ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0349.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Moral observer-licensing; Immoral behavior; Role involvement; Moral Credits Model; Internet; Social media
Online: 25 March 2022 (15:29:49 CET)
Moral observer-licensing happens when people condone others’ morally questionable conducts due to their history of moral behaviors. We investigated in four studies (N = 808) this phenomenon in the context of cyberspace and its contributing factors and boundary conditions. Study 1 determined what participants perceived as typically moral and immoral behaviors in cyberspace. Then in Study 2, participants condemned less a story character’s online immoral behavior when they were informed of the character’s prior online moral behavior than when they were not, which indicates moral observer-licensing in cyberspace. Study 3 confirmed the presence of moral observer-licensing in cyberspace and further demonstrated that a character’s prior moral or immoral behavior online respectively reduces or intensifies the negativity of the character’s subsequent immoral behavior. Finally, Study 4 showed that participants who identified with the victim in a hypothetical scenario showed less forgiveness and more condemnation of a character’s immoral behavior than those who identified with the perpetrator or the bystander. These findings are of theoretical and practical significance for our understanding of cyber ethics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: hydrogen energy storage; tiered carbon trading mechanism; virtual power plant; low-carbon economy.
Online: 1 November 2023 (11:39:09 CET)
Under the "dual carbon" target in China, virtual power plants (VPPs) play an important role in improving grid security and promoting clean and low-carbon energy transformation. VPPs can integrate and control distributed resources to participate in the energy market and make full use of distributed resources. However, the intermittency and volatility of renewable energy and the "heat-driven" working mode of CHP units create contradictions that seriously affect the peak-shaving ability of VPPs and lead to high carbon emissions. To solve these problems, this paper aggregates CHP units, wind power, photovoltaics, carbon capture, hydrogen energy storage, and electric boilers into a new type of virtual power plant. The "hydrogen energy storage-electric boiler" joint decoupling CHP working mode is used to strengthen the coupling relationship between electric-thermal-hydrogen load. At the same time, a tiered carbon trading mechanism is considered, with the net profit of the VPP as the optimization objective, balancing economic and environmental considerations. A low-carbon economic dispatch model for VPPs is established, and a genetic algorithm is used for optimization. Three different scheduling strategies are set, and simulations are conducted in three different seasonal scenarios. The results show that the net profit in the cooling season increased by 50.4%, and carbon emissions decreased by 42.3%. In the transitional season, the net profit increased by 39.2%, and carbon emissions decreased by 44.9%. In the heating season, the net profit increased by 19.4%, and carbon emissions decreased by 43.4%. Overall, the proposed dispatch strategy can improve the new energy consumption capacity and total revenue of VPPs while achieving the goal of reducing carbon emissions.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: non-aqueous electrolysis; TiN-MCx; precipitation; bearings; high carbon chromium bearing steel
Online: 28 May 2019 (11:06:35 CEST)
Nitride and carbide are the second phases which play an important role in the performance of bearing steel, and their precipitation behavior is complicated. In this study, TiN-MCx precipitations in GCr15 bearing steels were obtained by non-aqueous electrolysis, and their precipitation mechanisms were studied. TiN is the effective heterogeneous nucleation site for Fe7C3 and Fe3C, therefore, MCx can precipitate on the surface of TiN easily, its chemistry component consists of M3C and M7C3 (M = Fe, Cr, Mn) and Cr3C2. TiN-MCx with high TiN volume fraction, TiN forms in early stage of solidification, and MCx precipitates on TiN surface after TiN engulfed by the solidification advancing front. TiN-MCx with low TiN volume fraction, TiN and MCx form in late stage of solidification, TiN can not grow sufficiently and is covered by a large number of precipitated MCx particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0076.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: big data; machine learning; regularization; data quality; robust learning framework
Online: 17 October 2017 (03:47:41 CEST)
The concept of ‘big data’ has been widely discussed, and its value has been illuminated throughout a variety of domains. To quickly mine potential values and alleviate the ever-increasing volume of information, machine learning is playing an increasingly important role and faces more challenges than ever. Because few studies exist regarding how to modify machine learning techniques to accommodate big data environments, we provide a comprehensive overview of the history of the evolution of big data, the foundations of machine learning, and the bottlenecks and trends of machine learning in the big data era. More specifically, based on learning principals, we discuss regularization to enhance generalization. The challenges of quality in big data are reduced to the curse of dimensionality, class imbalances, concept drift and label noise, and the underlying reasons and mainstream methodologies to address these challenges are introduced. Learning model development has been driven by domain specifics, dataset complexities, and the presence or absence of human involvement. In this paper, we propose a robust learning paradigm by aggregating the aforementioned factors. Over the next few decades, we believe that these perspectives will lead to novel ideas and encourage more studies aimed at incorporating knowledge and establishing data-driven learning systems that involve both data quality considerations and human interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0174.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Hierarchical search; Image retrieval; Multi-feature fusion
Online: 26 April 2017 (18:51:42 CEST)
Aiming at the problems that are poor generalization performance, low retrieval accuracy and large time consumption of existing content-based image retrieval system, the hierarchical image retrieval method based on multi feature fusion is proposed in this paper. The retrieval accuracy rates on Corel5K, UKbeach and Holidays are 68.23(Top 1), 3.73(N-S) and 88.20(mAp), respectively. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively improve the deficiency of single feature retrieval and save time significantly in the premise of a small amount of loss of accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2160.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: optical coherence tomography angiography; anti-VEGF; branch vascular network; polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy
Online: 1 August 2023 (03:01:37 CEST)
We performed a retrospective, observational study for 51 eyes of 51 treatment-naive patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), whose lesion ranged within the 6x6mm scope of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Patients were divided into two groups based on the pattern of branching vascular network (BVN) on OCTA: ill-defined group and well-defined group. BVN morphology was not related to baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). But the BCVA in the ill-defined BVN group (-0.18 [interquartile range: -0.40 to 0.00]) was significantly improved after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections, compared with that (0.00 [interquartile range: -0.18 to 0.00]) in the well-defined group (z=2.143, p=0.032). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that male sex, smaller number of injections, and presence of polypoidal lesions on OCTA images at baseline predicted a poor prognosis of polypoidal lesions on OCTA images after anti-VEGF therapy (all p<0.05). Finally, BCVA at baseline and the number of injections were protective factors for BCVA after anti-VEGF therapy (all p<0.05). In contrast, history of hypertension and macular edema at baseline were risk factors for BCVA after anti-VEGF injections (all p<0.05). Our results revealed the visual and morphological prognosis of patients with active subfoveal circumscribed PCV after anti-VEGF therapy.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0033.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: laser remote sensing; photon-counting lidar; microchip laser; passively Q-switching; compact solid-state lasers
Online: 2 March 2022 (06:53:36 CET)
As a critical transmitter, the compact 532 nm lasers operating on high repetition and narrow pulse widths have been used widely for airborne or space-borne laser active remote sensing. We developed a free space pumped TEM00 mode sub-nanosecond 532 nm laser that occupied a volume of less than 125 mm × 50 mm × 40 mm (0.25 liters). The fundamental 1064 nm laser consists of a passively Q-switched composite crystal microchip laser and an off-axis, two-pass power amplifier. The pump sources were two single-emitter semiconductor laser diodes (LD) of 808 nm with a maximum continuous wave (CW) power of 10 W each. The average power of fundamental 1064 nm laser was 1.26 W with the laser operating at 16 kHz repetition rates, and 857ps pulse widths. Since the beam distortion would be severe in microchip lasers in terms of the increase in heat load, for obtaining a high beam quality of 532 nm, the beam distortion was compensated by adjusting the distribution of pumping beam in our experiment of fundamental amplification. Furthermore, better than 0.6 W average power, 770 ps, beam quality of M2 ＜1.2, and 16 kHz pulse output at 532 nm was obtained by a Type I LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal in the critical phase matching (CPM) regime for second harmonic generation (SHG).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0128.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: steroidal dimer; steroidal N-heterocycles; antiproliferative activity; esophageal cancer cells
Online: 30 June 2017 (07:43:06 CEST)
Following our previous success in identifying new steroid-based anticancer agents, we herein disclosed the structural requirements for retaining high potency against cancer cells and associated modes of action. The structurally novel steroidal dimer by001 inhibited growth of different esophageal cancer cells and colony formation at low micromolar levels, elevated cellular ROS levels and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Mechanistic studies showed that by001 induced cell death through the mitochondria and death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathways and autophagy induction, as well as inhibited migration.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Mn-doped CeO2; pure CeO2; morphology; oxygen vacancy; benzene oxidation
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:43:25 CEST)
Mn-doped CeO2 and CeO2 with the same morphology (nanofiber and nanocube) were synthesized through hydrothermal method respectively. When applied to benzene oxidation, the catalytic properties of Mn-doped CeO2 were higher than those of CeO2, which was related with the concentration of O vacancy. Compared to CeO2 with the same morphology, more oxygen vacancies were formed on the surface of Mn-doped CeO2, due to Mn ion replacing Ce ion. The lattice replacement was analyzed through XRD, Raman, electron energy loss spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance technology. The formation energies of oxygen vacancy on the different exposed crystal planes [(110) and (100)] for Mn-doped CeO2 were calculated by applying the density functional theory (DFT). The data showed that the oxygen vacancy was easier to be formed on the (110) plane. The factors influencing catalytic behavior were elaborated, which indicated that surface oxygen vacancy played an important part in catalytic reaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0276.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Imitation gold plating; Cu-Zn-Sn alloy; carboxyl-containing additives; HEDP system
Online: 13 July 2020 (01:34:40 CEST)
The requirements for using noncyanide imitation gold plating as decorative electroplating are increasing; thus, continuously improving the quality of the coating of the imitation gold plating and optimizing the coating process have become the current priority. In this work, hydroxyethylidene diphosphonic acid (HEDP) was used as the main complexing agent, CuSO4·5H2O, ZnSO4·7H2O and NaSnO3·3H2O were the main salts, and NaOH and anhydrous sodium carbonate were used as the buffers to prepare the electroplating solution. Using sodium citrate (SC), sodium potassium tartrate (SS), sodium gluconate (SG), and glycerol (Gl) as four additives, the effects of the number of carboxyl groups on the properties of a Cu-Zn-Sn alloy coating were compared. The electrochemical analysis showed that Cu-Zn-Sn alloy codeposition occurred at -0.50 V vs. Hg|HgO. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the particle size of the coatings obtained with carboxyl-containing additives was more uniform than that obtained with the electroplating solution without additives. The X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) analysis revealed that the composition of the Cu-Zn-Sn alloy coating obtained by using SC as an additive in the electroplating solution was 89.75 wt% Cu, 9.61 wt% Zn, and 0.64 wt% Sn, and the color of the coating was golden yellow. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern showed that the coating was a mixture of Cu, Cu5Zn8, CuSn, Cu6Sn5, and CuZn phases. The analysis of the electroplating solution by UV, IR and NMR spectroscopy methods indicates that the additives improve the coating by affecting the complexation reaction of metal ions. These results can provide technical and theoretical guidance for developing Cu-Zn-Sn ternary alloy electrodeposition technology with the new cyanide-free HEDP alkaline electroplating system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Aiton; Essential oils (EOs); Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME); Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); Anticancer activity
Online: 17 May 2017 (13:08:12 CEST)
Background: Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) Aiton is an aromatic medicinal plant widely cultivated in the world. However, the essential oils (EOs) from P. tobira flowers for anti-cancer potential is still not systematically studied. The present aim to elucidate the phytochemical composition of the EOs and to explore mechanism of anticancer action. Methods: The EOs were extracted and analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Volatile components were identified according to Kovats retention index (KI) and NIST database. The anti-neoplasm mechanisms of the EOs was comprehensively investigated in lung carcinoma A549 and H460 cells. Results: A total of 47 secondary metabolites representing 94.18% of the EOs were successfully identified: monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were the dominant terpenoids. The EOs exhibited antiproliferative activity on A549 and H460 lung carcinoma cells. Hoechst 33324 fluorescent staining indicated the typical characteristics of apoptosis and induced cycle phase arrest. AnnexinV/PI staining revealed that the number of apoptotic cells was increased. Furthermore, the EOs also induced the caspase-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Conclusions: Findings suggest that the full-scale chemical composition and first characterization of anticancer activities of the EOs, it could be used for integrative natural anti-cancer agents in health care should be pay more attention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Bovine; Bioinformatics; Phospholipase D family member 6; Testes; Spermatogonial stem cells
Online: 30 June 2023 (14:45:51 CEST)
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are the only primitive spermatogonial cells in males that can naturally transmit genetic information to their offspring and replicate throughout their lives. Phospholipase D family member 6 (PLD6) has recently been found to be a surface marker for SSCs in mice and boars; however, it has not been validated in cattle. The results of RT-PCR and qRT-PCR found that the relative expression of PLD6 gene in the testicular tissues of 2-year-old Simmental calves was significantly higher than that of 6-month-old calves. Immunofluorescent staining further verified the expression of PLD6 protein in bovine spermatogenic cells like germ cell marker VASA. Based on multiple bioinformatic databases, PLD6 is a conservative protein which has high homology with mouse Q5SWZ9 protein. It is closely involved in the normal functioning of the reproductive system. Molecular dynamics simulation analyzed the binding of PLD6 as a phospholipase to cardiolipin (CL), and PLD6-CL complex showed high stability. The protein interaction network analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between PLD6 and piRNA binding protein. PLD6 acts as an endonuclease and participates in piRNA production. In addition, PLD6 in bovine and mouse testes has a similar expression pattern with the spermatogonium-related genes VASA and PIWIL2. In conclusion, these analyses imply that PLD6 has a relatively high expression in bovine testes and could be used as a biomarker for spermatogenic cells including SSCs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0258.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: single nanowires; silicon; dual shells; off-resonance; absorption; photocurrent
Online: 31 August 2020 (08:30:22 CEST)
Single nanowires (NWs) are of great importance for optoelectronic applications, especially solar cells serving as powering nanoscale devices. However, weak off-resonant absorption can limit its light-harvesting capability. Here, we propose a single NW coated with the graded-index dual shells (DSNW). We demonstrate that with appropriate thickness and refractive index of the inner shell, the DSNW exhibits significantly enhanced light trapping compared with the bare NW (BNW), and the NW only coated with the outer shell (OSNW) and the inner shell (ISNW), which can be attributed to the optimal off-resonant absorption mode profiles due to the improved coupling between the reemitted light of the transition modes of the leak mode resonances of the Si core and the nanofocusing light from the dual shells with the graded refractive index. We found that the light absorption can be engineered via tuning the thickness and the refractive index of the inner shell, the photocurrent density is significantly enhanced by 134% (56%, 12%) in comparison with that of the BNW (OSNW, ISNW). This work advances our understanding of how to improve off-resonant absorption by applying graded dual-shell design and provides a new choice for designing high-efficiency single NW photovoltaic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0152.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep convolutional neural networks; identification; semi-verification; multi-scale features; face verification
Online: 20 March 2017 (09:06:18 CET)
Face verification for unrestricted faces in the wild is a challenging task. This paper proposes a method based on two deep convolutional neural networks(CNN) for face verification. In this work, we explore to use identification signal to supervise one CNN and the combination of semi-verification and identification to train the other one. In order to estimate semi-verification loss at a low computation cost, a circle, which is composed of all faces, is used for selecting face pairs from pairwise samples. In the process of face normalization, we propose to use different landmarks of faces to solve the problems caused by poses. And the final face representation is formed by the concatenating feature of each deep CNN after PCA reduction. What's more, each feature is a combination of multi-scale representations through making use of auxiliary classifiers. For the final verification, we only adopt the face representation of one region and one resolution of a face jointing Joint Bayesian classifier. Experiments show that our method can extract effective face representation with a small training dataset and our algorithm achieves 99.71% verification accuracy on LFW dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1321.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: One-pot sol-gel synthesis; Hybrid P(AAm-CO-AAc)-silica aerogel; Epoxy ring-opening polymerization; Thermal stability; Mechanical properties
Online: 19 July 2023 (09:45:48 CEST)
Silica aerogels and their derivatives have outstanding thermal properties with exceptional values in the thermal insulation industry. However, the brittle nature restricts its large-scale commercialization. Thus, enhancing their mechanical strength without affecting their thermal insulating properties is essential. Therefore, for the first time, highly thermally stable Poly(acrylamide-Co-acrylic acid) partial sodium salt is used as a reinforcing polymer to synthesize hybrid P(AAm-CO-AAc)-silica aerogels via epoxy ring-opening polymerization in the present study. Functional groups in P(AAm-CO-AAc) partial sodium salts, such as CONH2 and COOH, acted as nucleophiles for the epoxy ring-opening reaction with (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane, which resulted in a seven-fold enhancement in mechanical strength compared to that of a pristine silica aerogel while maintaining the thermal conductivity at less than 30.6 mW/mK and porosity of more than 93.68%. Moreover, the hybrid P(AAm-CO-AAc)-silica aerogel demonstrated improved thermal stability up to 343 ⁰C owing to the synergetic effect between P(AAm-CO-AAc) and the silica aerogel, corresponding to thermal stability and strong covalent bonding among them. These excellent results illustrate that this new synthetic approach for producing hybrid P(AAm-CO-AAc)-silica aerogels is useful for enhancing the mechanical strength of a pristine silica aerogel without impairing its thermal insulating property and shows potential as an industrial heat insulation material.