ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Alcohol Detection; Smart Sensing; MQ-3 Alcohol Sensors; Supervised Learning; Neural Networks.
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:16:26 CEST)
According to the risk investigations of being involved in an accident, alcohol-impaired driving is one of the major causes of motor-vehicles accidents. Preventing highly intoxicated persons from driving would potentially save many lives. This paper proposes a lightweight in-vehicle alcohol detection that processes the data generated from 6-alcohol sensors (MQ-3 Alcohol Sensors) using an optimizable shallow neural network (O-SNN). The experimental evaluation results exhibit a high-performance detection system scoring a 99.8% of detection accuracy with a very short inferencing delay of 2.22 µ seconds. Hence, the proposed model can be efficiently deployed and used to discover in-vehicle alcohol with high accuracy and low inference overhead as a part of the driver alcohol detection system for safety (DADSS) system aiming at massive deployment of alcohol sensing systems that could potentially save thousands of lives annually.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0059.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Cybersecurity; Remote Control; Fake Signals; Replay Attack; Deep Learning, ResNet50, Transfer Learning.
Online: 6 October 2022 (09:16:56 CEST)
The keyless systems have replaced the old fashion methods of inserting physical keys in the keyhole to, i.e., unlock the door, because they are inconvenient and easy to be exploited by the threat actors. Keyless systems use the technology of radio frequency (RF) as an interface to transmit signals from the key fob to the vehicle. However, Keyless systems are susceptible to being compromised by a thread actor who intercepts the transmitted signal and performs a reply attack. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning-based model to identify the replay attacks launched against remote keyless controlled vehicles. Specifically, the system makes use of a pre-trained ResNet50 deep neural network to predict the wireless remote signals used to lock or unlock doors of a remote-controlled vehicle system remotely. The signals are finally classified into three classes: real signal, fake signal high gain, and fake signal low gain. We have trained our model with 100 epochs (3800 iterations) on a KeFRA 2022 dataset, a modern dataset. The model has recorded a final validation accuracy of 99.71% and a final validation loss of 0.29% at a low inferencing time of 50 ms for the model-based SGD solver. The experimental evaluation revealed the supremacy of the proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0508.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Deep Learning; Convolutional Neural Network; IoT Networks; Cyber-attack detection; Cyber-attack Classification
Online: 17 December 2020 (12:14:00 CET)
With the rapid expansion of intelligent resource-constrained devices and high-speed communication technologies, Internet of Things (IoT) has earned a wide recognition as the primary standard for low-power lossy networks (LLNs). Nevertheless, IoT infrastructures are vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to the constraints in computation, storage, and communication capacity of the endpoint devices. From one side, the majority of newly developed cyber-attacks are formed by slightly mutating formerly established cyber-attacks to produce a new attack tending to be treated as a normal traffic through the IoT network. From the other side, the influence of coupling the deep learning techniques with cybersecurity field has become a recent inclination of many security applications due to their impressive performance. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive development of a new intelligent and autonomous deep learning-based detection and classification system for cyber-attacks in IoT communication networks leveraging the power of convolutional neural networks, abbreviated as (IoT-IDCS-CNN). The proposed IoT-IDCS-CNN makes use of the high-performance computing employing the robust CUDA based Nvidia GPUs and the parallel processing employing the high-speed I9-Cores based Intel CPUs. In particular, the proposed system is composed of three subsystems: Feature Engineering subsystem, Feature Learning subsystem and Traffic classification subsystem. All subsystems are developed, verified, integrated, and validated in this research. To evaluate the developed system, we employed the NSL-KDD dataset which includes all the key attacks in the IoT computing. The simulation results demonstrated more than 99.3% and 98.2% of cyber-attacks’ classification accuracy for the binary-class classifier (normal vs anomaly) and the multi-class classifier (five categories) respectively. The proposed system was validated using k-fold cross validation method and was evaluated using the confusion matrix parameters (i.e., TN, TP, FN, FP) along with other classification performance metrics including precision, recall, F1-score, and false alarm rate. The test and evaluation results of the IoT-IDCS-CNN system outperformed many recent machine-learning based IDCS systems in the same area of study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0103.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Portable Document Format (PDF); machine learning; detection; optimizable decision tree; Ada-Boost; PDF malware; evasion attacks; cybersecurity
Online: 7 September 2022 (05:33:40 CEST)
Portable Document Format (PDF) files are one of the most universally used file types. This has fascinated hackers to develop methods to use these normally innocent PDF files to create security threats via infection vectors PDF files. This is usually realized by hiding embedded malicious code in the victims’ PDF documents to infect their machines. This, of course, results in PDF Malware and requires techniques to identify benign files from malicious files. Research studies indicated that machine-learning methods provide efficient detection techniques against such malware. In this paper, we present a new detection system that can analyze PDF documents in order to identify benign PFD files from malware PFD files. The proposed system makes use of the AdaBoost decision tree with optimal hyperparameters, which is trained and evaluated on a modern-inclusive dataset, viz. Evasive-PDFMal2022. The investigational assessment demonstrates a lightweight-accurate PDF detection system, achieving a 98.84% prediction accuracy with a short prediction interval of 2.174 μSec. To this end, the proposed model outperforms other state-of-the-art models in the same study area. Hence, the proposed system can be effectively utilized to uncover PDF malware at high detection performance and low detection overhead.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0285.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Blockchain; Healthcare; Privacy; Cybersecurity; Healthcare-records
Online: 21 June 2022 (05:05:50 CEST)
The emergence of blockchain know-how currently presents the opportunity for the health sector to adopt such technologies in electronic health records. Blockchain assists in maintaining and sharing the relevant medical records of the patient with the relevant group of healthcare providers and the hospital. Numerous specific applications include traceability of drug and patient monitoring or Electronic Health Records (EHR). While Blockchain assists in maintaining and sharing the relevant medical records of the patient with the relevant group of healthcare providers and the hospital, it is important to note that the moral consciousness of the healthcare professionals is the main guide of the moral consciousness is ethics. This paper presents an overview of the application of blockchain in the healthcare and medical sector, highlighting the specific challenges and concerns. The study adopted a systematic review of secondary literature in answering the research question.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1184.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs); Mobility Model; Mobile Sink; Bipartite Graph; Path Planning.
Online: 28 April 2023 (12:59:04 CEST)
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are a critical research area with numerous practical applications. WSNs are utilized in real-life scenarios, including environmental monitoring, healthcare, industrial automation, smart homes, and agriculture. As WSNs advance and become more sophisticated, they offer limitless opportunities for innovative solutions in various fields. However, due to their unattended nature, it is essential to develop strategies to improve their performance without draining the battery power of the sensor nodes, which is their most valuable resource. This paper proposes a novel sink mobility model based on constructing a bipartite graph from a deployed wireless sensor network. Using the bipartite graph’s properties, the mobile sink node can visit stationary sensor nodes in an optimal way to collect data and transmit it to the base station. We evaluated the proposed approach through simulations using the NS-2 simulator to investigate the performance of wireless sensor networks when adopting this mobility model. Our results show that using the proposed approach can significantly enhance the performance of wireless sensor networks while conserving the energy of the sensor nodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0431.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Supervised machine learning; intrusion detection; data engineering; cybersecurity; Internet of Things.
Online: 27 October 2022 (10:57:09 CEST)
Nowadays, the Internet of Things (IoT) devices and applications have rapidly expanded worldwide due to their benefits in improving the business environment, industrial environment, and people's daily lives. However, the IoT devices are not immune to malicious network traffic, which causes potential negative consequences and sabotages IoT operating devices. Therefore, developing a method for screening network traffic is necessary to detect and classify malicious activity to mitigate its negative impacts. Therefore, this research proposes a predictive machine learning model to detect and classify network activity in an IoT system. Specifically, our model distinguishes between normal and anomaly network activity. Furthermore, it classifies network traffic into five categories, normal, Mirai attack, denial of service (DoS) attack, Scan attack, and man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack. Five supervised learning models were implemented to characterize their performance in detecting and classifying network activities for IoT systems. This includes models shallow neural networks (SNN), decision trees (DT), bagging trees (BT), support vector machine (SVM), and k-nearest neighbor (kNN). The learning models were evaluated on a new and broad dataset for IoT attacks, the IoTID20 dataset. Besides, a deep feature engineering process was applied to the dataset to improve the accuracy of the learning models. Our experimental evaluation exhibited an accuracy of 100% recorded for the detection using all implemented models and an accuracy of 99.4%-99.9% recorded for the classification process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0426.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: novelty-class; one online-Class SVM (OCSVM); memory dump; Malware; Principal Component Analysis (PCA); dimensionality reduction
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:17:43 CEST)
Malware complexity is rapidly increasing, causing catastrophic impacts on computer systems. Memory dump malware is gaining increased attention due to its ability to expose plaintext passwords or key encryption files. This paper presents an enhanced classification model based on One class SVM (OCSVM) classifier that can identify any deviation from the normal memory dump file patterns and detect it as malware. The proposed model integrates OCSVM and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for increased model sensitivity and efficiency. An up-to-date dataset known as “MALMEMANALYSIS-2022” was utilized during the evaluation phase of this study. The accuracy achieved by the traditional one-class classification (TOCC) model was 55%, compared to 99.4% in the one-class classification with PCA (OCC-PCA) model. Such results have confirmed the increased performance achieved by the proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Autonomous vehicles (A.V.); Anomaly Detection (A.D.); Deep Learning (DL), Symmetry; Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM); False Data Injection (FDI) Attacks
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:14:45 CEST)
Nowadays, technological advancement has transformed traditional vehicles into Au-tonomous Vehicles (A.V.s). In addition, in our daily lives, A.V.s play an important role since they are considered an essential component of smart cities. A.V. is an intelligent vehicle capable of main-taining safe driving by avoiding crashes caused by drivers. Unlike traditional vehicles, which are fully controlled and operated by humans, A.V.s collect information about the outside environment using sensors to ensure safe navigation. Furthermore, A.V.s reduce environmental impact because they usually use electricity to operate instead of fossil fuel, thus decreasing the greenhouse gasses. However, A.V.s could be threatened by cyberattacks, posing risks to human life. For example, re-searchers reported that Wi-Fi technology could be vulnerable to cyberattacks through Tesla and BMW AVs. Therefore, more research is needed to detect cyberattacks targeting the components of A.V.s to mitigate their negative consequences. This research will contribute to the security of A.V.s by detecting cyberattacks at the early stages. First, we inject False Data Injection (FDI) attacks into an A.V. simulation-based system developed by MathWorks. Inc. Second, we collect the dataset generated from the simulation model after integrating the cyberattack. Third, we implement an intelligent symmetrical anomaly detection method to identify FDI attacks targeting the control system of the A.V. through a compromised sensor. We use long short-term memory (LSTM) deep networks to detect FDI attacks in the early stage to ensure the stability of the operation of A.V.s. Our method classifies the collected dataset into two classifications: normal and anomaly data. The ex-perimental result shows that our proposed model's accuracy is 99.95%. To this end, the proposed model outperforms other state-of-the-art models in the same study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0497.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Arabic Hate Speech; Natural Language Processing (NLP); Machine Learning; Arabic 18 Hate Speech Detection; Arabic Hate Speech Corpus
Online: 7 September 2023 (07:14:15 CEST)
Hate Speech Detection in Arabic presents a multifaceted challenge due to the broad and diverse linguistic terrain. With its multiple dialects and rich cultural subtleties, Arabic requires particular measures to address hate speech online successfully. To address this issue, academics and developers have used natural language processing (NLP) methods and machine learning algorithms adapted to the complexities of Arabic text. However, many proposed methods were hampered by a lack of a comprehensive dataset/corpus of Arabic hate speech. In this research, we propose a novel multi-class public Arabic dataset comprised of 403,688 annotated tweets categorized as extremely positive, positive, neutral, or negative based on the presence of hate speech. Using our developed dataset, we additionally characterize the performance of multiple machine learning models for Hate speech identification in Arabic Jordanian dialect tweets. Specifically, the Word2Vec, TF-IDF, and AraBert text representation models have been applied to produce word vectors. With the help of these models, we can provide classification models with vectors representing text. After that, seven Machine learning classifiers have been evaluated: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Logistic Regression (LR), Naive Bays (NB), Random Forest (RF), AdaBoost (Ada), XGBoost (XGB), and CatBoost (CatB). In light of this, the experimental evaluation revealed that, in this challenging and unstructured setting, our gathered and annotated datasets were rather efficient and generated encouraging assessment outcomes. This will enable academics to delve further into this crucial field of study.