SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0289.v5
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; proton affinity; calcium oxalate; isoleucine; valine; glycine; prophylactic approach
Online: 14 June 2020 (17:43:37 CEST)
The current pneumonia epidemic could evolve into a pandemic on a global scale if not effectively contained. The COVID-19 virus possesses a 61-amino acid open reading frame resembling SARS-CoV virulence factor - ORF6 peptide. The isoleucine content is 15.9% in ORF6 of SARS-CoV versus 16.4% of that in SARS-CoV-2. Given the proton affinity in the carbonyl oxygen in isoleucine, augmented proton traffic can enhance proton-ion antiport and prompt cell swelling. Calorie restriction has been confirmed in animal studies to extend lifespan, and its underlying mechanism is not fully known. As the content of essential amino acids in the open reading frame of SARS-CoV-2 reaches 57.4%, a starch/vitamin diet served for short period of time does not give rise to essential amino acids and halts virion production, which could be adopted as prophylactic approach of many viral infections. Plant-based diet or fasting/boiled rice water can also minimize the intake of essential amino acids or all amino acids respectively. Furthermore, several proteins of SARS-CoV-2 possess high valine plus glycine content which is implicated in heart disease, justifying the aforementioned approaches.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0390.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Warburg effect; Protons; Calcium oxalate; Antagonization
Online: 26 March 2020 (14:20:51 CET)
The Warburg effect refers to the phenomenon that cancer cells produce energy via glycolysis instead of cellular respiration. Glycolysis generated no net protons. The Warburg effect may be malignant cells’ built-in mechanism to antagonize the buildup of protons via Krebs cycle and other pathways with compromised cellular respiration. Data described in this study indicated that cancer cells were less sensitive to the presence of oxalate than non-cancer model cell lines 16HBE14o- and HaCaT. Malignant cells may resort on organic acids such as oxalate and their calcium salts to antagonize strong acids. This experiment sheds light on the role of Warburg effect in cancer cell metabolism and homeostasis.