ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0214.v2
Online: 5 January 2022 (15:38:52 CET)
The IoT is recognized as one of the most important areas of future technology and is gaining vast attention from a wide range of industries. Although, after 20 years from the first published literature (2002) the technology (as a whole) is not yet mature. In this study we will review the basics of IoT with a general approach, by addressing the problems of a standard architecture, vulnerabilities and use cases of this promising technology. Moreover, we will review some of the communication protocols that have invented especially for IoT technology, security threats and general implementation challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0778.v1
Subject: Keywords: Covid-19, fake news, health protocols, belief
Online: 29 April 2021 (14:31:37 CEST)
Along with the increasing number of Covid-19 cases, the development of false news or misinformation about Covid-19 -19 is getting bigger. This article aims to analyze public opinion about the various hoaxes that were widely spread in Indonesia during the pandemic. The method used is a mixture, namely literature review, in the form of searching for related journals regarding the distribution of hoaxes during the pandemic and conducting online surveys via a google form. The research conducted indicates that during the pandemic there were rapid spreads of fake news, it is proven with more than 45% of the participants who were often heard hoax news about Covid-19 on online media. From this evidence, it also can be discovered that hoax news can affect a person's belief in the Covid-19 virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Sustainable Infrastructure; Governance; Design; Protocols; Implementation; Value Chain; Digitalization
Online: 19 July 2021 (09:11:56 CEST)
Twenty-first century infrastructure needs to respond to changing demographics, becoming climate neutral, resilient, and economically affordable, while remaining a driver for development and shared prosperity. However, the infrastructure sector remains one of the least innovative and digitalized, plagued by delays, cost overruns, and benefit shortfalls [1-4]. The root cause is the prevailing fragmentation of the infrastructure value chain . To support overcoming the shortcomings, an integration of the value chain is needed. This could be achieved through a use-cased-based creation of federated digital platforms applied to infrastructure projects. Such digital platforms enable full-lifecycle participation and responsible governance guided by a shared infrastructure vision.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0136.v1
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; behavioral interventions; prevention; workplace safety; safety protocols
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:54:54 CEST)
Practicing preventive etiquettes such as hand washing, hand disinfection, wearing a face mask, practicing physical distancing, disinfection of surfaces and objects can help curb the transmission of COVID-19 at the workplace. This paper focuses on interventions and behaviors required to curb the spread of COVID-19 at workplaces. We undertook a detailed multi-disciplinary literature search on the following topics: hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, physical distancing, quarantine and isolation, disinfection of objects and surfaces, behavior change, and health crisis communication. We identified interventions that are effective for preventing the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) at workplaces. These findings present very useful non-clinical interventions for preventing COVID-19 in the work environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0148.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: IIoT; IoT; Industry 4.0; Protocols; Cyber Threats; Attacks; Security
Online: 5 February 2021 (08:34:21 CET)
In today’s Industrial IoT (IIoT) environment, where different systems interact with the physical world, the state proposed by the Industry 4.0 standards can lead to escalating vulnerabilities, especially when these systems receive data streams from multiple intermediaries, requiring multilevel security approaches, in addition to link encryption. At the same time taking into account the heterogeneity of the systems included in the IIoT ecosystem and the non-institutionalized interoperability in terms of hardware and software, serious issues arise as to how to secure these systems. In this framework, given that the protection of industrial equipment is a requirement inextricably linked to technological developments and the use of the IoT, it is important to identify the major vulnerabilities, the associated risks and threats and to suggest the most appropriate countermeasures. In this context, this study provides a description of the attacks against IIoT systems, as well as a thorough analysis of the solutions against these attacks, as they have been proposed in the most recent literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0391.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: acoustic communication; energy consumption; smart routing protocols; UWSN MAC; underwater mobility
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:02:31 CEST)
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSN) have recently been proposed as a way to monitor and explore the water depths' environments. Efficiently delivering the data is still a challenging problem in these networks because of the weaknesses in the acoustic transmission. To tackle such a problem, we propose a novel algorithm provides controlling mechanisms for critical long-term data forwarding underwater sensor networks, called Hop by Hop Power-Efficient Routing Protocol (Hn-PERP). The proposed Hn-PERP is a centralized full-control model that enhances the network's throughput and energy efficiency by a set of solutions depend on power monitoring in UWSN nodes. In particular, the model provides a guaranteed mechanism for scheduling and processing data transmission based on number of nodes, hops between the nodes, energy level and congestion within each node to minimize energy levels or power consumption by avoiding disconnected probability for any node, which in turn maximizing the network lifetime. Simulation results show that our proposed model is consistent with energy level and congestion, and is more accurate for enabling routing and data transmission. Therefore, the data packet delivery ratio and overall throughput also achieves robust scenarios of very sparse or/and weak networks, to keep on Performance stability in UWSN via adjusting hop-by-hop delay and energy consumption during packages delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0081.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: dynamic algorithms; distributed shortest paths; communication networks; routing protocols; power-law networks
Online: 28 July 2017 (06:06:35 CEST)
Efficiently solving the problem of computing, in a distributed fashion, the shortest paths of a graph whose topology dynamically changes over time is a core functionality of many today’s digital infrastructures, probably the most prominent example being communication networks. Many solutions have been proposed over the years for this problem that can be broadly classified into two categories, namely Distance-Vector and Link-State algorithms. Distance-Vector algorithms are widely adopted solutions when scalability and reliability are key issues or when nodes have either limited hardware resources, as they result in being very competitive approaches in terms of both the memory and the computational point of view. In this paper, we first survey some of the most established solutions of the Distance-Vector category. Then, we discuss some recent algorithmic developments in this area. Finally, we propose a new experimental study, conducted on a prominent category of network instances, namely generalized linear preference (GLP) power-law networks, to rank the performance of such solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 outbreak; lockdown protocols; individual and social activities; mental health challenges; older people; Indonesia
Online: 19 September 2022 (07:51:50 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused detrimental impacts on different population groups throughout the world. This study aimed to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic’s mandatory lockdown protocols on activities and mental health conditions of community-dwelling older people in Jakarta, Indonesia. A qualitative design using one-on-one in-depth interviews was employed to collect data from the participants (n=24) who were recruited using the snowball sampling technique. Data analysis was guided by a qualitative data analysis framework. The findings showed that before the COVID-19 outbreak participants engaged in different kinds of regular individual and social activities. However, the COVID-19 outbreak and its mandatory lockdown protocols significantly influenced both their activities and social life, which led to social disconnection and financial difficulties for them. COVID-19 outbreak, mandatory lockdown protocols, and disruption of individual and social activities of the participants also caused mental health challenges to them, including feelings of loneliness, loss, sadness, stress, and anger. The findings suggest that there is a need for intervention programs addressing the socio-economic and mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older populations to help them cope with these challenges. Future studies involving large-scale older populations to comprehensively understand COVID-19 impacts on them are recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN); Routing Protocols; Acoustic Communication; Multi-hop communication; Energy-Efficient; Reliable
Online: 10 March 2020 (10:44:22 CET)
Water covers a greater part of the earth's surface. Even though we know very little about the underwater world as most parts of it remain unexplored. Oceans including other water bodies hold huge natural resources and also the aquatic lives. These are mostly unexplored and very few of those are known due to unsuited and hazardous environments for the human to explore. This vast underwater world can be monitored remotely from a distant location with much ease and less risk. To monitor water-bodies remotely in real-time, sensor networking has been playing a great role. It is needed to deploy a wireless sensor network over the volume which we want to surveil. For vast water bodies like oceans, rivers and large lakes, data is collected from the different heights of the water level which is sent to the surface sink. Unlike terrestrial communication, radio waves and other conventional mediums can't serve the purpose of underwater communication as they pose high attenuation and very reduced transmission range. Rather an acoustic medium can transmit data more efficiently and reliably in comparison to other mediums. To transmit data reliably from the bottom of the sea to the sinks at the surface, multi-hop communication is needed which must involve a certain scheme. For seabed to surface sink communication, leading researchers have proposed different routing protocols. The goal of these routing protocols is to make underwater communication more reliable, energy-efficient and delay efficient thus to improve the performance of the overall communication. This paper surveys the advancement and applications of the routing protocols which eventually helps in finding the most efficient routing protocol for the Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0194.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: supermedia; haptics; HEVC; tactile feedback; transport protocols; teleoperation; interactive applications; real-time protocol; internet status
Online: 8 November 2018 (09:54:55 CET)
Supermedia streams transfer video, audio, haptic and other sensory data. Real -time transfering of supermedia streams over the Internet is quite challenging. This paper outlines the proposed protocols for transferring supermedia streams over the Internet. Moreover, it describes the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for supermedia applications that a network has to fulfill. Extensive simulations and experiments for the performance evaluation of transport protocols for real time transferring HEVC streams with supermedia data are carried out. Complements, differences and relevancies between simulation and real world experiments are discussed. The metrics that are measured for the performance evaluation are delay, jitter, throughput, efficiency, packet loss and one proposed by the authors, packet arrival deviation. The simulation tests reveal which protocols could be used for the transfer of real-time supermedia data with a HEVC video stream.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Wild Edible Plants; antimicrobial effect; Mediterranean plant; Gram+ bacteria; Gram- bacteria; extraction protocols; bioactive compounds; essential oils
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:05:22 CEST)
Introduction. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is estimated to cause the major number of deaths by 2050 if we do not find strategies to slow down the rise of drug resistance . Reviews on Mediterranean Wild Edible Plants (MWEPs) with antimicrobial properties are scarce in the mean databases (Pubmed, Scopus and WoS). Hence, we proceeded to a new review of the studies on MWEPs. Methods. We used Wild Edible Plant and Antimicrobial as keywords. We only included the Mediterranean plants, and studies in non-Mediterranean countries, but for plants growing in Mediterranean basin. Exclusion criteria were the document type, studies not concerning plant, plants not edible, not antimicrobial properties, or totally out of topic. Results. Finally, the number of studies reviewed, starting from one hundred and ninety-two, was thirty-eight (19,8%), concerning the antimicrobial properties of seventy-four MWEPs species, be-longing to twenty-five Families. Fifty-seven (77%) out of seventy-four species, proved to be antimicrobial with a stringent threshold selection. Conclusions. The studies are still very heterogeneous. We still know too little about MWEPs properties, but what we already know seriously recommends continuing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0453.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: coastal patrol and surveillance network; UDTN-Prob; UDTN-RS; DTN networks; DTN routing protocols; DESERT underwater simulator
Online: 17 November 2020 (14:06:30 CET)
The Coastal Patrol and Surveillance Application (CPSA) is developed and deployed to detect, track and monitor water vessel traffic using automated devices. Latest advancements of marine technologies, including the Automatic Underwater Vehicles, have allowed the development of this type of applications. To facilitate their operations, installation of a Coastal Patrol and Surveillance Network (CPSN) is mandatory. One of the primary design objectives of this network is to deliver adequate amount of data within an effective time period. This is particularly essential for reporting a detection and notifying the current status of an intruder’s vessel through the adverse underwater communication channels. Additionally, intermittent connectivity of the nodes remain another important obstacle to overcome to allow smooth functioning of CPSA. Taking these objectives and obstacles into account, this work proposes a new protocol, named UDTN-RS, which is developed by ensembling forward error correction technique (namely Reed-Solomon codes or RS) in Underwater Delay Tolerant Network (UDTN) routing protocol with probabilistic spraying technique. In addition, the existing binary packet spraying technique is enhanced for supporting encoded packet exchange between the contacting nodes. A comprehensive simulation campaign is performed in identifying the effectiveness of the proposed protocol. The obtained results suggest that the proposed UDTN-RS protocol can be considered a suitable alternative of the existing protocols for sparse networks like CPSN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: roundabouts; traffic engineering; rotary priority; spatio-temporal technique; synchronization; protocols; intelligent transport systems; connected vehicles; traffic safety
Online: 10 September 2020 (03:31:57 CEST)
Roundabouts need capacity and safety improvements compatible with manual-driven, not only with autonomous vehicles. The signaling and control of roundabouts must evolve and incorporate current technologies. For that, we approach roundabouts as synchronous switches of vehicles. This paper describes Synchronous Roundabouts with Rotating Priorities, a roundabout control system based on vehicle platoons arriving at the roundabout at speed identical to the roundabout and within the time slot assigned to their entry, avoiding conflicts and stops, thus increasing roundabout capacity and safety. Signaling is visual for human drivers and also wireless for connected and autonomous vehicles. We evaluate analytically and with simulations roundabouts of different radius for several values of the average distance between vehicles. Average delays are 28,7 % lower, with negligible dispersion. The capacity improvements depend on design parameters: in our set is moderate for small roundabouts but goes up to 70-100 % for short distances and medium and large roundabouts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0766.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: PAM; Passive acoustic monitoring; audio classiﬁcation; texture classiﬁcation; PAM- 16 ﬁlter; experimental protocols for audio classiﬁcation; statistical tests.
Online: 29 April 2021 (07:55:09 CEST)
Abstract: Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is a non-invasive technique to supervise the wildlife. Acoustic surveillance is preferable in some situation such as in the case of marine mammals, when the animals spend most of their time underwater, making it hard to obtain their images. Machine learning is very useful for PAM, for example, to identify species based on audio recordings. But some care should be taken to evaluate the capability of a system. We deﬁne PAM-ﬁlters as the creation of the experimental protocols according to the dates and locations of the recordings, aiming to avoid the use of the same individuals, noise and recording devices in both training and test sets. A random division of a database present accuracies much higher than accuracies obtained with protocols generated with PAM-ﬁlter. Although we use the animal vocalizations, in our method we convert the audio into spectrogram images, after that, we describe the images using the texture. Those are well-known techniques for audio classiﬁcation, and they have already been used for species classiﬁcation. Also, we perform statistical tests to demonstrate the signiﬁcant difference between accuracies generated with and without PAM-ﬁlters with several well-known classiﬁers. The conﬁguration of our experimental protocols and the database were made available online.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0493.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: California Air Resources Board; carbon trading; Climate Action Reserve; eddy covariance; forest carbon protocols; forest carbon supply chain; Green New Deal; Howland Forest; net ecosystem exchange; social cost of CO2, CH4, N2O
Online: 19 March 2021 (08:23:11 CET)
Forest carbon sequestration is a widely accepted natural climate solution, however, methods to determine net carbon offsets are limited to commercial carbon proxies and CO2 eddy covariance research. Non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHG) (e.g., CH4, N2O) receive less attention in the context of forests, in part, due to emphasis on CO2 and the operational requirements and cost for three-gas eddy covariance platforms. In this study, Howland forest flux tower (CO2, CH4) and soil flux data (CO2, CH4, N2O), representing net emission reductions, are linked to their respective social costs to estimate commercial revenue if sold as a GHG social cost forest offset product (GHG-SCF). Estimated annual revenue for GHG-SCF products, applicable to realization of a Green New Deal, range from 120,000 covering the site area of 557 acres in 2021, to 12,000,000 for extrapolation to 40,000 acres in 2040, assuming a 3% discount rate. The Howland Forest CO2 flux record for two adjacent towers is compared to California Air Resources Board forest carbon proxy data for compliance sequestration offsets, the only project site where these approaches overlap. Overcrediting, incomplete carbon accounting with annual errors of up to 2,256%, inadequate third-party verification, and limited application to non-CO2 GHG’s are established. In contrast, direct measurement of one or more GHG’s offers new forest products and revenue incentives to restore and conserve forests worldwide.