REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: ANCA-associated vasculitis; Proteinase 3; Myeloperoxidase; Clinical Phenotype; Outcome
Online: 17 August 2022 (09:58:51 CEST)
The traditional nomenclature system for classifying Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV), based on clinical phenotype, described Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) and Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA) as distinct clinical entities. This classification has proved its expedience in clinical trials and every day clinical practice, yet, a substantial overlap in clinical presentation still exists, and often causes difficulties in prompt definition and clinical distinction. Additionally, new insights into the AAV pathogenesis point out that PR3 and MPO-AAV may not represent expressions of the same disease spectrum but rather two distinct disorders, as they display significant differences. Thus, it is supported that a classification based on ANCA serotype (PR3-ANCA, MPO-ANCA or ANCA-negative), could be more accurate and also closer to the nature of the disease, instead of the phenotype-based one. This review aims to elucidate the major differences between PR3 and MPO-AAV, in terms of epidemiology, pathogenesis, histological and clinical manifestations, and response to therapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0369.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: serine proteinase inhibitor; Kunitz; bikunin; inter-α-trypsin inhibitor; pre-α-trypsin inhibitor.
Online: 31 December 2018 (11:03:39 CET)
The aim of this study was to assess if the ovine articular cartilage serine proteinase inhibitors (SPIs) were related to the Kunitz inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (ITI) family. Ovine articular cartilage was finely diced and extracted in 6M urea and SPIs isolated by sequential anion exchange, HA affinity and Sephadex G100 gel permeation chromatography. Selected samples were also subjected to chymotrypsin and concanavalin-A affinity chromatography. Eluant fractions from these isolation steps were monitored for protein and trypsin inhibitory activity and pooled fractions assessed by affinity blotting using biotinylated trypsin to detect active SPIs and by Western blotting using antibodies to α1-microglobulin, bikunin, TSG-6 and 2-B-6 (+) CS stub epitope generated by chondroitinase-ABC digestion. This identified 2-B-6 (+) positive 220-250,120, 58 and 36 kDa SPIs. The 58 kDa SPI contained α1-microglobulin, bikunin and chondroitin-4-sulphate stub epitope consistent with its identity as the α1-microglobulin-bikunin (AMBP) precursor and was also isolated by concanavalin-A lectin affinity chromatography indicating it had N-glycosylation. Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) species of 36, 26, 12 and 6 kDa could be autolytically generated by prolonged storage of the aforementioned 120 and 58 kDa SPIs; chymotrypsin affinity chromatography also generated the 6kDa SPI. KPI domain 1 and 2 SPIs were separated by concanavalin lectin affinity chromatography, domain 1 displayed affinity for this lectin indicating it had N-glycosylation. KPI 1 and 2 both displayed potent inhibitory activity towards trypsin, chymotrypsin, kallikrein, leucocyte elastase and cathepsin G. Localisation of versican, lubricin and HA in the surface regions of articular cartilage represented probable binding sites for the ITI SPs with likely importance in the preservation of joint function.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0126.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: protein-protein interaction; protein-peptide interaction; triglycine; substrate binding site; peptide; inhibitor; Proteinase K
Online: 11 August 2019 (08:37:08 CEST)
Various peptides or non-structural amino acids are recognized by their specific target proteins and perform biological role in various pathways in vivo. Understanding the interactions between target protein and peptides (or non-structural amino acids) provides key information on the molecular interactions, which can be potentially translated to the development of novel drugs. However, it is experimentally challenging to determine the crystal structure of protein-peptide complexes. To obtain structural information on substrate recognition of peptide-recognizing enzyme, X-ray crystallographic studies were performed using triglycine (Gly-Gly-Gly) as main-chain of peptide. The crystal structure of Parengyodontium album Proteinase K in complex with triglcyine was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. Two different bound conformations of triglycine were observed at the substrate recognition site. The triglycine backbone forms stable interactions with β5-α4 and α5-β6 loops of main-chain. One of the triglycine-binding conformations was identical with the binding mode of a peptide-based inhibitor from a previously reported crystal structure of Proteinase K. Triglycine has potential application X-ray crystallography to identify substrate recognition sites in peptide binding enzymes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0027.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant specific insert; aspartic proteinase; vacuolar sorting; unconventional trafficking; endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi, N-linked glycosylation
Online: 2 August 2019 (10:05:06 CEST)
In plant cells the conventional route to the vacuole involves the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi and the prevacuolar compartment. However, over the years, unconventional sorting to the vacuole, bypassing the Golgi, has been described, which is the case of the Plant Specific Insert (PSI) of the aspartic proteinase cardosin A. Interestingly, this Golgi-bypass ability is not a characteristic shared by all PSIs, since two related PSIs showed to have different sensitivity to ER-to-Golgi blockage. Given the high sequence similarity between the PSIs domains, we sought to depict the differences in terms of post-translational modifications. In fact, one feature that draws our attention is that one is N-glycosylated and the other one is not. Using site-directed mutagenesis to obtain mutated versions of the two PSIs, with and without the glycosylation motif, we observed that altering the glycosylation pattern interferes with the trafficking of the protein as the non-glycosylated PSI-B, unlike its native glycosylated form, is able to bypass ER-to-Golgi blockage and accumulate in the vacuole. This is also true when the PSI domain is analyzed in the context of the full-length cardosin. Regardless of opening exciting research gaps, the results obtained so far need a more comprehensive study of the mechanisms behind this unconventional direct sorting to the vacuole.