ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0325.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: Hallyu; Korean Wave; Korean language; Tagalog language; Second Language Acquisition; Vocabulary Acquisition; Proto-Lexicon
Online: 17 August 2022 (12:42:10 CEST)
Hallyu or the Korean wave has sweeped through nations especially the Philippines. This exploratory study offers a dip into the effects of the Hallyu wave on a Filipino speaker through ambient exposure, consequently on the development of a Korean proto-lexicon through indirect vocabulary acquisition. Finally, a focus group discussion and a preliminary assessment tested out the waters of the effects of Hallyu on casual Filipino speakers. A thorough statistically comprehensive qualitative study on the acquisition framework is recommended to provide substantial evidence to support the framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0006.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: student feedback analysis; sentiments opinion words; polarity shifters; lexicon-based
Online: 1 July 2019 (11:17:37 CEST)
The feedback collection and analysis has remained an important subject matter since long. The traditional techniques for student feedback analysis are based on questionnaire-based data collection and analysis. However, the student expresses their feedback opinions on online social media sites, which need to be analyzed. This study aims at the development of fuzzy-based sentiment analysis system for analyzing student feedback and satisfaction by assigning proper sentiment score to opinion words and polarity shifters present in the input reviews. Our technique computes the sentiment score of student feedback reviews and then applies fuzzy-logic module to analyze and quantify student’s satisfaction at the fine-grained level. The experimental results reveal that the proposed work has outperformed the baseline studies as well as state-of-the-art machine learning classifiers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0290.v1
Online: 10 June 2021 (11:39:26 CEST)
introduction: Cancer, as clusters of diseases, uncontrolled cell proliferation due to tumor suppressor genes inactivation, oncogenes activation, and external factors.Methods: To review data, electronic databases such as Nature, PubMed/PMC, Science Direct/Elsevier, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were used.Results: Derestricted forms of proto-oncogenes are oncogenes, which had vital roles in various paths of cell cycle modulation. Translocations and chromosomal rearrangement and/or mutations in genes are the major factors for the transformation of proto-oncogene to oncogenes. Herein, to prevent the proliferation of cancerous cells, oncogenes are targeted molecules. From a cancer therapeutic target point of view, oncogene silencing and deletion, mutation of tumor suppressor genes, and retroviral therapy molecular techniques were developed. Conclusion: To establish a cancer-free world, the most commonly used techniques are: Ribose Nucleic Acid interferences, zinc finger nucleases, and CRISPR.Keywords: Cancer, Oncogenes, Proto-oncogenes, molecular technique
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: proto-quark stars; maximum temperature; mass reduction
Online: 9 December 2020 (09:47:40 CET)
Abstract: The paper defines the characteristics of two proto-quark stars (M_b=1.22M_? and M_b=1.62M_(?"\ " )) that were formed after the explosion of the supernova. It is assumed that the changes in the energy and lepton charge of the central regions of the pre-supernova star can be neglected during the implosion. The equation of state for hot quark matter is determined based on the MIT bag theory taking into account the presence of neutrinos. The possible maximum values of the central temperatures of these stars are determined. The energy of neutrinos in the studied proto-quark stars is of the order of 250-300 MeV. The decrease in the mass of these stars during cooling is about 0.16 for M_b=1.22M_? and 0.25 for M_b=1.62M_(?"\ " ).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0364.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: Mediaeval manuscript, Vulgar Latin, Koinê Latin, proto-Italic symbols, proto-Romance, decryption, translation, transliteration, palaeography, codicology, Ischia 1444
Online: 31 December 2018 (10:10:30 CET)
This paper provides the solution to understanding the hitherto unknown writing system used for the manuscript listed as MS 408 at the Beinecke Library, Yale University. The writing system uses symbols, punctuation, grammar and language that are each unique. The manuscript is not encrypted, in the sense that its author made an effort to conceal the contents of the manuscript, as has been presumed by some scholars. Instead, it is code only in the sense that the modern reader needs to be versed in the calligraphic and linguistic rules to be able to translate and read the texts. Furthermore, in discovering its writing system, it became apparent that the manuscript is of invaluable importance to the study of the evolution of the Romance languages and the scheme of Italic letters and associated punctuation marks now commonplace in those and other modern languages. In short; it is revealed to be the only known document both written in Vulgar Latin, or proto-Romance, and using proto-Italic symbols. The original title for the manuscript, given by its female author, is: What one needs to be sure to acquire for the evils set in one’s fate. It is a book offering homeopathic advice and instruction to women of court on matters of the heart, of sexual congress, of reproduction, of motherhood and of the physical and emotional complications that can arise along the way through life. The manuscript has now been dated to the year 1444 and the location of its creation has been pinpointed to the court of Castello Aragonese, on the island of Ischia: as expounded in the companion paper Linguistically Dating and Locating Manuscript MS408: http://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/003808.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2030069
Online: 4 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
We tested the hypothesis that concatemers of ancestral tRNAs gave rise to the 16S ribosomal RNA. We built an ancestral sequence of proto-tRNAs that showed a significant identity of 51.69% and a percentage of structural identity of 0.941 with the 16S ribosomal molecule. We also propose a hypothesis for the emergence of translation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0314.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: northeast Tibet; Proto-Tethyan Ocean; early Silurian; eastern Kunlun Orogenic Belt; gabbro; zircon U–Pb dating
Online: 31 August 2020 (09:57:20 CEST)
The early Paleozoic is a crucial period in the formation and evolution of the Eastern Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB), and is of great significance for understanding the evolutionary history of the Proto-Tethyan Ocean. This paper presents new petrography, geochemistry, zircon U–Pb dating, and Lu–Hf isotopic research on the Yuejingshan gabbro from the eastern segment of the EKOB. Zircon U–Pb data suggests that the gabbro formed in the Early Silurian (435 ± 2 Ma). All samples have relatively low TiO2 contents (0.45–2.97%), widely varying MgO (6.58–8.41%) and Mg# (58–65) contents, and are rich in large ion lithophile elements (LILE such as Rb, Ba, Th, and U) and light rare earth elements (LREE). This indicates that it has a similar geochemical composition to island arc basalt. The major element features indicate that the formation of this gabbro underwent fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene, olivine, and plagioclase. The depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE, such as Nb, Ta, and Ti), and a slightly positive Hf isotope (with εHf(t) ranging from 1.13 to 2.45) may be related to the partial melting of spinel-bearing peridotite, led by slab fluid metasomatism. The gabbro likely represents magmatic records of the latest period of the early Paleozoic oceanic crust subduction in the Eastern Kunlun. Therefore, the final closure of the Proto-Tethyan Ocean and the beginning of collisional orogeny occurred before the Early Silurian.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0364.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: origin of life; hydrothermal biochemistry, information storage, continental crust model, supercritical fluids, open system, binary proto-synthetase
Online: 25 January 2022 (04:17:03 CET)
The storage of biochemical information, which is a prerequisite for the development of the first cell, is an unsolved problem affecting all concepts of the origin of life. However, if the protected environment in the continental crust is taken into account, completely new possibilities emerge for identifying processes that may have been crucial for the formation of the first cell. Under this background, we can hypothesize that, before cellular life began, a self-sustaining cycle of molecular reaction steps with information storage in RNA existed outside of a cell. This cycle was made possible in an open system bound to gas-permeable tectonic fracture zones with a high proportion of CO2 and N2. The formation of peptides and vesicles in supercritical CO2 and the chemical evolution of peptides have already been proven for the upper continental crust. Further considerations include the interactions of vesicles with catalytic peptides and the emergence of proto-tRNA. In combination with the formation of proto-tRNA synthetases, which consist of only two amino acid species and associated proto-tRNAs, the first RNA as an information storage system could have been formed with the information of proto-enzymes.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0153.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Tree of Life; origins of species; cellular lineage escape; endogenous compartmentation; proto-organelles; eukaryogenesis; origins of sex; syntrophic biofilms; endosymbiosis
Online: 24 October 2017 (04:27:17 CEST)
This article reevaluates the Woesean concept of crossing a ‘Darwinian threshold’ from pre-genomic communality, as prevailing in an ancestral ‘progenote’ state, to vertically stable lineages of autonomous and self-similar cells. This transition from collective trunk-line evolution to Darwinian speciation is dependent on the generation of modular organismal genomes. The same general principle should be valid at subcellular levels, allowing the emergence of semi-autonomous genomic agents, such as viruses and plasmid-carrying endogenous vesicles with organelle-like properties. As compartmentalized agents of endogenous nature could start with smaller genomes than those required for fully autonomous cells, it is conjectured that stable subcellular lineages emerged earlier than their cellular counterparts. Referring to the recent ‘pre-endosymbiont hypothesis’, it is proposed that free-living bacteria (the first ‘prokaryote’ cells) arose by ‘lineage escape’ from plasmid-bearing organelle-like compartments, evolving inside the internally complexifying ‘paracells’ of the progenote community. The double-membrane envelopes of diderm bacteria may have resulted from cell-biological processes facilitating cellular lineage escape. The later emergence of archaeal cells (resembling bacteria in ‘prokaryote’ appearance with unichromosomal genomes) and eukaryotic organisms (with compartmented cells and multichromosal genomes) can also be interpreted in terms of this modified progenote hypothesis. Conceivably, the multichromosomal genomes of eukaryotes were bundled in endogenous nuclear compartments to organize a ‘nuclear-cytoplasmic lineage’, which became vertically stable by perfecting mitosis/meiosis-like divisions and yet retained some intra-species population confluence by sexual division-fusion cycles.