ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0848.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; STREAM; ChatGPT; Project-Based Learning; Pedagogy
Online: 12 June 2023 (14:28:14 CEST)
Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) and natural language processing (NLP) technologies with project-based learning experiences in Science,Technology, Reading, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STREAM) education offers the potential to enhance student engagement, critical thinking,problem-solving, and interdisciplinary learning. This paper presents a comprehensive approach to implementing AI and NLP technologies, such as ChatGPT, in STREAM project-based learning experiences, highlighting the potential advantages and challenges of this innovative educational approach. The proposed method encompasses personalized learning pathways, AI-powered research assistance, collaborative AI tools, real-time feedback, virtual mentoring, advanced simulation, and objective assessment. We also discuss the implications of this integration for educators, institutions, and students, along with recommendations for future research and development in this emerging field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0051.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Project-Based Learning (PBL); higher education; competencies; knowledge transfer (KT); rating
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:38:34 CET)
The aim of this paper is to contribute to the body of knowledge about Project-Based Learning (PBL) methodology in higher education by describing and analysing interrelations between competencies, and their contribution to knowledge transfer (KT) and students’ rating of the project. The sample consisted of 464 students from the Universities of Huelva (N=347; 74.8%) and Murcia (N= 117; 25.2%), enrolled in the second year of a degree in either Infant or Primary Education. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire comprising a total of 53 items measuring General, Specific and Transversal competencies, as well as students’ rating of the project. Competencies were selected from the course programmes for the degrees in Infant and Primary Education. Preliminary results showed that competencies were moderately to highly acquired after PBL, and that students reported notable KT as well as a positive assessment of the project. KT showed a high degree of association with students’ ratings and was established as a key factor in learning and learner satisfaction in higher education.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Project Management; Information Theory; Uncertainty
Online: 7 August 2020 (11:43:14 CEST)
Projects are rarely executed exactly as planned. Often, the actual durations of a project’s activities differ from the planned ones, resulting in costs stemming from the inaccurate estimation of the activities’ completion dates. While monitoring the project at various inspection points is pricy, it can lead to better estimation of the project completion time, hence saving on costs. Nonetheless, identifying the optimal inspection points is a difficult task, as it requires evaluating a large number of the project’s path options, even for small-scale projects. This paper proposes an analytical method for identifying the optimal project inspection points by using Information Theory measures. We search for monitoring (inspection) points that can maximize the information about the estimated project’s duration or completion time. The proposed methodology is based on a simulation-optimization scheme using a Monte Carlo engine that simulates potential activities’ durations. An exhaustive search is performed of all possible control points to find those with the highest expected information gain on the project duration. The proposed algorithm’s complexity is not affected the number of activities, and can address large projects with hundreds or thousands of activities. Numerical experimentation and analysis of various parameters are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0237.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Software reliability; deep learning; long short-term memory; project similarity and clustering; cross-project prediction
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:33:39 CEST)
Software reliability is an important characteristic for ensuring the qualities of software products. Predicting the potential number of bugs from the beginning of a development project allows practitioners to make the appropriate decisions regarding testing activities. In the initial development phases, applying traditional software reliability growth models (SRGMs) with limited past data does not always provide reliable prediction result for decision making. To overcome this, herein we propose a new software reliability modeling method called deep cross-project software reliability growth model (DC-SRGM). DC-SRGM is a cross-project prediction method that uses features of previous projects’ data through project similarity. Specifically, the proposed method applies cluster-based project selection for training data source and modeling by a deep learning method. Experiments involving 15 real datasets from a company and 11 open source software datasets show that DC-SRGM can more precisely describe the reliability of ongoing development projects than existing traditional SRGMs and the LSTM model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0308.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cooperative learning; professional capital; learning of education professionals; long-term project
Online: 5 May 2023 (05:41:46 CEST)
This article presents the research results on developing professional capital in Lithuanian schools during the national project "Time for leaders". The longitudinal national initiative aimed to develop professional capital as the synergy of human, social and decisional components (Hargreaves and Fullan, 2019) of schools through the various cooperation-based learning experiences of educational professionals. The article provides an overview of project interventions (activities that stimulated cooperative learning of educational professionals) in the light of cooperative learning principles. The assessment of change over two project years in education professionals' perceptions of professional capital is presented using Cohen's d effect size measure. The measurement sample consisted of teachers (n1=5105; n2=4683) and school leaders (n1=439; n2=405) from 189 schools in 30 Lithuanian municipalities. The findings show a statistically significant medium positive change in professional capital. The most considerable change was estimated in the social and decisional capital dimensions and the relatively smallest - in the field of human capital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: project based learning; human powered vehicles; sustainable transportation design
Online: 23 October 2018 (03:42:42 CEST)
In this work, the decennial experience of Policumbent student team at Politecnico di Torino is summarized by focusing on the acquired knowledge in design of Human Powered Vehicles (HPVs) and on soft skills developed by both students and staff. Policumbent was funded by the authors at the end of 2008 in order to gather engineering students interested in design and construction of HPVs. In the last decade, the team has grown from 10 up to 50 students enrolled per year, exploring a range of HPV design for sports and mobility. Even when focusing on sport vehicles and extreme HPVs for speed record, such kind of projects allows students to familiarize with important concepts related to sustainable mobility: the amount of resistive forces and dissipated power, the role of vehicle weight and the impact of acceleration on the overall energetic balance as far as fundamental concepts about energy consumption, efficiency and emissions of the ``human engine'' in comparison with other kind of engines. By touching with hands such topics in the framework of a ``human-centred'' design project, the students have opportunity to develop awareness about the impact of design choices on sustainability of any kind of vehicle for transportation. Also, the paper retraces the team evolution path by focusing on a thorough analysis of what factors contributed to the success of this project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0012.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Project Management; Artificial Intelligence (AI); Project Schedule Management; Project Cost Management; Project Risk Management
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:34:59 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to study the main areas in which Artificial Intelligence (AI) will impact the field of project management that relates to cost, risk and scheduling. The research model was based on a previous study of the ten project management knowledge areas presented in the PMI’s PMBOK 6th edition where project schedule-, cost- and risk management knowledge areas were identified as being the ones most likely to be affected by the development of AI. A group of experts that participated in the study agreed that AI will affect the project management profession in the future. Different elements of the three knowledge areas were considered to be affected more by AI than others. The schedule baseline is the element believed to be affected the most out of the project schedule management elements. For project cost management, the estimation of resource cost is believed to be affected the most. In the case of project risk management, the application of AI will have the strongest impact on the probability and impact format.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0634.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: project leadership; project leadership theory; project leadership model; organizational leadership
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:47:59 CEST)
Individuals and their leadership competencies have been the sole focus of project leadership research, rather than the project leadership's behaviour and functions in project and organizational settings. As a result, this study investigates the project leadership functions and behaviours required for various project and organizational situations in order to propose a project leadership model that will be effective in all project and organizational situations. The model that was developed and tested in this study theorized on the project leadership function that project leaders are expected to perform as a result of their positions. It also described how project leaders could tailor their leadership functions and behaviours to address issues related to positions, organizational situations, and project situations. Three hypotheses were developed and tested using structural equation modelling to validate the model. The model's perceptive power demonstrates adequate validity. The model's validity implies that there are appropriate project leadership functions for different leadership levels and circumstances. The model's validity also implies that each project leadership behaviour has its own value, as conditions and necessities dictate. The study assumes that a project leader can embrace project leadership by combining a few different project leadership functions and behaviours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0078.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: project portfolio configuration; synergetic management; data envelopment analysis; efficiency evaluation
Online: 18 September 2017 (11:25:21 CEST)
Project portfolio configuration (PPC) is an important approach to maintain the sustainable development of enterprises and achieve organizations’ strategy. However, the synergetic efficacy of PPC which determines the degree of the project's strategic objectives achieved is a fuzzy problem and hard to be measured. To solve this problem, this paper takes the data envelopment analysis (DEA) as the tool to measure the efficacy of PPC under deterministic conditions. First, a portfolio evaluation index system which takes financial indicators and non-financial indicators into consideration is developed based on the review of the literature; Second, an evaluation model based on DEA is built to reduce the number of decision making-unit with the perspective of synergetic theory; Then, a computational experiment is studied to verify the feasibility of this proposed model. The results of this computational experiment show that this model can effectively narrow scope of decision-making, improve the decision-making level and provide a reference to decide the DEA effective project portfolio decision-making unit. To our knowledge, this study is the first time to apply the notion of synergetic efficacy and DEA to the PPC domain. It is hoped that this paper may shed lights on any further study about PPC and enterprise competitiveness of sustainable development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0032.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Project-oriented learning; sustainable development objectives; teaching innovation; situated learning; COVID-19.
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:19:26 CEST)
The use of active methodologies in the university is a priority to achieve higher quality learning. One of these methodologies with the greatest potential for training in competencies is Project-Oriented Learning (PLA), using it in an innovative way. Associating the use of this methodology with the objectives of sustainable development, which have become even more important since the Pandemic by COVID-19, can be a good idea to achieve a more sustained and situated learning. The aim of this study is to find out to what extent research on teaching innovation with Project-Oriented Learning is associated with the Sustainable Development Goals. A systematic review was carried out as indicated by PRISMA through the following databases: WOS and Scopus. WOS found 15 articles on AoP and 6 on Project-Oriented Learning and sustainability. In Scopus 2 were found in 2019. The main results show that in the University, especially in the branches of engineering, AoP is widely used, however, it is rarely related to SDGs. Among the conclusions, we highlight the need for research on project-oriented learning and sustainable development goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: project cost; project complexity; structural equation modeling; New Zealand
Online: 13 June 2019 (08:16:40 CEST)
Project complexity is usually considered as one of main causes of cost overruns, resulting in poor performance and thus project failure. However, empirical studies focused on evaluating its effects on project cost remain lacking. Given this circumstance, this study attempts to develop the relationships between project cost and the multidimensional project complexity elements. We establish complexity as a multidimensional factor including the task, organization, market, legal, and environment complexities. This study uses an empirical evidence-based structural model to account for the relationships between project cost and project complexity. By doing so, a quantitative assessment of multi-dimensional project complexity has been developed. The findings suggest that task and organization complexities have direct effects on project cost, while market, legal and external environment complexities have indirect effects on project cost. The practical contribution is that the findings can improve the understanding of which dimension of complexity significantly influence project cost, and the need to focus efforts on strategically addressing that complexities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1480.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Lean Construction; Last Planner system; Information flow; Project management; priority index
Online: 25 September 2023 (03:57:16 CEST)
This research describes a detailed analysis in the enactment of a Lean Tool, the Last Planner System during pandemic period which helps in optimizing the resources for better coordination among all stakeholders in pandemic period. LPS as it is known, focusses on minimizing the factors such as uncertainties, barriers and variability to make construction projects more flexible for better project management. These include variations and deviations, supervision, delays in approvals, change resistance, subcontractor dedication which are all related to various stakeholders in the project. Following that, a Design Science Research technique is used to evaluate the effect of applying LPS in buildings. An action strategy is being used to attain this goal, and four case studies were being documented which were concerned in the implementation of LPS in the building of the Boy's Hostel, Research Scholar Quarters, Faculty Housing, and Girls' Hostel at Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Data was gathered by observation of site activities, interviews, documentation analysis, and a questionnaire survey and grouped into various factors. While adopting the LPS tool in the research the factors affecting the implementation were found in the covid-19 pandemic period. Further these factors were anlayzed, measured, ranked and validated for adopting in projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: virtual information modeling; project management knowledge areas; construction projects; communication management.
Online: 2 May 2018 (11:40:14 CEST)
In the contemporary construction management, poor project performance, cost overrun, and low-quality construction have become a central point of attention for improving project performance including information, interaction and communication management. virtual design and construction and building information modelling play indispensable role in improving the project performance. The aim of this study is to propose a Virtual Information Modeling as a novel information and communication technology method with potential to overcome problems in the construction industry. Using one-sample t test with Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, we analysed data collected from structured questionnaire survey involving project managers working at architecture, engineering and construction industries in Tehran, Iran. The results suggest that the most important benefits and challenges of using Virtual Information Modeling are related to the area of integration, and implementation of Virtual Information Modeling has the greatest impact on this area of project management knowledge. Thus, integration should be considered a top priority for construction companies implementing Virtual Information Modeling in their projects. Policymakers should understand that careful management of virtual information is essential for improving the performance of projects and enhancing the process efficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0638.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Agile project management; Agile construction; Building adaptation; Built environment; Scaling agile
Online: 9 May 2023 (10:28:45 CEST)
The Agile Building Adaptation (AgiBuild) framework is the adoption and adaptation of the large-scale agile framework for building adaptation projects. The agile methodology is proven to drive innovation by focusing on adaptation to change and user centricity. Similarly, the authors envision that the AgiBuild framework can fundamentally change the way that buildings are re-designed, refurbished, and operated. The AgiBuild framework is developed from the need of the building adaptation industry to manage uncertainties, overcome communication barriers, and improve innovation. In this study, a literature review of Agile and its impact on building adaptation projects is undertaken. Based on this systematic literature review, this paper defines the AgiBuilt framework and provides its benefits and barriers to implementation. A key finding of the literature review is that leadership influence, and adequate training form the key foundation for the implementation of the AgiBuild Framework. In defining the AgiBuild framework, the paper describes its components and how its implementation is likely to proceed. The authors propose that by adopting the AgiBuild framework, the industry can transform itself into a highly innovative and user-centred industry to improve productivity and performance of the construction industry..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0441.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Multi-Choice Model; Goal Programming; Project Portfolio; Goal Target; Project Cost
Online: 17 April 2023 (10:22:28 CEST)
The study sought to investigate the effect of Multi-choice Goal programming in project Portfolio Analysis, using Lagos State Project Portfolio from between 2017-2021 as a study case. Specifically, the objectives examined the effectiveness of multi-choice goal programming in analyzing the project Portfolio of Lagos State Government and investigated the possible lapses in the use of Multi-choice Goal programming in analyzing the project Portfolio of Lagos State Government. Data were gathered from the State financial Statements and analyzed using Lingo-17 Software. Based on the analysis, the study discovered that the goals formulated can be optimally and minimally attained as the positive deviational and negative deviational variables depict zero. This indicates that the cost incurred on the project portfolio was absolutely minimized during the period and at the same time; Lagos State Government derived the most preferred benefits from it. The study therefore concluded that the State minimized the project costs and at the same time maximized benefits while meeting its overall objectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0461.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Software quality; cross-project defect prediction; multi-source; dissimilarity space; arc-cosine kernel function
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:48:50 CET)
Software defect prediction is an important means to guarantee software quality. Because there are no sufficient historical data within a project to train the classifier, cross-project defect prediction (CPDP) has been recognized as a fundamental approach. However, traditional defect prediction methods using feature attributes to represent samples, which can not avoid negative transferring, may result in poor performance model in CPDP. This paper proposes a multi-source cross-project defect prediction method based on dissimilarity space ( DM-CPDP). This method first uses the density-based clustering method to construct the prototype set with the cluster center of samples in the target set. Then, the arc-cosine kernel is used to form the dissimilarity space, and in this space the training set is obtained with the earth mover’s distance (EMD) method. For the unlabeled samples converted from the target set, the KNN algorithm is used to label those samples. Finally, we use TrAdaBoost method to establish the prediction model. The experimental results show that our approach has better performance than other traditional CPDP methods.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0622.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: prevention through design; safety climate; lean construction; transformation-flow-value; lean project delivery system
Online: 30 November 2018 (07:57:22 CET)
The construction industry is one of the most fatal industries, so it is important to pay more attention to safety solutions. Even though work-related accidents are known as major waste in construction projects, little attention has been paid so far to incorporating safety into the lean construction framework. In this research, lean construction theory is reviewed through the lens of safety. That being so, the identified challenges in previous research on improving safety in construction projects are categorized and those related to the concept of lean project delivery are introduced. Then, the principles of the lean construction framework are explained and the relevant changes for incorporating safety into the framework are introduced and discussed. It is expected that this hybrid model would further enrich the lean construction framework. The careful attention of project executives to this model may improve the safety situation in construction projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0402.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: project scheduling; underground mine; random breakdown simulation; wolf colony algorithm; multi-objective optimization
Online: 26 January 2022 (14:02:22 CET)
Due to production space and operating environment requirements, mine production equipment often breaks down, which seriously affects the mine’s production schedule. To ensure the smooth completion of the haulage operation plan under abnormal conditions, a model of the haulage equipment rescheduling plan based on the random simulation of equipment breakdowns is established in this paper. The model aims to accomplish both the maximum completion rate of the original mining plan and the minimum fluctuation of the ore grade during the rescheduling period. This model is optimized by improving the wolf colony algorithm and changing the location update formula of the individuals in the wolf colony. Then, the optimal model solution can be used to optimize the rescheduling of the haulage plan by considering equipment breakdowns. The application of the proposed method in an underground mine revealed that the completion rate of the mine’s daily mining plan reached 83.40% without increasing the number of the equipment, while and the ore quality was stable. Moreover, the improved optimization algorithm converged fast and was characterized by high robustness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0185.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rainfall threshold; flash flood warning; antecedent soil moisture; BROOK90 model; EXTRUSO project
Online: 5 March 2021 (11:46:46 CET)
Convective rainfall can cause dangerous flash floods within less than six hours. Thus, simple approaches are required for issuing quick warnings. The Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) approach pre-calculates rainfall levels (thresholds) potentially causing critical water levels for a specific catchment. Afterwards, only rainfall and soil moisture information is required to issue warn-ings. This study applied the principle of FFG to the Wernersbach Catchment (Germany) with excellent data coverage using the BROOK90 water budget model. The rainfall thresholds were determined for durations of 1 to 24 hours, by running BROOK90 in “inverse” mode, identifying rainfall values for each duration that led to exceedance of critical discharge (fixed value). After calibrating the model based on its runoff, we ran it in hourly mode with four precipitation types and various levels of initial soil moisture for the period 1996 – 2010. The rainfall threshold curves showed a very high probability of detection (POD) of 91% for the 40 extracted flash flood events in the study period, however, the false alarm rate (FAR) of 56% and the critical success index (CSI) of 42% should be improved in further studies. The approach proved potential as an early flood indicator for head-catchments with limited available information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1821.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: risks; project stakeholders; construction; project; interfaces; interface risks; construction projects; interface risk management
Online: 27 July 2023 (03:40:07 CEST)
Abstract: Interface risks are inherent in every construction project from start to finish. Identifying and managing these risks effectively in every project phase is crucial for actualising project objectives. This paper shows a comprehensive framework showing several relationships between project stakeholders and how the interface risks between them that influence project execution are identified and managed for the overall construction project success. Firstly, literature review on interfaces and interface risks were car-ried out and how organisations managed interface risks were discussed and secondly, the collection of quantitative data was conducted by means of structured online questionnaires. The sample consisted of 205 construction project professionals who were selected randomly. This group included individuals with various roles in the construction industry, The data was analysed using descriptive statistical methods, including factor analysis, reliability assessment, and calculations of frequencies and percentages. Finally, the results showed all the factors, work culture and organisational approaches that influence interface risk management and ways to identify and manage interface risks effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0529.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Project Management Office; PMO; Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO); EPMO Challenges; ANOVA; Efficiency
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:11:05 CET)
During the European unification process, they stated the need for drawing up a common energy strategic plan that will affects electricity production system in terms of infrastructure, production and generation. The EU strategic action plans included; reduction in emissions, an increase in renewable energies, energy efficiency. In this light therefore the energy efficiency was booked for researching. This article presents an in-depth study of the challenges in transforming a functioning PMO model to an EPMO model within four electricity companies from different countries within the EU and how those challenges can be address within companies implementing same methodology to bring about electricity production efficiency. Will these identified challenges make it impossible for the companies to achieve electricity production efficiency in the transformation from PMO to EPMO? PMO has been the major methodology used by these companies. To achieve production efficiency, the need for a heavyweight methodology was identified (EPMO) and implemented in four mega electricity producing companies with cross boarder distributions, one from France; Germany; Spain and UK
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Fire Hawk Optimizer; optimization; metaheuristic algorithms; Building Information Modelling (BIM); resource management; project resource management
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:34:30 CEST)
Project managers should balance a variety of resource elements in building projects while taking into account many major concerns, including time, cost, quality, risk, and the environment. This study presents a framework for resource trade-offs in project scheduling based on the Building Information Modeling (BIM) methodology and metaheuristic algorithms. First, a new metaheuristic algorithm called Fire Hawk Optimizer (FHO) is used. Using project management software and the BIM process, a 3D model of the construction is created. In order to maximize quality while minimizing time, cost, risk, and CO2 in the project under consideration, an optimization problem is created, and the FHO's capability for solving it is assessed. A predefined stopping condition is taken into account while doing 30 independent optimization runs to obtain the statistical metrics, such as the mean, standard deviation, and the required number of objective function evaluations. The results show that the FHO algorithm is capable of producing competitive and exceptional outcomes when it comes to trade-off various resource options in projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0344.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Nature-based solutions (NBS); Hydrometeorological hazards; PHUSICOS project; Implementation barriers; Flooding; Landslides; Avalanches; Rockfall; Europe
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:19:27 CET)
Nature Based Solutions (NBS) are becoming increasingly important in both the EU and individual countries' political agendas, as a sustainable means to reduce the risk posed by hydrometeorological hazards. However, as the use of NBS is increasing, a number of barriers regarding their practical implementation also becomes apparent. A number of review studies have summarized and classified barriers, mainly in urban settings. PHUSICOS is a H2020 Innovation Action to demonstrate the use of NBS in rural and mountain landscapes. Large scale demonstrator case sites with several sub-projects are established in Italy, Norway and in the French and Spanish Pyrenees. The present paper describes the project's NBS measures, and their experienced barriers, some of which have resulted in full cancellation of the planned interventions. Many of the barriers experienced in rural settings have the same root causes as the ones described from urban areas, and the main barrier-creating mechanisms are institutional factors, resistance among stakeholders and technical and economic issues. The key element, however, is lack of knowledge about the ability of NBS to deliver a series of co-benefits in addition to their risk-reducing effects, and that long-term thinking is required to see the effect of many of these co-benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0018.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: project logistics; transportation; simulation; autoclave
Online: 2 November 2017 (13:31:51 CET)
Project logistics is one of the specific logistics operations. Compared to other logistics operations, it needs more efficient planning and engineering applications in each operational process. On the other hand, each project logistics operation can be defined as tailor-made operations, since it has no similarity with other operations. Consequently, each project logistics operation should be planned and carried out according to its own conditions and parameters. This study focuses on the simulation of project logistics operations under the light of computerized applications from start to finish of the logistics operation. In this study, transportation operations of 600 tons of autoclave from the Petkim port to the Gördes building site were selected as a case study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0479.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Project Management
Online: 28 February 2023 (01:35:26 CET)
IKEA is a massive international conglomerate company, and the purpose of this exploratory qualitative research is to investigate how the burgeoning academic field known as "artificial intelligence" (AI) could assist IKEA in resolving some of the challenges that it is currently dealing with in relation to its efforts to source sustainable materials. According to the conclusions of this study, artificial intelligence has the potential to aid in the resolution of at least some of the issues associated with sustainable sourcing, at least to some degree. This was developed by mapping the issues, analyzing the potential for adopting artificial intelligence as a solution, and defining the components that are required for efficient adoption of the technology. A number of prerequisites need to be satisfied by businesses before artificial intelligence may be used in the area of sustainable sourcing. In addition, a number of artificial intelligence's constraints need to be addressed before the technology can be put into practice by the same businesses. In conclusion, the findings of this study offer some management implications and ideas for businesses that have the goal of sourcing in a way that is less harmful to the environment by making use of technological breakthroughs such as artificial intelligence. This can be accomplished through the utilization of innovative technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0050.v1
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:45:06 CEST)
A project-based module on Sustainable Development Goal number 5, Gender Equality, was im-plemented on 5 different groups of Business English students consisting of a total number of 62 students in higher education. The main purpose of this project was to raise awareness of this goal by means of a flipped method in which students were required to carry out some research on specific areas of the aforementioned goal and work in teams to elaborate oral presentations. Once their findings were shared in class, students were expected to answer a written questionnaire of open-ended questions which were part of a qualitative analysis. Results of this survey showed that not only 90% of the students gained in depth knowledge of this goal, but also 85% had built a positive attitude to take initiative and 80% were optimistic about future gender equality. Finally, 70% of students suggested further social action to curb the problem of gender discrimination. On the whole, the flipped classroom method of learning combined with project-based group work have proven to be an effective way to raise awareness of this goal, create a more positive attitude, in-crease their willingness to take action as well as widening their English lexical resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0407.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Claim management office (CMO); organisational project management (OPM); built environment; project-based organization (PBO); construction claim
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:45:55 CEST)
A claim management office (CMO) is a new intra-organisation fit based on an organisational project management (OPM) approach and deals specifically with improving claim performance. However, CMO is either misunderstood or often overlooked in construction companies, mainly due to ignorance of the OPM context but further exacerbated by a lack of real case study research on how to adopt CMO in these organisations. This study addresses this prevailing knowledge gap by investigating the nature of the construction industry from the CMO viewpoint and developing an extensive framework through which to improve organisational claims performance. Organisational ambidexterity theory integrated with X-inefficiency theory is adopted for claims performance outcomes, due to organisation intra-firm irrational decisions when managing such claims. Data was obtained and analysed from a international large construction company (which used CMOs) and its internal focus group discussion (as a multi-method approach). The reference framework provides new perspectives on how construction-related companies can adopt a CMO structure, which enables them to improve claims performance by planning in three interrelated activities viz. function-, process- and performance-based-. Furthermore, findings contribute to researchers and practitioners by providing a true understanding of the CMO-related mechanism and plausible roadmap for future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0313.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: engineering procurement and construction project (EPC); project management; design changes; infrastructure development projects; construction management; New Zealand
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:06:44 CEST)
Design changes seem inevitable in engineering, procurement and construction EPC projects. Such changes create a need for a proactive approach to adjusting project scope, cost and time (the triple constraints) for efficiency and effectiveness in overall delivery. This study investigates the causes and implications of design changes in order to improve design change management practices. Data for the study was obtained through online interviews with New Zealand industry practitioners. Thematic analysis was used to collate the results into meaningful data. The study found that design changes were predominantly caused by clients' inadequate strategic planning, insufficient attention to design, EPC contractors' inadequate design ability, and on-site variations. There were three categories of such design changes: direct impact on the project, the reciprocal and complementary effect on stakeholders, and the far-reaching impact on the community. The study concludes by suggesting improvements, such as strengthening the integration of project teams to enhance design quality, strategic alignment of stakeholders at the planning stage, early contractor involvement (ECI) between the planning and design phases, and improving collaboration between design and construction teams. Further, a combination of high technical skills (e.g. design ability) and soft skills (can-do attitude, interpersonal skills, problem-solving skills, documentation skills, etc.) are needed to effect the desired improvement in design change management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1786.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: P5™; PM²; PRiSMTM; Project Management; Sustainability
Online: 23 October 2023 (10:01:17 CEST)
This paper makes a theoretical contribution by exploring the integration of sustainability principles into project management. It compares two recent methodologies, PM² and PRiSMTM, and provides a practical contribution by advocating for the adoption of these sustainability-driven practices among practitioners. Sustainability remains relatively unknown in the realm of project management, and this research aims to bridge that gap. The study follows an interpretivist philosophy and employs a combination of interviews and archival data analysis. PM², created by the European Commission, provides a project management methodology free to organizations and includes best practices from other bodies of knowledge. However, it doesn't include sustainability, because it aims to be generic. PRiSMTM, based on the P5™, aims to make the project management process more sustainable. PRiSMTM has P5 Impact Analysis and Sustainability Management Plan as the main differentiating deliverables and is an extension of the Triple Bottom Line, also including product and process. The PM² Alliance CEO believes that PM² aims to be generic, so a focus on sustainability would remove the methodology's "elasticity". However, users wishing to use PM² and consider sustainability can include it in the additional objectives and use PRiSMTM differentiating deliverables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0827.v1
Online: 11 May 2023 (08:46:22 CEST)
Using SNA techniques, the study examined H2020 forestry projects. An adjacency matrix was created using the CORDIS data collection, and it was then utilized to depict the network of project members. Then, different network indicators were computed. Several statistical techniques (maximum likelihood, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, moments, bootstrapping) were employed to do a goodness-of-fit analysis on the frequencies of the degrees to confirm scale-freedom or randomness in the search for significant distributions in network research. Additionally, the small-world aspect was investigated. The findings demonstrate that while the number of project participations by project participants follows a power distribution, the distribution of project participants’ degrees reflects various effects. As a result, the scale-freedom that has been emphasized in many scientific investigations is not evident. The network indicators demonstrate that the network is not clearly small-world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0744.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Motivation; Project performance; Motivational techniques; Employee turnover
Online: 10 May 2023 (11:01:29 CEST)
In order to remain competitive in the highly competitive construction industry, it is crucial for construction organizations to continually improve their overall performance, as project performance is a key determinant of their relevance. Despite the industry's competitiveness and risk, it has been reported that the construction industry has the lowest return margins compared to other industries (Jackson, 1999), suggesting that the project performance of construction organizations in the industry has not been up to par. This issue can be attributed to several factors, with motivation being the primary factor. Unfortunately, motivation is often disregarded in the construction industry due to the short duration of many construction projects and the high rate of employee turnover. The impact of employee dissatisfaction and related work attitudinal problems on performance in the construction industry is a matter of concern, particularly in developing countries where working conditions may be unappealing. The severity of this issue cannot be overstated.The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of motivational techniques in enhancing project performance in Nigeria. The study employed a survey research design and targeted the management staff of construction firms in Lagos State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was used to collect data, and the respondents were purposively selected from the population. Data analysis was conducted using percentage, mean ranking, and chi-square. The findings reveal that the opportunity to learn new skills, with a mean score of 0.85, and wage increment, with a mean score of 0.82, were the most widely adopted motivational techniques for management staff and skilled labor, respectively, in construction firms. Additionally, the study found that most of the motivational schemes tested did not produce statistically significant results, indicating low adoption and limited effectiveness in enhancing project performance. As a result, it is suggested that construction companies in Nigeria should implement and enforce financial and non-financial incentives to enhance the performance of their employees and consequently, improve project performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0289.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: project governance; programme; infrastructure development; developing countries
Online: 15 October 2018 (08:24:48 CEST)
The governance of public sector infrastructure projects became an important topic of interest in the project, programme and portfolio management literature during the last decade. Today, it is becoming a central focus for policymakers seeking to ensure success in selecting, designing and implementing government-sponsored programme of multi-projects. Due to the multiple underlying risks and complexities, the governance of infrastructure programme constitutes a critical element in strategic planning in developing countries. This paper has analyzed infrastructure development programme and revealed shortcomings in the areas of appraisal, decision-making, quality assurance and stakeholder management. Approaches to remedy these shortcomings have been proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0372.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: delta project; university living lab; ecological corridor
Online: 25 June 2018 (07:59:08 CEST)
The University of Guayaquil, which shares the same name as the city where it is located, faces the challenge of transforming its image for the XXI century. It was deemed necessary to identify details about the urban evolution of the historic link with the city, in relation to the changes produced by the project’s siting and its direct area of influence. The goal is to integrate the main university campus within a framework which guarantees sustainability and allows innovation in the living lab. To achieve this, the action research method was applied, focused on participation and the logic framework. For the diagnosis, proposal, and management model, integrated working groups were organized with internal users such as professors, students, and university authorities, and external actors such as residents, the local business community, Guayaquil city council, and the Governorate of Guayas. As result of the diagnosis, six different analysis dimensions were established which correspond to the new urban agenda for the future campus: compactness, inclusiveness, resilience, sustainability, safety and participation. As a proposal, the urban design integrates the analysis dimensions whose financing and execution are given by the Town Hall, at the same time the Governorate integrates the campus with its network of community police headquarters.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: student projects; student project management; cost; motivation
Online: 9 March 2023 (02:48:09 CET)
Student project management is becoming increasingly important in various settings such as technical clubs, planning clubs, and research laboratories. However, effective methodologies for managing student-led projects have not yet been established. This study aims to address key issues related to cost and motivation in student-led projects and propose effective improvement plans. The significance of this study lies in its potential to identify challenges faced in current student project management practices and offer solutions to mitigate risks. By sharing our findings, we aim to encourage further research on this topic and promote the adoption of effective methodologies for managing student-led projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0557.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Stakeholder; Networking; Stakeholder Networking; Umbulan Water Supply Project
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:28:53 CET)
The Umbulan Water Supply Project is categorized by the Shipping Infrastructure Acceleration Committee in the list of Accelerated National Strategic Projects through Presidential Regulation Number 3 of 2016 concerning the Acceleration of the Implementation of National Strategic Projects, targeted to operate in mid-2019. This is what will be the focus of the stakeholders of the Umbulan Water Supply Project. This study was to identifying and analyzing networks among stakeholders. Method: This study used a qualitative approach with exploratory methods combined with meta-analysis identification design Identification of stakeholder mapping in the context of early detection of stakeholder involvement in the implementation of the Umbulan Water Supply Project at various levels starting from the National, Provincial (East Java), District/City (Pasuruan, Sidoarjo, Surabaya, to Gresik), Sub-District (Winongan, Gondang Wetan, and Pohtjentrek). The conclusion of this study was based on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions in describing the determination of stakeholders which were divided into two, namely primary stakeholder and secondary stakeholder, and outline the result of the indicators analysis on the stakeholder network of Umbulan Water Supply Project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0321.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainability; project management; collaboration; business arrangement; maintenance; infrastructure
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:25:09 CET)
The need to consider sustainability has substantially increased the complexity of implementing construction and infrastructure projects and new management practices have emerged during the past decade to tackle the global sustainability challenges, where the engagement and coordination of broader competences from stakeholders throughout the supply chain is required. This new project management paradigm has been accompanied by greater attention to the concept of collaborative business arrangements, often called partnering, that has emerged in construction and infrastructure projects to improve project deliveries. However, there are uncertainties about the optimal strategy to foster, integrate and maintain the required collaboration, particularly in sustainable management practices in infrastructure maintenance projects. This paper addresses these uncertainties, based on a single case study of an infrastructure maintenance contract involving an extensive collaborative business arrangement. The findings reveal that different collaborative practices affect diverse aspects of sustainable project management. Further, the extensive collaborative business arrangement has promoted sustainable deliveries based upon organizational learning and continuous improvements. Thus, this study offers an encouraging example of how extensive collaboration can be fostered and play a key role in sustainable project management practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: accident; construction project; causes; Bangladesh; RII based rank
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:29:17 CET)
Bangladeshi construction industry suffers a lot of safety and accidental issues than other developing countries in the world. Among many of these, accident of construction project goes far beyond and shape a horrific figure of death for every year. The aims of this study is that analysis and discussion of causes of accident at construction project in Bangladesh. A widespread statistical data collection and data analysis take place to identify the causes and design the questionnaire. The questionnaire-based survey was used to elicit the attitude of four stakeholders as workers, owners, consultants, and contractors towards passive causes of fatal accident at construction site. These study also identify 77 passive causes under 14 major groups and ranked them based on Relative Importance Index (RII). The top 5 major group of causes are (1) Management related, (2) Consultant related, (3) Technology related, (4) Labour related and (5) Contractor related. The top 5 passive causes are: (1) Unaware of safety-related issue, (2) Lack of personal protective equipment, (3) Lack of safety eliminating/ avoiding design, (4) Unfit equipment, (5) Lack of knowledge and training on equipment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0286.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: military installations project; risk factor; structural equation model
Online: 15 October 2018 (06:32:30 CEST)
Some of the recent large-scale national projects in South Korea are delayed or suspended due to belated responses to risk occurring on site. Currently, the Far East District (FED) project is being implemented to relocate the US Army bases from Yongsan to Pyeongtaek. Because of lack of experience and understanding about the characteristics of such a project, the deadline of taking over to the US Army Korea has been missed. This study identifies problems of each participant in the Yongsan Relocation Plan (YRP) of the US Army Korea with respect to construction project management and establishes a risk management strategy reflecting characteristics of FED project. To derive significant risk factors influencing YRP, various field data like weekly and monthly reports and other reports on construction condition are analyzed, and experts’ advices are collected and a survey is conducted. Mediators and latent variables are ultimately obtained. Furthermore, a structural equation model is used to both analyze and evaluate complex causal relations among many variables of YRP. The impact of risk factors on the schedule, quality and cost of the project is analyzed. In particular, the case of Site A is examined to see how the project is affected by those risk factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1527.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Project Management, Web Applications, Agile methodology, Housing Information System
Online: 25 July 2023 (13:14:13 CEST)
This paper presents the development of a housing information system application using the Agile development method. The rapid development of information technology has necessitated the use of systems in various fields for efficient administration and data processing. However, traditional soft- ware development approaches are time-consuming and may not meet user requirements. The Agile methodology, with its flexible and iterative approach, addresses these challenges by focusing on delivering a functional system quickly. In this study, credit scoring and background related to housing information systems are examined, along with an overview of related work in Agile software development methodologies. The methods used in developing the housing information system application are explained, including the Agile development process and the stages involved. The results show that the Agile development method effectively produces user-friendly and functional housing information system applications. The system provides a simple and intuitive interface that facilitates easy navigation and access to information. Overall, the Agile development method is a valuable approach for software development to meet evolving user needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: land actions; political will; cadastral project; land management; Benin
Online: 4 May 2023 (08:29:12 CEST)
Land registry is one of the instruments most mentioned by public actors in land management in Benin to solve land problems faced by the country. Its implementation and functioning depend not only on technical actions but also on political will. Through a methodology based on participant observation, semi-structured interviews, focus group, as well as on the theory of "change in public action" by P. Muller (2005), legal and institutional changes have been observed in the implementation of the cadastral project. It is a project whose political component is readable through government action and the legal reforms carried out. At the technical level, the land data collected are processed by computer systems that can facilitate the mass production of land titles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Covid-19 lockdown; sleep quality; parental education; SENDO project
Online: 10 March 2023 (13:36:42 CET)
Abstract: Introduction: Covid-19 lockdown has caused important changes in children's routines, especially in terms of nutrition, physical activity, screen time, social activity, and school time. Regarding these changes, recent studies show that Covid-19 lockdown was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression in children. The objective of this study was to assess changes in sleep quality in Spanish children during lockdown decreed by the Spanish government between March and June 2020. Methodology: We compared the BEAR score of 478 participants in the SENDO project at the periods before, during and after lockdown. We used hierarchical models with two levels of clustering to account for the intra-cluster correlation between siblings. Interaction of time with and a set of a priori selected variables was assessed by introducing the interaction term into the model and calculating the likelihood ratio test. Results: Mean scores in the BEAR questionnaire referred to the periods before, during, and after lockdown were 0.52 (sd 1.25), 1.43 (sd 1.99) and 1.07 (sd 1.55), respectively, showing a worsening of sleep quality as a result of confinement. Parental level of education was found to be an effect modifier (p for interaction=0.004). Children whose parents had higher education (university graduates or higher) showed a smaller worsening than those without. Conclusion: We found that the mean score in the BEAR questionnaire significantly worsened during lockdown and significantly improved after it. However, it did not reach the initial level. The mean score in the BEAR questionnaire referred to the period after lockdown was significantly higher than before.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: translation; project-based learning; self-regulation; teaching and learning
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:39:10 CET)
The Pandemic in 2019 forced a digital adaptation with direct consequences on all educational stakeholders. On behalf of teachers and trainers, while many regarded these changes with some scepticism, others embraced the opportunity to integrate technology into their teaching methods and as learning resources. As translation trainers, it is essential to follow and understand the translation market. Thus, the exponential changes that digital technology has brought to this sector over the years impose constant shifts in teaching and learning methods and resources. In fact, translators require vast competencies, amongst which is the flexibility to adapt. In translation training Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been established as an essential teaching and learning method, as it has proven to foster the development of competencies as it simulates the translator's work environment. Thus, the need to adapt new strategies reinforced PBL and its benefits. PBL, however, similar to a freelance translator, places the student in the centre of the learning process, where self-regulation becomes essential, as it is necessary to analyse the market/situation and be flexible enough to adapt to the context accordingly. As of 2018-2019, technical translation courses at ISCAP have implemented PBL as their main teaching and learning method. At the same time, a study on student self-regulation began. The purpose was to understand student perception on their own self-regulation competence and its development or lack thereof after one year of PBL. Results indicate that PBL is seen as a useful simulation of the translation labour market and that it does enhance many essential competences, amongst which is student self-regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0282.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Project management; geothermal; co-benefits; sustainable development; innovation, operationalization
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:08:41 CET)
Despite knowledge concerning stakeholders and the economic advantages of consultation, collaboration and innovation, analysis of the sustainability implications of the geothermal industry has tended to take a high-level or systemic overview of national performance. This study seeks to begin to fill this gap in the academic and grey literature, investigating the following research question: how do projects in the Icelandic geothermal energy sector create co-benefits with stakeholders and reflect the integration of sustainable energy development (SED)? The focus of its analysis is on identifying who are the stakeholders, what are the sustainability benefits co-created with stakeholders, and when in the project lifecycle do these occur. Based on eleven semi-structured interviews with project managers in Iceland’s geothermal industry, the study identifies a broad array of stakeholders in the sector, including national and municipal governments and public sector institutions, businesses, the public, employees and landowners. The sustainability co-benefits of Iceland’s geothermal power projects are broad and cut cross all six themes of SED and multiple phases of the project lifecycle. Although the sustainability benefits are very apparent, trade-offs are reported between the pursuit of an economically efficient energy system and nature conservation. This relates to unsustainable utilization of the resources and the environmental externalities of power production and consumption. Efforts to mitigate these effects are ongoing and the further pursuit of SED is likely in Iceland given its recognition within the nation’s new energy policy and to meet ambitious greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets in the government’s climate action plan. These are issues that are prominent in other nations seeking to decarbonize energy systems through increased utilization of geothermal resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0036.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: city marketing; sustainability; mega project; Nuevo Norte Madrid; research
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:40:52 CET)
Madrid Nuevo Norte (Madrid New North) is an urban redevelopment program applied in the city of Madrid in Spain. In relevance with this, the aim of this paper is twofold: firstly, the project examines if Nuevo Norte project is aligned with the principles of sustainability. Secondly, the paper investigates the impact of Nuevo Norte on the application of city marketing strategies in Madrid. For that purposes, questionnaires were distributed through Internet in 122 urban developers and planners located in the Spanish capital. The results indicated that overall, Nuevo Norte contributes in the sustainable development of Madrid; however, concerns were identified regarding the budget and the timeline of the project. In addition, NNMP provides significant opportunities to local authorities to implement sustainable city marketing strategies, aiming to improve the competitiveness and the quality of life in the city of Madrid. To this end, it seems that city marketing, through the construction of Mega projects, should sift to sustainability, ensuring a better life for local residents and communities in general. The research is expected to assist local authorities in Spain to harness the potential of mega projects, such as Nuevo Norte, in designing city marketing strategies and to promote Madrid in an international context as a city that gives emphasis in urban sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Construction project cost; influencing factors; Bayesian SEM; New Zealand
Online: 27 February 2019 (12:01:41 CET)
Construction projects are usually operating in a complex and dynamic environment in which the accumulation of many interrelated factors causes high uncertainty. Construction projects are complex and frequently involve substantial uncertainties including process complicatedness, intricate organization structure, dynamic environment, and financial strain. The study aims to categorize the influencing factors into three groups, namely construction project system, economic-market climate, and external environment. It attempts to adopt a novel analysis tool to examine the relationship between the project cost and multiple influencing factors by using Bayesian SEM. While the Bayesian SEM method has been receiving increasing attention in exploring the relationship between latent variables, construction studies still heavily rely on the covariance-based SEM approach. This study introduces several advantages of Bayesian SEM that make it more flexible and powerful than covariance-based SEM and provides the foundation of Bayesian SEM estimation and inference by illustrating this method in a project cost application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Construction project cost; influencing factors; Bayesian SEM; New Zealand
Online: 25 February 2019 (08:41:01 CET)
Construction projects are usually operating in a complex and dynamic environment in which the accumulation of many interrelated factors causes high uncertainty. Construction projects are complex and frequently involve substantial uncertainties including process complicatedness, intricate organization structure, dynamic environment, and financial strain. The study aims to categorize the influencing factors into three groups, namely construction project system, economic-market climate, and external environment. It attempts to adopt a novel analysis tool to examine the relationship between the project cost and multiple influencing factors by using Bayesian SEM. While the Bayesian SEM method has been receiving increasing attention in exploring the relationship between latent variables, construction studies still heavily rely on the covariance-based SEM approach. This study introduces several advantages of Bayesian SEM that make it more flexible and powerful than covariance-based SEM and provides the foundation of Bayesian SEM estimation and inference by illustrating this method in a project cost application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: bowel obstruction; perioperative care; care program; surgical rehabilitation; EUPEMEN project
Online: 29 April 2023 (03:46:32 CEST)
Mechanical bowel obstruction is a common symptom for admission to emergency services, diagnosed annually in more than 300,000 patients in the States, from whom 51% will undergo emergency laparotomy. This condition is associated with serious morbidity and mortality, but it also causes a high financial burden due to long hospital stay. The EUPEMEN project aims to incorporate the expertise and clinical experience of national clinical specialists into development of perioperative rehabilitation protocols. Providing special recommendations for all aspects of patient perioperative care and the participation of diverse specialists, the EUPEMEN protocol for bowel obstruction, as presented in the current paper, aims to provide faster postoperative recovery and reduce length of hospital stay, postoperative morbidity and mortality rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: stakeholder; engagement; project success; factors; criteria; governance; infrastructure; framework model
Online: 26 April 2023 (15:25:01 CEST)
Today, the world is undergoing a major investment cycle in infrastructure, which is vital for the development and prosperity of countries and society. Management deficiencies in infrastructure projects are well known and some of them concerns weak engagement of project stakeholders. Importance of stakeholder engagement as the key success factors for infrastructure projects is recognized. However, the literature gives very few answers how this process manifests in projects. Some scholars concluded that it is a complex and undertheorized management process which necessitates more empirical research. The research questions seek to identify how practitioners perceive the stakeholder engagement, who implements activities and processes related to engagement and in what way, which organizational aspects influence the process and how success is achieved in infrastructural projects. Interviews were conducted with eight experienced experts who participated in a whole series of (complex) infrastructure projects. The interviews examined all aspects of the engagement of stakeholders in detail, and a thematic analysis was carried out. Based on the analysis, success/failure factors related to the stakeholder engagement process were defined. As a result, a framework model for engaging stakeholders and achieving success in infrastructure projects is presented, which is based on three management levels and three levels of project success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Humble leadership; employee creativity; top management support; project management effectiveness
Online: 19 July 2021 (08:40:27 CEST)
This paper aims to explore the effect of humble leadership on project success by integrating the mediating role of employee creativity. Top management support moderates the direct relationship (humble leadership and project management effectiveness) and indirect relationships through employee creativity. Time-lagged data were obtained from 332 persons working in the matrix organization across the information technology. The results showed that humble leadership enhance project management effectiveness by mediating and moderating processes. This study provides a solution to an underlying research question that has gone unanswered in prior studies. What are the strategies proposed for humble leadership in fostering the effectiveness of the project?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0408.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: rural clean heating project; rural Gansu; sustainability; potential solutions; benchmarking
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:23:11 CEST)
Rural clean heating project (RCHP) in China aims to increase flexibility in the rural energy system, enhance the integration of renewable energy and distributed generation, and reduce environmental impact. While RCHP-enabling routes have been studied from a technical perspective, the economic, ecological, regulatory, and policy dimensions of RCHP are yet to be analysed in depth, especially in the underdeveloped areas in China. This paper discusses RCHP in rural Gansu in a multi-dimension approach. We firstly focus on the current issues and challenges of RCHP in rural Gansu. Then the RCHP-enabling areas are briefly zoned into six typical regions based on the resource distribution in Gansu Province, and a matching framework of RCHP is recommended. Then we focus on the economics and sustainability of RCHP-enabling technologies. Based on the medium-term assessment of RCHP in the demonstration provinces, various technical schemes and routes are analysed and compared so as to be adopted in rural Gansu. In addition to technical and economic effects of those schemes, the corresponding ecology, policy, finance, and market implications are also concerned. We briefly discuss how the national regulators incentivise the implementation of RCHP in rural Gansu. Major barriers to RCHP are identified as the sustainability of technology, economy, ecology, policy, finance, and market. Subsequently, some policy solutions to overcome these barriers are proposed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0368.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: proteoform; human genome project; proteomics; post-translational modification; human proteome
Online: 19 October 2020 (10:49:39 CEST)
Proteins are the primary effectors of function in biology, and thus complete knowledge of their structure and properties is fundamental to deciphering function in basic and translational research. The chemical diversity of proteins is expressed in their many proteoforms, which result from combinations of genetic polymorphisms, RNA splice variants and post-translational modifications. This knowledge is foundational for the biological complexes and networks that control biology, yet remains largely unknown. We propose here an ambitious initiative to define the human proteome; that is to generate a definitive reference set of the proteoforms produced from the genome. Several examples of the power and importance of proteoform-level knowledge in disease-based research are presented, along with a call for improved technologies in a two-pronged strategy to accomplish the Human Proteoform Project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: community pharmacy practice; dispensing quality; antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; Audit Project Odense
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:26:25 CEST)
Background. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control describes the community pharmacist as gatekeeper to the quality of antibiotic use. The pharmacist has the responsibility to guard safe and effective antibiotic use; however, little is known about how this is implemented in practice. Aims. To assess the feasibility of a method to audit the quality of antibiotic dispensing in community pharmacy practice and to explore antibiotic dispensing practices in Greece, Lithuania, Poland, and Spain. Methods. The Audit Project Odense methodology to audit antibiotic dispensing practice was adapted for use in community pharmacy practice. Community pharmacists registered antibiotic dispensing on a specifically developed registration chart and were asked to provide feedback on the registration method. Results. Altogether twenty pharmacists were recruited in four countries. They registered a total of 409 dispenses of oral antibiotics. Generally, pharmacists were positive about the feasibility of implementing the registration chart in practice. The frequency of checking for allergies, contraindications and interactions differed largely between the four countries. Pharmacists provided little advice to patients. The pharmacists rarely contacted prescribers. Conclusion. This tool seems to make it possible to get a useful picture of antibiotic dispensing patterns in community pharmacies. Dispensing practice does not seem to correspond with EU guidelines according to these preliminary results.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: software project managemnet; complexity factors; PMBOX; paradigms of complexity; knowledge areas
Online: 3 December 2019 (12:00:18 CET)
Software project complexity increases day by day because the software engineering products is being used in the solution of more technically difficult problem and the size of project continuous to grow. The increase complexity causes to high numbers of software project failures in term of time, cost and quality. The main question regarding to this problem is how to handle or cope with this complexity. There is no single way to handle this, software engineer uses different perspective to handle complexity without affecting the overall project performance. A management perspective recognizes that the success of complex project requires good project management. A technically perspective reveals new paradigms for software development i.e.; object oriented and formal methods etc. and software engineer also look for automation perspective in order to reduce the complexity issues. In this paper we will find out the main software project complexity factors by focusing on the management aspects of software project development and also the problems of managing complexity in software engineering products from these different perspectives. The paper is divided in three main sections; paradigms of software development, project management in term of time, cost and quality and third one is automated support that includes methods and tools used to manage the complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: bisphenol analogues; colloids; suspended particulate matter; environmental risk; water diversion project
Online: 6 August 2019 (04:09:58 CEST)
Because of the widespread use of bisphenol analogues (BPs) as the alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA), they have attracted considerable attention for health risk in aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and distribution of six BPs were researched in soluble phase (< 5 kDa), colloidal phase (5 kDa to 1 µm) and suspended particulate matter (SPM > 1 µm) in a water diversion project of Nanjing, China. Except for bisphenol Z, all BPs were detected in the two or three phases, the total concentrations of detected BPs were 161-613 ng/L, 5.19-77.2 ng/L and 47.5-353 ng/g for the soluble phase, colloidal phase and SPM, respectively. Among the detected compounds, BPA still the dominant BPs in the soluble and colloidal phases, followed by BPS, while BPAF was the major contaminant in SPM, followed by BPA. The mean contribution proportions of colloids were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than SPM, suggesting that colloids have an obvious impact on regulating BPs’ environmental behaviors. In terms of spatial distribution, although the water diversion project could reduce the pollution levels of BPs, which might further affect the ecological security of the Yangtze River.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0036.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: bisphenol analogues; colloids; suspended particulate matter; environmental risk; water diversion project
Online: 5 August 2019 (03:21:46 CEST)
Owing to the widespread use of bisphenol analogues (BPs) as bisphenol A (BPA) alternatives, they have been recognized to constitute a health risk for aquatic ecosystems. The occurrence and distribution of six BPs were investigated in the truly dissolved phase (< 5 kDa), colloidal phase (5 kDa to 1 µm) and suspended particulate matter (SPM > 1 µm) in a water diversion project of Nanjing, China. With the exception of bisphenol Z, all BPs were detected in at least two phases, the total concentrations of detected BPs were 161-613 ng/L, 5.19-77.2 ng/L and 47.5-353 ng/g for the truly dissolved phase, colloidal phase and SPM, respectively. Among the detected compounds, BPA still the dominant BPs in the truly dissolved phase and colloidal phase, followed by BPS, while BPAF was the major contaminant in SPM, followed by BPA. The mean contribution proportions of colloids were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than that of SPM, suggesting that colloids play an important role in regulating the environmental behaviors of BPs. In terms of spatial distribution, although the water diversion project could reduce the pollution levels of BPs, which might further affect the ecological security of the Yangtze River.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Self-Action Leadership (SAL), SAL model, SAL theory, nomological, existential growth, organizational (or corporate) citizen, SAR project, SAL project, step-habit, Self-Declaration of Independence, Self-Constitution
Online: 23 July 2016 (10:26:10 CEST)
In 2015, the Self-Action Leadership Theory—a qualitative, nomological expansion of self-leadership theory rooted in atmospheric and astronomical metaphor aimed at expanding the personal freedom of individuals, organizations, and nations by bolstering the existential growth of individuals through a series of Maslow-esque stages of holistic, personal development. This article introduces an accompanying, practitioner-based Model of Self-Action Leadership (SAL) aimed at the implicit enhancement of a holistic range of administrative processes through explicit training, mentoring, and coaching in the model’s general and universally-applicable principles and practices. The SAL model produces an original construct of personal leadership practice that builds upon the extant self-leadership academic canon, which dates back to 1983 (Manz, 1983). It also provides an analogue to four of the five core processes of Project Management by positioning a self-action leader (an individual) as the ongoing “project” at hand. The SAL Model is rooted in action research and was developed through a variety of self-oriented, action research projects in conjunction with a comprehensive, qualitative, analytical autoethnographic study of a scholar’s life experiences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1828.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Firestorm project; fire-atmosphere interaction; surface weather stations; nighttime vertical varia-bility
Online: 26 May 2023 (03:38:30 CEST)
In the framework of the FireStorm project, four portable weather stations were installed in the Lousã/Estrela mountain range. Given that the Portuguese Institute for Sea and Atmosphere’s sur-face network has two weather stations installed in this region, the new data allows an improved monitoring of the vertical variability of near-surface variables in this mountainous region. As most of the wildfires in mainland Portugal affect areas with complex terrain with elevations below 1200 m and major fires continue to burn overnight, it is also relevant to monitor the vertical changes of meteorological variables in the nighttime period, as these may exhibit large variability. This study provides the first assessment of the available data, with focus on the summer seasons of 2021 and 2022. The results highlight the large variability that was observed in the region and suggest that the risk of extreme fire behaviour in the nighttime period may be underestimated.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart city; demonstration project; multi-criteria evaluation; Delphi method; analytic hierarchy process
Online: 22 December 2021 (10:39:57 CET)
Some researchers in Taiwan argue that the current mechanism by which government subsidies are allocated for smart city demonstration projects warrants improvement. A comprehensive literature review determined that the development potential of smart cities should be prioritized in site selection for such demonstration projects. This study developed an evaluation framework on the basis of multi-criteria evaluation methods to enable the identification of suitable smart community demonstration sites. Evaluation criteria were first identified through the Delphi method. Next, the weights of each criterion were derived through the analytic hierarchy process. Furthermore, the capability of the proposed evaluation model was determined through simulation testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0080.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: intelligent city; smart city; ecosystem; city planning; urban project; city smartness; innovation
Online: 3 August 2021 (13:12:25 CEST)
Intelligent cities or smart cities evolve bottom-up along with the digitisation and the creation of digital entities linked to human activities, physical space, and institutional settings of cities; but also, they progress top-down through smart city strategies and projects designed and implemented by public authorities. Yet, thirty-five years since the first use of the term “smart city” or “intelligent city” in the second half of the 1980s, and more than ten years of intense publications in this field, since 2009, there is still a great deal of fuzziness about the projects that make cities intelligent or smart. There is low awareness about the big differences between large, complex urban projects, such as ‘Zero Energy Districts’ or “Mobility-as-a-Service” and projects for automation of city infrastructures, such as smart city lighting, smart metering or finding a parking place. There is a widespread misconception that city intelligence or smartness, the core attribute of smart cities, can be achieved through automation of the city infrastructure. This paper focuses on projects that make cities intelligent or smart. Our intention is to show the complexity and effort needed to achieve this objective. It is an inquiry on projects and data from a large number of smart cities around the world. We analyse core properties of smart city projects, such as (a) interventions on the physical, social, and digital space of cities, (b) the relation to city sectors and ecosystems, (c) engagement of users and stakeholders in decision-making, and (c) impact through optimisation and innovation of city processes and routines. We discuss also projects we have designed and implemented in the framework of URENIO Research and ITI-CERTH. Our conclusions are two-fold. First, we propose a typology of smart city projects along 3 axes and 9 properties. Second, we argue that success and failure to achieve city smartness are mainly institutional. Most barriers to implementation are organisational, legal, and institutional. This can be explained by the social and institutional inertia of the urban system against new solutions, especially when innovation and radical change of existing routines take place. Change management should be a permanent companion of smart city projects implementation, and the modification of routines should be clearly defined and considered already at the design phase of projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0523.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: game-based learning; game design; project-based teaching; informatics and society, cybersecurity
Online: 26 July 2018 (16:38:48 CEST)
This article discusses the use of game design as a method for interdisciplinary project-based teaching in secondary school education to convey informatics and society topics. There is a lot of knowledge about learning games but little background on project-based teaching using game design as a method. We present the results of an analysis of student-created games and an evaluation of a student-authored database on learning contents found in commercial off-the-shelf games. We further contextualise these findings using a group discussion with teachers. Results underline the effectiveness of project-based teaching to raise awareness for informatics and society topics. We further outline informatics and society topics that are particularly interesting to students, genre preferences and potentially engaging game mechanics stemming from our analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0461.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: competencies; institutional capacities; project management; sustainable rural development; value chain sustainability; WWP; Jauja
Online: 9 October 2023 (07:39:44 CEST)
A The guinea pig value chain in Jauja, Peru, has been developed through the application of productive projects, institutional strengthening and implementation of the principles of responsible investment in agriculture and food systems (CFS-RAI). The actors in this chain have been showing economic improvements, representativeness and participation, characteristics that make them the key human capital for development. To improve the performance of the actors in the sustainable rural development of the territory of Jauja, Peru, the research carried out an evaluation of the competencies and capacities for project management in 46 actors linked to the business programme on the CFS-RAI Principles, representing 1,094 people in the guinea pig value chain in Jauja, using the Working With People (WWP) model and empirical instruments based on the Octagon method, International Project Management Association (IPMA) competencies, performance evaluation carried out by experts, attitudinal evaluation and the Business Model Canvas. The results have helped to structure the actors of the value chain, who show an intermediate mastery of project management competencies (2.73/5), institutional capacities in development (2.89/7) and a growing organizational management performance (26.2/100). In addition, trust and proactivity have been generated among the actors in the chain, with an interest in continuing with the implementation of the CFS-RAI Principles in order to achieve sustainability in their productive projects with commercial innovation. The results have allowed us to generate the design of an innovative programme for the development of competencies, which balances the three dimensions of IPMA competencies (perspective, person and practice) in connection with the CFS-RAI Principles. Both processes complement the strengthening of human capital in agrifood value chains through sustainable project management and contributing to sustainable development in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Ecological modernization; Climate crisis; Shrimp aquaculture; Coastal embankment project; Space for feasible action
Online: 30 May 2023 (09:35:42 CEST)
Climate change, one of the severest environmental threats to humankind, disproportionately affects low-income developing countries in the global South. Having no feasible mitigation alternatives, these countries resort to adaptation efforts in addressing the climate perturbations. Climate change adaptation (or resilience) is primarily a localized course of action that depends on individuals, social networks, economies, ecologies, political structures, and the capabilities of all those to work collectively to absorb, learn from and transform in the face of new realities. With a view to controlling the floods that shattered the life and economy of the then East Pakistan, which is Bangladesh now, during the mid-twentieth century, the coastal embankment project (CEP) was instituted as an adaptation strategy to natural disasters in southwestern Bangladesh. Based on the qualitative analysis of primary and secondary data, this paper seeks to critically evaluate the efficacy of the CEP in terms of the space for feasible action and ecological modernization. The findings of this research indicate that the CEP has become an unrealistic venture that hinders the growing economic activity of shrimp aquaculture in the area. This paper is expected to contribute to generate further theoretical and empirical discourse on evaluating similar development projects around the globe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0070.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: high speed rail project; enterprise; infrastructure; socio-economic; spatial impacts; urban development; policy
Online: 3 August 2021 (10:56:39 CEST)
Growth benefits of high speed rail (HSR) for enterprises are not automatic, but require a buoyant local economy and a robust strategy. Against above background, main objectives of ex-ante case study have been to investigate local socio-economic and spatial impacts of proposed HSR project around Ahmedabad station area on Mumbai-Ahmedabad HSR corridor, analyze the opportunities and challenges of HSR development and draw policy implications. Qualitative research methodology has been used to elicit the perceptions and perspectives of randomly selected 43 small, medium and large enterprises. Data has been analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study reveals that HSR induced greater human interaction will activate local economy, improve business efficiency and generate employment. Frequent travels on business trips can influence enterprises decision to settle near HSR station for easy access and likely to promote realty development. The proposed HSR project should be developed in synergy with urban dynamics of cities in transition and metropolitan service cities. Poor public transport connectivity is likely to be a major challenge in improving HSR accessibility and enhancing overall impacts of HSR, which can be improved by developing an integrated urban transport system, for which cooperation of all stakeholders and coherence with firms’ strategies is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0730.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Prospective analysis; strategic actors; scenarios; objectives; policies; phosphate extraction; mining project; rural communities
Online: 28 April 2021 (07:47:34 CEST)
Followed by the aspect of respect for rights 20, the social and environmental issue has a score of 19.9, the dialogue issue is 19. In short, the proximity plan indicates that the policies used regarding the issue of generating employment and economic growth (Empresa Mantaro Perú SAC), continue to be the strategic variables in the first instance, but they are far from the social actors (rural communities of Aco, Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín environmental dialogue table) and Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are currently closer together. The actor from the Archbishop of Huancayo referred to communication is one of the driving variables of power. The proximity plan shows us that the policies used regarding the issue of generating employment and economic growth (Empresa Mantaro Perú SAC), continue to be the strategic variables in the first instance, but that they are far from the social actors (Rural Communities of Aco , Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín Environmental Dialogue Table) and Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are currently closer together. The actor from the Archbishop of Huancayo referred to communication is one of the driving variables of power. The proximity plan shows us that the policies used regarding the issue of generating employment and economic growth (Empresa Mantaro Perú SAC), continue to be the strategic variables in the first instance, but that they are far from the social actors (Rural Communities of Aco , Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín Environmental Dialogue Table) and Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are currently closer together. The actor from the Archbishop of Huancayo referred to communication is one of the driving variables of power. but they are far from the social actors (rural communities of Aco, Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín Environmental Dialogue Table) and the Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are closer together today. The actor from the Archbishopric of Huancayo referred to communication, is within the driving variables of power. but they are far from the social actors (rural communities of Aco, Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín Environmental Dialogue Table) and the Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are currently closer together. The actor of the Archbishopric of Huancayo referred to communication, is within the driving variables of power.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0383.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; construction project; risk management; use of technology; recovery and resilience
Online: 14 April 2021 (14:12:17 CEST)
The global coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has created a whole new set of risks in construction industries generating unprecedented delays, disruptions, and uncertainty on construction projects, and has forced the industries in adopting more sophisticated technologies while combating the reduced workforce on job sites. Further, the post-pandemic era of construction is expected to be a lot different as the industries will embrace the technology as the augmentation and collaboration strategy. Thus, it will be extremely hard to sustain for construction industries in the absence of effective risk management. The existing risk plans need to be inspected for their capability of handling new risks arising from COVID-19 and the project managers will need to make the necessary revisions as needed. This paper discusses on past (NORM), present (NEW NORM), and future (Post COVID-19 NORM) of the construction industry and highlights key strategies for managing projects and construction risks during and post COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: undersea project; measuring the two pipelines; rotating shaft; magnetic coupling; assisted rope winch
Online: 11 February 2020 (11:40:30 CET)
In order to solve the problem of measuring the distance and position between the flanges of two pipelines on the seabed, a measuring device for pulling rope in seawater was designed. Aiming at the sealing problem of the key equipment that is the rotating shaft of the rope winch, this paper used the principle of the magnetic coupling to transfer the driving moment, and adopted the method of converting the dynamic seal into the static seal structure to realize the reliable sealing of the motor. Through the experiment of measuring two pipelines with underwater rope pulling device, it was verified that the measuring accuracy of the device meets the design requirements, and the feasibility of the application of magnetic coupling technology in winch is also verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0003.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: project management; sustainable development; projects; competences; sustained success; sustainability; research university; sustainable university
Online: 1 April 2018 (12:45:02 CEST)
The paradigm that assumes the autonomous management of universities involves them in the redefinition of their policies and processes and the training of their staff, designing new formulas that allow them to adapt to a changing environment. In this context, research and sustainable universities can link with society to solve its problems and influence a responsible and sustainable development. Through a Delphi panel, importance to acquire and improve project management (PM) competences by teaching and research staff (TRS) into innovating education and research projects is measured, from the standard of individual competences (ICB4) of the International Project Management Association (IPMA). Also, internal data sources from the flexible structures of two Spanish universities (the University of Cadiz (UCA) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM)), are investigated, in order to analyze how they are organized. Thanks to the study of cases, an increasing tendency to work by projects is observed, empowering teams, managing properly stakeholders and facilitating their functions towards society. Likewise, after two rounds of experts’ consultation, consensus is reached with an acceptable and stable level of responses, resulting in confirmation that there is alignment between IPMA competences and TRS’ needs for sustained success in education and research, contributing to universities’ development, improvement and sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0185.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: WiMAX IEEE 802.16e; National Broadband Project; rural area connectivity; Connectivity challenges in developing countries
Online: 18 October 2021 (12:55:20 CEST)
Amongst the advantages of using Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX) technology at the last-mile level as access technology include an extensive range of 50 km Line of Sight (LOS), 5 to 15 km Non-Line of Sight and few infrastructure installations compared to other wireless broadband access technologies. Despite positive investments in ICT fibre infrastructure by developing countries, including Botswana, servicing end-users is subjected to high prices and service disparities. The alternative, the Wi-Fi hotspot initiative by the Botswana government, falls short as a solution for last-mile connectivity and access. This study used OPNET simulation Modeller 14,5 to investigate whether Botswana’s national broadband project could adopt WiMAX IEEE 802.16e as an access technology. Therefore, using the simulation method, this paper evaluates the WiMAX IEEE 802.16e/m over three subscriber locations in Botswana. The results obtained indicate that the deployment of the WiMAX IEEE 802.16e standard can solve most of the deployment issues and access at the last-mile level. Although the findings suggest that WiMAX IEEE 802.16e is more suitable for high-density areas, it could also solve rural areas’ infrastructure development challenges and provide the required high-speed connectivity access. However, unlike the Wi-Fi initiative, which requires more infrastructure deployment and less on institutional and regulatory frameworks, the deployment of WiMAX IEEE802.16e requires institutional and regulatory standards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0327.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainability; education for sustainable development; sustainability surveys; sustainability map; sustainability presence map; EDINSOST project
Online: 27 November 2019 (04:19:46 CET)
This paper presents a methodology to evaluate (1) to what extent students of a higher degree in the field of education acquire sustainability competencies, and (2) to determine whether the subjects that develop the ESD achieve their learning objectives. The methodology is applied to a case study. The instruments used are the sustainability survey and the sustainability presence map developed by the EDINSOST project. The survey consists of 18 questions, and has been answered by 104 first-year students and 86 fourth-year students belonging to the Bachelor Degree in Primary Education Teaching at the University of Sevilla. The Mann-Whitney U test has been used to compare the results of the two groups, and Cohen's D has been used to measure the effect size. Students only obtain significant improvements, with 95% confidence, in three questions (Q4, Q5 and Q6), all concerning critical thinking and creativity. An improvement is also detected in question Q11, with a confidence of 90%. However, no subject in the curriculum develops the learning outcomes concerning questions Q4, Q5 and Q6, and only one subject develops the learning outcomes regarding question Q11. On the other hand, up to five subjects declare development of the learning outcomes regarding questions in which there is no improvement in student learning. These results suggest that the subjects are failing to reach their ESD learning objectives, and that the students are either trained in sustainability outside the university or the subject learning guides do not reflect the work done by the students throughout their studies
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0092.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; warming levels; river runoff; extremes; emission pathway; LISFLOOD; Europe; PESETA project; climate adaptation
Online: 16 January 2020 (02:56:30 CET)
The outcomes of the 2015 Paris Agreement triggered a number of climate impact assessments, such as for floods and droughts, to focus on future time frames corresponding to the years of reaching specific levels of global warming. Yet, the links between the timing of the warming levels and the corresponding greenhouse gas concentration pathways to reach them, remain poorly understood. To address this gap, we compare projected changes of annual mean, extreme high and extreme low river discharges in Europe at 1.5°C and 2°C under scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 from an ensemble of Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations. The statistical significance of the difference between the two scenarios for both warming levels is then evaluated. Results show that in the majority of Europe (>95% of the surface area for the annual mean discharge, >98% for high and low extremes), the changes projected in the two pathways are statistically indistinguishable. These results suggest that in studies of changes at specific warming levels the projections of the two pathways can be merged into a single ensemble without major loss of information. With regard to the uncertainty of the unified ensemble, findings show that the projected changes of annual mean, extreme high and extreme low river discharge are statistically significant in large portions of Europe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy process; AHP; fuzzy; project management; risk prioritization; critical success factors; ETL; MCDM; TOPSIS
Online: 5 December 2019 (11:30:08 CET)
Today project management in every field of life is prerequisite for the success of project by increasing quality reduces cost and schedule. But selecting tools and techniques to achieve our objectives and implement our plan fully is very difficult task because choice creates complexity. So, we discuss AHP to make decision simple. Ranking critical success factor, cloud computing services, risk prioritization, selection of right ETL software and many other systems AHP plays its important role. For the improvement of today’s complex systems it is very important to prioritize and select projects to remove the root cause of the problem. To attain the right selection of construction equipment for carrying out schedule tasks with high efficiency, production and financial capability is the main purpose of procurement of construction equipment process. Certain conflicts can occur due to the construction of UML models in a collaborative way. AHP is used to remove these conflicts and for establishing and evaluating modelers judgments. Nowadays it is very important and critical decision to choose the best option from multiple alternatives for a successful career after passing 12th standard and also it affects our future. “AHP and TOPSIS” methods are used for this purpose. In this paper, an “AHP and Fuzzy AHP” based hierarchical trust model has been used to rate the service providers and their various plans for infrastructure as a service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0010.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Project Based Learning; Scientific education; Preservice primary teacher; Emotions; Active Methodologies; Higher Education for Sustainable Development
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:13:23 CET)
The emotional dimension in education has become increasingly important in recent decades. Enhancing the emotional dimension of prospective teachers in science subjects is higher education stuff responsibility. The implementation of active methodologies could modify the traditional student-teacher roles that are encouraged by the educational policies implemented in the Bologna Process. The principal aim of this work is to describe a Project Based Learning methodology and to introduce it as potential resource for the emotional and cognitive improvement of 19 prospective primary teachers enrolled in a scientific subject. This is a qualitative study with a transversal sustainability approach in the context of a research line focused on Higher Education for Sustainable Development. A questionnaire was designed and filled by the students at two different times, before and after implementation of the activity. The initial feedback from students was surprisingly enthusiastic by the fact that they were working with rockets, despite of this is not a common emotion in the science field. The results show the emotional improvement of prospective teachers after the implementation. It is concluded that a correct science education is necessary during the training of teachers taking into account their emotional dimension and the social repercussion due to the future transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: depopulation; inland areas; rural areas; seismic risk; hydraulic risk; hydrogeological risk; risk mitigation; risk measures; RI.P.R.O.VA.RE. project
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:50:47 CEST)
The abandonment of inland areas has become a major demographical challenge, establishing a condition of local fragility in terms of spatial marginalization. To deal with this issue, a number of policy actions have been released over the time, namely the National Strategy for Inland Areas, established in Italy a decade ago, and more recently the Next Generation EU (NGEU) to foster local economic recovery and employment. In this context, RI.P.R.O.VA.RE., a project funded by the former Italian Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea (MATTM), aimed at strengthening the resilience characteristics of communities and territories, focusing on areas falling in the Matese and Ufita in Campania Region and the Medio Agri in Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). Besides the ability to respond to different pressure factors (demographics, economic, geophysical, etc.), the project dealt with seismic, hydraulic and landslide risk conditions in the Matese area, proposing mitigation measures. After presenting the developed methodology, the results obtained for the study area are presented and discussed. The procedure can be applied as supporting tool to enhance the regeneration of inland areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0395.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Innovation; Up-scaling; NBS Nature-based solutions (NBS); Hydrometeorological hazards; PHUSICOS project; Flooding; Landslides; Avalanches; Rockfall; Europe
Online: 16 December 2020 (08:33:57 CET)
Impact in the form of innovation and commercialisation is an essential component of publicly funded research projects. PHUSICOS, an H2020 Innovation Action project, aims at demonstrating the use of nature-based solutions for mitigating hydrometeorological hazards in rural and mountainous areas. The work program is built around key innovation actions, and each WP leader specifically responsible for nurturing innovation processes, maintaining market focus and ensuring relevance for the intended recipients of the project results. Key success criteria for PHUSICOS include up-scaling and mainstreaming of NBS to reach broader market access. An innovation strategy and supporting tools for implementing this within PHUSICS has been developed and key concepts forming the basis for this strategy are presented in this research note.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0158.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: U-Net; Carbon Storage; Above-Ground Biomass; Remote Sensing; Deep Learning; CNN; Sentinel-2; ESA CCI Biomass Project
Online: 15 February 2023 (01:56:34 CET)
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has recently established the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) program that requires countries to report their carbon emissions and sink estimates through national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGI). Thus, developing automatic systems capable of estimating the carbon absorbed by forests without in-situ observation becomes essential. To support this important need, in this work we introduce ReUse, a simple but effective deep-learning approach to estimate the carbon absorbed by forest areas based on remote sensing. The novelty of the proposed method is in the use of the public above-ground biomass (AGB) data from the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Biomass project as ground truth to estimate the carbon sequestration capacity of any portion of land on Earth using Sentinel-2 images and a pixel-wise Regressive UNet. The approach has been compared to two literature proposals, using a private dataset and human-engineered features. The results show a greater generalization ability of the proposed approach, with a decrease in Mean Absolute Error and Root Mean Squared Error, respectively, of 16.9 and 14.3 in the area of Vietnam and 4.7 and 5.1 in the area of Myanmar over the runner-up. Finally, as a case study, we reported an analysis made for the Astroni area, a nature reserve located near the metropolitan area of Naples in southern Italy, struck by a large fire, producing predictions consistent with values found by experts in the field. These results further support the use of such an approach for the early detection of AGB variations, both in urban and rural areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: information technology; construction project management; cost management; impact factor model; progressive technology; construction industry, life cycle cost management.
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:12:55 CET)
Construction project management and cost management is a difficult process that affects the overall success of construction projects. The success of a construction project can be assessed according to key performance indicators (KPIs). Cost savings and cost optimization over the life of a construction project is one of these KPIs. Cost management is largely performed through intelligent information technology in the construction industry. Information systems and information technologies have seen an increase in use in the management of construction projects. The same goes for cost management. Several studies mentioned in the paper point to this increase in use in recent years also in the management of costs at various stages. Many studies point to the use of information technology and software applications in the field of cost management. Still, to a large extent, there are no surveys focused on the analysis of the impact and impact factor of information technology on cost savings or cost optimization in various phases of construction projects. The research discusses the issue of the impact of information technology on cost management in various phases of a construction project. The main goal of the research is to analyze the influence of information technology factors on cost savings and optimization in individual phases of a construction project. Several statistical methods were used in the research. The resulting model of information technology impact factor was created based on data processing and the use of the AHP method.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0061.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: scope creep; software engineering; software project management; work breakdown structure; agile method; traditional methodology; functional point analysis; stakeholders
Online: 5 December 2019 (04:20:06 CET)
Scope, time, and cost permanently effects each other and most of Information Technology projects fails due to these three factors. Scope shifting mostly occur due to time and cost. At project start, lack of understanding of project and product scope is focal involvement that leads to unsuccessful projects. Complete software scope definition determines quality of project. Defining the customer requirement and the definite scope of project has key role for implementation of project management. The complications originates when systems are developed from impractical expectations and misunderstanding requirements. These problems are cause of many changes, occurs in system development and leads to poor scope management. Scope creep is one of the momentous prompting parameter on the success of project. The failure in manage scope creep leads for 80 percent of software projects failure. However, using agile approach the impact of scope creep on projects become insignificant. A correctly distinct scope tends us to develop a quality product, within identified plans and decided cost to the stake-holders.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0043.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: climate change; climatic water balance; irrigation; natural snow cover; the DAS indicator project; Saxony-Anhalt; soil moisture content
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:30:40 CET)
Implementation of the German Climate change Strategy in the Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt is discussed in this paper. It shares the requirement and importance of sustainable development. An overview of strategy, The DAS Indicator System is provided with results of a portion of work being done for the ministry of agriculture by Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). Applicability of the indicator system is also shown by evaluation of results for specific indicators from 1961-2015.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1497.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Research project production; Research Publication; Academic-staffs’ research culture; Conference paper presentation; Ethiopian Universities, Research fund; Sustainable holistic development
Online: 23 November 2023 (10:29:25 CET)
The study was aimed at examining the status of research productivity and exploring the factors behind the identified status in Ethiopian universities from SDT and RBVT perspectives. In phase I, a null hypothesis was tested using a one-sample t-test at 0.05 alphas while in phase II one RQ was solved using qualitative analysis. The sample involved 531 academics, of whom 13 were interviewed. The mixed-methods research approach and explanatory sequential design guided this research. The status of research project production, indexed publication, and conference presentation performances in Ethiopian universities demonstrated statistically significant mean differences below the institutional, national, and world average cut-off points (performing at least one research project, one indexed journal, and one conference paper presentation per year per academic staff). Furthermore, we explored scarcity of funds, low research capacity, weak research culture, lack of productive institutional leadership, and political instability in the country as major causes of the low research productivity status. The researchers felt that the study would contribute to both promoting academic staff's research productivity and enriching the higher education research literature. MOE, university presidents, and deans should intervene in causes to improve academics’ research productivity status towards the desired local and global standards.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: spiritual intelligence; leadership; Bible; project management; supply chain; workplace spirituality; theology of work; construction; neuroscience; cognitive psychology; psychoanalysis; neurology
Online: 3 August 2021 (09:36:11 CEST)
Spiritual intelligence had an impact on different biblical leaders, and in this text, we see some cases to serve as a sample (Joseph, Bezalel, and Daniel). In the Bible, this impact is demonstrated in innovations introduced by Joseph in Egypt, Bezalel the manager of the macro project of building in crisis time, Daniel the politician. It is the supreme intelligence and leaders are invited to make a shift from rationality to spirituality. The more leaders of organizations will use spiritual intelligence, the more leaders and followers will experience satisfaction, joy, accomplishment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0695.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water resource management; solar-water; solar-water supply system; SWSS; decision support; solar pumping; climate change; royal initiative project
Online: 29 July 2020 (11:40:50 CEST)
This article presents a field-performance investigation on an Integrated Solar Water Supply System (SWSS) at two isolated agricultural areas in Thailand. The two case-study villages (Pongluek and Bangkloy ) have experienced severe draughts in the last decades, and therefore water supply has become a major issue. A stand-alone 15.36 kW solar power and a 15 kW solar submersible pump were installed along with the input power generated by solar panels supported by four solar trackers. The aim is to lift water at the static head of 64 and 48 m via piping length of 400 metres for each village to be stored in 1,000 m3 and 1,800 m3 reservoirs at an average of 300 m3 and 400 m3 per day, respectively for Pongluek and Bangkloy villages. The case study results have shown that the real costs of electricity generated by SWSS using solar PV systems intergraded with the solar tracking system yield better performance and are more advantageous compared with the non-tracking system. This study illustrates how system integration has been employed. System design and commercially available simulation predictions are elaborated. Construction, installation, and field tests for SWSS are discussed and highlighted. Performances of the SWSS in different weather conditions such as sunny, cloudy, and rainy days were analysed to make valuable suggestions for higher efficiency of the integrated solar water supply systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable competencies; holistic competency; teacher training; project-oriented learning; cross-disciplinary workshop on sustainable food; sustainable food; higher education
Online: 1 September 2018 (13:37:48 CEST)
Since the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) came into effect, both UNESCO and other international organisations recommend empowering youth to implement the SDGs in universities. Getting started with the SDGs at university level is of special relevance in pre-service teacher training since future teachers are powerful agents of change in the lives of young people. Future teachers need to acquire competencies in sustainability to be able to promote meaningful changes in sustainable behaviour. To that end, holistic approaches to facilitate their acquirement need to be developed. The aim of this study is to explore which teaching methodologies are suitable for the development of competencies in sustainability in Higher Education (HE) and how to empower students to take a leading role in implementing the SDGs in universities. The participants in the study are a group of 23 students in pre-service teacher training. The experimental educational model used for the development of sustainable competencies consists of a methodological sequence of Project-Oriented Learning (POL) and a Cross-disciplinary Workshop on Sustainable Food. This study provides evidence that a holistic approach is appropriate for developing sustainable competencies and contributes to empowering students to implement SDG 12 at their university.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1992.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: university business collaboration; critical thinking; curriculum co-design, development and delivery; employability; research project; labour market; higher education; soft skills
Online: 30 August 2023 (04:07:19 CEST)
University-Business partnership for collaborative curriculum design, development and delivery is possibly the less explored dimension of University Business Collaboration (UBC). Even if some models for curricular design and development might be available, scarce information exists on how the partnership is constructed, the new curricula are designed, developed and how they are implemented. This article intends to present and discuss the experience obtained during a three-year European funded Project, namely Think4Jobs. This project exemplifies the significance and benefits of UBC in the design, development and delivery of curricula that meet the evolving demands of the labour market while promoting Critical Thinking (CT) as a foundational 21st century skill to contribute to graduates' employability. Think4Jobs project brought together a multidisciplinary team of researchers and business organisations from five European countries (Germany, Greece, Lithuania, Portugal and Romania) with interests in promoting and developing CT and mitigating eventual competence gaps. The project's success was attributed to key practices, including defining a common conceptualization of CT, employing participatory co-design, and providing common training for university and business partners. Clear objectives, explicit roles, effective communication, and ongoing evaluation further enhanced the collaboration. Experiential learning, real-work problems, and case studies reinforced the curricula, bridging the gap between academia and the labour market. By embracing these insights, future UBC initiatives can empower graduates with the necessary skills to stand out in an ever-changing labour market, contributing to enhanced education and successful careers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1688.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Grain for green project; Livelihood assets; Livelihood diversity; Well-being of farm households; the mountainous areas of northern Hebei Province
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:28:57 CEST)
There are close dynamic relationships among the livelihood, well-being, and ecological environment of farm households. It is of great significance to scientifically clarify the impact of the grain for green policy on the livelihoods and well-being of farm households in mountainous areas. Based on data from a survey of 392 farm households in Zhangbei County, a system of indicators for farm household livelihood assets and farm household well-being was constructed, drawing on a sustainable livelihood framework (SLF). The livelihood assets and well-being levels of different types of farm households were measured, and a multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the impact of the grain for green policy implementation on the well-being levels of farm households. The three main results are as follows: (1) The level of natural assets among the total average livelihood assets of farm households in Zhangbei County is the highest at 0.374, while the level of physical assets is the lowest at 0.018. The level of livelihood assets of returned farmland households (0.948) is lower than that of nonreturned farmland households (1.117). (2) The level of well-being of all farm households in Zhangbei County is 0.517, with the level of wealth contributing the most to the well-being of farm households at 40.20% and the quality of the ecological environment contributing the least at 11.99%. The level of well-being of returned farmland households (0.518) was slightly higher than that of nonreturned farmland households (0.514). (3) The degree of influence of each influence factor on the level of well-being of farm households varies significantly. Household size was the strongest driver, at 0.366, while educational attainment of household members, household labor capacity, annual household expenditure, livelihood diversity, number of large production tools, and total value of livestock were also important drivers of household well-being, and area of arable land is negatively associated with household well-being. There are also differences in the factors influencing the level of well-being of different types of farming households.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Active case findings; Tuberculosis; TOUCH Agent; High TB burden area; TB Surveillance; 4S Screening; THALI Project; SORT IT; Operational Research
Online: 11 September 2019 (13:30:30 CEST)
Background: Active case finding for TB was implemented in selected sixty high TB burden wards of Kolkata, India. Community volunteers called TOUCH agents (TAs) identified and referred presumptive TB patients (PTBPs) to health facilities for TB diagnosis and treatment. We aimed to describe the ‘care cascade’ of PTBPs identified during July to December, 2018 and to explore the reasons for attrition as perceived by TAs and PTBPs. Methods: An explanatory mixed methods study with quantitative phase of cohort study using routinely collected data followed by descriptive qualitative study with in-depth interviews was conducted. Results: Of the 3, 86,242 individuals enumerated, 1132 (0.3%) PTBPs were identified. Only 713 (63.0%) PTBPs visited referred facility for TB diagnosis. TB was diagnosed in 177 (24.8%) and the number needed to screen for one TB was 2,183 individuals. The potential reasons for low yield were stigma and apprehension about TB, distrust about TA, wage loss for attending health facilities and substance abuse among PTBPs. Conclusion: The yield of ACF was suboptimal with low PTBP identification rate and high attrition rate. Interviewing each individual for symptoms of TB and supporting PTBPs for diagnosis through sputum collection and transport can be adopted to improve the yield.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0085.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: incompleteness; sustainability; legal services regulations; climate change; renewable energy; environmental impact assessment; advanced project management services (APMS)
Online: 4 December 2023 (02:16:23 CET)
The inherited ‘EIA’ process at Brexit is based on a ‘Project’ period from Inception tothe start of construction works. The ‘Incompleteness’ of the process covers andidentifies stages that will impact on the environmental cycle: construction period,operational life, de-commissioning and a return to acceptable environmental footprint.A master environment structure-plan framework is required to commence with theupgrading of the complete ‘EIA’ process, embracing separate limbs for the UK’spriority environmental targets for climate change, and other major adverse effectswhich result in serious ‘harm’ to the UK environment. The identification of the processfor ‘incompleteness’ requires effective sustainability, and inclusion of effectivemanagement tools, for the essential ‘monitoring/control/recording’ proceduresthroughout the project life and the natural environmental cycle. This will allow theopportunity for a new approach to a structured ‘Suite of EIAR Directives’, to enable a‘EIAR’ regime that ‘will remain fit and proper for UK purpose’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: D number, Analytical Network Process (ANP), MABAC, Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM), Consistent fuzzy preference relation (CFPR), Construction project risk, Risk Management
Online: 24 November 2017 (16:46:59 CET)
Multi-stakeholder based construction projects are subject to various risk factors due to dynamic business environments. These risks affect project activities which indirectly impact construction costs, resulting in delays and poor building quality. So, managing these project risks requires suitable risk mitigation strategies to evaluate and analyse their severity. Hence, risk evaluation and assessment of construction projects is a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) problem. In present real-life problems, evaluation of project risks is often uncertain and even incomplete, and the prevailing methodologies fail to handle such situations. To address the problem, this paper extends the analytical network process (ANP) methodology in the D number domain to handle three types of ambiguous evaluations, viz. complete, uncertain, and incomplete, and assesses the weight of risk criteria. The D number based approach overcomes the deficiencies of the exclusiveness hypothesis and completeness constraint of Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory. Here, preference ratings of the decision matrix for each decision-maker are determined using a D number extended consistent fuzzy preference relation (D-CFPR). An extended multi-attributive border approximation area comparison (MABAC) method in D number is then developed to rank and select the best alternative risk response strategy. Finally, an illustrative example from construction sector is presented to check the feasibility of the proposed approach. For checking the reliability of alternative ranking, a comparative analysis is performed with different MCDM approaches (D-COPRAS, D-ARAS, D-MABAC, and D-TOPSIS). Based on different criteria weights, a sensitivity analysis of obtained ranking of the hybrid D-ANP-MABAC model is performed for verify the robustness of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1134.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: carbon footprint; performance ratio; photovoltaic array system; PVsyst software; panel orienta-tion; levelized cost of electricity/energy (LCOE); payback period; return on investment (ROI); cost-effectiveness; project lifespan
Online: 18 October 2023 (08:12:42 CEST)
This study addresses the pressing energy constraints in nations like Bangladesh by proposing the implementation of photovoltaic (PV) microgrids. Given concerns about environmental degrada-tion, limited fossil fuel reserves, and volatile product costs, renewable energy sources are gaining momentum globally. Our research focuses on a grid-connected solar PV system model at Char Jazira, Lalpur, Natore, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Through PVsyst simulation software, we assess the performance ratio (PR) and system losses, revealing an annual solar energy potential of 3375 MWh at Standard Test Condition (STC) efficiency. After considering losses, the system generates 2815 MWh annually, with 2774 MWh exported to the grid. We analyze an average PR of 78.63% and calculate a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 2.82 BDT/kWh [1 USD = 110 BDT]. The financial assessment indicates a cost-effective LCOE for the grid-connected PV system, with an annual gross income of 27744 BDT from selling energy to the grid and operating costs of 64060.60 BDT/year. Remarkably, this initiative can prevent 33074.061 tCO2 emissions over the project’s 25-year lifespan.