ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0148.v1
Online: 7 August 2018 (23:13:29 CEST)
Despite the uptake of tobacco smoking declining in the UK, smoking is still the leading cause of preventable poor health and premature death. While improved approaches to smoking cessation are necessary, encouraging and assisting smokers to switch by using substantially less toxic non-tobacco nicotine products may be a possible option. To date few studies have investigated the rates of smoking cessation and smoking reduction associated with the free provision of electronic-cigarettes (e-cigarette) to smokers. In this study the Blu Pro e-cigarette was given to smokers for use in place of tobacco for 90 days. The rates of smoking abstinence and daily smoking patterns were assessed at baseline 30 days, 60 days and 90 days. The response rate was 87%. After 90 days, the complete abstinence rate was 36.5% from 0% at baseline. Frequency of daily smoking reduced from 88.7% to 17.5% (P<0.001) and median consumption of cigarettes/day from 15 to 5 (P<0.001). Median days per month participants smoked also dropped from 30 to 13 after 90-days (P<0.001). On the basis of these results there may be value in smoking cessation services and other services ensuring that smokers are provided with e-cigarettes at zero or minimal costs for at least a short period of time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Assistive Technology; Accessible Technology; Consumer Technologies; Provision, Policy; Funding
Online: 16 August 2022 (09:57:38 CEST)
Estimates by the World Health Authority suggest that 1 billion people do not have access to the assistive technologies they require. Over the past decade, the design of products that empower people with a disability has shifted from specialised and dedicated products designed only for those with a disability to features and functions integrated into cost-effective consumer technologies for the benefit of all. The opportunity for expansion of the availability of such technologies is at risk of being ignored as a result of models of delivery that are founded in medical devices and which have failed to reflect trends in our understanding of technology and the choices and preferences expressed by persons with a disability. This research undertaken suggests that the opportunities of such expansion offer significant benefits to people with a disability and better both economic and social return on investment for authorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0481.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: food insecurity; food provision; food assistance program,; impact assessment
Online: 18 November 2020 (14:16:49 CET)
Introduction In 2016 the European Union setup its first structured food provision program to combat food insecurity. We aimed to measure the program’s capacity in assisting its beneficiaries to achieve a healthy diet and measure their satisfaction. Methods A computational study was carried out to calculate daily food provision per person under the program for January 2016-December 2017. A cross sectional survey in 3942 beneficiaries took place in December 2017-June 2018 collecting anthropometric, sociodemographic and program satisfaction data. Descriptive statistics were performed and reported as relatively frequencies, mean ± standard deviation. Results Dairy, fresh meat, legumes, sugar, olive oil and tomato concentrate were the most commonly procured items. The program’s contribution to vegetable, dairy and cereal intake was the lowest (3.4%, 6.1%, 6.0% respectively) as opposed to free sugars (12.2%) and oils (24.5%). The program’s algorithm favors greatly (almost 3-fold) single person applications compared to 4+ persons applications. The monetary value was estimated at 21.23±23.4 euros/food provision, however 64.4% of beneficiaries reported a high positive impact on the household budget. 50.7% and 41.6% reported high positive impact on feelings of anxiety and security, respectively. ~70% of the beneficiaries were highly satisfied with the foods provided, with lower scores for quality and shelf-life (50.7% and 58.8% high respectively). Conclusions The program is met by high beneficiary satisfaction and is perceived as a substantial assistance. Increases in the amounts and variety of foods delivered, with a focus on fruit, vegetables and fish should be considered, to further improve the program’s dietary impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0326.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: housing unaffordability; migration; the high-skilled young migrants; land provision
Online: 17 November 2022 (04:22:42 CET)
A large number of studies have concluded that since housing pressure will affect the mobility of highly skilled young migrants (HSYM) in Chinese cities and regions, it is necessary to apply corresponding housing policies to adjust housing unaffordability for HYSM. This study uses a survey data conducted in China's Zhejiang Province of China, where specific policies have been implemented to attract talent and found that housing does crowds out the HSYM from a city, but the HSYM who have a master's degree or above or who work in government organizations or state-owned enterprises are more tolerant of housing unaffordability. The unmarried or those staying in the city for a long period are less tolerant of housing unaffordability. Meanwhile, there are the heterogeneous impacts of factors on the HSYM's tolerance for housing unaffordability across cities of different levels. Therefore, housing policies should highlight urban differences and intra-group differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate; construction waste; shear strength; shear provision; design equation
Online: 5 August 2021 (09:41:27 CEST)
The brittle shear failure of reinforced concrete beams is complexed and unfavorable. For decades, research on the mechanical properties and durability of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) to make recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) has been widely investigated. However, test results on the shear strength of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete beams are still limited and contradictory. This paper reports the shear strength of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete beams without stirrups. Eight RAC beams and two controlled beams with natural coarse aggregate (NCA) were tested under the four-point flexural test with the shear span-to-effective depth ratio (a/d) of 3.10. Parameters in this study were the replacement percentage of RCA (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) and longitudinal reinforcement ratio (w) of 1.16% and 1.80%. It was found that the normalized shear stresses of RAC beams with w = 1.80% at all levels of replacement percentage were quite similar to that of the NAC counterparts. Normalized shear stress of the beam with 100% RCA and w = 1.16% was lower than that of the NAC beam by 5%. Database of 128 RAC beams without shear reinforcement from literature was analyzed to evaluate the ability of the most recent ACI 318-19 shear provisions in shear strength prediction. A reduction factor of 0.75 is proposed to the current ACI code provision to account for the physical variations of RCA such as replacement percentage, RCA source and quality, density, amount of residual mortar, and physical irregularity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1997.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: green space; community life circle; provision level; resident demand; assessment framework; population model
Online: 30 November 2023 (14:18:53 CET)
Green-space resources, in the context of urbanisation, cannot meet the actual needs of residents well, and the study of the balance of green-space resource allocation from the relationship between supply and demand is an urgent problem to be solved. This study quantitatively evaluates the green-space supply level from four dimensions by constructing a framework for assessment in the community life circle. It also evaluates the matching of green space supply and demand, resource distribution fairness, and distribution equilibrium under group differentiation through the supply–demand coupling matrix, Gini coefficient, and the Kruskal–Wallis H non-parametric rank-sum test, respectively. This study shows that (1) a significant spatial imbalance exists in green-space resource allocation in community life circles in different dimensions. (2) The comprehensive green-space supply level in the community life circle matched the total demand of residents to a low degree. (3) There was significant inequality in green-space resource allocation within the community life circle (the Gini coefficient of each evaluation perspective was > 0.4). Based on the study results, we were able to identify community life circles with spatial mismatches, different supply and demand, and other green-space resource allocation problems, which is of great significance to urban green-space research and planning practice under the "green justice" framework.