ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: trace element; inflammation; ceruloplasmin; micronutrient; COVID-19
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:10:13 CEST)
The trace element copper (Cu) is part of our nutrition and essentially needed for several cuproenzymes that control redox status and support the immune system. In blood, the ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (CP) accounts for the majority of circulating Cu and serves as transport protein. Both Cu and CP behave as positive, whereas serum selenium (Se) and its transporter selenoprotein P (SELENOP) behave as negative acute phase reactants. In view that coronavirus disease (COVID-19) causes systemic inflammation, we hypothesized that biomarkers of Cu and Se status are regulated inversely, in relation to disease severity and mortality risk. Serum samples from COVID-19 patients were analysed for Cu by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and CP was quantified by a validated sandwich ELISA. The two Cu biomarkers correlated positively in serum from patients with COVID-19 (R=0.42, p<0.001). Surviving patients showed higher mean serum Cu and CP concentrations in comparison to non-survivors ([mean+/-SEM], Cu; 1475.9+/-22.7 vs. 1317.9+/-43.9 µg/L; p<0.001, CP; 547.2.5 +/- 19.5 vs. 438.8+/-32.9 mg/L, p=0.086). In contrast to expectations, total serum Cu and Se concentrations displayed a positive linear correlation in the patient samples analysed (R=0.23, p=0.003). Serum CP and SELENOP levels were not interrelated. Applying receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, the combination of Cu and SELENOP with age outperformed other combinations of parameters for predicting risk of death, yielding an AUC of 95.0%. We conclude that the alterations in serum biomarkers of Cu and Se status in COVID-19 are not compatible with a simple acute phase response, and that serum Cu and SELENOP levels contribute to a good prediction of survival. Adjuvant supplementation in patients with diagnostically proven deficits in Cu or Se may positively influence disease course, as both increase in survivors and are of crucial importance for the immune response and antioxidative defence systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0735.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Transcriptomics; Metabolomics; Pork; Meat quality; Longissimus dorsi muscle
Online: 9 August 2023 (07:13:33 CEST)
Over the last several decades, China has continuously introduced Duroc boars and used them as breeding boars. Although this crossbreeding method has increased pork production, it has affected pork quality. Nowadays, one of the primary goals of industrial breeding and production systems is to enhance the quality of meat. This research adds to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control the quality of pork and may be used as a guide for future efforts to enhance meat quality. We investigated the genetic mechanisms of cross-breeding for meat quality improvement by combining transcriptome and metabolome analysis, using Chinese native Jiaxing black (JXB) pigs and crossbred Duroc × Duroc × Berkshire × JXB (DDBJ) pigs. In the longissimus Dorsi muscle, the content of inosinic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and amino acids was considerably higher in JXB pigs in contrast with that of DDBJ pigs, whereas DDBJ pigs have remarkably greater levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids than JXB pigs. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differential metabolites were identified using transcriptomic and metabolomic KEGG enrichment analyses. Differential metabolites mainly include amino acids, fatty acids, phospholipids. In addition, we found several DEGs that may explain differences in meat quality between the two pig types, including genes associated with lipid metabolism (e.g., DGKA, LIPG, and LPINI), fatty acid metabolism (e.g., ELOVL5, ELOVL4, and ACAT2), and amino acid metabolism (e.g., SLC7A2, SLC7A4). Combined with the DEGS-enriched signaling pathways, the regulatory mechanisms related to amino acids, fatty acids, and phospholipids were mapped. The abundant metabolic pathways and DEGs may provide insight into the specific molecular mechanism that regulates meat quality. Optimizing the composition of fatty acids, phospholipids, amino acids, and other compounds in pork is conducive to improving meat quality. Overall, these findings will give useful information and further groundwork for enhancing the meat quality that may be achieved via hybrid breeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0732.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: trace element; liver transplantation; selenoprotein P; glutathione peroxidase; hepatitis C virus
Online: 29 December 2020 (15:18:30 CET)
The trace element selenium (Se) is taken up from the diet and becomes metabolized mainly by hepatocytes. Selenoprotein P (SELENOP) constitutes the liver-derived Se transporter. Biosynthesis of extracellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx3) in kidney depends on SELENOP-mediated Se supply. We hypothesized that Se status may serve as a useful prognostic marker for outcome in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Serum samples from patients were routinely collected before and after transplantation. Concentration of serum SELENOP and total Se as well as GPx3 activity were determined by standardized tests and related to survival, aetiology and pre-operative Child-Pugh and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Scores. A total of 314 serum samples from 78 transplanted patients were available for analysis. The Se and SELENOP concentrations were on average below the reference ranges of healthy subjects. Patients with ethanol toxicity-dependent aetiology showed particularly low SELENOP and Se concentrations and GPx3 activity. Longitudinal analysis indicated declining Se concentrations in non-survivors. We conclude that severe liver disease necessitating organ replacement is characterized by a pronounced Se deficit before, during and after transplantation. A recovering Se status after surgery is associated with positive prognosis, and an adjuvant Se supplementation may thus support convalescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: trace element; inflammation; selenoprotein P; micronutrient; COVID-19
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:15:45 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 infections underlie the current Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and are causative for a high death toll particularly among elderly subjects and those with comorbidities. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of high importance for human health and particularly for a well-balanced immune response. Mortality risk from severe disease like sepsis or polytrauma is inversely related to Se status. We hypothesized that this relation also applies to COVID-19. Serum samples (n=166) from COVID-19 patients (n=33) were collected consecutively and analysed for total Se by X-ray fluorescence and selenoprotein P (SELENOP) by a validated ELISA. Both biomarkers showed the expected strong correlation (r=0.7758, p<0.001), pointing to an insufficient Se status for optimal selenoprotein expression. In comparison to reference data from a European cross sectional analysis (EPIC, n=1915), the patients showed a pronounced deficit in total serum Se (mean±SD, 50.8±15.7 vs. 84.4±23.4 µg/L) and SELENOP (3.0±1.4 vs. 4.3±1.0 mg/L). A Se status below the 2.5th percentile of the reference population, i.e., [Se] < 45.7 µg/L and [SELENOP] < 2.56 mg/L was present in 43.4% and 39.2% of COVID samples, respectively. The Se status was significantly higher in samples from surviving COVID patients as compared to non-survivors (Se; 53.3±16.2 vs. 40.8±8.1 µg/L, SELENOP; 3.3±1.3 vs. 2.1±0.9 mg/L). We conclude that Se status analysis in COVID patients provides diagnostic information. However, causality remains unknown due to the observational nature of this study. Nevertheless, the findings strengthen the notion on a relevant role of Se for COVID convalescence, and support the discussion on adjuvant Se supplementation in severely diseased and Se-deficient patients.