ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0380.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Infodemiology; COVID-19 infodemic; social contagion; collective perceptual bias; collective behavioral propensities; psychological typhoon eye effect
Online: 16 March 2020 (15:12:33 CET)
Less aligned emphasis has been given to the COVID-19 infodemic coordinating with the COVID-19 outbreak. Global profusion of tangled monikers and hashtags has found their ways in daily communication and contributed to backlash against Chinese. Official naming efforts against infodemic should be meet with a fair share of identification. Based on brief critical reviews on previous multifarious naming practices, we punctuate heuristic introspection in scientific conventions and sociocultural paradigms. Infodemiological analysis promises to articulate that people around the globe are divided in their favor stigmatized monikers in the public and scientific communities because of perceptual bias. There is no positive correlation between the degree of infection in their territories and collective perceptual bias to COVID-19. The official portfolio “COVID-19” and “SARS-CoV-2” has not become de facto standard usages, but full-fledged official names are excepted to duly contribute to the resilience of negative perceptual bias and collective behavioral propensities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0215.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Modified Archie model; Water-flooded layers; Oil saturation; “Double ratio” model; the same sedimentary layer
Online: 15 March 2022 (12:38:53 CET)
Archie model is the basis of calculating oil saturation, but there are some limitations when using this model to calculate oil saturation in water-flooded layer. The main reason is that the main parameters, such as rock resistivity and formation water resistivity, are constantly changing dynamic parameters in the underground with the influence of injected water. Considering that water-flooded layers changes with injection waters, influence factors of rock resistivity and formation water resistivity of primary parameters are analyzed. Considering the dynamic data of water cut is the most reactive underground fluid characteristics of real information, combined with dynamic and static, and the “double ratio” model of later development by the same sedimentary layer is established, which realizes the inversion of rock resistivity and formation water resistivity, then modified Archie model relating to water-flooded layers of the same sedimentary explaining formation. The explanation of actual data indicates that the “double ratio” model well considers the dynamic variation of production data, which makes the inversion of the flooded rock resistivity relatively accurate, besides, the modified Archie model can accurately calculate the oil saturation of water-flooded layers with a reasonable result, which offers scientific basis for the predicting of remaining oil distribution rules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1383.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: soil improvement; endophytic bacteria; rhizosphere soil bacteria; metabolic pathway; functional bacteria; nitrogen cycle
Online: 22 November 2023 (06:42:52 CET)
Soil improvement methods can result in changes in the microbial community in blueberry soil. However, there have been few reports on the impacts of different soil improvement methods on the microbial function, particularly on endophytic microbe. In this study, we analyzed the response of microbial community composition, microbial function and nitrogen (N) cycle to different improvement methods using high throughput sequencing. We aimed to investigate the best soil improvement method from a microbial perspective. The results showed that the highest microbial diversity was observed in the T4 treatment (peat combined with mushroom bran), followed by the T2 treatment (peat combined with acidified rice husk) both in the rhizosphere and roots. The dominant phyla were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which were most abundance in the T4 and T1 (peat combined with sulfur) treatments in the rhizosphere soil, respectively, but showed the opposite trend in the root endophytic bacterial community. Interestingly, Acidobacterium and Paludibaculum, belonging to the Acidobacteria phylum, were found to have the highest influence according to the correlation network analysis. And these bacteria were most abundant in the T2 treatment in the rhizosphere soil. The rhizosphere soil microbial communities were clustered into two categories: one for T1 and T2 treatments, and another for T3 (mushroom bran) and T4 treatments. Compared to the other treatments, the T1 treatment had the most significant impact on microbial functional pathways in the blueberry roots. T2 treatment promoted the growth of N fixation functional bacteria both in the rhizosphere soil and roots. At the module level, the T2 treatment increased the relative abundance of N fixation and decreased the relative abundance of assimilating nitrate reduction reaction (ANRA), dissimilating nitrate reduction reaction (DNRA), denitrification and completed nitrification in the blueberry rhizosphere soil. Additionally, the T2 treatment increased the abundance of root endophytic microbes involved in N fixation. Overall, our findings suggest that the addition of peat combined with acidified rice husk is the optimal soil improvement method for blueberry cultivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0237.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Turkey earthquake; peak ground acceleration; seismogenic fault; near-fault effect; fault locking segment effect; trampoline effect
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:20:36 CEST)
A Mw7.8 earthquake struck Turkey on February 6, 2023, causing severe casualties and economic losses. This paper investigates the characteristics of strong ground motion and seismogenic fault of the earthquake. We collected and processed the strong ground motion records of 379 stations using Matlab, SeismoSignal and Surfer software, and obtained the peak ground acceleration (PGA) contour map. We analyzed the near-fault effect, the fault locking segment effect and the trampoline effect of the earthquake based on the spatial distribution of PGA, the fault geometry and slip distribution. We found that the earthquake generated a very strong ground motion concentration effect in the near-fault area, with the maximum PGA exceeding 2000cm/s2. However, the presence of fault locking segments influenced the spatial distribution of ground motion, resulting in four significant PGA high-value concentration areas at a local dislocation, a turning point and the end of the East Anatolian Fault. We also revealed for the first time the typical manifestation of the trampoline effect in this earthquake, which was characterized by a large vertical acceleration with the positive direction significantly larger than the negative direction. This paper provides an important reference for understanding the seismogenic mechanism, damage mode, characteristics and strong earthquake law of Turkey earthquake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0634.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: deubiquitinase; envelope protein; USP38; virus infection; Zika virus
Online: 28 July 2021 (17:02:36 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, and its infection may cause severe neurodegenerative diseases. The outbreak of ZIKV in 2015 in South American has caused severe human congenital and neurologic disorders. Thus, it is vitally important to figure out inner mechanism of ZIKV infection. Here, our data suggested that the ubiquitin-specific peptidase 38 (USP38) played an important role in host resistance to ZIKV infection, during which ZIKV infection did not affect USP38 expression. Mechanistically, USP38 bound to ZIKV envelope (E) protein through its C-terminal domain and attenuated its K48-linked and K63-linked polyubiquitination, thereby repressed the infection of ZIKV. In addition, we found that the deubiquitinase activity of USP38 was essential to inhibit ZIKV infection, and the mutant that lacked the deubiquitinase activity of USP38 lost ability to inhibit the infection. In conclusion, we found a novel host protein USP38 against ZIKV infection, and this may represent a potential therapeutic target for the treatment and prevention of ZIKV infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0002.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ark shell; transcriptome; growth; metabolism; differentially expressed genes
Online: 1 March 2018 (04:47:45 CET)
To understand the molecular mechanism associated with growth variability in bivalves, the Solexa/Illumina technology was employed to analyze the transcriptomic profiles of extreme growth rate differences (fast- VS. slow-growing individuals) in one full-sib family of the ark shell Scapharca subcrenata. De novo assembly of S. subcrenata transcriptome yielded 276,082,016 raw reads, which were assembled into 98,502 unique transcripts by Trinity strategy. A total of 6,357 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained between fast- and slow-growing individuals, with 580 up-regulated expression and 5777 down-regulated expression. Functional annotation revealed that the largest proportion of DEGs were classified to the large or small subunit ribosomal protein, all of which showed significantly lower expression levels in fast-growing group than those in slow-growing group. GO enrichment analysis identified the maximum of DEGs to biological process, followed by molecular function and cellular component. Most of the top enriched KEGG pathways were related to energy metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation. These findings reveal the link between gene expression and contrasting phenotypes in ark shells, which support that fast-growing individuals may be resulted from decreased energy requirements for metabolism maintenance, accompanying with greater efficiency of protein synthesis and degradation in bivalves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1674.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cisplatin resistance; Z-Ligustilide; cell cycle arrest; cell apoptosis; phospholipid synthesis; PLPP1
Online: 25 July 2023 (09:44:55 CEST)
Z-ligustilide is a main active ingredient in the volatile oil of Angelica sinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine. Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapy drug for the treatment of lung cancer. Efficacy is often limited by the development of drug resistance after long-term treatment. Here, we investigated the effect of the combination of Z-ligustilide and cisplatin (Z-ligustilide+cisplatin) on resistance of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells and its action mechanism. Cell viability was analyzed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Cell cycle and cell apoptosis were examined by flow cytometry assay. mRNA and protein levels of factors related to cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis and RNA sequencing in A549, A549/DDP and A549/DDP cells treated with the Z-ligustilide+cisplatin were performed. The expression of PLPP1 was analyzed by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The correlation between PLPP1 and prognosis was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Kaplan-Meier (KM) plotter analysis. We found that Z-ligustilide+cisplatin could decrease the cell viability of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells. Z-ligustilide+cisplatin induced cell cycle arrest, and promoted cell apoptosis of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells. Metabolomics combined with transcriptomics revealed that Z-ligustilide+cisplatin inhibited phospholipid synthesis by upregulating the expression of PLPP1. Furthermore, PLPP1 expression was positively correlated with good prognosis. Knockdown of PLPP1 abolished the effects of Z-ligustilide+cisplatin on cell cycle and apoptosis. Z-ligustilide+cisplatin inhibited the activation of AKT by reducing the levels of PIP3 levels. Z-ligustilide+cisplatin induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cell apoptosis of cisplatin-resistant lung cancer cells by inhibiting PLPP1-mediated phospholipid synthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0664.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: ammonium/nitrate ratio; Arnebia euchroma; shikonin; hairy root; ammonium toxicity
Online: 21 April 2023 (03:30:29 CEST)
Nitrogen (N) strongly affects plant growth and metabolism. For shikonin biosynthesis, although the ammonium toxicity phenomenon has been reported, the effects of nitrogen on the shikonin synthesis remains obscure. In this study, we carried out four different concentrations of NH4+ treatments on Arnebia euchroma hairy roots (AEHR) to clarify the influence of NH4+ on the growth and shikonin accumulation in A. euchroma and the possible mechanism. The results showed that compared with the 0% NH4+ treatment (only nitrate as nitrogen source), 10% NH4+ treatment increased the fresh weight and the dry weight of AEHR, and promoted the synthesis of shikonins; 20% NH4+ treatment started to show the inhibition effects on growth and shikonin accumulation of AEHR and 30% NH4+ treatment exhibited the strongest inhibition effects. With increased percentage of NH4+, AEHRs became shorter and thicker with more branches. To further elucidate the mechanism, we analyzed the time-course of nitrogen assimilation, gene expression level of key enzymes involved in the shikonin biosynthesis pathway, and contents of various endogenous hormones under NH4+ toxicity condition. Results indicated that auxin and cytokinin might regulate the growth and architecture of AEHR under NH4+ toxicity, and jasmonate level was reduced along with the inhibition of shikonin biosynthesis. This first comprehensive investigation into the effects of ammonium/nitrate ratio on shikonin biosynthesis not only provided valuable data for optimizing the in vitro culture and shikonin production in A. euchroma, but also suggested potential fertilizer strategies for its cultivation.