the knowledge level of students. The mean age of study participants was 20.68 years. In total, 69.1% students possessed poor knowledge whereas, 30.9% had good knowledge. The country of students has significant association with their level of knowledge. Most of the students got information on cervical cancer from traditional media (49.8%) and doctor (30.9%) and the effect of these two sources was statistically significant on the knowledge level of students. Students mostly identified vaccination (21.1%) and Gynecological examination (14.39%) as preventing methods. However, 65.5% of them acknowledge that vaccines cannot prevent this cancer and 33.4% believe in different risks of vaccine. Although students have heard of cervical cancer the overall knowledge was insufficient and perceived negative concepts about cancer vaccine. Therefore, we recommend the initiation of educational programs on basic reproductive health and health seeking behaviour targeting young women to successfully control and prevention of this life-threatening health problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0495.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: agency; smart devices; IoT; device agency; user agency; human computer interaction; HCI; questionnaire; exploratory analysis; anova
Online: 22 September 2020 (03:45:51 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the relationship people have with their smart devices. We use the concept of agency to capture aspects of users’ sense of mastery as they relate to their device. This study gives preliminary evidence of the existence of two independent dimensions of agency for modeling the interaction between humans and smart devices: (i) user agency and (ii) device agency. These constructs emerged from an exploratory factorial analysis conducted on a survey data collected from 587 participants. In addition, we investigate the correlation between user agency and device agency with background variables of the respondents. Finally, we argue that mapping the users’ dynamics with their device into user agency and device agency fosters a better understanding of the needs of the users and helps in designing interfaces tailored for the specific capabilities and expectations of the users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020045
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: adverse drug reactions; antimalarial; Ghana; herbal remedies; malaria; questionnaire; street sale; orthodox; unnatural medicines; patient preference
Online: 12 June 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Malaria is a serious infection affecting millions of people in Africa. Our study investigated the personal preferences and applications of antimalarial medicines in Ghana. Based on over 1000 questionnaires distributed in Ghana from January to May 2019, we noticed that although Western medications to fight this disease are widely available, most patients in Ghana prefer treatment with locally produced herbal remedies. This preference appears to be due to a combination of traditional venues for obtaining medicines “on the street” rather than in licensed pharmacies, trust in local and “green” products, extensive advertisement of such local products, and an inherent distrust of imported and synthetic or unnatural medicines. Going local and natural is a trend also observed in other countries across the globe, and adds to the acceptance or rejection of drugs regardless of their activity or toxicity. In fact, adverse side effects associated with herbal remedies, such as general weakness and swollen, sore mouth, do not seem to deter the respondents of this study in Ghana. We propose a combination of (a) increasing public awareness of the benefits of modern medicine and (b) an improvement and control of the quality of herbal remedies to raise the standard of malaria treatment in countries such as Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0398.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: COVID-19; Perception-based questionnaire; principal component analysis (PCA); Linear regression model; social panic; social conflict
Online: 22 April 2020 (09:55:38 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic situation, disease intensity, weak healthcare facilities, unawareness, and misinformation led people to fear and anxiety in Bangladesh. This study intended to get peoples’ perception on psychosocial, socio-economic and environmental crisis amidst the pandemi. An online questionnaire was surveyed nationwide (respondents no.1066). Datasets were analyzed through the Principal Component Analysis (PCA), hierarchical Cluster Analysis (CA), Pearson’s correlation matrix (PCM), Linear regression analysis (LRA), and psychometric characteristics were included in the Classical Test Theory (CTT) analysis. There were good associations among the psychosocial, socio-economic and environmental parameters. A significant association between fear of COVID-19 with struggling healthcare system (p<0.05) was found. Also, negative association between fragile health system and government’s ability to deal with the pandemic (p<0.05) revealing poor governance. Again, a positive association of shutdown and social distancing with fear of losing life, and due to lack of health treatment (p<0.05) reveals that shut down hampers normal activities which may lead to mental and economic stress. However, a positive association of socio-economic impact of the shutdown with poor people’s suffering, the price hike of basic need, hamper of formal education (p<0.05) may lead to severe socio-economic and health crisis. There is a possibility of climate-induced disaster during/after the pandemic, which will create severe food insecurity (p<0.01). Daily wage earners and poors will suffer most by food and nutritional deficiency, and the country may face huge economic burden. Proper risk assessment and communications is needed to alleviate fear and anxiety. Thus, financial support and mental boosting is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0704.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Instrument; questionnaire; survey; measurement validity evidence; AERA/APA standards; occupational risks; zoonotic diseases; Social Ecological Model; prevention
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:55:17 CEST)
This article presents the development and validation of a new instrument measuring social, cultural, and behavioral factors influencing exposure to occupational zoonoses in agricultural settings. The Social Ecological Model (SEM) and the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing were used as guiding frameworks to ensure the instrument's validity. The instrument's content was compiled by combining the results of a scoping literature review and an expert qualitative study. The instrument items were drafted, organized, and underwent a meticulous process of revision and adjustment. It was translated into Spanish and tested in one-to-one cognitive interviews with five volunteer agricultural workers. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted for construct discrimination, and bivariate regression analyses were conducted to explore the association with exposure indicators. Evidence of validity was obtained from four out of five sources of validity evidence according to the AERA/APA’s Standards of Educational and Psychological Testing. The Social Ecology of Occupational Zoonoses (SEOZ) was successfully used to determine social and behavioral factors associated with a higher risk of exposure to occupational zoonoses. Further use of the SEOZ can provide valuable insights into developing effective interventions to improve the health and well-being of agricultural workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: doubly labeled water; total energy expenditure; physical activity level; lactate threshold, physical fitness; International Physical Activity Questionnaire
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:32:02 CEST)
Adequate energy intake is critical for the healthy longevity of older adults, and the estimated energy requirement is determined by total energy expenditure (TEE). We aimed to identify the relationship between measured aerobic capacity and TEE, activity energy expenditure (AEE) or physical activity level (PAL) with the doubly labeled water (DLW) methods in the advanced older adults. A total of 12 physically independent older adults (10 males and 2 females) aged between 81 to 94 years participated in this study. Aerobic capacity was evaluated according to the lactate threshold (LT). TEE under free-living conditions was assessed using the DLW method, and self-reported physical activity was obtained through the Japanese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). LT was significantly positively correlated with TEE, AEE, and PAL after adjustment for age and sex (ρ= 0.77 (P<0.01), 0.86 (p<0.01), and 0.86 (p<0.01), respectively). We found the LT as an aerobic capacity is positively and independently correlated with TEE, AEE or PAL. The present results suggest that maintaining aerobic capacity is an important factor for preventing frailty, although further research is needed to multisite studies and many samples.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: physical activity; exercise; green cover; open space; Metabolic Equivalent of Task; International Physical Activity Questionnaire; health promotion
Online: 20 March 2019 (10:46:23 CET)
1) Background: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted to understand how green cover and accessibility of common public open spaces in compact urban areas affect physical activeness of resident. 2) Methods: A total of 554 residents completed a structured questionnaire on quality-of-life, physical activity level, and healthy eating practice. 3) Results: The sampled population lived with green cover averaged 10.11 ± 7.95% (ranged 1.56–9.88), whereas majority (90%) of the residents performed physical activities at medium and high levels. Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)-minutes/week was associated with the green cover percentage (Pearson r = 0.092; p < 0.05). Irrespective of age and physical activity level, active residents commonly used public open spaces within district for performing exercise, especially parks and promenade were mostly used by older residents while sports facilities by the younger groups. 4) Conclusions: Current findings suggested promotion of exercise could be achieved by the design or redesign of built environment to include more parks accessible to the residents with the increase of vegetation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS); Nocturnal Home Cardiorespiratory Polygraphy (PG); Obesity; Saturation O2 (Sa02); Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ)
Online: 3 October 2023 (08:16:58 CEST)
A Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) and a recording of the respiratory parameters with a noc-turnal home cardiorespiratory polygraphy (PG) are necessary to diagnose OSAS. Few researchers have studied how obesity could influence the respiratory parameters in OSAS children. The aim of the study was to investigate how obesity can influence sleep respiratory parameters in OSAS children. Methods: The study analyzes 56 Caucasian children and adolescents aged 11 ± 2.79 years with a BMI> 5th percentiles and PSQ value of 0.33. Children were divided into the Obesity Group (OG) with a BMI of 95th and the Control Group (CG) with a 5th<BMI> 95th percentile. All selected children underwent PG. Respiratory parameters were extracted to divide into levels of severity OSAS: snoring, mild, moderate, and severe. Results: The comparison analysis of AHI, SaO2, and Nadir between the OG and CG showed a statistical significance only for ODI (p = 0.02). The comparison analysis of PSQ between the OG and CG and of PSQ and respiratory parameters showed no significant result. A statistically significant correlation between BMI and AHI (r2=0.01), SaO2 (r2=0.09), and Nadir O2 (r2=0.00) was found. Conclusion: There was no strong correlation between Obesity and OSAS, but it was found between BMI increasing and AHI severity
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: sodium; potassium; nutrition; diet; urine spot; food frequency questionnaire; cardiovascular disease; childhood cancer survivors; Swiss childhood cancer registry; Europe
Online: 16 October 2019 (10:25:07 CEST)
Risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), common in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), may be affected by diet. We assessed sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intake, estimated from food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and morning urine spots, and its associations with cardiovascular risk in CCSs. We stratified CCS into three risk profiles based on A) personal history (CVD, CVD risk factors, or CVD risk free), B) body mass index (obese, overweight, or normal/underweight), and C) cardiotoxic treatment (anthracyclines and/or chest irradiation, or neither). We obtained a FFQ from 802, and sent a spot urine sample collection kit to 212, of which 111 (52%) returned. We estimated Na intake 2.9 g/day based on spot urine and 2.8 g/day based on FFQ; estimated K intake was 1.6 g/day (spot urine) and 2.7 g/day (FFQ). CCSs with CVD risk factors had a slightly higher Na intake (3.3 g/day), than CCSs risk free (2.9 g/day) or with CVD (2.7 g/day, p = 0.017), and obese participants had higher Na intake (4.2 g/day) than normal/underweight CCSs (2.7 g/day, p<0.001). Daily Na intake was above, and daily K intake below national recommended levels. Adult survivors of childhood cancer need dietary assistance to reduce Na and increase K intake.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: physical activity; depression; elderly people living alone; Patient Health Questionnaire-10; flexibility exercise; muscular strength exercise; complex sample logistic regression
Online: 25 March 2019 (11:10:17 CET)
Background and objectives: Only a few studies analyzed the physical activity level of elderly people living alone in local communities and evaluated the relationship between it and mental health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity and depression in the elderly living alone and to provide basic data for the prevention of depression in the elderly. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 256 elderly people living alone aged 65 years or older who completed the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Depression was defined as a score of 10 or higher using Patient Health Questionnaire-10(PHQ-9). This study investigated walking per week, days of muscular strength exercise performance in the past one week, days of flexibility exercise in the past one week, mean hours in a sitting position per day, the numbers of days and hours conducting a high intensity physical activity in the past one week, and numbers of days and hours conducting a medium intensity physical activity in the past one week to define physical activity. Our study presented prevalence odds ratios (pOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using complex sample logistic regression analysis in order to identify the relationship between physical activity and depression. Results: The results of complex sample logistic regression analysis showed that flexibility exercise was significantly related to depression (p <0.05). On the other hand, the mean hours in a sitting position per day, aerobic physical activity, walking, and muscular strength exercise were not significantly related to geriatric depression. Conclusions: The results of our study implied that persistent flexibility exercise might be more effective to maintain a healthy mental status than muscular strength exercise. A longitudinal study is required to prove the causal relationship between physical activity and depression in the old age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1395.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Mpox infection; mpox vaccination; risk awareness, vaccine acceptance; vaccine hesitancy; health-related quality of life; the Short-Form 36-item questionnaire
Online: 24 October 2023 (07:56:10 CEST)
Background: we aim to investigate attitudes toward vaccination, by analyzing empirical factors associated with vaccine acceptance in the Lazio region mpox vaccination (MpoxVax) campaign in Italy. Methods: all subjects who accessed to MpoxVax and signed the informed consent were prospectively enrolled in the MPOX-VAC Study and were asked to fill out an anonymous survey. Two endpoints were selected: ‘delayed acceptance’ and ‘early acceptance’, defined as access for vaccination >60 and ≤30 days from the vaccination campaign starting (VCS), respectively. Results: over the study period 1717 individuals underwent vaccination: 129 (7%) >60 [1588 (92.5%) ≤60] and 676 (60%) ≤30 days from VCS. A bisexual orientation, a lower education level and a worse perceived physical and mental health were associated with delayed access to vaccination. Being Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) users and, marginally, HIV positive, having a high perceived risk for mpox infection and reporting high-risk behaviors like the use of recreational drugs/chems, sex under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol and higher number of principal sexual partners, were associated with early access to vaccination. Conclusions: according to our data, risk awareness was a major determinant of early mpox vaccination acceptance. Conversely, worse perceived health status and a low educational level were critical factors associated with delayed vaccination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2031.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Mediterranean diet; food frequency questionnaire; Israel Mediterranean diet screener (I-MEDAS); time-in-range (TIR); type 1 diabetes; dietary reference intake
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:00:49 CEST)
The Mediterranean diet (MED) is highly recommended. Medical nutrition therapy is the cornerstone of diabetes treatment. We assessed adherence to the MED, and resultant micronutrient intake and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes. Twenty adolescents, median age 18 years (interquartile range: 15.5-21), median diabetes duration 9 years (7-14), using continuous glucose monitoring devices, received personalized diet regimes based on MED. At 6 months post-intervention, the caloric intake remained unchanged; however, the carbohydrate proportion was lower (p=0.058) and the intakes of some monounsaturated fats increased (p=0.049). Sodium intake exceeded the recommended daily allowance by 250% (p=0.653), before and after the intervention. For blood glucose, the percent time-in-range 70-180 mg/dL improved from 52% (38-60) to 63% (47-71) (p=0.047). The total insulin dose decreased marginally, from 0.76 u/kg (0.64-0.97) to 0.72u/kg (0.61-0.89) (p=0.067). BMI z-score and waist circumference did not change (p=0.316 and p=0.161, respectively). Diastolic blood pressure percentile decreased from 73% (68-88) to 69% (50-79) (p=0.028), and LDL cholesterol from 114mg/ dl (105-134) to 104mg/dl (96-124) (p=0.059). The Israeli Mediterranean diet screener score increased, from 8 (7-11) to 13 points (12-14) (p=<0.001). The MED-based intervention demonstrated feasibility and improvements in glycemic outcomes and in certain nutritional parameters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0291.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Yoga of Immortals (YOI); depression; healthcare workers; insomnia; anxiety; PHQ-8 (Pa-tient Health Questionnaire-8); ISI (Insomnia Severity Index); digital health
Online: 24 May 2022 (04:49:45 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant medical and psychological challenges worldwide, and not only exceeded the capacity of hospitals and intensive care units but also an individuals’ ability to cope with life. Health-care workers have continued to provide care for patients despite exhaustion, fear of transmission to themselves and their family, illness or death of friends and colleagues, and losing many patients. They have also faced additional stress and anxiety due to long shifts combined with unprecedented population restrictions, including personal isolation. In this study, we study the effect of an app-based Yoga of Immortals (YOI) intervention on mental health of healthcare workers. In this study, the health care workers were digitally recruited, and their psychological parameters were measured using validated questionaries. The participants were randomly grouped into control and test groups. The validated psychological measures were the Patient Health Questionnaire-8 (PHQ-8), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) scales. The digital YOI intervention significantly reduced the anxiety, depression symptoms, and insomnia in healthcare workers of all age groups. In contrast, there was no improvement in the control group. This study details the effectiveness of an app-based YOI intervention in healthcare workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0640.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: healthcare; quality of life; WHOQOL questionnaire; WHOQOL BREF version; resilience; values; spirituality; coach; mentor; academians; academic personnel, dentistry, nursing; sustainability in healthcare; health Care Sector
Online: 11 September 2023 (07:34:02 CEST)
Quality of life (QOL) is based on their perception of their position in life in respect to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns, as well as their culture and value systems, their workflow and workplace situations while it influences quality of services. In this study we aim to report on dental and nursing academians’ QOL and well-being at the end of the third year of the COVID-19 pandemic. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) tool, recording Physical, Psychological, Social and Environmental dimensions of QOL, was used. The WHOQOL-BREF was modified on a spiritual, coaching/mentoring approach in a two-step designing and validated procedure. The modified SHQOL-BREF (Spiritual Healthcare version) designed for this study, was uploaded, and filled in online during April-June 2023. Staff (N=120, 75% female) of both departments of Dentistry (44.2%) and Nursing (55.8%) of the National and Kapodistrian university of Athens, participated in anonymity. QOL in terms of physical health was reported at a higher level (M=72.2 points) compared to social relationships (M=69 points), psychological health (M=65 points) and environment (M=59 points) (scores reported in 0-100 score). Overall QOL was rated at 66 points while satisfaction from health at 72 points. Job satisfaction (M1=3.2) and spirituality (M2=3.0) were reported at a medium level in a 5-point scale, while personal beliefs and values were reported at a high level (M3=4.0). Participants age presented a significant, moderate to strong effect on physical health [F(3,97)=2.89, p<.05, η2p=.08] and on environment [F(3,97)=2.80, p<.05, η2p=.08] and marital status on social relationships [F(1,97)=9.66, p<.05, η2p=.09]. Married participants reported consistently higher levels of QOL compared to single participants, for all age groups. Department had a significant moderate effect on social relationships (F(1,97)=5.10, p<.05, η2p=.05) and education a significant moderate to strong effect on psychological health (F(2,97)=3.74, p<.05, η2p=.07). PhD level participants in both departments presented higher levels of psychological health compared to lower educational levels. Also, participants from the department of Dentistry reported higher levels of social relationships QOL in all educational groups, compared to the department of Nursing. Strategic planning on sustainability and QOL initiatives should be introduced after the COVID-19 pandemic for dental and nursing academic personnel to promote resilience and QOL scores.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0336.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: health literacy; patient health engagement model; Health Care Climate Questionnaire; patient autonomy; PHE-s; Patient Health Engagement Scale; health communication; patient centered communication; patient engagement
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:29:43 CET)
Individuals with low health literacy (HL) are known to have poorer health outcomes and to have higher mortality rates compared to individuals with higher HL: hence, the improvement of HL is a key outcome in modern healthcare systems. Healthcare providers are therefore asked to support patients’ literacy skills by encouraging the implementation of autonomy-supportive patient centered communication (PCC), which in turn requires the enhancement of patient engagement. Our main hypothesis is that the well-known relationship between autonomy-supportive PCC and HL is mediated by patient engagement which is known to play a role in HL promotion and that is related to PCC as well. The purpose of this study was to formulate a hypothetical structural equation model (SEM) linking PCC to patient engagement and HL. A cross-sectional survey design was employed involving 1007 Italian chronic patients. The hypothetical model was tested using SEM to verify the hypothesized mediation of patient engagement between PCC and HL. Results show that the theoretical model has a good fit indexes and that patient engagement fully mediates the relationship between PCC and HL. This finding suggests healthcare systems to implement a new paradigm where patients are supported to play an autonomous role in their own healthcare.