ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0214.v2
Online: 5 January 2022 (15:38:52 CET)
The IoT is recognized as one of the most important areas of future technology and is gaining vast attention from a wide range of industries. Although, after 20 years from the first published literature (2002) the technology (as a whole) is not yet mature. In this study we will review the basics of IoT with a general approach, by addressing the problems of a standard architecture, vulnerabilities and use cases of this promising technology. Moreover, we will review some of the communication protocols that have invented especially for IoT technology, security threats and general implementation challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0055.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Transition care; ADHD; Protocols
Online: 5 April 2023 (10:22:42 CEST)
For Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) youth transitioning from child to adult services, protocols that guide the transition process are necessary. While some guidelines are available, they do not always consider effective workload and scarce resources. In Italy, there are currently very few guidelines available, and they do not adhere to common standards, possibly leading to a non-uniform use. The present study analyzes 6 protocols collected from different services for ADHD patients that took part in the TransiDEA (Transitioning in Diabetes, Epilepsy, and ADHD patients) Project. Their content is described in parallel to the National Institute for Clinical Health and Excellence (NICE) guidelines. While there are some strong points and several common core elements, a need emerges to standardize practices and to make them more adherent to patients’ needs and to the resources available to clinicians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0331.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: IoT-based payment protocols; identity-based signature; server-aided verification; pairing-free security protocols
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:20:05 CEST)
After the great success of Mobile wallet, the Internet of Things (IoT) leaves the door wide open for consumers to use their connected devices to access their bank accounts and perform routine banking activities from anywhere, anytime and with any device. However, consumers need to feel safe when interacting with IoT-based payment systems, and their personal information should be protected as much as possible. Unlike as usually done in the literature, in this paper, we introduce two lightweight and secure IoT-based payment protocols based on an identity-based signature scheme. We adopt a server-aided verification technique to construct the first scheme. This technique allows to outsource the heavy computation overhead on the sensor node to a cloud server while maintaining the user's privacy. The second scheme is built upon a pairing-free ECC-based security protocol to avoid the heavy computational complexity of bilinear pairing operations. The security reduction results of both schemes are held in the Random Oracle Model (ROM) under the discrete logarithm and computational Diffie-Hellman assumptions. Finally, we experimentally compare the proposed schemes against each other and against the original scheme on the most commonly used IoT devices: a smartphone, a smartwatch and the embedded device Raspberry Pi. Compared with existing schemes, our proposed schemes achieve significant efficiency in the term of communication and computational overheads
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: sedation; anesthesia; pig; research models, protocols
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:26:35 CEST)
Anesthesia ensures the welfare of the animal, enables safe and effective procedures, and allows accurate data collection . In clinical veterinary practice, proper training and expertise in anesthesia administration and monitoring are essential. Pigs are commonly used in medical and scientific research as models for studying various aspects of human health, physiology, and disease due to their physiological and anatomical similarities to humans [2–4]. Pigs are suitable experimental animals for many surgery techniques because they are similar in size to humans and have a short reproductive cycle. This makes them ideal for research concerning organ transplantation, cardiovascular surgery, and other procedures that require a large animal model. Pigs also have a similar anatomy to humans, which makes them a good choice for studying diseases and developing new treatments . Sedation and premedication should be administered at the lowest dose to be effective with predictable results and reduced adverse effects, to ensure the safety of both the animal and the team involved in the procedure, with a fast onset and optimizing the induction and maintenance of anesthesia. The goal of induction is to achieve a safe and effective level of anesthesia that ensures the patient's safety and facilitates the research. Most of the time, inhalation anesthesia with endotracheal intubation is the ideal choice for maintenance., allowing efficient anesthetic management. The difficulties related to the endotracheal intubation of pigs can be overcome by knowing the anatomical peculiarities related to the species and the multiple methods cited in the literature. Effective analgesia tailored to the specific procedure, the pig's condition, and individual responses to medications should complete the maintenance and recovery protocols, reducing perioperative complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1159.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: blockchain; protocols; Industry 5.0; sensing; 5G networks
Online: 16 June 2023 (02:33:10 CEST)
"Industry 5.0” is the latest industrial revolution. A variety of cutting-edge technologies, including artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things (IoT), and others, come together to form it. This new era will bring about significant changes in the way businesses operate, allowing them to become more cost-effective, more efficient, and produce higher-quality goods and services. Because sen-sors are getting better, 5G networks are being put in place, and more industrial equipment and machinery are becoming available, the manufacturing sector is going through a significant period of transition right now. These newly scalable opportunities make it possible to use and spread blockchain architectures on the shop floor, which is made possible by the ever-decreasing costs associated with implementing blockchain technology. Even though modern production models make use of the cloud (both internal and external services), networks and systems can take ad-vantage of the cloud's relatively low cost, scalability, increased computational power, real-time communication, and data transfer capabilities to create much smarter and more autonomous systems. This paper presents the results of an investigation into how blockchain services for large-scale industry networks could benefit from increased levels of security, transparency, and efficiency. We discuss the ways in which decentralized networks that make use of protocols and meshes might make things better with these technologies, which are not going away anytime soon. We emphasize the significance of new design in regards to cybersecurity, data integrity, and storage by using straightforward examples that have the potential to lead to the excellence of distributed systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0778.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Covid-19, fake news, health protocols, belief
Online: 29 April 2021 (14:31:37 CEST)
Along with the increasing number of Covid-19 cases, the development of false news or misinformation about Covid-19 -19 is getting bigger. This article aims to analyze public opinion about the various hoaxes that were widely spread in Indonesia during the pandemic. The method used is a mixture, namely literature review, in the form of searching for related journals regarding the distribution of hoaxes during the pandemic and conducting online surveys via a google form. The research conducted indicates that during the pandemic there were rapid spreads of fake news, it is proven with more than 45% of the participants who were often heard hoax news about Covid-19 on online media. From this evidence, it also can be discovered that hoax news can affect a person's belief in the Covid-19 virus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1858.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Open System Interconnection; IP address Protocols; Network Communication
Online: 26 May 2023 (05:12:03 CEST)
Open System Interconnection (OSI) model is the best means to understand the way the internet works and the communication of computers over a network system. It is considered as the standard model for network communication. This article describes the OSI model with an example and provides a brief description of the seven layers of the OSI model.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0335.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Cloud Computing; Data Protection; Secure Communication; Middleware; Protocols
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:24:01 CET)
In recent years, Cloud Computing and Big Data have been considered the most attractive areas that are revolutionizing the IT world. Cloud Computing paradigm has recently appeared that allows running proprietary or difficult portable applications outside their original software environment on one or more virtual hardware platforms. Therefore, we are to developing such techniques which make it possible to secure communication between the communicating Cloud entities. These techniques must take into account several factors due to the data transmitted in this type of environment is proprietary and of significant size. Conventional data security techniques are not suitable for today's cloud usage. Hence, the main research of this thesis is to define an adaptable architecture with the aim to propose a scalable system that supports cloud services. We will define feasible security solutions dedicated to the Cloud computing context in order to robustly protect data stored in the Cloud. We are more precisely looking for working on NoSQL databases. We also intend to propose a secure solution based on the blockchain that has powerful features like decentralization, autonomy, security, reliability, and transparency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2173.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Glycemic control, Hyperglycemia, Exercise protocols, Exercise timing, Metabolic disorders
Online: 2 October 2023 (11:25:12 CEST)
Studies investigating the acute effect of postprandial exercise (PPE) on glucose responses exhibit significant heterogeneity in terms of participant demographic, exercise protocol, and exercise timing post-meal. As such, this study aimed to further analyze the existing literature on the impact of PPE on glycemic control in individuals with overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Literature search was conducted through databases including PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar. Thirty-one original research studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected. The random-effect meta-analysis was performed to compare postprandial glucose area under the curve (AUC) and 24-h mean glucose levels between PPE and the time-matched no-exercise control (CON). Subgroup analysis was conducted to explore whether the glucose-lowering effect of PPE could be influenced by exercise duration, exercise timing post-meal, and disease status of participants. This study revealed significantly reduced glucose AUC (Hedges’ g = -0.317; SE = 0.057; p < 0.05) and 24-hour mean glucose levels (Hedges’ g = -0.328; SE = 0.062; p < 0.05) following PPE than CON. The reduction in glucose AUC was greater (p < 0.05) following PPE lasting >30 min than ≤30 min. The reduction in 24-hour mean glucose levels was also greater (p < 0.05) following PPE initiated ≥60 min than <60 min post-meal and in those with T2D than those without T2D. PPE offers a viable approach for glucose management and can be performed in various forms so long as exercise duration is sufficient. The glucose-lowering effect of PPE may be further enhanced by initiating it after the first hour post-meal. PPE represents a promising strategy, particularly for patients with T2D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Sustainable Infrastructure; Governance; Design; Protocols; Implementation; Value Chain; Digitalization
Online: 19 July 2021 (09:11:56 CEST)
Twenty-first century infrastructure needs to respond to changing demographics, becoming climate neutral, resilient, and economically affordable, while remaining a driver for development and shared prosperity. However, the infrastructure sector remains one of the least innovative and digitalized, plagued by delays, cost overruns, and benefit shortfalls [1-4]. The root cause is the prevailing fragmentation of the infrastructure value chain . To support overcoming the shortcomings, an integration of the value chain is needed. This could be achieved through a use-cased-based creation of federated digital platforms applied to infrastructure projects. Such digital platforms enable full-lifecycle participation and responsible governance guided by a shared infrastructure vision.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; behavioral interventions; prevention; workplace safety; safety protocols
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:54:54 CEST)
Practicing preventive etiquettes such as hand washing, hand disinfection, wearing a face mask, practicing physical distancing, disinfection of surfaces and objects can help curb the transmission of COVID-19 at the workplace. This paper focuses on interventions and behaviors required to curb the spread of COVID-19 at workplaces. We undertook a detailed multi-disciplinary literature search on the following topics: hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, physical distancing, quarantine and isolation, disinfection of objects and surfaces, behavior change, and health crisis communication. We identified interventions that are effective for preventing the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) at workplaces. These findings present very useful non-clinical interventions for preventing COVID-19 in the work environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0148.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: IIoT; IoT; Industry 4.0; Protocols; Cyber Threats; Attacks; Security
Online: 5 February 2021 (08:34:21 CET)
In today’s Industrial IoT (IIoT) environment, where different systems interact with the physical world, the state proposed by the Industry 4.0 standards can lead to escalating vulnerabilities, especially when these systems receive data streams from multiple intermediaries, requiring multilevel security approaches, in addition to link encryption. At the same time taking into account the heterogeneity of the systems included in the IIoT ecosystem and the non-institutionalized interoperability in terms of hardware and software, serious issues arise as to how to secure these systems. In this framework, given that the protection of industrial equipment is a requirement inextricably linked to technological developments and the use of the IoT, it is important to identify the major vulnerabilities, the associated risks and threats and to suggest the most appropriate countermeasures. In this context, this study provides a description of the attacks against IIoT systems, as well as a thorough analysis of the solutions against these attacks, as they have been proposed in the most recent literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0391.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: acoustic communication; energy consumption; smart routing protocols; UWSN MAC; underwater mobility
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:02:31 CEST)
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSN) have recently been proposed as a way to monitor and explore the water depths' environments. Efficiently delivering the data is still a challenging problem in these networks because of the weaknesses in the acoustic transmission. To tackle such a problem, we propose a novel algorithm provides controlling mechanisms for critical long-term data forwarding underwater sensor networks, called Hop by Hop Power-Efficient Routing Protocol (Hn-PERP). The proposed Hn-PERP is a centralized full-control model that enhances the network's throughput and energy efficiency by a set of solutions depend on power monitoring in UWSN nodes. In particular, the model provides a guaranteed mechanism for scheduling and processing data transmission based on number of nodes, hops between the nodes, energy level and congestion within each node to minimize energy levels or power consumption by avoiding disconnected probability for any node, which in turn maximizing the network lifetime. Simulation results show that our proposed model is consistent with energy level and congestion, and is more accurate for enabling routing and data transmission. Therefore, the data packet delivery ratio and overall throughput also achieves robust scenarios of very sparse or/and weak networks, to keep on Performance stability in UWSN via adjusting hop-by-hop delay and energy consumption during packages delivery.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0984.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: smart grid (SG); communication protocols; Modbus; virtual testbed; cyber-attacks; and security vulnerabilities
Online: 25 September 2023 (11:04:26 CEST)
Smart grid capabilities have grown significantly in recent years. The smart grid provides advanced real-time handling of faults, advanced automatic control for efficient electricity transmission, monitoring and collection of the electrical system's capacity, and communication for information sharing. Unfortunately, its exposure to public networks makes it increasingly vulnerable to privacy breaches, vulnerabilities, and cyber-attacks. Cyber security threats and vulnerabilities in smart grid networks have become a primary concern that needs to be addressed before deploying a smart grid. Furthermore, the wide range of protocols increases the attack surface of a smart grid. This study focuses on the vulnerability of Modbus, which is regarded as one of the most prevalent protocols in smart grid communication networks. This paper presents preliminary findings of analyzing cyber-attacks against the Modbus protocol using a virtual testbed to investigate its effects on the smart grid network protocol. The concept incorporates an emulated Modbus/TCP network environment built from open-source software components that imitate fundamental industrial control features of the smart grid. Finally, we analyze the cycle of a cyber-attack leading through Reconnaissance to a DoS attack on the Modbus/TCP protocol and propose improvements to the test bed for protocol attack detection and mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0081.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: dynamic algorithms; distributed shortest paths; communication networks; routing protocols; power-law networks
Online: 28 July 2017 (06:06:35 CEST)
Efficiently solving the problem of computing, in a distributed fashion, the shortest paths of a graph whose topology dynamically changes over time is a core functionality of many today’s digital infrastructures, probably the most prominent example being communication networks. Many solutions have been proposed over the years for this problem that can be broadly classified into two categories, namely Distance-Vector and Link-State algorithms. Distance-Vector algorithms are widely adopted solutions when scalability and reliability are key issues or when nodes have either limited hardware resources, as they result in being very competitive approaches in terms of both the memory and the computational point of view. In this paper, we first survey some of the most established solutions of the Distance-Vector category. Then, we discuss some recent algorithmic developments in this area. Finally, we propose a new experimental study, conducted on a prominent category of network instances, namely generalized linear preference (GLP) power-law networks, to rank the performance of such solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0430.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) Communication; Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs); Internet of Things (IoT); Internet of Vehicle (IoV); Communication Protocols; Security Protocols; Intrusion Detection Systems; Safety and Security; Efficiency in V2V Communication
Online: 7 September 2023 (02:52:57 CEST)
Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication plays a pivotal role in modern intelligent transportation systems, enabling seamless information exchange among vehicles to enhance road safety, traffic efficiency, and overall driving experience. However, the secure transmission of sensitive data between vehicles remains a critical concern due to potential security threats and vulnerabilities. This research paper focuses on investigating the security protocols employed in Vehicle-to-Vehicle communication systems. A comprehensive review and analysis of relevant literature and research papers is conducted to gather information on existing V2V communication security protocols and techniques. The analysis encompasses key areas, including authentication mechanisms, encryption algorithms, key management protocols, and intrusion detection systems specifically applicable to V2V communication networks. Within the context of real-world V2V environments, this study delves into the challenges and limitations associated with implementing these protocols. Moreover, to foster a deeper understanding, the paper investigates present communication protocols in the field of Internet of Things (IoT) that are tailored for V2V. Various parameters, such as band-width consumption, energy consumption, latency, and message size, are considered during the evaluation of these protocols to gauge their effectiveness. The research outcomes aim to provide a comprehensive understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the current V2V communication security protocols. Furthermore, based on the findings, this paper will propose improvements and recommendations to enhance the security measures of the V2V communication protocol. Ultimately, this research will contribute to the development of more secure and reliable V2V communication systems, propelling the advancement of intelligent transportation technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 outbreak; lockdown protocols; individual and social activities; mental health challenges; older people; Indonesia
Online: 19 September 2022 (07:51:50 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused detrimental impacts on different population groups throughout the world. This study aimed to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic’s mandatory lockdown protocols on activities and mental health conditions of community-dwelling older people in Jakarta, Indonesia. A qualitative design using one-on-one in-depth interviews was employed to collect data from the participants (n=24) who were recruited using the snowball sampling technique. Data analysis was guided by a qualitative data analysis framework. The findings showed that before the COVID-19 outbreak participants engaged in different kinds of regular individual and social activities. However, the COVID-19 outbreak and its mandatory lockdown protocols significantly influenced both their activities and social life, which led to social disconnection and financial difficulties for them. COVID-19 outbreak, mandatory lockdown protocols, and disruption of individual and social activities of the participants also caused mental health challenges to them, including feelings of loneliness, loss, sadness, stress, and anger. The findings suggest that there is a need for intervention programs addressing the socio-economic and mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older populations to help them cope with these challenges. Future studies involving large-scale older populations to comprehensively understand COVID-19 impacts on them are recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN); Routing Protocols; Acoustic Communication; Multi-hop communication; Energy-Efficient; Reliable
Online: 10 March 2020 (10:44:22 CET)
Water covers a greater part of the earth's surface. Even though we know very little about the underwater world as most parts of it remain unexplored. Oceans including other water bodies hold huge natural resources and also the aquatic lives. These are mostly unexplored and very few of those are known due to unsuited and hazardous environments for the human to explore. This vast underwater world can be monitored remotely from a distant location with much ease and less risk. To monitor water-bodies remotely in real-time, sensor networking has been playing a great role. It is needed to deploy a wireless sensor network over the volume which we want to surveil. For vast water bodies like oceans, rivers and large lakes, data is collected from the different heights of the water level which is sent to the surface sink. Unlike terrestrial communication, radio waves and other conventional mediums can't serve the purpose of underwater communication as they pose high attenuation and very reduced transmission range. Rather an acoustic medium can transmit data more efficiently and reliably in comparison to other mediums. To transmit data reliably from the bottom of the sea to the sinks at the surface, multi-hop communication is needed which must involve a certain scheme. For seabed to surface sink communication, leading researchers have proposed different routing protocols. The goal of these routing protocols is to make underwater communication more reliable, energy-efficient and delay efficient thus to improve the performance of the overall communication. This paper surveys the advancement and applications of the routing protocols which eventually helps in finding the most efficient routing protocol for the Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0194.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: supermedia; haptics; HEVC; tactile feedback; transport protocols; teleoperation; interactive applications; real-time protocol; internet status
Online: 8 November 2018 (09:54:55 CET)
Supermedia streams transfer video, audio, haptic and other sensory data. Real -time transfering of supermedia streams over the Internet is quite challenging. This paper outlines the proposed protocols for transferring supermedia streams over the Internet. Moreover, it describes the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for supermedia applications that a network has to fulfill. Extensive simulations and experiments for the performance evaluation of transport protocols for real time transferring HEVC streams with supermedia data are carried out. Complements, differences and relevancies between simulation and real world experiments are discussed. The metrics that are measured for the performance evaluation are delay, jitter, throughput, efficiency, packet loss and one proposed by the authors, packet arrival deviation. The simulation tests reveal which protocols could be used for the transfer of real-time supermedia data with a HEVC video stream.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0954.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: water quality; infection control; occupational practices; dental unit; dental office; waterlines; antiseptic protocols; water sustainability, environmentalism
Online: 12 May 2023 (13:40:37 CEST)
Dental healthcare providers, staff and patients are constantly exposed to the risk of infection or cross-infection in the dental office, particularly due to the formation of biofilms within Dental Unit Waterlines (DUWLs). Good water quality, achieved with environmentally friendly means, is essential in ensuring the safe operation of the clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the practices and protocols used in dental offices of Metropolitan Athens in Greece with regards to water quality in DUWLs. The questionnaire about water quality was distributed to dental practitioners in 2022 and was completed by 206 dentists. Water supplied to dental units was mainly from the public network (65.0%), with 55.8% using in-office filtration. Most dentists (71.8%) do not know the active substance of the antiseptic used for the DUWLs, while 96.1% reported having an antiseptic reservoir embedded in the dental unit. Daily flushing with a small and a large amount of fluid was practiced in approximately 83% and 61% of dental offices, respectively. Dental associations should raise awareness regarding water quality and maintenance of DUWLs in dental offices, investing in lifelong learning, while implementing protocols and green strategies.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Wild Edible Plants; antimicrobial effect; Mediterranean plant; Gram+ bacteria; Gram- bacteria; extraction protocols; bioactive compounds; essential oils
Online: 21 July 2021 (10:05:22 CEST)
Introduction. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is estimated to cause the major number of deaths by 2050 if we do not find strategies to slow down the rise of drug resistance . Reviews on Mediterranean Wild Edible Plants (MWEPs) with antimicrobial properties are scarce in the mean databases (Pubmed, Scopus and WoS). Hence, we proceeded to a new review of the studies on MWEPs. Methods. We used Wild Edible Plant and Antimicrobial as keywords. We only included the Mediterranean plants, and studies in non-Mediterranean countries, but for plants growing in Mediterranean basin. Exclusion criteria were the document type, studies not concerning plant, plants not edible, not antimicrobial properties, or totally out of topic. Results. Finally, the number of studies reviewed, starting from one hundred and ninety-two, was thirty-eight (19,8%), concerning the antimicrobial properties of seventy-four MWEPs species, be-longing to twenty-five Families. Fifty-seven (77%) out of seventy-four species, proved to be antimicrobial with a stringent threshold selection. Conclusions. The studies are still very heterogeneous. We still know too little about MWEPs properties, but what we already know seriously recommends continuing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0453.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: coastal patrol and surveillance network; UDTN-Prob; UDTN-RS; DTN networks; DTN routing protocols; DESERT underwater simulator
Online: 17 November 2020 (14:06:30 CET)
The Coastal Patrol and Surveillance Application (CPSA) is developed and deployed to detect, track and monitor water vessel traffic using automated devices. Latest advancements of marine technologies, including the Automatic Underwater Vehicles, have allowed the development of this type of applications. To facilitate their operations, installation of a Coastal Patrol and Surveillance Network (CPSN) is mandatory. One of the primary design objectives of this network is to deliver adequate amount of data within an effective time period. This is particularly essential for reporting a detection and notifying the current status of an intruder’s vessel through the adverse underwater communication channels. Additionally, intermittent connectivity of the nodes remain another important obstacle to overcome to allow smooth functioning of CPSA. Taking these objectives and obstacles into account, this work proposes a new protocol, named UDTN-RS, which is developed by ensembling forward error correction technique (namely Reed-Solomon codes or RS) in Underwater Delay Tolerant Network (UDTN) routing protocol with probabilistic spraying technique. In addition, the existing binary packet spraying technique is enhanced for supporting encoded packet exchange between the contacting nodes. A comprehensive simulation campaign is performed in identifying the effectiveness of the proposed protocol. The obtained results suggest that the proposed UDTN-RS protocol can be considered a suitable alternative of the existing protocols for sparse networks like CPSN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: roundabouts; traffic engineering; rotary priority; spatio-temporal technique; synchronization; protocols; intelligent transport systems; connected vehicles; traffic safety
Online: 10 September 2020 (03:31:57 CEST)
Roundabouts need capacity and safety improvements compatible with manual-driven, not only with autonomous vehicles. The signaling and control of roundabouts must evolve and incorporate current technologies. For that, we approach roundabouts as synchronous switches of vehicles. This paper describes Synchronous Roundabouts with Rotating Priorities, a roundabout control system based on vehicle platoons arriving at the roundabout at speed identical to the roundabout and within the time slot assigned to their entry, avoiding conflicts and stops, thus increasing roundabout capacity and safety. Signaling is visual for human drivers and also wireless for connected and autonomous vehicles. We evaluate analytically and with simulations roundabouts of different radius for several values of the average distance between vehicles. Average delays are 28,7 % lower, with negligible dispersion. The capacity improvements depend on design parameters: in our set is moderate for small roundabouts but goes up to 70-100 % for short distances and medium and large roundabouts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0054.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Security analysis; Blockchain; probabilistic analysis; sharding-based Blockchain protocols; malicious nodes; Proof-of-Stake; practical Byzantine fault tolerance.
Online: 5 December 2022 (01:00:40 CET)
Blockchain technology has been gaining great interest from a variety of sectors including healthcare, supply chain, and cryptocurrencies. However, Blockchain suffers from its limited ability to scale (i.e. low throughput and high latency). Several solutions have been proposed to tackle this. In particular, sharding proved that it is one of the most promising solutions to Blockchain’s scalability issue. Sharding can be divided into two major categories: (1) Sharding-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) Blockchain protocols, and (2) Sharding-based Proof-of-Stake (PoS) Blockchain protocols. The two categories achieve good performances (i.e. good throughput with a reasonable latency), but raise security issues. This article focuses on the second category. In this paper, we start by introducing the key components of sharding-based PoS Blockchain protocols. Then, we briefly introduce two consensus mechanisms, namely PoS and practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (pBFT), and discuss their use and limitations in the context of sharding-based Blockchain protocols. Next, we provide a probabilistic model to analyze the security of these protocols. More specifically, we compute the probability of committing a faulty block and measure the security by computing the number of years to fail. Finally, we evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model via numerical analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0766.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: PAM; Passive acoustic monitoring; audio classiﬁcation; texture classiﬁcation; PAM- 16 ﬁlter; experimental protocols for audio classiﬁcation; statistical tests.
Online: 29 April 2021 (07:55:09 CEST)
Abstract: Passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is a non-invasive technique to supervise the wildlife. Acoustic surveillance is preferable in some situation such as in the case of marine mammals, when the animals spend most of their time underwater, making it hard to obtain their images. Machine learning is very useful for PAM, for example, to identify species based on audio recordings. But some care should be taken to evaluate the capability of a system. We deﬁne PAM-ﬁlters as the creation of the experimental protocols according to the dates and locations of the recordings, aiming to avoid the use of the same individuals, noise and recording devices in both training and test sets. A random division of a database present accuracies much higher than accuracies obtained with protocols generated with PAM-ﬁlter. Although we use the animal vocalizations, in our method we convert the audio into spectrogram images, after that, we describe the images using the texture. Those are well-known techniques for audio classiﬁcation, and they have already been used for species classiﬁcation. Also, we perform statistical tests to demonstrate the signiﬁcant difference between accuracies generated with and without PAM-ﬁlters with several well-known classiﬁers. The conﬁguration of our experimental protocols and the database were made available online.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0806.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS); Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA); Hyperglycemia; Mixed HHS and DKA; Treatment protocols, Prognosis; Electrolyte imbalances; Patient management strategies
Online: 10 August 2023 (08:21:45 CEST)
This paper focuses on hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS), a unique hyperglycemic state requiring divergent diagnosis and treatment approaches from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), despite some shared characteristics. We introduce the mnemonic DI-FF-ER-EN-CE-S to encapsulate unique HHS management and complications. 'DI' emphasizes the need to delay and reduce initial insulin therapy until serum glucose decline is managed by fluid resuscitation alone. 'FF' and 'ER' stress the importance of fluid and electrolyte replacement due to severe dehydration and imbalances. 'EN' denotes the potential for encephalopathy and the requirement for a controlled serum osmolality reduction. 'CE' indicates that cerebral edema is rare but necessitates aggressive fluid therapy. 'S' signifies systemic multiorgan failure. We categorize the associated risks into three mnemonic groups: the 3Rs (renal failure, respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis), the 3Hs (heart failure, hypercoagulation, hyperthermia), and AP (arrhythmias, pancreatitis) to facilitate awareness and screening of HHS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0982.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: TOR; Online Anonymity; Onion Routing; Multi-layer encryption; authenticated- encryption; ExperimenTOR; JAVA Crypto; Circuit Construction; Routing protocols; Cell Encapsulation; AES; OCB
Online: 14 July 2023 (07:05:43 CEST)
The Onion Route Network (also called TOR) is by far the most efficient and widely used anonymity platform with millions of users daily and an expanding size and capacities. Since its public deployment in 2002, the Onion Routing network (also known as TOR) has maintained its leading position and dozens of propositions aiming to improve its performance and enhance the security (anonymity and privacy) have been made. Given the significance of this research area, this work seek to contribute into the improvement of TOR by investigating and testing revolutionary cryptographic and routing mechanism. This work is justified by the current TOR vulnerability and observed weaknesses, and set the challenging aim of covering these security flaws by proposing the relevant security and performances improvement such as the authenticated-encryption for onion construction, the lightened onion encapsulation approach and the secured circuit selection and cell routing mechanisms. The obtained results from implementing the proposed improvements and testing them into a TOR-like simulation platform permit to validate not only, the performances and security contributions brought by the improvement, but also the suitability of their potential implementation into the real TOR network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0493.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: California Air Resources Board; carbon trading; Climate Action Reserve; eddy covariance; forest carbon protocols; forest carbon supply chain; Green New Deal; Howland Forest; net ecosystem exchange; social cost of CO2, CH4, N2O
Online: 19 March 2021 (08:23:11 CET)
Forest carbon sequestration is a widely accepted natural climate solution, however, methods to determine net carbon offsets are limited to commercial carbon proxies and CO2 eddy covariance research. Non-CO2 greenhouse gases (GHG) (e.g., CH4, N2O) receive less attention in the context of forests, in part, due to emphasis on CO2 and the operational requirements and cost for three-gas eddy covariance platforms. In this study, Howland forest flux tower (CO2, CH4) and soil flux data (CO2, CH4, N2O), representing net emission reductions, are linked to their respective social costs to estimate commercial revenue if sold as a GHG social cost forest offset product (GHG-SCF). Estimated annual revenue for GHG-SCF products, applicable to realization of a Green New Deal, range from 120,000 covering the site area of 557 acres in 2021, to 12,000,000 for extrapolation to 40,000 acres in 2040, assuming a 3% discount rate. The Howland Forest CO2 flux record for two adjacent towers is compared to California Air Resources Board forest carbon proxy data for compliance sequestration offsets, the only project site where these approaches overlap. Overcrediting, incomplete carbon accounting with annual errors of up to 2,256%, inadequate third-party verification, and limited application to non-CO2 GHG’s are established. In contrast, direct measurement of one or more GHG’s offers new forest products and revenue incentives to restore and conserve forests worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0106.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Cryptography, Romance, War, Secure Communication, Encryption, Decryption, Historical Significance, Cultural Interpretations, Metaphorical Representations, Alice and Bob, Encoded Messages, Confidentiality, Intimacy, Adversaries, Cultural Diversity, Cryptographic Protocols, Forbidden Love, Literary Motif, Human Relationships, Privacy, Intrusion, Secure Connection
Online: 3 October 2023 (11:14:57 CEST)
In this paper, we thoroughly explore the complex realm of cryptography, examining its historical, cultural, and metaphorical aspects. We delve into the roots of cryptography, tracing back to its Ancient Greek origins where it meant the study of secure and hidden writing. We also reveal the historical significance of cryptography in times of war and conflict, showcasing how it has been a vital tool for encoding messages and maintaining confidentiality. Furthermore, we uncover the surprising connection between cryptography and love, highlighting moments from history, such as the encrypted letters between Marie Antoinette and Axel von Fersen during the French Revolution, which showcase the human desire to communicate and connect even during times of turmoil. This paper delves into the cultural and metaphorical representations of cryptography, with a specific focus on the iconic characters Alice and Bob and how they are reinterpreted in different cultural contexts. The paper draws parallels between the complexities of the intertwining of logical, emotional, technical, and personal narratives in cryptographic discourse, offering insights into the lasting legacy of cryptographic metaphors in explaining complex concepts and emphasising the universal human desire for secure and intimate connections.