ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0214.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; elderly; adverse event; difficult cannulation
Online: 18 September 2019 (17:54:04 CEST)
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a routinely used therapeutic procedure for the biliary and pancreatic diseases. Population aging may increase the typical indications of ERCP and come with more complexity and difficulties, especially in cannulation. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence, causes, and management of difficult biliary cannulation during ERCP in super-aged patients and the role of difficult cannulation as a risk factor for adverse events. A total of 614 patients, underwent ERCP, were prospectively studied as a cohort and divided into two groups based on their age. There were 146 patients aged 80 years or older in group A and 468 patients aged less than 80 years in group B. The primary outcome measures were the difficulty grade of papilla cannulation, clinical outcomes, and ERCP-related complications in the two groups. The adverse events were analyzed using logistic regression for patient age, co-morbidities, indications, and cannulation difficulty grade variables. There was no difference in the incidence of difficult cannulation between the two groups (32.9% vs. 34.4%, p=0.765) though, as expected, super-aged Group A had a higher prevalence of periampullary diverticulum (29.5% vs. 16.7%, p=0.001). The technical cannulation success rate was (96.6% vs. 96.8%, p= 0.54). All used cannulation techniques in the elderly group were efficient and safe. Logistic regression showed that age ≥80 was not associated with increased adverse events; however, difficult cannulation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.478; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.877, 6.442; p<0.001) and CCI ≥2 (AOR=1.824; 95% CI=0.993, 3.349; p=0.045) were more likely to have adverse events. Age ≤65 (AOR=3.460; 95% CI=1.511, 7.922; p=0.003), female gender (AOR=2.362; 95% CI=1.089, 5.124; p=0.030), difficult cannulation (AOR=4.527; 95% CI=2.078, 9.860; p<0.001), and patients with cholangitis (AOR=3.261; 95% CI=1.204, 8.832; p=0.020) were strongly associated with increasing Post-ERCP Pancreatitis (PEP). Advanced age has not proved to be a risk factor of difficult cannulation, and secondary cannulation techniques can be safely and efficaciously utilized for this group. CCI ≥2 and difficult cannulation are associated with increased overall adverse events rate while age ≥80 factor is not.