ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2124.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: wetland restoration; biodiversity; post-evaluation; ecological monitoring
Online: 1 August 2023 (03:34:04 CEST)
Post-evaluation of ecological redevelopment is a good method for its achievements. The eco-engineering technologies and achievements of landscape water reconstructed from aquaculture ponds in Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden have been introduced in this study. The sediments and water quality were also sampled and tested for basic physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentration. The ecological redevelopment of landscape water reconstructed from aquaculture ponds was evaluated using the Nemero comprehensive pollution index method. The results shown that nutrients including organic matter, organic nitrogen and their ratio of sediment were found to be in a state of moderate pollution, while their ecological risk of heavy metals was low. Although total nitrogen and total phosphorus of water quality was really higher than that of other indexes, the decline trends of ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus was obvious presented over time. In general, this is a good example that redevelopment of water ecosystems from aquaculture ponds using eco-engineering technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: critical care; physiological measurement; nursing and nursing systems; naturalistic study; fatigue
Online: 15 November 2022 (03:18:01 CET)
Intensive care nurses are highly prone to occupational stress and burnout, affecting their physical and mental health. The occurrence of the pandemic and related events increased nurses’ workload and exacerbated stress and burnout. We conducted a prospective longitudinal mixed-methods study with a cohort of nurses working in a medical ICU (COVID unit; n = 14) and cardiovascular ICU (non-COVID unit; n = 5). Each participant was followed for six 12-hour shifts. Validated questionnaires measured occupational stress and burnout prevalence. Wrist-worn wearable technologies recorded physiological indices of stress. Participants elaborated on the contributors to stress via post-study questionnaire. Data were analyzed using statistical and qualitative methods. Participants who cared for COVID patients at the COVID unit were 3.71 times more likely to experience stress (p < .001) in comparison to non-COVID unit participants. No differences in stress levels were found when the same participants worked with COVID and non-COVID patients at different shifts at the COVID unit. The cohorts expressed similar contributors to stress including communication tasks, patient acuity, clinical procedures, admission processes, proning, labs, and assisting coworkers. Nurses in COVID units, irrespective of whether they care for a COVID patient, may experience high occupational stress and burnout.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0277.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: immunoglobulin A nephropathy; expression quantitative trait loci; summary data-based Mendelian randomization; genome-wide association study; functional mapping
Online: 20 May 2022 (12:13:06 CEST)
Background: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a complex autoimmune disease, and the exact pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Methods: We conducted summary data-based Mendelian randomization (SMR) analysis and performed functional mapping and annotation using FUMA to explore genetic loci that are po-tentially involved in the pathogenies of IgAN. Both analyses used summarized data of a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) on IgANs, which included 477,784 Europeans (15,587 cases and 462,197 controls) and 175,359 East Asians (71 cases and 175,288 controls). We performed separate SMR analysis using CAGE and GTEx eQTL data. Results: Using the CAGE eQTL data, our SMR analysis identified 32 probes tagging 25 unique genes that were pleiotropically/potentially causally associated with IgAN, with the top three probes being ILMN_2150787 (tagging HLA-C, PSMR=2.10×10-18), ILMN_1682717 (tagging IER3, PSMR=1.07×10-16) and ILMN_1661439 (tagging FLOT1, PSMR=1.16×10-14). Using GTEx eQTL data, our SMR analysis identified 24 probes tagging 24 unique genes, with the top three probes being ENSG00000271581.1 (tagging XXbac-BPG248L24.12, PSMR=1.44×10-10), ENSG00000186470.9 (tagging BTN3A2, PSMR=2.28×10-10), and ENSG00000224389.4 (tagging C4B, PSMR=1.23×10-9). FUMA analysis identified 3 independent, significant and lead SNPs, 2 genomic risk loci and 39 genes. Conclusion: We identified many genetic variants/loci that are potentially involved in the patho-genesis of IgAN.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: nanomicelle; polyethylene glycol; tryptanthrin; water soluble
Online: 14 November 2019 (09:46:07 CET)
Tryptanthrin has not been widely applied in clinical practice due to its poor solubility and low bioavailability in spite of possessing several biological and pharmacological activities. Here, to improve the solubility of tryptanthrin, two types of novel tryptanthrin-loaded micelles were prepared. One was tryptanthrin physically encapsulated by distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG) and the other was pegylated tryptanthrin synthesized by acid-sensitive hydrazone bond and further prepared as micelles. Molecular imprinting technology was used to separate pegylated tryptanthrin and free mPEG-COOH in the preparation of PEGylated tryptanthrin micelles with considerably high separation efficiency. The solubility of tryptanthrin-loaded DSPE-PEG micelles (TDMs) and PEGylated tryptanthrin micelles (PTMs) was increased by 300 and 1493 fold compared with that of tryptanthrin, respectively. The PTMs increased the solubility of tryptanthrin more effectively and 95% of tryptanthrin was released from PTMs at pH 5.5 in 12 h. The cytotoxicity of PTMs decreased under physiological conditions compared with that of tryptanthrin, whereas at pH 5.5, the PTMs showed comparable cytotoxicity with that of tryptanthrin, indicating successful drug release from the carrier in response to tumor cell pH. Overall, we elucidated an efficient method to improve water solubility of tryptanthrin and indicated pegylated tryptanthrin is a promising prodrug.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2067.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Metagenomics; red algae; microbial diversity; algal-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:33:37 CEST)
Macroalgae and macroalgae-associated bacteria together constitute the most efficient metabolic cycling system in the ocean. Their interactions, especially the responses of macroalgae-associated bacteria communities to algae in different geographical locations, is mostly unknown. In this study, metagenomics was used to analyze the microbial diversity and associated algal polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on the surface of red algae among three remote regions. There were significant differences in the macroalgae-associated bacteria community composition and diversity among the different regions. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria had a significantly high relative abundance among the regions. From the perspective of species diversity, samples from China had the highest macroalgae-associated bacteria diversity, followed by those from Antarctica and Indonesia. In addition, in the functional prediction of the bacterial community, genes associated with amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and membrane transport had a high relative abundance. Canonical correspondence analysis and redundancy analysis of environmental factors showed that, without considering algae species and composition, pH and temperature were the main environmental factors affecting bacterial community structure. Furthermore, there were significant differences in algal polysaccharide-degrading enzymes among the regions. Samples from China and Antarctica had high abundances of algal polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, while those from Indonesia had extremely low abundances. The environmental differences between these three regions may impose a strong geographic differentiation regarding the biodiversity of algal microbiomes and their expressed enzyme genes. This work expands our knowledge of algal microbial ecology, and contributes to an in-depth study of their metabolic characteristics, ecological functions, and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0499.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fault detection; induced draft fan; multivariate state estimation technique (MSET); model update; power plant
Online: 19 April 2021 (14:36:56 CEST)
The induced draft (ID) fan is important auxiliary equipment in the thermal power plant. It is of great significance to monitor the operation of the ID fan for safe and efficient production. In this paper, an adaptive warning model is proposed to detect early faults of ID fans. First, a non-parametric monitoring model is constructed to describe the normal operation states with the multivariate state estimation technique (MSET). Then, an early warning approach is presented to identify abnormal behaviors based on the results of the MSET model. As the performance of the MSET model is heavily influenced by the normal operation data in the historic memory matrix, an adaptive strategy is proposed by using the samples with a high data quality index (DQI) to manage the memory matrix and update the model. The proposed method is applied to a 300 MW coal-fired power plant for early fault detection, and it is compared with the model without an update. Results show that the proposed method can detect the fault earlier and more accurately.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0405.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: drug repurposing; antifungal therapy; antifungal mechanism; clinical application; antifungal agents
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:21:38 CET)
The morbidity and mortality caused by invasive fungal infections is increasing across the globe due to developments in transplant surgery, the use of immunosuppressive agents, and the emergence of drug-resistant fungal strains, which has led to a challenge in terms of treatment due to the limitations of three classes of drugs. Hence, it is imperative to establish effective strategies to identify and design new antifungal drugs. Drug repurposing is an effective way of expanding the application of existing drugs. In the last years, various existing drugs have been shown to be useful in the prevention and treatment of the invasive fungi. In this review, we summarize the currently used antifungal agents. In addition, the most up to date information on the effectiveness of existing drugs with antifungal activity is discussed. Moreover, the antifungal mechanisms of existing drugs are highlighted. These data will provide valuable knowledge to stimulate further investigation and clinical application in this field.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Resistive sensor array; measurement error; zero potential methods; liquid metal; flexible electrical skin
Online: 24 January 2020 (14:49:03 CET)
Liquid metal alloy, incorporated with microfluidic manipulation, has become a promising candidate for flexible resistive sensor array (RSA) that can imitate the functions of human skin. One advantage of RSA with shared rows and shared columns is to reduce the number of wires from M × N to M + N (rows: M and columns: N) and hence to greatly lessen the complexity and burden on the electrical system. The associated drawback is the crosstalk effect between adjacent elements during measurement. Although many literatures have reported several methods to resolve this limitation, almost all of them focus only on the high resistance value (≥100 Ω) RSA. There is a lack of detailed experimental data that addresses low resistance RSA with sensing elements below 100 Ω. Here, we aim to fill the gap of this field. We established two common RSA readout systems, i.e. zero potential methods (ZPM) (setting non-scanned-sampling-electrode zero potential (S-NSSE-ZP) and setting non-scanned-sampling-electrode zero potential with amplifier (S-NSSE-ZP-A)) and to compare their performances in low resistance value (≤100 Ω) RSA. For ideal resistor RSA, the measurement results show that S-NSSE-ZP has at least one time higher error than S-NSSE-ZP-A.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: ANFIS; Bilayered neural network; diffusion phenomena; diffusion of molecules; machine learning
Online: 9 September 2021 (10:50:57 CEST)
The diffusion of molecules in aqueous solutions in the domain of membrane technology is very critical in the efficiency of chemical engineering and purification processes. In this study, the diffusion in high and low concentration regions is simulated with finite difference method (FDM), and then the results of numerical computations are coupled with adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and bilayered neural network method (BNNM). Machine learning approach can individually predict diffusion phenomena across the domain based on understanding of the machine instead of the discretization of an ordinary differential equation (ODE). The findings of the machine learning method are in good agreement with those of FDM at different times of the simulation. In addition to numerical computation, the error of the system is computed for different iterations. The results show that by increasing the number of iterations and training datasets, all errors reduce significantly for both training and testing. BNN method is also used to train the prediction process of diffusion for a more accurate comparison. This technique is similar to ANFIS method in terms of prediction capability. According to the findings, ANFIS approach predicts diffusion slightly better than BNN method. In this regard, ANFIS technique produces R>0.99 while BNN method produces R around 0.98. Both machine learning methods are accurate enough to predict diffusion throughout the domain for different time steps. The computational time for both algorithms is less than that of FDM method to predict low and high concentrations in the domain. Besides, based on the results, artificial intelligence (AI) can find the relationship between inputs and outputs and determine which input has the main influence on the output in this study to optimize the process. As such, future studies can be focused on AI and other methods for faster prediction and optimization processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0402.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Soil Core Microbiota; Countryside and Metropolis; Huabei Plain; Central China
Online: 20 January 2021 (14:35:12 CET)
Soils harbor diverse bacteria, and these bacteria play important roles in soil nutrition cycling and carbon storage. Numerous investigations of soil microbiota had been performed, and the core microbiota in different soil or vegetation soil types had been described. However, the complexity of soil environments and relatively limited information of many geographic areas had attracted great attention on comprehensive exploration of soil microbes in enormous types of soil. To reveal the core soil microbiota in Huabei plain, soil samples from metropolis and countryside regions in the Huabei plain were investigated using high-throughput sequencing strategy. The results showed that the most dominant bacteria are Proteobacteria (38.34%), Actinobacteria (20.56%), and Acidobacteria (15.18%). At the genus-level, the most abundant known genera are Gaiella (3.66%), Sphingomonas (3.6%), Acidobacteria Gp6 (2.1%), and Arthrobacter (2%). Moreover, several dominant operational taxanomy units (OTU), such as OTU_3 and OTU_17, were identified to be associated with the soil environment. Microbial distributions of the metropolis samples were different from the countryside samples, which may reflect the environments in the countryside were more diverse than in the metropolis. Microbial diversity and evenness were higher in the metropolis than in the countryside, which might due to the fact that human activity increased the microbial diversity in the metropolis. The soil core microbiota of the Huabei plain were complex, and microbial distributions in the Huabei plain might be mainly affected by the human activity and environmental factors, not by the distance. Our data highlights the soil core microbiota in Huabei Plain, and provides insights for future soil microbiota distribution studies in central China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0855.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: transfer RNA-derived small RNAs; pathological cardiac hypertrophy; small RNA sequencing; biomarkers
Online: 24 April 2023 (11:01:16 CEST)
Background: It remains unclear whether transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) play a role in pathological cardiac hypertrophy (PCH). We aimed to clarify the expression profile of tsRNAs and disclose their relationship to the clinical phenotype of PCH and the putative role. Methods: Small RNA sequencing was performed in the plasma of PCH patients and healthy volunteers. In a larger sample size and angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang II)-stimulated H9c2 cells, the data were validated by real-time qPCR. The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were examined in Ang II-stimulated H9c2 cells. The role of tsRNAs in the pathogenesis of PCH was explored by bioinformatics analysis. Results: A total of 4185 differentially expressed tsRNAs were identified, of which 4 and 5 tsRNAs were observed to be significantly differentially upregulated and downregulated expressed. Of the 5 down-regulated tsRNAs, 4 of them were verified to be significantly down-regulated in the larger sample group, among which tRF-30-3JVIJMRPFQ5D, tRF-16-R29P4PE, tRF-21-NB8PLML3E, and tRF-21-SWRYVMMV0 had areas under the curve to diagnose concentric hypertrophy. The 4 down-regulated tsRNAs were negatively correlated with left ventricular posterior wall dimensions in PCH patients (r=-0.4227; r=-0.4517; r=-0.5567; r=-0.4223). The levels of ANP and BNP as well as cell size were decreased in Ang II-stimulated H9c2 cells with 21-NB8PLML3E mimic transfection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the target genes of tRF-21-NB8PLML3E were mainly enriched in the metabolic pathway and involved in the regulation of ribosomes. Conclusion: The plasma tsRNAs tRF-21-NB8PLML3E might be considered biomarkers in patients with PCH with early screening potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0459.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Superparamagnetic iron oxide; Magnetic resonance imaging; Solid lipid nanoparticles; Galactose; Liver-targeted
Online: 24 July 2018 (14:01:51 CEST)
The aim of this study was to develop a novel nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) with hepatocytes targeting as carriers for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent (i.e., magnetic nanostructured lipid carriers, MNLCs), and to evaluate the targeting ability of the MNLCs with T2-weighted MRI both in vitro and in vivo. Here, the galactose-octadecylamine (Gal-ODA) conjugates were synthesized by chemical coupling reaction between lactose acid (LA) and octadecylamine (ODA). Then the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) loaded nanostructured lipid carrier (conjugated by Gal-ODA, Gal-NLC-SPIO) was prepared by emulsification-ultrasonic method using monoglyceride as lipid materials. The Gal-NLC-SPIO with a diameter of about 50 nm could specifically internalize into LO2 (human hepatic cell line) cells. In vitro MRI results also proved the specific targeting ability of Gal-NLC-SPIO to LO2 cells. The in vivo MR imaging experiments using an orthotopic intrahepatic xenograft tumor model further validated the hepatocytes targeted effect of Gal-NLC-SPIO. The results of this study suggested that Gal-NLC-SPIO can be used as a contrast agent to aid in the diagnosis of hepatic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0006.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: surface water; Tibetan Plateau pastoral area; Xiahe County; hydrochemical characteristics; fuzzy comprehensive method; water quality
Online: 2 August 2016 (04:20:00 CEST)
Water quality assessment in pastoral of Tibetan Plateau, which is water sources for about 40% of world's population and the runoff-yield area of Yellow rivers, is very important. In this paper, Xiahe county which belongs to Tibetan Plateau pastoral was investigated. Six parameters(via, chloride, COD, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate, fluoride, sulfate) were selected to assess the water quality and health degree by using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation methods. The hydrochemical type in surface water was of HCO3--Mg2+-Ca2+ type. The cations and anions in surface water were mainly from weathering and dissolution of carbonate rock. Results showed that the water quality in all 69 sampling sites was all of class Ⅰ. The integrated health degree reached more than 0.85 and the health rate were 100%. Although ammonia nitrogen was regarded as the main contamination factor, but it had a little effect on the entire body of water. Overall, the surface water qualities of most samples in Xiahe County was good condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0481.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Wastewater; Surveillance; False-positive; False-negative; RT-PCR
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:08:13 CEST)
Wastewater surveillance for pathogens using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is an effective, resource-efficient tool for gathering additional community-level public health information, including the incidence and/or prevalence and trends of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater may provide an early-warning signal of COVID-19 infections in a community. The capacity of the world’s environmental microbiology and virology laboratories for SARS-CoV-2 RNA characterization in wastewater is rapidly increasing. However, there are no standardized protocols nor harmonized quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedures for SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance. This paper is a technical review of factors that can lead to false-positive and -negative errors in the surveillance of SARS-CoV-2, culminating in recommendations and strategies that can be implemented to identify and mitigate these errors. Recommendations include, stringent QA/QC measures, representative sampling approaches, effective virus concentration and efficient RNA extraction, amplification inhibition assessment, inclusion of sample processing controls, and considerations for RT-PCR assay selection and data interpretation. Clear data interpretation guidelines (e.g., determination of positive and negative samples) are critical, particularly during a low incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. Corrective and confirmatory actions must be in place for inconclusive and/or potentially significant results (e.g., initial onset or reemergence of COVID-19 in a community). It will also be prudent to perform inter-laboratory comparisons to ensure results are reliable and interpretable for ongoing and retrospective analyses. The strategies that are recommended in this review aim to improve SARS-CoV-2 characterization for wastewater surveillance applications. A silver lining of the COVID-19 pandemic is that the efficacy of wastewater surveillance was demonstrated during this global crisis. In the future, wastewater will play an important role in the surveillance of a range of other communicable diseases.