ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0424.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Aging; Attitudes; Subjective Well-being; Ageism; Psychometric Validation
Online: 25 August 2022 (03:17:06 CEST)
Scientific literature shows increased interest in the aged and the aging phenomenon. The Aging Attitudes Questionnaire - AAQ was validated for the Portuguese population to understand the importance of attitudes towards old age and their impact on the subjective well-being of the elderly. A sample of 400 subjects (from 18 to 93 years) answered a socio-demographic questionnaire, and the AAQ was composed of three subscales (psychosocial losses, physical change, and psychological growth). The CFA confirmed the tri-factorial structure with very good adjustment of the model to the data with the Cronbach alpha of the total scale scoring .84 and ranging from .65 to .77 for each factor. A total of 9 items were omitted both for poor factor loadings (<0.50. Notwithstanding, 3 items below the criteria were maintained, as they conceptually fit into the factor. Of the final 15 AAQp items, 5 belong to the Psychosocial Loss factor, 6 to Physical Change, and 4 to Psychosocial Growth. This tree factor model explained 50.1 % of the total variance. In conclusion, this study supports that AAQ has acceptable validity, confirming the composite reliability and the discriminant validity, but not the convergent validity. Through multi-group analysis, the invariance of the scale was confirmed. This validation is of pivotal importance once it allows measuring the attitudes towards aging, thus facilitating the promotion of wellbeing across the lifespan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0071.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Facebook; Facebook intrusion; couple relationships; conflicts; jealousy; psychometric properties; validation
Online: 8 January 2019 (15:15:56 CET)
The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Conflicts in Romantic Relationships Over Facebook Use Scale with a sample of Puerto Rican adults. A total of 577 Puerto Ricans participated on this confirmatory and psychometric study. The results confirmed that the scale has a multidimensional structure. These dimensions are: Partner Facebook intrusion, Conflict over Facebook use, and Jealousy over Facebook use. A total of 18 items complied with the criteria of discrimination and presented appropriate factorial loads (6 items per dimension). The Cronbach’s Alpha indexes of the dimensions ranged between .87 and .95 and the omega coefficients ranged between .88 and .95. In summary, the instrument has the appropriate psychometric properties to continue with validation studies, as well as to be implemented in various work areas, both theoretical and applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: medical fear; children; psychometric properties; cross-cultural adaptation; Spanish
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:33:48 CET)
Having valid and reliable tools that help health professionals to assess fear in children undergoing medical procedures is essential to offer humanized and quality of care in the paediatric population. The aim of this study was to develop the cross-cultural adaptation and the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the “Child Medical Fear Scale” in its shortened version (CMFS-R). The design consisted of two phases, first of cross-cultural adaptation and second of the psychometric validation of the CMFS-R with a sample of 262 children from Spain. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess construct validity and the Cronbach alpha and the adjusted item-total score correlation coefficients were performed to study reliability. The results confirmed internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the CMFS-R, indicating that the scale has an acceptable level of validity and reliability. Therefore, this study brings a new version of the scale to assess fear related to medical procedures for use in the Spanish paediatric population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1384.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cognitive reserve 2; Cognitive Reserve Index Questionnaire (CRIq); Arabic; Lebanon; psychometric validation
Online: 23 October 2023 (05:03:13 CEST)
Cognitive reserve is the adaptability of cognitive processes in the face of brain aging and pathology. This study aimed to validate the Arabic version of the Cognitive Reserve Index Questionnaire (CRIq) in a healthy Lebanese sample. CRIq assesses cognitive reserve through three domains: education, working activity, and leisure time. Statistical measures, including descriptive and regression analysis along with structural equation modeling, were utilized to investigate the convergent and discriminant validity of CRIq, incorporating fluid intelligence (Gf) and measures of cognitive function, long-term memory encoding and retrieval (Glr), and processing speed (Gs). Results from 174 participants revealed that the activities assessed by CRIq-Arabic were comparable to the original CRIq study, with slight cultural differences. The internal consistency of CRIq-Arabic was good (Cronbach's α = 0.88), indicating reliability. Convergent validity was confirmed, with moderate to high loadings on the cognitive reserve latent construct. Discriminant validity was supported as correlations between cognitive reserve variables and non-target constructs (Gf, Glr, Gs) were less than 1. The findings provide an initial psychometric validation of the CRIq-Arabic. Further research in clinical samples is needed to enhance its utility in neuropsychological practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0845.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: shame; stigma; cancer of the head and neck; psychometric
Online: 12 June 2023 (13:47:59 CEST)
Cancers of the head and ne¬ck and their treatment can cause disfigurement and loss of functioning, with a profound negative impact on the person’s self-image and psychosocial wellbeing. This can lead to experiences of shame and stigma, which are important targets for psychosocial interventions. Accurate measurement and identification of these problems enables clinicians to offer appropriate interventions and monitor patients’ progress. This study aimed to validate the Canadian version of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) among French and English speaking head and neck cancer patients. Data from 258 patients from two major Canadian hospitals was analysed. The existing 4-factor structure of the SSS was supported, with the following subscales: Shame with Appearance, Sense of Stigma, Regret, and Social/Speech Concerns. The Canadian SSS showed adequate convergent and divergent validity and test-retest reliability. Rasch analysis suggested scale improvement by removing two misfitting item and two items with differential functioning between French and English speaking patients. The final 16-item scale version had adequate fit to the Rasch model. The SSS provides more accurate measures for people with high levels of shame and stigma, and thus has utility in identifying patients with more severe symptoms who may be in need of psychosocial interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0376.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Organizational skills, test development, general population, goal-directed behaviors, psychometric validation
Online: 18 August 2020 (05:12:27 CEST)
Organizational skills are a set of cognitive abilities responsible for goal-directed behaviors. While they are moderately studied in clinical settings, the assessment of organizational skills in the general population remains under-studied. This paper presents the new Durand Organizational Skills Questionnaire (DOSQ), which was developed to examine the factors associated with organizational abilities in the general population. Exploratory factor analysis, validated by a confirmatory factor analysis, suggests eight factors: Work Organization, Communication Clarity, Punctuality, Goal-Oriented Behavior, Assiduity, Workspace Organization, Strategies, and Attentiveness. Three studies using samples from the general population provided evidence for the reliability and validity of the DOSQ’s scores. Overall, the results suggest that the DOSQ offers a valid approach to measuring organizational skills in the general population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0512.v1
Online: 20 November 2018 (16:47:33 CET)
Healthcare personnel are considered one of the sectors of workers most exposed to heavier workloads and work stress. One of the consequences associated with its chronic presence is the development of burnout syndrome. Given that, for the evaluation of this syndrome, the context in which they are to be used must be addressed, the purpose of this work was to analyze the psychometric properties, as well as the structure, and to propose a more suitable version for its application to health professionals, and more specifically, nursing, of the Burnout Brief Questionnaire (CBB). The final study sample was made up 1236 working nursing professionals. An exploratory factorial analysis was carried out and a new model was proposed through a confirmatory factorial analysis. Thus, the validation of the CBB questionnaire for nursing healthcare personnel showed an adequate discrimination of the items and a high internal consistency of the scale. With respect to the factorial analysis, four factors were extracted from the revised model. Specifically, these new factors called Job Dissatisfaction, Social Climate, Personal Impact and Motivational Abandonment, showed an adequate index of adjustment. Thus, the Burnout Revised Brief Questionnaire for nursing staff has favorable psychometric properties, and this Burnout model can be applied to all healthcare professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0690.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: adolescents; depression; Laos; psychometric testing
Online: 29 July 2020 (10:37:26 CEST)
This study aimed to develop a Laotian adolescent version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), determine its reliability and validity, and examine its factorial properties. The study targeted at 7,554 students in lower secondary schools and teacher training colleges in Lao PDR. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 2012 to 2014. Exploratory factor analysis performed in three age groups using the weighted least square mean and variance adjusted estimation with robust maximum likelihood methods. The factor structure for each age group was the same; therefore, data from the full sample were analyzed further. The model was then tested by confirmatory factor analysis. A 2-factor model was determined as a common model among the age groups by using paralleled analysis. We determined a best-fitting structure comprising two factors: “Negative affect” and “Positive affect.” The Cronbach’s alpha was .81. “Effort” items loaded on the “Somatic and retarded activity” factor in the original model but loaded on the “Positive affect” factor in the adolescent model. “Depressed affect,” “Somatic and retarded activity,” and “Interpersonal” items were combined into the “Negative affect” factor in the adolescent model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0251.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Performance; Validation; Psychometric properties; Satisfaction.; Work
Online: 3 November 2023 (11:48:25 CET)
The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) can be defined as the individual be-haviour capable of generating value and competitive advantage for the organization. It is a mul-ti-dimensional construct, consisting of task performance, contextual performance and counter-productive work behavior. Albeit important, a comprehensive measure of individual job per-formance is still lacking in the Italian context. This paper describes the validation of an Italian adaptation of the IWPQ. A back translation procedure was used. To investigate the psychometric properties of the 18-item Italian IWPQ, 1053 participants (502 men, 47.7%; 551 women, 52.3%) were enrolled; the age of participants ranged between 19 and 69 (Mage=34.6, SD= 11.8), and for the oc-cupation, the sample is classified in blue collar 32.5%, pink collar 33% and white collar 34.5%. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses were performed to test the structural factor of the IWPQ. The results supported the goodness of the IWPQ in the Italian context and the scales were found consistent with the original structure. One item was omitted due to a low factor loading, resulting in a final 17-item structure. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor solution was invariant across both gender and occupational category and found evidence of metric invariance, uniqueness and scalar invariance, and structural invariance. Convergent and discriminant validity were also tested and showed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Fear; Hospitalization; Psychometric properties; Emergencies; Surgery
Online: 16 November 2022 (07:43:42 CET)
PurposeThis study was designed to characterize the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Fear of Hospitalization Scale (P-FHS).Design and methodsIn order to evaluate the validity and reliability of the translated scale, a cross-sectional design was employed. Ten experts evaluated the content validity of the Fear of Hospitalization Scale (FHS) after it had been back-translated into Persian. With 612 patients having emergency surgery, construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The STROBE checklist for cross-sectional studies was followed.FindingsThe results of EFA (n = 306) showed that the fear of hospitalization had three factors. These three factors accounted for 45.28% of the total variance. Also, these factors were confirmed by CFA (n = 306) (root-mean-square error of approximation = (90%. confidence interval) = 0.050 [0.041, 0.058], goodness-of-fit index = 0.945, comparative fit index = 0.968, Non-Normal Fit Index = 0.948, incremental fit index = 0.968, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.959). The coefficients of Cronbach’s alpha, McDonald’s omega, composite reliability, and maximum reliability for all three factors were greater than 0.7, demonstrating satisfied internal consistency.Practice implicationAccording to the published results, the P-FHS is effective at measuring hospitalization anxiety in patients undergoing emergency surgery. It is advised that nurses in Iranian culture use a legitimate and trustworthy technique to pinpoint the causes of hospitalization anxiety in patients undergoing emergency surgery to give optimal care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0343.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: forest environments; forest experience; psychometric test
Online: 15 August 2020 (08:34:05 CEST)
In this study a method for predicting the preferred pleasantness induced by different forest environments, represented by virtual photographs, was proposed and evaluated using a novel Anti-Environmental Forest Experience Scale psychometric test. The evaluation questionnaire contained twenty-one items divided into four different subscales. The factor structure was assessed in two separate samples collected online (sample 1: N = 254, sample 2: N = 280). The internal validity of the four subscales was confirmed using an exploratory factor analysis. Discriminant validity was tested and confirmed using the Amoebic Self Scale (Spatial-Symbolic domain). Concurrent validity was confirmed using the Connectedness to Nature Scale. Predictive validity was based on assessment of pleasantness induced by nine different photographs (control – urban landscapes, forest landscapes, dense forest landscapes), with subscales differently correlated with the level of pleasantness assessed for each photograph. This evaluation instrument is appropriate for predicting preferred pleasantness induced by different forest environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1774.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schema therapy; schema mode; psychometric properties; reliability; validity
Online: 26 July 2023 (07:30:14 CEST)
(1) Background: The study presents an assessment of the psychometric properties of the Polish version the Short Schema Mode Inventory (SMI) adaptation. (2) Methods: First, the original version of the scale was translated. Subsequently, a validity and reliability study was conducted on a sample of 240 patients and 400 non-patients. In particular: the factor structure of the inventory was checked, internal reliability and intercorrelations between subscales were tested, differences between the clinical and non-clinical groups in terms of the severity of each factor were examined, and construct validity was assessed by comparing the association of results with external variables. (3) Results: The results did not conclusively confirm the 14-factor structure postulated in the original scale. Nevertheless, relatively the best fit indices were obtained for such a model. Internal reliability for the 14 subscales was in the acceptable to excellent range. Correlations between subscales took moderate to high values. The existence of differences between the clinical and non-clinical groups and the construct validity were confirmed. (4) Conclusions: The psychometric evaluation performed is mostly similar to the results obtained for other adaptations, and the results entitle the inventory to be used for research and clinical purposes with the knowledge of its limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; psychometric testing; Treatment Adherence and Compliance
Online: 5 November 2020 (19:17:33 CET)
Purpose: Determine the internal consistency and reproducibility test-retest of the Barrier Scale for Cardiac Rehabilitation (BSCR) in Colombian population. Methods: 190 patients (67% men, average age = 65 ± 12 years) completed the scale in two moments, with an average of eight days between applications. Cronbach's Alpha and Intraclass Correlation (ICC) coefficients were calculated. Results: The internal consistency of the Colombian version of the BSCR was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.85). The ICC of the instrument was 0.69 (95% CI 0.61-0.76), 0.78 (95% CI 0.71-0.84) when used in the interview type, and 0.47 (95% CI 0, 21-0.67) when it was self-completing. Conclusions: The EBRC has an acceptable reliability in the Colombian population, however, its reproducibility decreases when it is self-directed. Identifying barriers using this scale will allow developing strategies to increase participation and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programs focused on the real needs of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: sensation seeking; Brief Sensation Seeking Scale; BSSS-8; psychometric properties
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:28:38 CET)
Sensation seeking (SS) is a psychobiological personality trait characterized by an individual’s propensity to engage in various forms of risk-taking behavior. The Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS-8) is a widely used instrument for assessing SS that has been translated into several languages. However, only outdated and non-validated questionnaires have been used to measure SS in the Slovenian population. The aim of this study was to translate and psychometrically validate the Slovenian version of the BSSS-8. A total of 363 participants aged between 14 and 65 years completed the translated BSSS-8 and the questionnaire on drug abuse. The scale demonstrated good reliability (Cronbach’s α=0.81) and a unidimensional factorial structure, as revealed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The multigroup CFA showed gender-specific measurement invariance. In the nomological network, SS was positively associated with drug-related variables. The Slovenian version of the BSSS-8 scale is a short and simple instrument to assess SS for research and epidemiological purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: health psychology; mental distress; stress; population; psychometric property; validation; Mongolia
Online: 14 February 2023 (03:03:17 CET)
Abstract: (1) Background: We hypothesized measuring the extent of brain overwork can extrapolate the burden of mental distress. This study aimed to develop a scale that measures mental distress and validate it in the general population. (2) Methods: In this population-based cross-sectional study, we recruited a total of 739 adults aged 16-65 years from 64 sampling centers of a clinical cohort across Mongolia to validate a 10-item self-report questionnaire. Internal consistency was measured using the McDonald’s ω. Test-retest reliability was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Construct and convergent validities were examined using the principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) were used to evaluate the criterion validity. (3) Results: Among the participants, 70.9% were women, 22% held a bachelor's degree or higher, 38.8% were employed, and 66% were married. The overall McDonald’s ω coefficient was 0.861 demonstrating evidence of excellent internal consistency. The total intraclass correlation coefficient of the test-retest analysis was 0.75, indicating moderate external reliability. PCA and CFA established a three-domain structure that provided an excellent fit to the data (RMSEA=0.033, TLI=0.984, CFI=0.989, χ2=58, p=0.003). This 10-item scale, the Brain Overwork Scale (BOS-10), determines mental distress in three dimensions: Excessive Thinking, Hypersensitivity, and Restless Behavior. All items had higher item-total correlations with their corresponding domain than the other domains, and correlations between the domain scores ranged from 0.547–0.615. The BOS-10 correlated with the HADS, whereas it was inversely correlated with the WHOQOL-BREF. (4) Conclusions: The results suggest that the BOS-10 is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing mental distress in the general population. The current findings also demonstrate that the BOS-10 is quantitative, simple, and applicable for large-group testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2093.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: 3-Meter Backward Walk Test, stroke, psychometric properties, construct validity, reliability
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:40:57 CET)
In the context of evaluating physical function in individuals with stroke, the 3-meter backward walk test (3MBWT) emerges as a potential tool of interest. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the 3MBWT and its correlation with falling incidents. Conducted in a neurological rehabilitation center, 35 ambulatory individuals with stroke were enrolled within a month post-stroke onset. These participants, with a Functional Ambulation Category score of ≥4, underwent the 3MBWT, Functional Gait Assessment (FGA), 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT), and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) three times by different physiotherapists. Results indicated the 3MBWT displayed high reliability (r=0.97-0.98) and showed significant construct validity with other established walking tests like the 6MWT (r=-0.78) and 10MWT (r=0.71), with a moderate correlation to the FGA (r=-0.54). No marked differences in test outcomes were observed between participants based on their fall history. Conclusively, the 3MBWT proves to be highly reliable and validates well with existing walking function assessments for stroke patients, suggesting its potential as a time-efficient alternative.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Psychometric Assessment; Attitude; Breast Self- Examination; Tertiary; Health Trainee; Undergraduate Students, Ghana
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:28:42 CEST)
Breast self-Examination (BSE) is the cheapest most recommended Breast Cancer (BC) preventive tool for resource-deprived settings. There is paucity in the attitude research domain and comparative gender assessments of the BSE knowledge, attitude and performance (KAP) literature. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the combined and exclusive gender BSE attitude of undergraduate health trainees and to determine significant differences between scores of both genders. Methodology: participants included 5 undergraduate health trainee classes purposively sampled from 2 faculties. Online cross-sectional method was used to assess BSE attitude of 336 purposively sampled Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and technology (KNUST) College of Health Sciences (CoHS) students. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Main findings: Compared to the construction groups’ average norm of 101.17 (SD = 9.55), our study participants’ (SPs) BSE attitude was lower (92.51; SD = 11.80). However, using popular mid-point and 3- part attitude scoring methods, our SPs’ attitude scores were comparable to sub-regional and national findings. Moreover,the male participants scored a generally high BSE attitude but significantly lower compared to their female counterparts (p < 0.5). Recommendations: There is the need to adjust the curriculum of all health trainees in developing nations to reflect relevant BC preventive measures. Furthermore, BSE research, education as well as advocacy should involve more males as important BC BSE stake holders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: risk communication; resilience; psychometric paradigm; analytical hierarchal process.; risk perception; natural hazards
Online: 5 June 2023 (05:40:41 CEST)
Understanding how the public perceives various risks and hazards associated with our well-being and health is crucial for government and policymakers. The present research aimed to assess the public's perception of various risks and hazards associated with their well-being and health. The study combined two well-known approaches to risk assessment, namely, the analytical hierarchical process (AHP) and the psychometric paradigm. Seven risk attributes were chosen from the risk perception literature to evaluate 27 risks and hazard activities using a survey questionnaire developed based on the psychometric paradigm literature. The collected data was then analyzed using AHP to determine the priority weight for each risk attribute. The results showed that the most important risk attribute was voluntariness of risk, followed by chronic-catastrophic and newness of risk. Furthermore, the study found that natural hazards were ranked the highest, followed by refugee influx and fire hazards. In contrast, the mobile phone was perceived as the lowest type of risk. The findings can be used by policymakers to develop effective and sustainable risk communication strategies. Policymakers can use the research findings to create effective and sustainable risk communication strategies that help the government to inform and educate the public about potential risks, improve coordination among agencies and stakeholders, and enhance public trust in government decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21/DASS-21; DASS-8; shortened version*; shorter version* of the DASS-21; psychiatric disorders; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; measurement invariance/multigroup analysis; psychological distress; discriminant validity; item coverage; good predictive validity
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:15:27 CEST)
Despite extensive investigations of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) since its development in 1995, its factor structure and other psychometric properties still need to be firmly established, with several calls for revising its item structure. Employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), this study examined the factor structure of the DASS-21 and five shortened versions of the DASS-21 among psychiatric patients (N = 168) and the general public (N = 992) during the COVID-19 confinement period in Saudi Arabia. Multigroup CFA, Mann Whitney W test, Spearman’s correlation, and coefficient alpha were used to examine the shortened versions of the DASS-21 (DASS-13, DASS-12, DASS-9 (two versions), and DASS-8) for invariance across age and gender groups, discriminant validity, predictive validity, item coverage, and internal consistency, respectively. Compared with the DASS-21, all three-factor structures of the shortened versions expressed good fit, with the DASS-8 demonstrating the best fit and highest item loadings on the corresponding factors in both samples (χ2(16, 15) = 16.5, 67.0; p = 0.420, 0.000; CFI= 1.000, 0.998; TLI = 0.999, 0.997; RMSEA = 0.013, 0.059, SRMR = 0.0186, 0.0203). It expressed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across age and gender groups. Its internal consistency was comparable to other versions (α = 0.94). Strong positive correlations of the DASS-8 and its subscales with the DASS-21 and its subscales (r = 0.97 to 0.81) suggest adequate item coverage and good predictive validity of this version. The DASS-8 and its subscales distinguished the clinical sample from the general public at the same level of significance expressed by the DASS-21 and other shortened versions, supporting its discriminant validity. Neither the DASS-21 nor the shortened versions distinguished patients diagnosed with depression and anxiety from other conditions. The DASS-8 represents a valid short version of the DASS-21, which may be useful in research and clinical practice for quick identification of individuals with potential psychopathologies. Diagnosing depression/anxiety disorders may be further confirmed in a next step by clinician-facilitated examinations. Brevity of the DASS-21 would save time and effort used for filling the questionnaire and support comprehensive assessments by allowing the inclusion of more measures on test batteries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1020.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: localized haptic feedback; PVDF actuators; touch displays; modal analysis; forced-vibration; psychophysics; psychometric function.
Online: 14 June 2023 (08:55:15 CEST)
Generating localized haptic feedback on touch displays has been a challenge in recent years. In this study, we introduce a haptic interface using transparent thin-film PVDF actuators to address this issue. The transparency feature allows for mounting the actuators at any location beneath the display, enabling localized haptic feedback as the generated vibration is primarily evident on the mounting area. Two different configurations are designed, simulated and prepared to explore the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The first configuration is used to characterize the haptic interface. Modal and forced-vibration analysis are performed to identify important design characteristics based on human factor considerations. Subsequent 2AFC psychophysics experiments validate the characteristics. In the second configuration, eight actuators are attached to the touch surface in a 2x4 matrix formation and excited at different voltage amplitudes. Human experiments are conducted based on the results from corresponding forced-vibration analysis. The results show that subjects demonstrate an accuracy of 96% in identifying locations with haptic feedback when the actuators are excited with 232 Vpp. Overall, our study demonstrates the effectiveness of the haptic interface equipped with PVDF-type actuators in achieving localized haptic feedback on touch displays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0065.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: DAPTQ; adaptive personality; psychometric properties; HEXACO; psychopathic personality traits; confirmatory factor analysis; test-retest validity
Online: 14 June 2017 (07:47:55 CEST)
Multiple studies reported a negative relationship between the Honesty-Humility factor of the HEXACO model and psychopathy. The Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), which was developed to assess adaptive traits known to be related to psychopathic traits, has previously demonstrate positive relationships with all factors of the Big Five Model, at the exception of a negative relationship with neuroticism. The current study aims to validate the previously reported association between the DAPTQ and the five major components of the personality, while also examining its relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor as defined by the HEXACO model. The results (N = 171) support the good internal consistency, two weeks test-retest validity and inter-correlation of the DAPTQ. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis further supports the nine-factor model of the DAPTQ. When compared to the HEXACO, the DAPTQ did not display any relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor, nor the Agreeableness and Openness factors, but kept its similar association to Emotionality, Extroversion, and Conscientiousness as initially reported in its development phase. Overall, the results support the discriminant validity of the DAPTQ to assess adaptive traits related to the psychopathic personality without overlapping with psychopathic personality traits. Results are discussed in terms of implications and further improvements to validate the DAPTQ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0055.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Internet Gaming Disorder Scale9—Short form (IGDS9-SF); university students; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; cultur*/collectivisti*/individualis*; invariance; gender; game type
Online: 21 March 2022 (11:04:57 CET)
The prevalence of internet gaming disorders (IGD) is considerably high among youth, especially with social isolation imposed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. IGD adversely affects mental health, quality of life, and academic performance. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS9-SF) is designed to detect IGD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. However, inconsistent results are reported on its capacity to diagnose IGD evenly across different cultures. To ensure the suitability of the IGDS9-SF as a global measure of IGD, this study examined the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in a sample of Sri Lankan university students (N = 322, mean age =17.2 ± 0.6, range = 16-18 years, 56.5% males) and evaluated its measurement invariance across samples from Sri Lanka, Turkey, Australia, and the USA. Among Sri Lankan students, a unidimensional structure expressed good fit, invariance across different groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, and income), adequate criterion validity (strong correlation with motives of internet gaming, daily gaming duration, and sleep quality), and good reliability (alpha = 0.81). Males and online multiplayers expressed higher IGD levels, greater time spent gaming, and more endorsement of gaming motives (e.g., Social and Coping) than females and offline players. Across countries, the IGDS9-SF was invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels, albeit strict invariance was not maintained. The lowest and highest IGD levels were reported among Turkish and American respondents, respectively. In conclusion, the IGDS9-SF can be reliably used to measure IGD among Sri Lankan youth. Because the scale holds scalar invariance across countries, its scores can be used to compare IGD levels in the studied countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R)/post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); cutoff point/cutoff score; psychiatric patients/the general public/healthy adults; psychometric evaluation/criterion validity; Coronavirus Disease-19/COVID-19; Arabic version/Arab/Saudi Arabia
Online: 25 January 2023 (05:02:13 CET)
The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) is the most popular measure of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which has been recently validated in Arabic. This instrumental study aimed to determine optimal cutoff scores of the IES-R and its subscales in Arab samples of psychiatric patients (N = 168, 70.8% females) and healthy adults (N = 992, 62.7% females) from Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic as an ongoing collective traumatic event. Based on a cutoff score of 14 of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed two optimal points of 39.5 and 30.5 for the IES-R in the samples (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.86 & 0.91, p values = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92 & 0.87 to 0.94, sensitivity = 0.85 & 0.87, specificity = 0.73 & 0.83, Youden index = 0.58 & 0.70, respectively). Different cutoffs were detected for the six subscales of the IES-R, with numbing and avoidance expressing the lowest predictivity for distress. Meanwhile, hyperarousal followed by the irritability expressed stronger predictive capacity for distress than all subscales in both samples. In path analysis, pandemic-related irritability resulted from direct and indirect effects of key PTSD symptoms (intrusion, hyperarousal, and numbing). Irritability contributed to traumatic symptoms of sleep disturbance in both samples while the opposite was not true. The findings suggest usefulness of the IES-R at a score of 30.5 for detecting adults prone to trauma related distress, with higher scores needed for screening in psychiatric patients. Various PTSD symptoms may induce dysphoric mood, which represents a considerable burden that may induce circadian misalignment and more noxious psychiatric problems/ co-morbidities (sleep disturbance) in both healthy and diseased groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: psychological distress/anxiety/depression; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items; factor structure; psychometric properties; structural validity; validation; measurement invariance; old age/elders/elderly; informal; family caregivers; spouse; adult children
Online: 9 August 2022 (08:44:11 CEST)
Dementia patients express a set of problematic and deteriorating symptoms, along self-care dependency. Overtime, the mental health of family caregivers of persons with dementia may suffer, putting them at a high risk for psychopathology, which may be associated with endangered wellbeing of demented people. This cross-sectional study examined the psychometric properties of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), DASS-12, DASS-21 in a convenient sample of 571 caregivers from northern Italy and southern Switzerland (Mean age = 53, SD = 12, range = 24–89 years). A bifactor structure of the three measures had the best fit; some items of the DASS-12/DASS-21 failed to load on their domain-specific factors. The three-factor structure was invariant across various groups (e.g., gender, education, etc.), expressed adequate reliability and convergent validity, and had strong positive correlation with the 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLALS3). Dementia type had no effect on distress scores, which were higher among females, adult children caregivers, those caring for dependent patients, and those who received help with care. For 54.9 and 38.8% of the latter, care was provided by relatives and health professionals, respectively. Since the DASS-8 expresses adequate psychometrics comparable with the DASS-21, it may be used as a brief measure of distress in this population.