REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: sexual violence; migrants; refugees; asylum seekers; Europe; prevalence; Belgium
Online: 2 July 2018 (07:41:45 CEST)
1) Background: Sexual violence (SV) is a major public health issue with negative socio-economic and physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health consequences. Migrants, applicants for international protection and refugees (MAR) are identified as a vulnerable group for SV. Since many European countries have been confronted with high migratory pressure, developing prevention strategies and care paths focusing on those MAR affected by SV is needed. To this end, this study reviews evidence on the prevalence of SV among MAR groups in Belgium. 2) Methods: A critical interpretive synthesis was applied to 25 peer-reviewed articles and 22 grey literature documents based on the socio-ecological model. 3) Results: The evidence shows that prevalence rates of SV are high among MAR in Belgium, but comparable prevalence data are lacking. Several challenges for conducting prevalence studies SV in this population are identified and discussed. 4) Conclusions: Sexual violence in MAR in Europe is probably more frequent than in the general population, however representative studies confirming this hypothesis are lacking. Future research should start with a clear definition of the concerned population and acts of SV to generate comparable data. Participatory qualitative research approaches should be applied to fully grasp the complexity of interplaying determinants of SV in MAR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1060.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Pakistan; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Elimination; Prevalence; Screening; Refugees
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:31:50 CEST)
Hepatitis B and C are major health issues in developing countries such as Pakistan and Afghan-istan. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and effectiveness of a screening program for hepatitis B and C in a region with no existing programs, and to estimate their prev-alence in the general population in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, as well as in Afghan refugees or migrants. A retrospective cohort study was done in the general population of Peshawar and its adjacent districts, as well as migrants from neighboring provinces of Afghani-stan, who presented to our tertiary-care health facility. A Microsoft Excel registry was created for data collection, which were analyzed using IBM SPSS via descriptive analysis, normal distribution curve histograms, and chi-squared tests. A total of 9563 individuals were screened for hepatitis (5894 males and 3669 females), including Afghan migrants in Peshawar and surrounding districts. 876 individuals tested positive for hepatitis, with 538 positive for hepatitis B (383 males and 155 females) and 330 positive for hepatitis C (198 males and 134 females). Eight individuals had a hepatitis B and C co-infection. Among the study population, the prevalence rates were 2.2% for hepatitis B and 2.3% for hepatitis C, of which the Afghan migrants accounted for 2.7% and 0.5%, respectively. According to the gender-based distribution, hepatitis B was more prevalent in males, whereas there was no significant gender-based difference for hepatitis C. Our results highlight the need for a comprehensive approach to control hepatitis B and C in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Increased awareness, improved healthcare, and preventive measures such as screening and elimination programs to prevent severe liver diseases and eradicate hepatitis are necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: acute pharyngitis; rational use of drugs; incidence; prevalence
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:37:07 CET)
According to Indonesia’s result of Basic Health Research of 2013, prevalence of acute respiratory infection in 2007 and 2013 were not different (25.5% and 25.0%, respectively). Identifying the cause of acute pharyngitis is a key point in determining the optimal treatment. The main purpose is to evaluate the rational use of drugs and its irrational impact as well as the correlation of the drug use with the incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis. This study was a descriptive and observational study, carried out retrospectively and concurrently at two community health centers located in Bandung and Cimahi, Indonesia. There were 80.01% over prescription of antibiotics, with a total of 8.98% is non-treatment option, and 62.43% irrational used of corticosteroids. The incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis at one health center in Bandung were 2.45% and 2.31%, respectively, with irrationality rate of 83.82%. Those recorded at one health center in Cimahi were 2.11% of incidence and 2.00% of prevalence with irrational rate of 91.29%. It can be concluded that there were still irrational use of medicines in the treatment of acute pharyngitis in community health center. The higher incidence and prevalence might indicate the declining health services quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0423.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: community-dwelling older adults; physical frailty; prevalence; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (08:57:56 CEST)
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, and it predicts the disability and mortality in the older population. This study aimed to investigate standardized prevalence and multidimensional risk factors associated with frailty among the Korean community-dwelling older adults. We analyzed the baseline data of 2,907 adults aged 70–84 years (mean age 75.8±3.9 years, 57.8% women) in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. The Fried frailty phenotype was used to define frailty. Analyzed data included sociodemographic, physical, physical function, biological, lifestyle, health condition, medical condition, psychological, and social domains. Data were standardized using the national standard population composition ratio based on the Korean Population and Housing Census. The standardized prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 7.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8–8.9%) and 57.2% (95% CI 45.1–48.8%), respectively. The following 14 risk factors had a significant association with frailty: at risk of malnutrition, sarcopenia, severe mobility limitation, poor social capital, rural dwellers, depressive, poor self-perceived health, polypharmacy, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, elevated glycosylated hemoglobin, low 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, longer timed up and go, and low short physical performance battery score (p<0.05). Physico-nutritional, psychological, sociodemographic, and medical factors are strongly associated with frailty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0033.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; clinical mastitis; antibiotic resistance (AR) prevalence; AR phenotype; AR genotype; recent trend
Online: 22 January 2023 (06:50:19 CET)
This study was aimed to examine the recent trends of antibiotic resistance (AR) prevalence in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk of animals with clinical mastitis in areas of the Abruzzo and Molise regions in central Italy. Fifty-four S. aureus isolates could be obtained from routine testing for clinical mastitis agents carried out in the author institution in years 2021 and 2022. These were analyzed for phenotypic resistance to eight antibiotics recommended for testing by European norms and belonging to the antibiotic classes used for mastitis treatment in milk producing animals. Moreover, the presence of 14 transferable genetic determinants encoding resistance to the same antibiotics was analyzed by qPCR tests developed in this study. Phenotypic resistance to non-β-lactams was infrequent, with only one 2022 isolate resistant to clindamycin. However, low level resistance to the β-lactam cefoxitin was observed in 59.2% isolates in both years making these isolates classifiable as methicillin resistant. The AR genotypes detected were blaZ gene (50% 2021 isolates and 44.4% 2022 isolates), ermC/T- aphA3-blaZ (one 2021 isolate), ant6-ermC/T-aphA3-blaZ (one 2021 isolate), ermB-blaZ (one 2022 isolate) and mecA-mph (one 2022 isolate). An interview to the veterinarians who conferred the samples, regarding antimicrobials prescribed for mastitis treatment and criteria of usage, indicated a possible causal relation with the AR test results. The low prevalence of AR genotypes, not increasing in time, most probably reflecting the reported management of antibiotic therapies in farms. However, the frequently observed cefoxitin resistance needs to be explained genotypically, further monitored and limited by modifying antibiotic usage practices. The identification of a mecA positive isolate in 2022 suggests to investigate further if this genotype is emerging locally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COPD; COVID-19; prevalence; prognosis
Online: 11 September 2020 (05:47:59 CEST)
Patients with COPD have a higher prevalence of coronary ischemia and other factors that put them at risk for COVID-19-related complications. We aimed to explore the impact of COVID-19 in a large population-based sample of patients with COPD in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. We analyzed clinical data in electronic health records from January 1st to May 10th, 2020 by using Natural Language Processing through the SAVANA Manager® clinical platform. Out of 31,633 COPD patients, 793 had a diagnosis of COVID-19. The proportion of patients with COVID-19 in the COPD population (2,51%; CI95% 2,33 – 2,68) was significantly higher than in the general population aged > 40 years (1,16%; 95%CI 1,14 – 1,18); P < .001. Compared with COPD-free individuals, COPD patients with COVID-19 showed significantly poorer disease prognosis, as evaluated by hospitalizations (31,1 % vs 39,8%: OR 1,57; 95%CI 1,14 – 1,18) and mortality (3,4% vs 9,3%: OR 2,93; 95%CI 2,27 – 3,79). Patients with COPD and COVID-19 were significantly older (75 vs. 66 years), predominantly male (83% vs 17%), smoked more frequently, and had more comorbidities than their non-COPD counterparts. Pneumonia was the most common diagnosis among COPD patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 (59%); 19% of patients showed pulmonary infiltrates suggestive of pneumonia and heart failure. Mortality in COPD patients with COVID-19 was associated with older age and prevalence of heart failure (P<0.05). COPD patients with COVID-19 showed higher rates of hospitalization and mortality, mainly associated with pneumonia. This clinical profile is different from exacerbations caused by other respiratory viruses in the winter season.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0433.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Cancer; Bannu; Prevalence; Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Online: 6 May 2020 (12:34:07 CEST)
The present study was designed to check the prevalence of cancer in residents of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Patients' data were collected from three consulted Institutes during the year 2005-09. The data was analyzed for different parameters; year-wise, age-wise prevalence, gender-wise, occupation wise and marital status wise prevalence, addiction status, type of cancer, site affected, diagnostic tests performed and treatment of cancer. Results revealed that during 2005, a high number of cancer patients were present. A total of 172 patients were in the age group of 51-60 years, while only 11 patients were in the age group of 80 plus years. Female patients were more as compared to males. Married people were highly affected than unmarried. Patients addicted to smoking were highly affected than non-addicted patients. Malignancy was high in patients as compared to benign cancer. The most affected site was the blood system. The most affected people occupation wise were housewives followed by the farmer. A biopsy was mostly conducted for the diagnosis of cancer. Most of the patients were treated with chemotherapeutic agents. It has been revealed that the number of cancer patients decreased per annum. Moreover, the study should be conducted on the general population of Bannu as well as of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to sort out the total number of patients. The government should launch preventive, diagnostic programs so that prevalence may be minimized.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0627.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; epidemiology; prevalence; Somalia
Online: 11 October 2023 (06:51:07 CEST)
Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is a global health concern, contributing to gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. However, knowledge about H. pylori epidemiology in Somalia is limited. This scoping review aims to synthesize evidence on H. pylori prevalence in Somalia and associated factors. Methods: We systematically retrieved six scholarly investigations on H. pylori prevalence in Somalia published until 2023 from academic databases. We extracted data on prevalence, demographics, and covariate factors. Results: H. pylori infection varied (32.4% to 56.5%) across studies, with higher rates in adults and outpatient settings. Temporal variability was observed. Gastritis symptoms and female gender showed an association with H. pylori infection, while age, family history, diet, lifestyle, and comorbidities had inconclusive associations. Conclusions: Somalia faces a substantial H. pylori burden, reaching 56.5% in symptomatic adults seeking outpatient care. Temporal prevalence fluctuations require further investigation. These findings inform research and clinical management. Population-based studies are essential to establish a national prevalence profile. This research addresses a critical knowledge gap in Somalia's H. pylori epidemiology, guiding public health strategies. Journals in gastroenterology, infectious diseases, and public health may consider this for publication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0408.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: diseases; prevalence; parasitic diseases; pigeon
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:11:26 CET)
This experiment was carried out to determine the overall prevalence of pigeon diseases and especially emphasized on prevalence of parasitic diseases in study areas. During this study 45 farms were selected which have >20 pair of pigeon for commercial and >10 pair pigeon for traditional farm in the three study area namely Rajshahi, Natore and Pabna district of Bangladesh. The data were collected from different farm within the study area through a questionnaire and interview schedule with the farm owners. During one year of study period a total Out of 3677 pigeon, positive case in cage of external parasites were 722 and internal parasite positives 114 from 263 fecal sample. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal and external parasites in pigeon at northern Bangladesh is obtained. The infestation of lice Columbaecula columbae and fly Pseudolynchia canariensis were observed 18.08% and 1.55% respectively. The present study found two species of ectoparasites lice and fly. Diversity of ectoparasite in birds infestation may be depend on many factors, which may include home range, behavior, size and roosting habit of the host. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in pigeon are founded that 43.34% in research area. Specific incidence was 22.81% in Ascariasis, 18.63% in Capilariasis and 1.90% in Raillietina parasite in pigeon. Ascaridia colombae is one of the most common (22.81%) helminth species in pigeons in this study. The effect of breed of pigeon observed in present studies the highest in indigenous (63.47%) and lowest exotic (36%) prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite was observed. The specific percentages of Ascariasis, Capilariasis and Raillatina gastrointestinal parasites of pigeon were found 20% & 31.74%; 14% & 30.15% and 2% & 1.58% in exotic & indigenous breed, respectively. In the present study, there is a relation between the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections with the age of the pigeons which showed that high prevalence in adults (50%) and compare to young (22.22%). but it was statistically significant (P>0.05). In relation with farming system the gastrointestinal parasitic incidence of pigeon was observed in modern and tradition farming system, the highest incidence was 71.16% in traditional & lowest 31.14% in modern farming. When observed specifically in Ascariasis, Capillariasis & Raillietina were 16.39% & 37.41%; 13.11% & 31.25% and 1.63% & 2.5% in modern & traditional, respectively. The effect of regions on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in pigeon was observed in Pabna (68.32%), Natore (57.84%) and Rajshahi (33.33%). The specific percentages of Ascariasis, Capilariasis and Raillatina gastrointestinal parasites of pigeon were 18.18%, 33.33% & 26.31%; 14.54%, 33.33% & 23.38% and 0.606%, 1.66% & 7.89% in Rajshahi, Pabna and Natore, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0466.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibiotic; diarrhea; prevalence, shigella; shigellosis
Online: 27 August 2018 (15:08:52 CEST)
Infectious diarrhoea such as shigellosis causes considerable morbidity and mortality, especially in infants, immune-compromised individuals and those living with HIV/AIDS. It is endemic in developing countries and in Sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa, where diarrhoeal disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to establish incidences of Shigella, its serotype and resistant pattern of isolates from human faeces from residence of Johannesburg, South Africa. All stools received between January to April from the private healthcare system were cultured on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate and MacConkey Agar and Shigella was confirmed by standard biochemical reactions and a serological method. An antimicrobial sensitivity test was used. A total of 11 009 samples from patients between 22 days to 94 years old yielded 110 Shigella isolates, of which 47 (43%) were S. flexneri, 61 (55%) were S. sonnei, 1 (1%) was S. dysenteriae and 1 (1 %) was S. boydii. The majority of patients were children between < 1 to 5 years, 76 (69%), followed by those between 6 to 10 years 13 (12%). In children up to 10 years, S. sonnei was confirmed in 52 cases (59%) and S. flexneri in 36 cases (41%). Overall, 53 (48%) males and 57 (52%) females were infected.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: trend; prevalence; overweight; obesity; military
Online: 14 August 2020 (08:15:09 CEST)
Prevalence of overweight and obesity are escalating globally among the general population. However, there are limited evidence on the trends and prevalence of overweight /obesity in the military setting. Increased rates of injuries, low work productivity, incurred higher healthcare costs and prematurely discharge from service are consequences of overweight/obesity among the military. Therefore, we aimed to systematically describe the trends and prevalence of overweight and obesity in the military population, by regions and military service branches. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar were used. Inclusion criteria were military population (inclusive of all service branches) with BMI reported as the overweight/obesity indicator. Population related to military but not exclusively military personnel such as the retirees, the veterans and their dependents were excluded. From the 27 included studies, 13 were published between year 2010 to 2014 and half were conducted in the United States. Overall, studies showed increasing trend in the prevalence of overweight (30% to 50%) and obesity (2% to 30%); only one study showed a decreasing trend of 0.9% and 0.6% for the prevalence of overweight and obesity respectively. However, the rates of increment differed between countries, where Asian countries demonstrated lower overweight prevalence compared to the United States and the European countries. In conclusion, the military population is not protected from overweight and obesity. Interventions should be implemented to prevent overweight / obesity among the military personnel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0551.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Bovine; Epidemiology; Mastitis; Prevalence; Risk factors
Online: 27 January 2021 (10:24:09 CET)
The data for the study on the epidemiology of bovine mastitis were collected fromNovember 2015 to February 2016 to investigate the prevalence of mastitis in administrative towns of three selected districts of Arsi zone, Oromia Regional State, namely Iteya, Sagure, and Asella, Ethiopia; and to analyze the association between the risk factors and mastitis occurrence. Sample cows were selected and examined for clinical mastitis and at the same time, milk samples were evaluated both clinically and using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Some parameters of the cows which have biological relation with this disease together with other potential risk factors were collected along with primary data collection. The analysis of the primary data showed that overall mastitis prevalence in the locations covered by the study was 28.6% of which 83.3% was subclinical, while 16.7% were clinical mastitis cases. Analysis related to the investigation of the existence of an association between risk factors and mastitis revealed that there was a significant association between the occurrence of mastitis and two of the risk factors evaluated, breed and age of the cow. The other risk factors investigated (i.e. parity, location, and lactation stage had no significant association with mastitis occurrence). Since mastitis is a complex disease that results from the interaction of different factors, it may be difficult to limit it to only some given factors. Environment and management factors and their combination may also have an additional impact on the epidemiology of the disease. A prevalence with the indicated magnitude together with the added effect of a lower level of awareness of the society about milk-associated zoonoses implies that this disease causes significant public health problems. In addition, mastitis may cause silent economic loss through unnoticed production loss along with reduced milk yield from subclinical and clinical (e.g. blind teats) cases. Due to a lack of awareness about mastitis and/or negligence, farmers in all corners of the country are suffering from economic and public health problems imposed by mastitis. This lack of awareness about mastitis-associated problems and/or negligence could be a possible reason for the use of raw milk which is a common scenario particularly in pastoral areas and the selling of adulterated milk which is becoming increasingly practiced in Ethiopia which is also true in these specific localities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0612.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Osteoarthritis; screening; prevalence; ultrasound; imaging; osteophytes
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:44:35 CEST)
Osteoarthritis of the hand (HOA) is one of the most common musculoskeletal diseases affecting health. Osteophytes, documented by imaging procedures are often used as diagnostic criteria. The gold standard is the radiographic image, however, more sensitive and saver methods such as ultrasound are gaining in importance. We investigated the prevalence, grade and pattern of osteophytes by high resolution ultrasound investigation (US) in a population-based cross-sectional study. Factory workers were recruited at work. 26 finger joints of each participant were examined with US with grading the occurrence of osteophytes in a semiquantitative score ranging 0-3, increasing scores indicated larger osteophytes. 427 participants (mean age 53.5 years, range. 20-79 years) were investigated, resulting in 11,000 scored joints. At least one osteophyte was found in 4,546/11,000 (41.3%) joints or 426/427 (99.8%) participants but grade 2 or 3 osteophytes were seen in only 553 (5.0%) joints. The number of os-teophyte sum score increased with age (0.18/year of age increase, p<0.001). Distal interphalange-al joints (DIP) were predominantly affected with 61%, followed by proximal interphalangeal joints (PIP) with 48%, carpometacarpal joint 1 (CMC1) with 39% and metacarpophalangeal joints (MCP) with 16%. In conclusion, US is a feasible screening tool for osteophytes and HOA. Grade 1 osteophytes are a common finding in the working population when assessed by ultrasound and their prevalence is increasing with age. Prevalence of grade 2 or 3 osteophytes is less common and reflects clini-cal presence of HOA. Follow up investigations are necessary to recognize the predictive rele-vance of early osteophytes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0015.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: prevalence; soil transmitted helminth; Nkpor; Mgbodohia
Online: 2 January 2018 (12:25:01 CET)
Soil transmitted helminthic infections (STHIs) are common public health concern among children in Sub saharan Africa. A study to determine the prevalence of these infections among pupils in two primary schools in Nkpor and Mgbodohia communities, Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria was conducted. The formo-ether concentration technique was used to concentrate and separate the eggs and cysts from the faeces. Out of 107 pupils investigated, 81 (75.7 %) were positive for at least one helminthic infection. Although more females (54.3%) were infected than males (45.7%), there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in the prevalence of Soil transmitted helminthic infections in relation to sex. There was a significant difference (P>0.5) in infection among two major age groups (5-10years-45% and 11-15years-41.9%). Children within the age group of 16-20years had the least infection (9.9%). Out of the 81 children positive for STH, 47 (43.9 %,), 23 (21.5%), 11 (10.3%) and 5(4.7%) had Ascaris lumbricoide, Hookworm, Trichirus trichiura and mixed infection (A.lumbricoide + T. trichiura) respectively. Ascaris lumbricoide (43.9%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in prevalence than other parasites. Soil transmited helminthic infections are a public health among children concern in the study area. Provision of portable water, toilet facilities and good education on the epidemiology of STHIs in addition to regular de-worming will enhance control measures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Entamoeba Gingivalis; Periodontal Disease; Prevalence; review
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:13:01 CEST)
The oral cavity is environment to a diverse range of organisms that make up an essential element of the human microbiota. There are 50-1000 kinds of microorganisms capable of colonizing the mouth. The entamoeba parasites have at minimum 7 species (E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. coli, E. polecki E. hartmann, E. gingivalis). These parasites are parasitic single-celled organisms and Entamoeba gingivalis was the first amoeba to be described in 1849 that was capable of existing in humans. It was shown that only Entamoeba gingivalis is able to colonize the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate prevalence of E. Gingivalis in periodontal disease using two electronic database search engines. In order to have a broader view of the subject, a comprehensive manual search was conducted on these content aggregators and the initial search resulted in 277 articles using the keywords „Entamoeba gingivalis”, „periodontitis”, „E. gingivalis”, „periodontal disease”, „prevalence”, and „incidence”, in different combinations. The results showed that 755 cases were infected with Entamoeba gingivalis out of a total number of 1,729 patients diagnosed with periodontal disease indicating a global prevalence of 43%. When comparing different stages of periodontal diseases results revealed that the prevalence in patients with gingivitis was 58% while in periodontitis group the prevalence was 44%. Overall prevalence of Entamoeba Gingivalis based on gender was 43 % in female patients whilst in male patients was 47%. Based on the results it can be concluded that the higher incidence of Entamoeba Gingivalis in people with periodontal disease compared to healthy people is more than just a sign of the disease; it may also be linked to the severity of the condition and its propensity to progress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Population screening; eye disease; prevalence; awareness
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:36:36 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Vision impairments and related blindness are major public health problems. Prevalence of eye disease and barriers to optimal care markedly vary among different geographic areas. In the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), an epidemiological surveillance on the state of ocular health in the population aged over 50 years was performed in 2019. Materials and Methods: Participants were sampled to be representative of the region inhabitants. Data were collected through a telephone interview and an eye examination. Prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy, maculopathy was assessed. The Cohen’s kappa (k) was used to measure the agreement between presence of eye disease and awareness of the disease by the participants. Results: Overall, 983 people with mean age of 66.0±9.5 years were included in the study. The prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, maculopathy, and retinopathy was 52.6%, 5.3%, 5.6%, and 29.1%, respectively. Among the total of affected people, those aware of their condition were 21.8% (k=0.12, slight agreement) for cataract, 65.4% (k=0.78, substantial agreement) for glaucoma, 7.1% (k=0.10, slight agreement) for maculopathy, and 0% for retinopathy (k=-0.004, agreement lower than that expected by chance). Refractive defects were corrected in the vast majority of participants. Conclusion: In the Abruzzo region, about two third of citizens aged 50 years or over suffer from cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy or maculopathy, which are recognized as leading causes of blindness. Many people with eye disease do not know they have it. These data can be used by clinicians and policymakers to undertake clinical, political, and social actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Antibodies; HCV; Prevalence; Febrile Patients; Nigeria
Online: 6 March 2023 (06:34:18 CET)
This study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among febrile patients attending a General Hospital in Emohua LGA, Rivers State, Nigeria. Eighty-nine patients, including 31 males and 58 females, aged 2 to 60 years, were recruited for this study. Blood samples were screened for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) using a commercially available anti-HCV-Ab enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based kits following the manufacturer's description. The results showed an overall prevalence of 5.6%. Higher prevalence of HCV was observed among females (6.9%), age groups >41 years (11.1%), singles (7.9%) and patients with primary education (33.3%). Among all the variables evaluated, only education (p = 0.007) was significantly associated with the prevalence of HCV. Age (p = 0.21), sex (p = 0.47) and marital status (p = 0.42) were not associated with the prevalence of HCV among the studied population. This study showed a prevalence rate (5.6%) that is slightly alarmingly well above several other studies done in the past in Nigeria. The seropositivity of HCV among febrile patients remains a great danger to public health. Therefore, HCV screening by ELISA methods in all patients is recommended. Planned prevention, screening and treatment are needed to reduce further transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Dessie; Kombolcha; Prevalence; Salmonella species
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:45:42 CET)
Bacteria are the major pathogens affecting food safety and foods of animal origin are main vehicles of human illness since food animals are the main reservoirs for many food-borne pathogens. Moreover, emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant food-borne bacterial pathogens become a significant public health concern globally. A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2019 to July 2021 to estimate the prevalence, identify associated factors, and determine antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella species from foods of bovine origin in Dessie and Kombolcha towns. A total of 384 samples were collected. Simple and systematic random sampling techniques were employed for sampling milking cows and carcasses among cattle slaughtered at abattoirs, respectively. Samples from milk tanks, milk products, and beef were also selected randomly. Salmonella species were isolated and identified according to recommended standard bacteriological protocols. All the detected Salmonella species isolates were screened for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility using agar disc diffusion method against 12 antimicrobial disks. The collected raw data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential analysis techniques. The overall prevalence rate of Salmonella species was 7.0%. The highest prevalence rate of Salmonella species (16.7%) was obtained from milk tank samples but not detected in milk products. Multidrug resistance to three and more than three drugs was observed among all isolated Salmonella species. All Salmonella species isolates (100.0%) were found to be resistant to Erythromycin, Tetracycline, and Vancomycin. The majority of the isolates (96.3%) were also resistant to Doxycycline and Polymyxin B. On the other hand, all isolates (100.0%) were sensitive to Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin. The detection of multidrug-resistant Salmonella species showed that foods of bovine origin produced in the study sites were not safe for consumption. Hence, preventive measures are required to reduce bacterial contamination, concurrently to improve the wholesomeness and safety of foods of bovine origin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0319.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Disposable E-cigarettes Youth Young Adult Prevalence
Online: 17 November 2022 (02:29:42 CET)
Background: In the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey disposable e-cigarette devices are shown to be the most widely used e-cigarette devices amongst U.S. youth. In this paper we report the results of research designed to estimate the prevalence of use of BIDI® Stick branded e-cigarettes amongst youth (aged 13 to 17), and under-age young adults (aged 18 to 20) in the U.S. Methods: Cross sectional online survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,215 youth (13 17 years) recruited via the IPSOS probability-based KnowledgePanel and 3,370 young adults aged 18 to 24 - amongst whom 1,125 were aged 18 to 20. Results: Amongst youth aged 13 to 17, 0.91% [95% CI: 0.44-1.68] or 190,000 [95% CI: 90,000-350,000] youth reported having ever used a BIDI® Stick branded product and 0.04% [95% CI: 0.00-0.38] or less than 10,000 youth reported currently using a BIDI® Stick branded product. Amongst those young adults aged 18 to 20, 3.90% [95% CI: 2.49-5.81] or 470,000 [95%CI: 300,000-700,000] reported having ever used a BIDI® Stick product whilst 0.60% [95% CI: 0.17-1.55] or 70,000 [95% CI: 20,000-180,000] reported they now use a BIDI® Stick product “every day” or “some days”. Conclusions: The low prevalence of youth and underage adult current use of the BIDI® Stick e cigarette suggests that this product is not responsible for the recent growth in the use of disposable e-cigarettes by youth within the U.S. as demonstrated by the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Colonization; Prevalence; GBS; Resistance phenotype
Online: 22 August 2022 (08:04:16 CEST)
Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a commensal in the body, causes a wide range of infectious diseases. The colonisation levels of GBS and its resistance profile to antibiotics provide important information useful for orienting prevention strategies. There is little data available on the subject with determination of resistance phenotypes in Cameroon. We therefore aimed to determine the prevalence of colonization, antibiotic resistance, including patterns of inducible resistance to clindamycin of GBS in Yaounde. To achieve this goal, a prospective cross-sectional study with an analytical component was carried out from the 28th June to the 29th August 2020 at the BIOSANTE laboratory and the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetrics and Paediatrics hospital. Vaginal swabs and urine were collected on 163 women. This samples were analysed using 5% defibrinated sheep blood agar and chocolate plus polyvitex agar. The isolates were identified using the morphology of the colony, Gram staining, haemolysis, catalase test and latex grouping test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method following the recommendations of the ACFSM 2019. The double disk diffusion method was used to identify isolates with clindamycin inducible resistance. Our data was analysed by the software SPSS version 2.1. The results obtained showed that the global prevalence of colonization by GBS was 37% (57/163), 40.35% in non-pregnant women and 59.65% in pregnant women. Pregnancy (P-value = 0.019) and gestational age (P-value = 0.025) constituted the risk factors of maternal colonization by GBS. In addition, the strains of GBS were resistant to all antibiotics tested. A D test showcased that 64.7% of GBS were resistant in a constitutive manner to clindamycin. We also note the presence of M phenotypes. As a whole, our results demonstrate that the rate of GBS colonization in this study was similar or higher than those in the previous report in Cameroon. All this indicates that attention should be paid to this bacterium in the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and in the care of pregnant women and newborns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1932.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: malnutrition; digestive surgery; oncology; gastrointestinal malignancies; prevalence
Online: 27 June 2023 (14:58:11 CEST)
A prospective, observational, multicenter, and exploratory study was conducted in 469 gastrointestinal cancer patients undergoing elective surgery. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria were used to assess nutritional risk. On admission, 17.9% and 21.1% of patients were at moderate (MUST score 1) and severe (MUST score ≥ 2) nutritional risk, respectively. GLIM criteria used in patients with MUST score ≥ 2 showed moderate malnutrition in 35.3% of patients and severe in 64.6%. Forty-seven percent of patients with MUST score ≥ 2 on admission had the same score at discharge, and 20.7% with MUST score 0 had moderate/severe risk at discharge. Small bowel, esophageal and gastric cancer, and diabetes were predictors of malnutrition on admission. Complications were significantly higher among patients with MUST score 1 or ≥ 2 either on admission (p = 0.001) or at discharge (p < 0.0001). In patients who received nutritional therapy (n = 231), 43% continued to have moderate/severe nutritional risk on discharge, and 54% of those with MUST ≥ 2 on admission maintained this score at discharge. In gastrointestinal cancer patients undergoing elective surgery, there is an urgent need for improving nutritional risk screening before and after surgery, as well as improving nutritional therapy during hospitalization
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: 18S; Cryptosporidium; dairy cattle; gp60; genotyping; prevalence
Online: 19 October 2021 (11:54:33 CEST)
Cryptosporidium is comprised an apicomplexan parasitic protist, which infects a wide range of hosts, causing cryptosporidiosis. In cattle farms, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis results in high mortality in calves leading to considerable economic loss in the livestock industry. Infected animals may also act as a major reservoir of Cryptosporidium spp., in particular C. parvum, the most common cause of cryptosporidiosis in calves. This poses a significant risk to other farms via breeding centres, to trading of livestock and to human health. This study, funded by the Interreg-2-seas programme, is a part of a global project aimed at strategies to tackle cryptosporidiosis. To reach this target, it was essential to determine whether prevalence was dependent on the studied countries or if the issue was borderless. Indeed, C. parvum occurrence was assessed across dairy farms in certain regions of Belgium, France and the Netherlands. At the same time, the animal-to-animal transmission of the circulating C. parvum subtypes was studied. To accomplish this, 1084 faecal samples, corresponding to 57 dairy-farms from all three countries, were analysed. Well-established protocols amplifying the 18S rDNA and gp60 genes fragments, followed by DNA sequencing, were used for the detection and subtyping C. parvum; the DNA sequences obtained were further characterised using a combination of bioinformatics and phylogenetics methods. Our results show 25.7%, 24.9% and 20.8% prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Belgium, France and the Netherlands respectively. Overall, 93% of the farms were Cryptosporidium positive. The gp60 subtyping demonstrated a significant number of the C. parvum positives belonged to the IIa allelic family, which has been also detected in humans. Consequently, this study highlights how widespread is C. parvum in dairy farms and endorses cattle as a major carrier of zoonotic C. parvum subtypes, which subsequently pose a significant threat to human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Proportionate prevalence; spatial distribution; antibiotics; supportive therapy; Jhenaidah
Online: 5 August 2020 (15:37:06 CEST)
A descriptive epidemiological study has been conducted using hospital database of Teaching Veterinary Hospital (TVH) at Jhenaidah Government Veterinary College (JGVC) from July 2018 to June 2019. The study aimed to estimate the proportionate prevalence of different livestock and poultry diseases along with their spatiotemporal distribution and drug prescribing pattern. A total of 960 clinical cases were recorded during the study period. Ectoparasitic cases were proportionately higher in cattle (25.2%), whereas Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) cases were more frequent in goat (53.4%). The proportionate prevalence of other cases in cattle was Fascioliasis (14.3%), Myiasis (11.2%) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) (7.2%). The proportionate prevalence of other cases in goats were vitamin and mineral deficiency (12.3%), bloat (5.2%), abscess (4.7%), and dog bite (1.2%). Again, the proportionate prevalence of poultry diseases was Infectious Bursal Disease (41.2%), salmonellosis (33.4%), fowl cholera (13.7%) and pox (7.8%). Most of the cattle cases were highly prevalent during the summer season except fascioliasis. In goat, PPR was predominated in the rainy season whereas myiasis was in the winter. Around 92% of disease cases were spatially located within the 2.5 km radius of the TVH of JGVC where only 0.9% of disease cases came from >10km away from TVH of JGVC. Simple linear regression identified a significant relation (p=0.01) with the distance and number of diseased animals came to the hospital. Antimicrobials belonging to b-Lactam group were most frequently prescribed for both poultry (48.6%), cattle (32.5%) followed by goat (9.2%), however sulfar drugs (34.8%) were commonly prescribed for goat cases. This type of study is very novel in Jhenaidah region of Bangladesh that might contribute to the researchers for further investigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: eastern Mediterranean; EMR; hospital; malnutrition; prevalence; systematic review
Online: 7 September 2022 (11:06:27 CEST)
Background: Malnutrition has negative consequences in hospitals, like poor disease recovery, increased mortality, length of hospitalization, readmission, and health care costs.Aims: This review was designed to determine malnutrition prevalence in hospitals located in eastern Mediterranean region (EMR).Study design: To conduct this systematic review, papers, including original articles, related references and conference proceedings on the prevalence of malnutrition in adult hospitalized patients published in international journals and scientific databases from 1 Jan 2017 to 31 Jan 2022 will be included. The following keywords and their alternatives will be used in the literature search: malnutrition, patient, and EMR. The protocol has been registered at PROSPERO (code: CRD42022339426).Methods: After initial screening based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, the full text articles will be read carefully and eligible documents will be selected according to the defined objectives. Afterward, the selected papers will be reviewed for methodological quality and the required information will be extracted. Finally, in case of sufficient data, a meta-analysis will be performed. Screening, selection, quality assessment, and data extraction will be done by at least two independent reviewers.Results: This review is ongoing and will be completed until the end of year 2023.Conclusion: This review aims to provide comprehensive evidence about the prevalence of malnutrition among adult inpatients in EMR hospitals. This can provide regional authorities, health managers and policy makers good information regarding current status to make appropriate decisions for promoting the health status in hospitals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0522.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Dementia; prevalence; Tanzania; sustainable development goals
Online: 21 June 2021 (15:22:37 CEST)
As a result of an increasing population of aged people in sub-Saharan Africa, dementia is predicted to surge up to 90% by 2030. This review is set to assess the prevalence of dementia, for 65+ aged population in sub-Saharan states and particularly in Tanzania. Subsequently, the review will identify the possible risks factors – age, gender, level of education, cardiovascular problems, diabetes and mild cognitive impairment – and will lay out the challenges of reducing the dementia burden in Tanzania. Additionally, the review explores the current approaches in solving dementia disorders, including a general view of the public understanding of dementia. Also, the review recognises the gaps in government funding to mental health, a barrier to service access and the need for further research on Alzheimer’s and other dementias. Lastly, the review links the sustainable development goals (SDGs) addressed and appreciate the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the fight against dementia.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Human papillomavirus (HPV); cervical cancer; prevalence; genotypes; China
Online: 1 August 2020 (16:25:46 CEST)
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a key role in the development of cervical cancer that ranks as the third most common gynecological cancer in China. We attempt to investigate the age and genotype-specific prevalence of HPV DNA in western Chinese females. Methods: A total of 301,880 woman were recruited from 4 different regions of western China. Routine cervical samples were collected and HPV screening was performed using 21 HPV Genotyping test (Hybribio). The overall prevalence, age-specific prevalence, and genotype distribution were analyzed. Results: The overall prevalence of HPV was 18.01%. The high-risk HPV infection rate was 79.14%, the low-risk HPV infection rate was 12.56%, and the mixed HPV infection rate was 8.30%. The most common 4 HR HPV subtypes were HPV-52, 16, 58 and 53, which accounted for 20.49 %, 19.93 %, 14.54 % and 10.01 %. In LR HPV genotype, HPV-6 ranked the highest (28.17 %), followed by HPV-81 (9.09 %), HPV-11 (3.78 %). HPV genotype subgroup analysis also showed that single-type infections had the highest prevalence rate (77.26%) among HPV positive individuals. Among muti-infection genotype, double infection was most common with frequencies of 76.04%. Conclusion: This large report shows that the overall prevalence of HPV was high in China, whose distribution exhibits different patterns across different particular age and regions. Viral genotypes HPV53, 6 were are frequently detected in this population, which is worth of significant clinical attention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0946.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Prevalence; Covid-19; Children; Duhok City; Kurdistan; Iraq
Online: 14 November 2023 (15:13:41 CET)
Background: COVID-19 is a respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 that has become a global pandemic. Although children can contract the virus, they are generally less likely than adults to develop severe symptoms. Parents and caregivers should monitor their children for symptoms and seek medical attention if their child becomes ill. Practicing good hygiene and social distancing can help prevent the spread of the virus. Vaccines are available for children and can provide additional protection against COVID-19. Understanding the impact of COVID-19 on children is crucial for developing effective public health strategies to control the pandemic.Objectives: The current study aims to determine the prevalence of Covid-19 in pediatric age group in Duhok province and Zakho city, in Kurdistan region. among the children who tested positive for IgG test. If IgG antibodies are detected in a person's blood sample, it suggests that they have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 at some point in the past and their immune system has responded by producing antibodies against the virus.Methods: A cross-sectional investigation was undertaken involving youngsters aged 5 to 12 years. The study encompassed a total of 330 participants, selected between October and December 2022. The children underwent testing to detect IgG antibodies. Moreover, a questionnaire was employed to gather demographic and individual information from each contributor.Results: Among the studied sample, 302/330 (91.5%) of children were positive to IgG antibody test. No gender difference for COVID-19 was found in pediatric age group. Case fatality rate was 0%. 22/302 (6.6%) cases were symptomatic during the infection. However, 282(93.4%) cases were asymptomatic. Conclusions: Covid-19 infection in pediatric age group has good prognosis compared to adults. Intensive care unit (ICU) and death are rare. High-risk groups should be targeted for education and immunization/vaccination. Furthermore, more studies are needed to be conducted in order to investigate the risk factors of the infection and to assess the awareness among the general population about the risk of infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Onchocerciasis; Onchocerca volvulus; epilepsy; nodding syndrome; prevalence; ivermectin
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:53:07 CEST)
In June 2020, a door-to-door household survey was conducted in Mvolo County, an onchocerciasis endemic area in South Sudan. A total of 2,357 households containing 15,699 individuals agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 5,046 (32.1%, 95%CI: 31.4-32.9%) had skin itching and 445 (2.8%, 95% CI: 2.6-3.1%) were blind. An epilepsy screening questionnaire identified 813 (5.1%) persons suspected to have epilepsy. Of them, 804 (98.9%) were seen by a medical doctor and in 798 (98.1%) the diagnosis of epilepsy was confirmed. The overall epilepsy prevalence was 50.8/1000 (95% CI: 47.6-54.4/1000) and prevalence of nodding syndrome was 22.4/1000 (95% CI: 20.1-24.9/1000). Younger age, being male, skin itching, blindness and living in a village close to the Naam river were risk factors for epilepsy. The annual incidence of epilepsy was 82.8/100,000 (95% CI: 44.1-141.6/100,000). In conclusion, a high prevalence and incidence of epilepsy was observed in Mvolo, South Sudan. Strengthening the onchocerciasis elimination programme is urgently needed to prevent epilepsy in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Simple Sequence Repeats; Polyomaviridae; Prevalence, Distribution; Virus Host; Evolution
Online: 14 June 2020 (14:35:24 CEST)
The simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are small 1-6bp tandem repeat elements present across diverse genomes and involved in gene regulation and evolution. Presently we analyzed SSRs in genomes of 98 species of family Polyomaviridae across four genera. The genome size ranged from 3962bp (BM87) to 7369bp (BM85) but maximum genomes were in the range of 5 to 5.5 kb. The GC% had an average of 42% and ranged between 34.69 (BM95) to 52.35 (BM81). A total of 3036 SSRs and 223 cSSRs were extracted using IMEx with incident frequency from 18 to 56 and 0 to 7 respectively. The most prevalent mono-nucleotide repeat motif was “T” (48.95%) followed by “A” (33.48%). “AT/TA” was the most prevalent dinucleotide motif closely followed by “CT/TC”. The distribution was expectedly more in coding region with 77.6% SSRs of which nearly half were in Large T Antigen (LTA) gene. Notably, most viruses with humans, apes and related species as host exhibited exclusivity of mono-nucleotide repeats in AT region, a proposed predictive marker for determination of humans as host in virus in course of its evolution. Each genome has a unique SSR signature which is pivotal for viral evolution particularly in terms of host divergence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Anaemia; Antenatal; Dar es Salaam; hospital; pregnant; prevalence
Online: 17 October 2022 (07:58:27 CEST)
Background: Anaemia in pregnancy have been a cause of serious concern and burden as it contributes significantly to high maternal mortality worldwide. This study aims to explore how big the burden of anaemia in pregnant women is, how it can be reduced during antenatal clinic in order to minimize risks and complications of anaemia among pregnant women. Method: An analytical cross-sectional study design used, involved 560 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at three regional referral hospitals in Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania, from January to June 2022. Those willing to participate and met inclusion criteria were included in the study. Data was collected by interview through a structured questionnaire. Analysis of data was done using SPSS v25.0, (p<0.001) considered statistical significant. Results: A total of 560 pregnant women were interviewed. The prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy is high about 70.9% whereby 61.2% participants had mild anaemia, 33.2% participants had moderate anaemia and 25.6% participants had severe anaemia. Significant associations were found between age, education level, marital status, Less ANC attendance (<3 visit), lack of health insurance and lack of employment among pregnant women. Conclusion: Prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy women is still high and its predictors highly affect its control. Hence the ministry of health in collaboration with other stakeholders should develop policies, educating community on the importance of antenatal visit for early detection and treatment of anaemia and impacting knowledge to medical personnel in management of anaemia in pregnancy and associated complications in order to decrease maternal mortality rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0357.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Prototheca bovis; bovine mastitis; microalga; cattle; Ecuador; prevalence
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:59:00 CEST)
The genus Prototheca, unicellular, non-photosynthetic, yeast-like microalgae, is a pathogen of concern for the dairy industry causing bovine mastitis that currently cannot be cured and hence generates significant economic losses in milk production. In this study, for the first time in Ecuador, we identify Prototheca bovis as the etiologic agent of chronic mastitis in dairy cattle. Milk samples (n=458) of cows with chronic mastitis were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). Microscopy and cytB gene sequencing were used to identify Prototheca, whereby Prototheca bovis was isolated from 15.1% (n=69) of the milk samples, one of the highest infection rates that can be found in the literature in a “non-outbreak” situation. No other Prototheca species were found. We were unable to isolate the alga from environmental samples. We showed that P. bovis was relatively resistant to disinfectants used to sterilize milking equipment on the cattle farms where it was isolated. We discuss how to avoid future infection and also hypothesize that the real prevalence of Prototheca infection in bovine mastitis is probably much higher than what was detected. We recommend a protocol to increase the diagnostic yield in the bacteriology laboratory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1487.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: African Swine Fever; Histopathology; Immunohistochemistry; Tissue-specific prevalence
Online: 23 November 2023 (08:42:00 CET)
African Swine Fever (ASF) poses a significant threat to domestic pig populations worldwide. This study investigates the histopathological alterations in confirmed ASF-positive domestic pigs, focusing on over 100 cases from 2018 to 2021. Biological material from 118 pigs, confirmed ASF-positive via PCR examination, was histopathologically examined. Tissue samples from various organs were processed, embedded, and analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was employed to detect the major capsid protein (p72) of the ASF virus.Histological examination revealed characteristic ASF lesions, including severe hemorrhages, lymphoid depletion, and inflammatory infiltrates. Vascular anomalies leading to hemorrhagic events were widespread. Microthromboses were prevalent in lymph nodes and kidneys. IHC detected p72 in various organs, with tonsils consistently showing the highest viral presence.This comprehensive study underscores the pivotal role of lymph nodes, spleen, and kidneys in ASF pathogenesis, highlighting prominent vascular involvement and hemorrhagic manifestations. The study establishes the efficacy of IHC in detecting ASF virus, even in autolyzed tissue samples. Tonsils emerge as a consistent epicenter of viral presence, shedding light on the intricate pathogenesis of ASFV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: GeneXpert; MDR-TB; Prevalence; River Nile State; Sudan
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:41:23 CEST)
Background: World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there were 558000 new cases with resistance to Rifampicin, of which 82% had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Objectives: We aimed to identify the prevalence of MDR-TB in River Nile state, Sudan, and the risk factors contributing to its occurrence. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study involved 200 specimens taken from patients suspected of having MDR-TB tested using an automated GeneXpert assay. Results: Results of GeneXpert assay showed that the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 81 (40.5%), and out of 81 positive test results there were 13 (16%) had MDR-TB. Additionally, 7 cases of MDR-TB were previously treated which represented about (53%) of MDR patients, the remaining 6 MDR-TB patients were new cases and represented (47%) of MDR-TB patients. Moreover, there were 4 MDR-TB patients who had a history of contact with MDR-TB patients. Conclusion: Prevalence of MDR-TB in River Nile State, Sudan was 16%, which is greater than WHO estimation for Sudan (10.1%). The results revealed that the main risk factor to develop MDR-TB was a history of contact with MDR-TB, so adherence to treatment and social awareness about the spread of MDR-TB are crucial preventive measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0900.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Lymphatic Filariasis; pre-TAS; Prevalence; Antigenaemia; Microfilariae; Zambia
Online: 25 April 2023 (08:30:08 CEST)
Lymphatic filariasis (LF), also commonly known as elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by filarial parasites. The disease is transmitted by a bite from infected mosquitoes. The bites of these infected mosquitoes deposit filarial parasites, Wuchereria or Brugia whose predilection site is the lymphatic system. The damage to the lymph system causes swelling in the legs, arms, and genitalia. A mapping survey conducted between 2003 and 2010 determined LF that LF was endemic in Zambia in 96 out of 116 districts. Elimination of LF is known to be possible by stopping the spread of the infection through large-scale preventive chemotherapy. Therefore, mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) (6 mg/kg) and Albendazole (400 mg) for Zambia has been conducted and implemented in all endemic districts with five effective rounds. Post-MDA pre-transmission assessment survey (pre-TAS) was conducted between 2021 and 2022 in 80 districts to determine the LF prevalence rate. We conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study involving 600 participants in each Evaluation Unit (EU) or each district. The study sites (sentinel and spot-check sites) were the districts that were the Implementation Unites (IUs) where MDA, preventive chemotherapy against LF was conducted. These included 80 districts from the 9 provinces. A total of 47,235 people from sentinel and spot-check locations were tested. Of these, valid tests were 47,052 of which 27,762 (59%) were females and 19,290 (41%) were males. The survey revealed in the 79/80 endemic district a prevalence of Wb anti-gens of 0.14% and 0.0% prevalence of microfilariae. All the surveyed districts had an optimum prevalence of less than 2 percent, except for Chibombo district. The majority of participants that tested positive for Wb Ag were those that had 2, 3, and 4 rounds of MDA. Surprisingly, individuals that had 1 round of MDA were not found to have circulating antigens of Wb. The study showed that all the surveyed districts except for Chibombo, passed Pre-TAS. This further implies that there is a need to conduct a TAS in these districts in order to decide whether to stop MDA or not. Keywords: Lymphatic Filariasis; pre-TAS; Prevalence; Antigenaemia; Microfilariae; Zambia
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0679.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Sub Clinical Mastitis; prevalence; Surf Field Mastitis Test; Jhenaidah
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:40:34 CEST)
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) among medium to large scale household dairy farms in southwestern district, Jhenaidah, Bangladesh during July to December 2019. A total of 78 (n=100) lactating cows from household dairy farms (N=32) having three or more dairy cows were selected randomly as sampled populations. Milk samples were screened for SCM by using Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT). The prevalence of SCM varied among farm level [71.9% (95% CI: 53.3-86.3)], individual animal level [67.9% (95% CI: 56.4-86.3)] and quarter level [29.5% (95% CI: 24.5-34.9)]. Descriptive statistics represented the farmers and farm demography, characteristics of the sampled population, and overall management feature. Random Effect Logistic Regression identified, Body Condition Score (BCS) [OR=3.8 and 2.9, at cows level and quarter level respectively (BCS-2 vs. BCS-≥3)], and breed [OR=5.1 and 2.9, at cows level and quarter level respectively (HF× Sahiwal vs. HF × Local)] as potential risk factors. This study shows that SCM is highly prevalent in the study area, which is a major threat to the dairy industry's production performance. Regular screening by SFMT, proper hygiene, improve the management system, and farmer’s awareness is required to control the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Haemorrhage; Prevalence; postpartum; Postpartum haemorrhage; Peramiho; Songea.
Online: 24 September 2021 (08:20:23 CEST)
Background: The prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is increasing globally that is from 6.5% in 2000 to 11% in 2016. But there are regional variations where there is decrease of PPH in some parts of Asia and increase in Africa and developed countries. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, causes and associated factors for postpartum haemorrhage at St. Joseph referral hospital in Peramiho- Songea from November 2017 to December 2019. Method: The retrospective cross-sectional hospital-based study was used and data was obtained from maternity hospital registry book/data base of St. Joseph mission hospital in Peramiho Songea, from November 2017 to November 2019. Descriptive data was analysed by tables and graphs. Results: The prevalence of PPH in Peramiho referral hospital was 1.3% in 2017, 1.26% in 2018 and 1.4% in 2019. The overage prevalence for the three years is 1.3%. However, 73.3% of total prevalence is from home deliveries in rural areas. The main cause of PPH in the hospital was uterus atony (42%), retained placenta (15.5%), 3rd and 4th grade tears (11.2%), uterine rupture (8.1%) and coagulopathy (5.6%). The main attributing factors were age >35years (34%), other antenatal pregnancy complication (27%), previous PPH (18.6%), Antenatal anaemia (16%), placenta previa, Eclampsia, preeclampsia (12%) each. Conclusion: The prevalence of PPH from this study is slightly high with the main cause being uterine atony and affected mainly those undergone SVD where about two quarter were home deliveries. However further research studies are needed to investigate the main reason for higher home deliveries in Peramiho residence and nearby area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1757.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Renal cell carcinoma; Epidemiology; Immunotherapy; Prevalence rate; Mortality rate
Online: 27 October 2023 (05:18:31 CEST)
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), alternative term for kidney cancer, is becoming more common worldwide each year, and there are many different contributing factors. Among all cancers, RCC is the 14th most prevalent; and it ranks as the 14th and 9th most prevalent cancer overall for women and men respectively. RCC cases increased by more than 430,000 in 2020. While disease burdens are highest in Eastern Europe (Belarus and Russia) and North America (Canada and the United States), Africa, Asia, and Latin America are predicted to report increase in prevalence as these regions embrace change in lifestyle. The majority of RCC cases are accidentally found on imaging, and survival is greatly impacted by the disease stage at diagnosis, with a metastatic cancer having a 5-year survival rate of 12%. As a consequence of early discovery and more improved treatments, RCC mortality has declined. The key epidemiologic variables of RCC include vast regional and geographical heterogeneity in prevalence rates, and the cause is largely unclear. Recognized risk factors include smoking, being overweight, having previous episodes of hypertension, and suffering chronic renal illness. Unexpectedly swift, RCC diagnosis and therapy have advanced. RCC prevalence continues to rise although survival rates have sharply improved. Cancer survival and treatment have improved, and more gains are projected as a result of clinical and translational research. In this review, kidney cancer statistics and recent literatures are examined on a global scale. It covered aspects of kidney cancer, including its epidemiology, causes, risk factors, current immunotherapy, chances for prevention, and future planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0615.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Babesiosis; Cattle; Host factors; Prevalence; Tick infestation; South Omo
Online: 28 July 2021 (09:05:24 CEST)
Background: Babesiosis and its tick carriers cause serious problems for cattle and are among the common protozoan blood parasites in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 2019 to August 2020 to identify babesiosis in cattle and its tick vectors in extensively managed livestock in Dasenech and Salamago District South Omo Ethiopia. A total of 470 blood samples were collected for identification of hemoparasite using a thin blood smear followed by the Giemsa staining method and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) determination for detection of anemia. Results: Accordingly, the overall prevalence of bovine babesiosis in the study districts were 21.7% and Babesia bigemina (15.53%) and B. bovis (6.17%) were identified during this study. Factors such as age, sex, body condition score, season, tick burden, and level of tick Infection were considered as risk factors; yet, the season and level of tick Infection were found significantly associated (p< 0.05) with the occurrence of babesiosis. Besides, the mean PCV value of infected cattle (21.49%) was lower than non-infected animals (28.29%) which shows there was a strong correlation (p=0.0001) between anemia and Babesiosis. The prevalence of tick Infection was 86.17% (405/470) and a total of 8040 ticks adult ticks belonging to four tick genera namely Amblyomma (32.34%), Boophilus (18.51%), Hyalomma (18.94%), and Rhipicephalus (16.38%) were identified and all have a significant role (p< 0.05) on the occurrence of babesiosis in cattle. Conclusion: Bovine babesiosis is an important hemoparasitic protozoan disease of cattle in the study areas. To address and manage the problem, nearby veterinary service systems need to diagnose blood parasites and provide alternatives, especially for tick-borne diseases. Also, it is essential to customize appropriate and integrated tick control measures and tactical treatment of overt bovine babesiosis clinical cases.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Seroepidemiologic Studies; Prevalence; Coronavirus Infections; Occupational Exposure; Occupational Health
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:11:01 CET)
The negative effect of COVID-19 pandemic has reach world economy due to absence from work for SARS-CoV-2 infection in workers, among other things. However, some economic areas are essential to society and people must continue working outside home, to support economic reactivation; their serological profile could be different from global population. Cross-sectional study. Workers from health, construction, public transportation, public force, bike delivery messengers, independent or informal commerce areas, and residents of Bucaramanga or its metropolitan area were invited to participate. All participants self-completed a virtual survey and a blood test was taken to assess IgG and IgM with ARC COV2 test. Seroprevalence was estimated considering a complex survey design, correcting for finite population effect and adjusting for test performance. 7.045 workers were enrolled; 59.9% were women, most were residents of Bucaramanga and working in health occupations. Global adjusted seroprevalence was 19.5% (IC95% 18.6 - 20.4), being higher for Girón [27.9% (CI95% 24.5 - 31.30]). Workers with multiple contact with people during working hours or using public transportation to go to work had higher frequency of seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2. Seroprevalence among workers living in these four municipalities from the Colombian northeast area is still low.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Hepatitis B; Bangladesh; prevalence; vertical transmission; occult infection; genotypes.
Online: 5 September 2018 (09:24:31 CEST)
Despite a considerable body of published research on Hepatitis B in Bangladesh, researchers continue to lament the lack of reliable information about Hepatitis B epidemiology. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive survey of the literature with particular focus on a number of epidemiological questions, as well as a commentary on the trends of Hepatitis B research as it has taken place in Bangladesh. The key themes to emerge from this review are: first, beyond noting a declining trend, it is difficult to provide conclusive estimates about Hepatitis B prevalence in the general population of Bangladesh. The majority of the studies, even the ones conducted on apparently healthy populations, fail to be adequately representative for the reasons explored in the article. Secondly, Hepatitis B in Bangladesh is sharply stratified across sociodemographic lines, which speaks to the role of awareness and risk exposure in Hepatitis B prevalence. Third, more research on occult infection rates is required to estimate the extent of risk posed by the current blood donation screening program, which relies exclusively on Hepatitis B surface antigen as a biomarker. The same considerations apply for the comparative importance of vertical vs. horizontal transmission, and prevalence among particular risk groups like healthcare workers with high occupational exposure. Finally, while recent studies do allow us, albeit with some ambiguity, to draw conclusions about distribution of Hepatitis B genotypes in Bangladesh, there needs to be an added emphasis on molecular epidemiology. It is hoped that the present review, the first of its kind in Bangladesh, will serve as an up-to-date summary of the course Hepatitis B epidemiology research in Bangladesh has taken thus far, as well as crucial gaps to address going forward.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0274.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: back health; low back pain; prevalence; kindergarten; primary education; children
Online: 14 January 2021 (14:03:09 CET)
It is well known that low back pain (LBP) prevalence is high during the course of school age children’s lives. However, literature concerning the initial onset of back pain between ages of 3 and 11 years remains scarce. The present study aimed to analyze the prevalence of LBP in kindergarten and primary school students. 278 (9.9±2.1 years old; 52.2% girls) students from two public kindergarten and primary schools in Valencia, Spain participated in this cross-sectional study. The Nordic questionnaire on LBP was used to ask questions related to the duration of LBP symptoms over time. The lifetime prevalence of LBP was 47.5% (n = 132), a last year prevalence of 44.2% (n = 123), and a last week prevalence of 18.8% (n = 50) was reported. Boys and girls reached lifetime prevalence of 52.3% (n = 64) and 47.7% (n = 82) (χ2 = 1.978, p = .099), respectively. By age group, lifetime episodes of LBP also showed a higher prevalence with increasing age (χ2 = 32.637; p < .001). In summary, our findings suggest that LBP increases with age. In addition, our results further strengthen the evidence that LBP onset could start as young as 10-years-old.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1441.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Vaccine hesitancy; Vaccination, COVID-19; Predictors; Prevalence; Health workers
Online: 19 May 2023 (11:58:06 CEST)
Introduction: COVID-19 vaccines have been the most effective means in curbing the infection, however, vaccine hesitancy has been seen as a threat to global health. Objective: the study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers in infectious disease centers in Ghana. Method: A cross-sectional study and proportionate stratified sampling method was used to recruit participants from various infectious disease centers. Result: data from 170 participants were analyzed, revealing a low prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy (11.2%) among healthcare workers. However, only 31.1% of the fully vaccinated participants had taken the booster dose. Factors such as concerns about vaccine safety and side effects from previous doses, indecisiveness, a lack of time to receive the vaccine and lack of access to accurate information, prefered natural immunity were the significant predictors of vaccine hesitancy among healthcare workers. Participants with good perception of the risk posed by COVID-19 was positively correlated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Conclusion: the study suggests that policies should be enacted to ensure health workers are vaccinated against highly contagious infectious diseases to prevent their spread among the general population. Training and health promotion campaigns should also be organized to encourage healthcare workers to accept and patronize the vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0457.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; serological markers (IgM/IgG); Prevalence; private universities; Cameroon
Online: 25 January 2023 (11:27:36 CET)
Background: COVID-19 remains a rapidly evolving and deadly pandemic worldwide. This necessitates the continuous assessment of existing diagnostic tools for robust, up-to-date and cost-effective pandemic response strategy. We sought to determine the infection rate (PCR-positivity) and degree of spread (IgM/IgG) of SARS-CoV-2 in three university settings in Cameroon Method: Study volunteers were recruited from November 2020 to July 2021 among COVID-19 non-vaccinated students in three Universities from two regions of Cameroon (West and Centre). Molecular testing was performed by RT-qPCR on nasopharyngeal swabs and IgM/IgG antibodies in plasma were detected using the Abbott Panbio IgM/IgG rapid diagnostic test (RDT) at the Virology Laboratory of CREMER/IMPM/MINRESI. The molecular and serological profiles were compared and, p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Amongst the 291 participants enrolled (mean age 22.59±10.43 years), 19.59% (57/291) were symptomatic and 80.41 %(234/2691) asymptomatic. Overall COVID-19 PCR-positivity rate was 21.31% (62/291), distributed as follows: 25.25% from UdM-Bangangte; 27.27% from ISSBA-Yaounde and 5% from IUEs/INSAM-Yaounde. Women were more affected than men (28.76% [44/153] vs. 13.04% [18/138], p<0.0007) and they significantly expressed more IgM+/IgG+ (15.69% [24/153] vs. 7.25% [10/138], p<0.01). Participants from Bangangté, the nomadic, and the “non-contact cases” mainly presented an active infection compared to those from Yaoundé (p= 0.05; p=0.05 and p=0.01 respectively). Overall IgG seropositivity (IgM-/IgG+ and IgM+/IgG+) was 24.4% (71/291). A proportion of 26.92% (7/26) presenting COVID-19 IgM+/IgG- had negative PCR versus 73.08% (19/26) with positive PCR, p<0.0001. Furthermore, 17.65% (6/34) with COVID-19 IgM+/IgG+ had negative PCR as compared to 82.35% positive PCR (28/34), p<0.0001. Lastly, 7.22% (14/194) with IgM-/IgG- had a positive PCR. Conclusion: This study calls for a rapid preparedness and response strategy in higher institutes in case of any future pathogen with pandemic or epidemic potentials. The observed disparity between IgG/IgM and viral profile supports prioritizing assays targeting the virus (nucleic acid or antigen) for diagnosis and antibody screening for sero-surveys
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0493.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Plasmodium; malaria; Intermittent Preventive Treatment; Prevalence and Public health facilities
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:40:54 CET)
Introduction: Uganda has got the highest prevalence rate of malaria among the risk groups compared to other parts of the world. In addition, Uganda bears a particularly large burden from the disease which is limited by a lack of reliable data, but it is clear that the prevalence of malaria infection, incidence of disease, and mortality among pregnant women all remain very high. According to the Iganga DHIS2 Jan-May report, a higher number of pregnant women received Intermittent Preventive Treatment one (IPT1) and the numbers dropped for IPT2 and IPT3. The district is also referral point of the greater Busoga region and has got several challenges towards malaria control. The study aimed at assessing the uptake of Intermittent Preventive Treatment and the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Iganga district so as to generate evidence for scaling up appropriate interventions for IPT uptake among pregnant women. Methods: The research was a retrospective study using secondary data to assess the uptake of IPT and prevalence of malaria for financial year 2019/2020 in nine Public Health Centre IIIs and one Public Health Centre IV. In this study IPT was defined as the administration of a curative dose of an effective antimalarial drug to all pregnant women without testing for presence of malaria parasite and at least three doses as recommended. Secondary data from HMIS was obtained and analyzed to assess the uptake of IPT services and the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women was determined using proportions. Results: The study found that of 6,672 women who received the first dose of IPT-SP, 1671 (25%) of the women received less than 2 doses of IPT and 46% of pregnant women received more than 2 doses of IPT. The study showed that a total of 3,435 pregnant women tested positive for malaria which brings the prevalence to 50%, and being highest among pregnant women aged 20-24 years at 50%. Conclusions: The study showed that the uptake of IPT was relatively low among lower age groups with a relatively high prevalence of malaria among the same age group. This calls for all stakeholders (DHO, MOH, Iganga District, NGOs e.t.c) urgent attention thus to ensure mass sensitization about malaria and IPT importance with IEC and ITN distribution, early diagnosis and treatment, giving incentives to ANC attending mothers, control of the vector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1845.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: hepatitis D; prevalence; anti-HDV antibody; HDV RNA
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:26:46 CEST)
Background: It is assumed that the prevalence of hepatitis D in HBsAg-positive individuals reaches 4.5-13% in the world, and on average about 3% in Europe. Data from several European countries, including Slovakia, are missing or are from an older period. Methods: We analyzed all available data on hepatitis D from Slovakia, including reports from the Slovak Public Health Authority and the results of one prospective study, and three smaller surveys. The determination of anti-HDV IgG and IgM antibodies and/or HDV RNA was used to detect hepatitis D. Results: In the years 2005-2022, no confirmed case of acute or chronic HDV infection was reported in Slovakia. The presented survey includes a total of 343 patients, of which 126 were asymptomatic HBsAg carriers, 33 acute hepatitis B, and 184 chronic hepatitis B cases. In a recent prospective study of 206 HBsAg-positive patients who were completely serologically and virologically examined for hepatitis B and D, only 1 anti-HDV IgG positive and no anti-HDV IgM or HDV RNA positive cases were detected. In other smaller surveys, 2 anti-HDV IgG positive patients were found without the possibility of HDV RNA confirmation. In total, only 3 of 329 HBsAg-positive patients (0.91%) tested positive for anti-HDV IgG antibodies and none of 220 tested positive for HDV RNA. Conclusion: The available data show that Slovakia is one of the countries with a very low prevalence of HDV infection reaching less than 1% in HBsAg-positive patients. Routine testing for hepatitis D is lacking in Slovakia, and therefore it is necessary to implement testing of all HBsAg-positive individuals according to international recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1964.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: prevalence; smoking; medical students; self-esteem; self-efficacy
Online: 28 June 2023 (08:31:33 CEST)
: BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking among students is a growing concern, particular-ly among medical students. Being associated with stress, competitiveness, and various social in-fluences, smoking can have detrimental effects on self-esteem and self-efficacy and may create a vicious cycle that may contribute to students’ well-being and academic performance out-comes.METHODS: A cross-sectional study on 456 medical students was conducted via an online survey using structured questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, smoking habits, nicotine dependence, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 31.1% The scores of self-esteem and self-efficacy were positively correlated with smoking habits (W1=0.957, W2=0.975, P<0.05). Students presented rather low smoking addiction with male stu-dents having slightly higher scores than female students on self-esteem and self-efficacy, mili-tary students had higher self-esteem scores than civilians with physical activity having a posi-tive correlation with non-smoking behavior. CONCLUSION: According to our results, self-esteem and self-efficacy were slightly positively correlated with smoking habits. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant association between other social factors and smoking. Our results may develop a theoretical basis for medical students’ psychological variables studying for further implementation of university educational programs and preventive interventions em-powering students towards an overall better quality of life, addressing, among others, smoking behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Age; adherence; anti-hypertensive; Controlled hypertension; clinic; hypertension; Prevalence; Systemic
Online: 17 May 2021 (15:57:01 CEST)
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of controlled systemic hypertension and its associated risk factors among the hypertensive patients who attended the clinic at Mbeya Zonal Referral Hospital in Tanzania. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was used determine the prevalence of co to 252 hypertensive patients were recruited during clinic visit from September to November 2020 and participant was randomly selected interviews using structured self-administered questionnaires. Data was analyzed using chi square test to find the risk factors associated with controlled hypertension. Results: Among 252 participants, 94(39.7%) individuals with controlled hypertension giving the prevalence of controlled hypertension. The proportion of females with controlled hypertension was slightly higher than male (49 females to 45 males). The prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension was 152(60.3%) participants. The prevalence of controlled hypertension was higher among patients who have regular clinic visit (p< .05) and have daily adherence to their anti-hypertensive medication. A similar trend was observed among participants without financial challenges to attend clinic, short duration of illness, higher level of education and there was no association between age, sex, marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption, having health insurance and having chronic illness. Conclusion: Prevalence of controlled hypertension is higher among patients who have regular clinic visit and have daily adherence to their anti-hypertensive medication. Also, it is higher among participants without financial challenges to attend clinic so they can have regular clinic visit and checkup. Reinforcement on regular drug intake and clinic visit, good nutrition and reduced salt intake and modifying lifestyles of patient with hypertension is important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1112.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Porcine parvovirus 1-6; Porcine circovirus 2-3; Prevalence; Genetic diversity
Online: 16 May 2023 (06:02:59 CEST)
Porcine parvovirus (PPV) 1 is a major causative pathogen of reproductive failure, and porcine circovirus (PCV) 2 is an etiological pathogen causing PCV-associated and PCV diseases worldwide. PPV2–6 and PCV3 were recently identified as newly emerging viruses with unknown pathogeneses. However, little is known of PPV1–6 and PCV3 effects or their co-infections with PCV2. In this study, we examined 926 samples (272 aborted pig fetuses and 654 pig lung tissues) from domestic pig farms for the presence of PPV1–6 or PCV3 and for PCV2 co-infection with these seven viruses. The prevalence of PPV and PCV was significantly greater in lung tissue samples than aborted pig fetus samples. PPV3–6 were detected for the first time in Korean domestic pigs. Co-infection rates with PCV2 and other viruses were significantly higher in abattoir samples than that in aborted pig fetus samples. Concurrent infections are more common than single infection in pig population and nu-merous infectious pathogens such as PPV and PCV2 can impact the respiratory diseases. Fur-thermore, Korean PPV1 strain (PPV1-82) was identical to the virulent PPV-27a strain in this respect. Our results describe, for the first time the prevalence of PPV1–6 and PCV3 infections and their co-infection rates with PCV2 in Korean domestic pigs.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1734.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Enterococcus faecalis; Enterococcus faecium; vancomycin; prevalence; resistance; antibiotics; oral cavity; screening
Online: 25 May 2023 (04:29:13 CEST)
Enterococci are commonly found in the environment and humans as a part of the normal micro-biota Among these, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium can convert into opportunistic pathogens, making them a major cause of nosocomial infections. The rapid diffusion of vanco-mycin-resistant strains and their impact on nosocomial settings is of considerable concern. Ap-proximately one-third of the E. faecium infections in Italy are caused by vancomycin-resistant strains. This study explored the hypothesis that the oral cavity could represent a silent reservoir of virulent enterococci. A sample of 862 oral flora specimens collected from healthy human volun-teers in Central Italy was investigated by real-time PCR to detect E. faecalis and E. faecium, as well as the genetic elements that most frequently determine vancomycin resistance. The prevalence of E. faecalis was 19%, a value that was not associated with alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, or age of the subjects. Less frequently detected, with an overall prevalence of 0.7%, the E. faecium was more common among people older than 49 years of age. The genes conferring vancomycin resistance were detected in only one sample. Results indicate that the oral cavity can be considered a reservoir of clinically relevant enterococci; however, our data suggest that healthy individuals rarely carry vancomycin-resistant strains.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Odds Ratio; Prevalence; Knee Joints; Osteoarthritis (OA); Age-related degeneration (ARD)
Online: 7 July 2020 (03:01:34 CEST)
Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) and age-related degeneration (ARD) are stimulants for the development of the fabella in the knee joint. This meta-analysis updates previous studies and reviews on the prevalence of the fabella in OA or ARD knee joints. In addition, it provides a quantitative estimation of the fabellar prevalence in knees having OA and ARD. Methodology: Twenty studies comprising of data from 11,056 knee joints were included in the analysis, consisting of 6,819 Knees of OA subjects (including those with age more than 40 years) and 4,237 knees of non-OA subjects (including less than 40years) knees, respectively. 2,434 knees had fabellae present in OA subjects (including more than 40years), and 844 fabellae were present in non-OA subjects (including less than 40years). The Odds and Risk Ratios were calculated. Sensitivity analysis and cumulative analysis were conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. Results: Prevalence of fabella was found to be higher in OA knees, where the Risk Ratio of developing fabella was 2.50 (2.07-3.01). Compared with this, the Risk Ratio for the incidence of fabella in OA with ARD knee was 1.84 (1.66-2.03). The bilateral occurrence of fabella was more common than unilateral. The risk of developing fabella in individuals aged less than forty-year was 63% less than individuals aged more than forty years. Conclusion: OA and ARD would increase the prevalence of fabella by 84%, thus acting as stimulants and risk factors for ossified fabella.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: color vision deficiency; medical students; ishihara plates; humans; incidence; prevalence; frequency
Online: 5 February 2021 (09:58:31 CET)
Introduction Color vision deficiency (CVD) constitutes one of the frequently observed eye disorders in all human populations. Color is a prominent sign utilized in the medical profession to study and identify histopathological specimens, lab instruments, and patient examination. Color deficiency affects the medical skills of students resulting in poor clinical examination and color appreciation. There is no effective screening of CVD at any level of the medical profession. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of CVD among medical students. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2019 to February 2020 over a period of six months in Karachi, Pakistan. All medical students aged 18-21 years of either gender enrolled in the first and second years of medical college were included in this study. The examination was performed during daylight. Ishihara plates were placed at a distance of 75 cm from the subject and tilted so that the plane of the paper lies perpendicular to the line of vision. Students were given five seconds to read the plate and one examiner was instructed to mark the checklist. A score of less than 12 out of 14 red/green test plates (not including the demonstration plate) was considered as a CVD. All statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results The mean age of the medical students was 19.61± 1.22 years. There were (n=123) 53.0% females and (n=111) 47.0% males. Most of the medical students (n=131, 56.0%) belonged to the upper-middle-class socioeconomic group. CVD was observed in (n=13) 6.0%of medical students. Age (p=0.001) and socioeconomic status (p=0.001) were the only demographic factors significantly associated with color deficiency. Conclusions Color deficiency, although an unnoticed concern, is fairly common among medical students. Medical students must be screened for CVD as this will enable them to be aware of their limitations in their future observational skills as a doctor and devise ways of overcoming them in clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis B virus; prevalence of HBsAg; rural and urban zone; Togo
Online: 1 January 2020 (14:31:28 CET)
Infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a public health problem in many parts of the world, due to its frequency, complications and socio-economic consequences. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in rural areas and in urban areas. This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of HBV infection from 2015-2018 at CHR-Sokodé and USP of Ogaro. Biological data of 3000 participants (500 per year in each zone) enrolled and results of HBsAg were assessed during the study period. Female are represented 60% with average age comprised between [20, 29] years old. The high rate of participants enrolled (45.10%) are come for the monitoring of pregnancy. The prevalence of VHB during the study are 20.33% (610/3000), high prevalence (6.27%) and the means of VHB prevalence are shown in the age range between [30; 39] with 12.17% (365/3000) of female and 8.17% (235/3000) of male are positive after diagnostic detection of HBsAg (antigen of Hepatitis B virus). The prevalence of HBV in rural zone (Ogaro) are 5.23% and 15.07% in urban zone (Sokodé) and the high prevalence (17.50%) are shown in urban zone. The high prevalence of young suggests that some effort will be due to sensibilized young for HBV sexual transmission and the way of prevention. In addition, some research would be done in research of alternative therapy against this infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Cross-sectional Study; Epidemiology; Panoramic Radiography; Periapical Lesions; Prevalence
Online: 2 August 2023 (14:29:57 CEST)
(1) Background: We aimed to identify factors associated with the presence of apical lesions (AL) on panoramic radiographs and to evaluate the predictive value of the identified factors. (2) Methodology: Panoramic radiographs from 1071 patients (age: 11-93 a, mean: 50.6 a ± 19.7 a) with 27532 teeth were included. Each radiograph was independently assessed by five experienced dentists for AL. A range of shallow machine learning algorithms (logistic regression, k-nearest neighbor, decision tree, random forest, support vector machine, adaptive and gradient boosting) were employed to identify factors on patient and tooth level associated with AL and to predict AL. (3) Results: AL were detected in 522 patients (48.7%) and 1133 teeth (4.1%), whereas males showed a significantly higher prevalence than females (52.5%/44.8%; p<0.05). Logistic regression found that an existing root canal treatment was the most important risk factor (adjusted Odds Ratio 16.89; 95% CI: 13.98-20.41), followed by the tooth type ‘molar’ (2.54; 2.1-3.08) and the restoration with a crown (2.1; 1.67-2.63). Associations between factors and AL were stronger and accuracy higher when using less complex models like decision tree (F1 score: 0.9 (0.89-0.9)). (4) Conclusions: The presence of AL was higher in root-canal treated teeth, those with crowns and molars. More complex machine learning models did not outperform less complex ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: dental caries; caries experience; epidemiology, prevalence; risk; public health
Online: 17 January 2023 (08:56:34 CET)
Oral health surveys are essential to assess the dental caries experience and to influence national policies. This retrospective cross-sectional study aims to analysis dental caries experience who sought dental treatment in a reference university dental hospital at the Lisbon Metropolitan Area between January 2016 and March 2020. Full-mouth examination, sociodemographic, behaviors and medical information were included. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression analysis were applied to ascertain risk indicators associated with dental caries experience. A final sample of 9,349 participants (5,592 females/3,757 males) were included, aged 18 to 99 years old. In this population, caries experience was 91.1%, higher in female participants. Age (OR= 1.01, 95% CI [1.00-1.02], occupation (OR= 2.94, 95% CI [2.37-3.65], OR= 3.35, 95% CI [2.40-4.67], OR= 2.55, 95% CI [1.66-3.91], for employed, unemployed and retired, respectively), overweight (OR= 1.52, 95% CI [1.18-1.96]), reporting to never visited a dentist (OR= 0.38, 95% CI [0.23-0.64] and self-reported week teeth status (OR= 2.14, 95% CI [1.40-3.28]) were identified as risk indicators for the presence of dental caries, according to adjusted multivariable logistic analyses. These results highlight a substantial rate of dental experience in a Portuguese cohort and will pave the way for future tailored oral public health programs in Portugal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Modifiable lifestyle factors; Metabolic disorders; Prevalence; Relationships; Burkina Faso
Online: 12 October 2021 (21:02:23 CEST)
This study aimed to report the magnitude of modifiable lifestyle factors, their relationships with metabolic disorders in Burkinabè adults by using nationally representative data. This cross-sectional study included 4100 adults selected through multistage cluster sampling performed during the first national survey conducted in 2013 in Burkina Faso. The modifiable factors we considered were tooth cleaning, fruit and/or vegetable (FV) intake, substances’ use, physical activity and overweight/obesity, while metabolic syndrome abnormal components defined metabolic disorders. We performed logistic regressions. 31.1% cleaned the teeth at least twice a day, 14.7% consumed five or more FV, 39.7% used alcohol and/or tobacco, the prevalence of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity was respectively 6.6% and 17.7%. About 41.0% had at least two metabolic disorders and 9.5% had at least three. Lifestyle factors associated with having at least two metabolic disorders were overweight/obesity, more FV intake (when five or more aOR=1.5, p<0.001), physical inactivity (aOR=1.3, p<0.05), tooth cleaning (aOR=0.8, p<0.01). Except for consuming five or more FV (aOR=1.4, p=0.09), the same trend of relationships was observed with having at least three metabolic disorders. Excluding overweight/obesity and physical inactivity, unhealthy modifiable lifestyle factors were common and tooth cleaning was found as a protective practice for metabolic disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0604.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Prevalence; Depression; Anxiety; Insomnia; Stress; PTSD; Distress
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:29:20 CEST)
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, stress, PTSD, and distress in Chinese healthcare workers (HCWs) and the changes in prevalence before and after the peak incidence of COVID-19 in China. 20 cross-sectional studies assessing the aforementioned psychological outcomes were included. Eligible studies were searched from the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Comparative analysis based on the time period of the included studies was conducted to assess changes in prevalence before and after peak incidence. Additionally, subgroup analyses based on study quality, province, survey tools, gender and healthcare profession, frontline or non-frontline working status, and severity of psychological outcomes were conducted to evaluate the prevalence of outcomes across various study methods, geographic regions, and professions. The findings of this study suggest that the overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, stress, PTSD, and distress before peak incidence were 36.2%, 34.2%, 22.4%, 31.3%, 9.8%, and 56.7% as opposed to 31.8%, 24.1%, 34.4%, 59.0%, 20.9%, and 40.7% after the peak. The higher prevalence of depression, anxiety, and distress prior to the peak incidence of COVID-19 in China and of insomnia, stress, and PTSD thereafter serve as evidence that the mental health decline of HCWs is dynamic and should be addressed with adaptive approaches that provide tailored treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0440.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; Point prevalence survey; Antimicrobial resistance; Ghana; CwPAMS; Antibiotic use; THET
Online: 23 December 2022 (03:53:09 CET)
Commonwealth Partnerships for Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) uses a health partnership model to establish AMS in Commonwealth countries. The University Hospital of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partnership with Ulster University, in Northern Ireland undertook an AMS project from November 2021 to May 2022. We report on the implementation and its effect on antibiotic use and infections management at the University Hospital. The Global-Point Prevalence Survey (PPS) protocol was used to assess antibiotics use at the hospital at the beginning, midpoint and end of the project. Feedback on each PPS was given to staff to inform behaviour change and improve antibiotic prescribing. Antibiotic use reduced from 65% at baseline to 59.7% at the end of the project. The rate of health-associated infections also reduced from 17.5% at baseline to 6.5%. In addition, the use of antibiotics belonging to the WHO Access group at the hospital was 40% initially but increased to 50% at the project endpoint. Culture and antibiotic susceptibility requests increased from the beginning of the project from 111 total requests to 330 requests over 7 months. The AMS model implemented improved antibiotic use as well as requests for culture and susceptibility test which must be sustained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0067.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: COVID-19; Disease-behaviour dynamics model; Prophylactic attitude; Vaccination; Perceived disease prevalence
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:20:22 CEST)
In this age of mass media and, in particular, social media-driven perception of reality, coupling disease and prophylactic opinion dynamics models can provide better insights into disease evolution than using a disease model alone. We develop in this work two disease-opinion dynamics models based on the epidemiology of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the availability or not of imperfect vaccines. We assume that susceptibility to infection decreases with the level of prophylactic attitude (personal hygiene, social distancing), and changes in prophylactic attitudes of susceptible individuals occur in response to perceived disease prevalence and vaccination coverage and efficacy in the population. We derive and discuss the disease-free equilibriums and reproduction numbers in the introduced models. We further assess the impacts of the distribution of opinions at disease introduction, the ability to detect presymptomatic, asymptomatic and symptomatic positive COVID-19 cases, the behavioural responses to the outbreak and the introduction of vaccination, and the effects of distortions of disease prevalence by public policy and mass media on disease dynamics. The insights highlighted from the proposed models are expected to make informative contributions to public policy in a context of opinion fluxes in response to perceived disease prevalence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0822.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Sarcopenia; Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Obesity, Insulin Resistance; Prevalence; Metabolic Diseases
Online: 31 December 2020 (15:34:29 CET)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) continues to rise and has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease among all ages and ethnicities. Metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance are closely associated with sarcopenia and NAFLD. Sarcopenic obesity is a clinical disorder characterized by the simultaneous loss of skeletal muscle and gain of adipose tissue. It is associated with worse outcomes in individuals with NAFLD. It is projected that NAFLD and sarcopenia will rise as the prevalence of obesity continues to increase at an unparallel rate. Recently, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity have gained considerable interest, but we still lack a well-defined definition and a management approach. Therefore, it is imperative to continue shining the light on this topic and better understand the underlying mechanism as well as treatment options. In this review article, we aimed to address the pathophysiology, impact, and outcomes of sarcopenic obesity on NAFLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0279.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID19; risk; clinical; metrics; cost; false-positive; false-negative; prevalence; sensitivity; specificity
Online: 9 July 2020 (15:57:30 CEST)
Since the beginning of the year 2020, the global healthcare system has been challenged by the threat of the SARS-COV 2 virus. Molecular, antigen, and antibody testing are the mainstay to identify infected patients and fight the virus. Molecular and antigen tests that detect the presence of the virus are relevant in the acute phase only. Serological assays detect antibodies to the Sars-CoV-2 virus in the recovering and recovered phase. Each testing methodology has its advantages and disadvantages. To evaluate the test methods, sensitivity (percent positive agreement - PPA) and specificity (percent negative agreement – PNA) are the most common metrics utilized, followed by the positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV), the probability that a positive or negative test result represents a true positive or negative patient. In this paper, we illustrate how patient risk and clinical costs are driven by false-positive and false-negative results. We demonstrate the value of reporting PFP (probability of false positive results), PFN (probability of false negative results), and costs to patients and healthcare. These risk metrics can be calculated from the risk drivers of PPA and PNA combined with estimates of prevalence, cost, and Reff number (people infected by one positive SARS COV-2).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0826.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: Elective surgeries; medical appointment; surgery scheduling; cancellation of surgery; prevalence; postponed surgery
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:29:37 CEST)
Unexpected preoperative surgery cancellations are one of the important problems in daily anesthesia practice. It's an even bigger problem if these cancellations happen in the operating room. Our aim was to draw attention to this issue and reveal the reasons. This prospective, cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of elective surgery cancellations once patients are in the operating room. The study sample consisted of 7482 adult patients scheduled for elective surgeries and taken to the operating room. Sixty-seven patients whose surgeries were canceled were grouped into Group 1, while the remaining 7415 whose surgeries were completed were in Group 2. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether their surgeries were completed or canceled. Factors such as age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and surgical department were analyzed. Metrics involved comparisons between the two groups regarding age, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification, surgical department, and timing of the surgery. The prevalence of elective surgery cancellations after patients were in the operating room was 0.9%. Group 1 was significantly older than Group 2 (p<0.001). The proportion of patients classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III was higher in Group 1 (p<0.001). The department with the highest cancellation rate was ophthalmology(2.5%), followed by general surgery(2.1%), urology(1.5%), and ear, nose, and throat(1.4%). Approximately 59.7% of cancellations were deemed potentially avoidable. The study suggests that many of these cancellations are potentially avoidable, underscoring the need for optimized surgical scheduling and patient assessment protocols.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0052.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: pressure ulcer; bed sore; pressure injury; decubitus ulcer; position change; prevalence; Ethiopia
Online: 5 August 2019 (07:40:01 CEST)
Background: Pressure ulcers (PU) aﬀect millions of people worldwide and always occur over bony areas of the body where pressure and tissue distortion is greatest. The national pooled prevalence of pressure ulcer remains unknown. Hence, the aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of position change on pressure ulcer among hospitalized clients in Ethiopia. Methods: Studies were retrieved through search engines in PubMed, Scopus, WHO afro library, Google Scholar, Africa journal online, PsycINFO and web-science following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). Analysis was done using STATA version 14 software. We checked the between-study heterogeneity using the I2 and examined a potential publication bias by visual inspection of the funnel plot and Egger’s regression test statistic. The random-effect model was fitted to estimate the summary effects, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence interval (CIs) across studies. Results: Out of the reviewing 401 studies, 7 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated pooled prevalence of pressure ulcer in Ethiopia was 11.7% (95% CI (7.28, 16.13%)). Based on the subgroup analysis, the estimated magnitude of pressure ulcer was 15.89% (95% CI: 35.34, 54.04) among studies their sample size were greater than or equals to 250. Those clients who have position change during hospitalization were 85% less likely to develop pressure ulcer [(OR 0.15, 95%CI (0.06, 0.4)] than their counter part. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of pressure ulcer in Ethiopia was relatively high. Position change of the client during hospitalization had paramount benefit to reduce the burden of pressure ulcer. Therefore, policymakers could give special attention to minimize the magnitude of pressure ulcer in order to improve the overall quality of healthcare service. Further meta-analysis study is need to identify individual and health care service related factors to the occurrence of pressure ulcer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1395.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Allergic diseases; Atopic march; Burden of disease; Chronic respiratory diseases; DALYs; Epidemiology; Incidence; Prevalence
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:52:17 CEST)
Asthma is the most prevalent cause of chronic respiratory diseases. Herein, we evaluate asthma burden in Mexico based on results from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD 2019) study 2019. Using data from the GBD 2019, we estimated asthma prevalence, incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted lived years (DALYs) counts and crude and age-standardized rates per 100,000 people with a 95% uncertainty interval (UI) by sex and age at the national and subnational levels in Mexico from 1990 to 2019. At the national level, asthma affected 3.35 million (95% UI, 2.59-4.37) people, with 606.0 thousand (433.0-811.1) new incident cases and 1,655 (3-1,931) deaths during 2019. Asthma caused a slightly higher burden in females and affected mainly age groups between 1 and 14 years of age. The burden of asthma gradually decreased from 1990 to 2010. However, during the last decade (2010-2019), prevalence increased by 8.2%, as did incidence by 11.3%, whereas mortality and DALYs decreased by 23.3 and 1.6%, respectively. Finally, the burden of asthma displayed a heterogeneous pattern of disease at the subnational level. In conclusion, asthma causes a significant health loss in Mexico that differentially affects the population distributed among the states of the country, thus causing health disparities that should be addressed to provide sustainable asthma diagnosis and control to reduce its burden, especially at early stages of life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis C virus; liver cirrhosis; prevalence; cancer
Online: 17 November 2022 (10:30:13 CET)
Background and Aim: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common infection in liver cirrhosis. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides detailed information on the prevalence of SBP among HBV and HCV-related liver cirrhosis globally. Methods: A systematic search for articles describing the prevalence of SBP in HBV, and HCV related cirrhosis was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Our search returned ten (10) eligible articles involving 1,713 viral cirrhosis cases representing eight (8) countries. A meta-analysis was performed on our eligible studies using the random effect model. A protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022321790). Results: The pooled prevalence of SBP in HBV associated cirrhosis had the highest estimate [8.0% (95% CI, 2.7 – 21.0%; I2= 96.13%; p < 0.001)], followed by SBP in HCV associated liver cirrhosis [4.0% (95% CI, 1.3% – 11.5%; I2 = 88.99%; p < 0.001)]. China (61.8%, CI: 57.1 – 66.3%), the USA (50.0%, CI: 34.6 – 65.4%), and Holland (31.1%, CI: 21.6 – 42.5%) had the highest estimate for SBP in HBV associated liver cirrhosis, SBP in HCV associated liver cirrhosis and SBP in HBV+HCV associated liver cirrhosis respectively. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of SBP in viral hepatitis-associated liver cirrhosis with the year of sampling and method of SBP detection at P<0.001. There was an increase in SBP incidence at the beginning of 2016 across the liver cirrhosis in this study. Conclusion: The findings of this review revealed an increase in the incidence of SBP in viral hepatitis over the last decade, the latter could be due to the global increase in Bacterial resistance. This indicates a possible future rise in the global prevalence of SBP among HBV, and HCV-related liver cirrhosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: autistic spectrum disorder; anorexia nervosa; female; prevalence; Bayes’ Theorem; diagnosis; management; generalized joint hypermobility.
Online: 10 November 2022 (11:02:35 CET)
It appears that up to 80% of females with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have not been diagnosed by 18 years of age. This translates to a prevalence of about 5-6%, and if true has serious implications for female mental health. One way of finding the true value is to use Bayes’ Theorem with a comorbid condition as a more easily recognizable flag. An obvious choice is anorexia nervosa (AN), but it transpires that the proportion of women with ASD who develop AN is unknown. This study uses published data in novel ways to provide two methods of estimating a range for this variable, and gives a median value of 8.3% for AN in ASD and with four other methods a median prevalence of 6% for female ASD. The clinical implications for diagnosis and management of ASD and comorbidities are discussed and a solution is provided for the rate of ASD in generalized joint hypermobility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0563.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: HIV; HTLV-1; HTLV-2; sex; risk factors; prevalence; co-infection; public policies
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:39:50 CEST)
The inaugural AIDS Program in Brazil was established in São Paulo in 1983, with the Instituto Adolfo Lutz appointed for laboratory assistance. Subsequently, research on HIV infections and HIV/HTLV (HIV/HTLV-1 and HIV/HTLV-2) co-infections were conducted. This narrative review focuses on studies from the Immunology Department (1983–2017) that significantly influenced AIDS diagnosis or provided epidemiological data such as prevalence rates, sex, age, and risk factors. Ten studies, encompassing over 8,000 individuals, are discussed. During 1983–1985, nearly all AIDS cases were attributed to homosexual/bisexual men aged 31 years old. Subsequently, heterosexual men and women emerged as risk groups owing to intravenous drug use (IDU) and/or unprotected sexual intercourse with AIDS patients or multiple partners per year. From 1985 onwards, vertical transmission led to child infections. HIV/HTLV co-infection rates decreased over time, initially associated with male IDU, and in the 2010s, with females, IDU, and individuals aged >40 years. Trends in HIV and HIV/HTLV co-infections among younger men and women (<30 years of age) were observed from 2015–2017. The changing characteristics and risk groups for HIV and HIV/HTLV co-infections over the years underscore the necessity for ongoing public policies to prevent retrovirus transmission, particularly among adolescents and young adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0014.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Long COVID; SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination; Booster Dose; Cellular Immunity; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Human.
Online: 1 September 2023 (11:54:29 CEST)
Background: In March 2020, a COVID-19 outbreak associated with the Falles Festival in Borriana, Spain, led to significant infections. Methods: In June 2022, we conducted a cross-sectional follow-up study of 473 socially engaged adults aged 18 to 64, examining the cumulative experience after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination responses. Data included demographic details, lifestyle habits, medical history, infection records, and vaccinations from a population-based vaccine registry. Blood samples were analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and cellular immunity. We employed a doubly robust inverse weighted probability analysis to estimate the booster vaccine dose's impact on long COVID prevalence and symptom count. Results: 28.1% of participants met the WHO criteria for long COVID, with older individuals showing higher rates. Not complying with long COVID criteria associated with factors including O blood group, higher occupational status, physical activity, three vaccine doses, strong SARS-CoV-2-S-reactive IFNγ‐producing‐CD8+ response, and infection during the Omicron period. Conversely, increased age, high or low social activity, underlying health conditions, a severe initial COVID episode, and reinfection associated with higher long COVID likelihood. A booster dose, compared to one or two doses, reduced long COVID risk by 74% (95% CI: 56.4% to 91.7%) and symptom count by 55.2% (95% CI: 31.6% to 78.7%). Conclusion: Long COVID was prevalent in a significant portion of those who contracted COVID-19, underscoring the need for sustained follow-up and therapeutic strategies. Vaccinations, notably the booster dose, had a substantial beneficial effect on long-term infection outcomes, affirming the vaccination’s role in mitigating SARS-CoV-2 infection consequences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Plasmodium vivax; Duffy Blood-Group System; Vivax malaria; Plasmodium Duffy antigen binding protein; prevalence
Online: 14 July 2023 (13:01:06 CEST)
The Duffy protein, a transmembrane molecule, functions as a receptor for various chemokines and facilitates attachment between the reticulocyte and the Plasmodium Duffy antigen-binding protein. Duffy expression correlates with the Duffy receptor gene for the chemokine, located on chromosome 1, and exhibits geographical variability worldwide. Traditionally, researchers have described the Duffy negative genotype as a protective factor against phenotypic malaria expression. However, recent studies suggest this microorganism's evolution potentially diminishes this protective effect. Nevertheless, there is currently insufficient global data to demonstrate this phenomenon. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the Duffy genotype/phenotype and the prevalence of Plasmodium vivax infection. The protocol for the systematic review was registered in PROSPERO as CRD42022353427 and involved reviewing published studies from 2012 to 2022. Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and Scielo databases were consulted. Assessments of study quality were conducted using the STROBE and GRADE tools. A total of 34 studies were included, with Africa accounting for most recorded studies. The results varied significantly regarding the relationship between the Duffy genotype/phenotype and Plasmodium vivax invasion. Some studies predominantly featured the negative Duffy genotype yet reported no malaria cases. Other studies identified minor percentages of infections. Conversely, certain studies observed a higher prevalence (99%) of Duffy-negative individuals infected with Plasmodium vivax. In conclusion, no evidence of a gender-specific distribution of malaria between Duffy-negative men and women was found. However, evidence supports that the homozygous Duffy genotype positive for the A allele (FY*A/*A) is associated with a higher incidence of Plasmodium infection. Furthermore, the negative Duffy genotype does not confer protection against this disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1411.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Menstrual Migraine; Migraine; Non-Menstrual Migraine; Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder; Premenstrual Syndrome; Prevalence; Saudi Arabia
Online: 23 October 2023 (12:32:01 CEST)
Background: Migraine is one of the most common health conditions in the reproductive male and female population. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common condition that affects many women during their menstrual cycle. around 50 to 60% have menstrual headaches among the migraineur women. The symptoms in the majority were mild, but 5–8% may suffer moderate to severe symptoms, accompanied by considerable distress or functional dysfunction. Premenstrual migraine (PMM) refers to migraines that occur with the menstrual cycle. It affects approximately 50% of women with migraine and can be debilitating in terms of both frequency and severity of symptoms. This information is important for medical professionals in Saudi Arabia to be aware of so, as to provide better medical care and support which can significantly improve the person's quality of life of women who suffer from PMS and menstrual migraines. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of menstrual migraines in women, to evaluate the severity and frequency of menstrual migraines in women with PMS, and to identify potential risk factors aggravating menstrual migraines in women with PMS. Methodology: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted on reproductive age (18-50Years) women who have regular menstrual cycles with experience migraine headaches and are diagnosed with PMS and menstrual migraine, using a self-administered questionnaire between December 2022 to May 2023 in Saudi Arabia. Results: Out of 2130 women participants 397 were suffering from migraine which is 18.6%. Of the total 397(18.6%) Migraineurs individuals 230 (57.9%) were suffering from menstrual migraine and 167 (42.1%) were non-menstrual migraineurs, in general, reproductive women menstrual migraine is 10.7% and non-menstrual migraine is 7.8%. The BMI is increasing the incidence of menstrual migraines is increasing. Migraine Disability Around one-third of the participants were suffering from III–moderate disability 134 (33.8) Most of the menstrual migraine victims at least 3 days in the last three months were absent from their duties due to their menstrual migraines. Conclusions: Migraine attacks during the menstrual cycle cause the impairment of their social and physical ability to perform their routine household, and academic activities and unable to fulfill their professional commitments. To better understand the Menstrual Migraine and Non-menstrual migraine large prospective studies are required to plan the best management methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: epidemiology; baseball injury; young baseball players; injury prevalence; early single sport specialization
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:06:25 CEST)
This study aimed to describe the injury profiles of young Korean baseball players according to position and age as the proportion and distribution of injuries based on playing position and age remains unclear. A total of 271 elite youth baseball players aged 8 to 16 years were divided into two groups: elementary school (ES) (n=135) and middle school (MS) (n=136). The participants' basic, baseball practice, and injury information were collected. Injuries in the MS group were not limited to the elbow and shoulder, and the injury prevalence varied by age group and baseball position. The most injured body region in the ES group was the elbow joint, regardless of the position. In contrast, the most injured body region in the MS group was the lower back, except for infielders whose elbows were the most injured. Additionally, the MS group was more likely to experience injuries of the lower back (OR=4.27, 95% CI=2.47–7.40), shoulder (OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.08–3.43; P=0.024), and knee (OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.17–3.94; P=0.012). Our findings indicate that excessive practice and lack of rest during MS (growth spurt period) can significantly increase the risk of lower back problems in young baseball players.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0234.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Irish dance; injuries; risk factors; injury prevention; epidemiology; prevalence; incidence; surveillance system
Online: 12 April 2023 (03:35:52 CEST)
Background: Irish dance is growing in popularity, evolving to a more athletic and demanding dance style. Aims: To conduct a systematic review, previously registered with PROSPERO, to identify prevalence, incidence, and injury pattern among Irish dancers and analyse associated risk factors. Methods: Six online databases, plus two dance-specific science publications were searched systematically. Studies were included if the pattern of injuries among Irish dancers were evaluated or the factors associated with injury were analysed, published in English or Portuguese, in peer-reviewed scientific journals. Four reviewers assessed the quality and level of evidence using the Downs and Black criteria and a modified Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine 2009 model, respectively. Results: Eleven articles were included, 8 level 3c (cross-sectional) and 3 level 3b (prospective). Mean DB percentage score was 63% ± 7,2%. Prevalence ranged from 72,2% to 92,6%, affecting mostly the foot/ankle complex. Only 2 articles reported incidence, which ranged from 3,4–10,6 injuries/1000 hours danced depending on injury definition. Psychological factors, elite level, and insufficient/poor sleep were associated with musculoskeletal injury. Conclusions: Injury prevalence and incidence is high in Irish dancers, with the foot and ankle more affected. Due to heterogeneity in injury definitions, methods, and populations, along with the need for improvement in studies quality, recommendations were made for future research.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0615.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: schistosomiasis; prevalence; district municipality; disease; risk factors; low- and middle-income community; environmental factors
Online: 9 November 2023 (11:26:07 CET)
This study aimed to assess the prevalence and identify risk factors for schistosomiasis among school-aged children in low- and middle-income communities. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted, involving the examination of 24 034 children for Schistosoma haematobium ova. Data were analyzed using IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 27. Logistic regression was employed to determine the factors associated with schistosomiasis. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis in the study population was 75%, with higher rates observed in rural-dominated areas, particularly Bushbuckridge (73%) and Nkomazi (51%). Age, a history of bilharzia, and the presence of blood in urine were significantly associated with schistosomiasis, while being a female child was found to be a protective factor. This study underscores the importance of implementing robust screening procedures and the necessity for health education to mitigate the high prevalence of schistosomiasis and prevent its further spread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: low back pain; osteoarthritis; knee; prevalence; workplace; exposure; musculoskeletal diseases; risk factors; prevention; construction industry
Online: 2 March 2023 (01:55:05 CET)
Abstract: Sand-cement bound screed floor layers are at risk for work-related low back pain, lumbosacral radicular syndrome and knee osteoarthritis given their working technique of level-ling screed with their trunk bended and mainly supported by their hands and knees. To reduce the exposure of the physical demands of bending of the trunk and kneeling, a manually moved screed levelling machine was developed for floor layers in the Netherlands. The aim of this pa-per is to estimate the potential health gain of the manually moved screed levelling machine on the risk of low back pain (LBP), lumbosacral radicular syndrome (LRS) and knee osteoarthritis (KOA) compared to the traditional working technique. The potential health gain was assessed using the epidemiological population estimates of the Population Attributable Fraction (PAF) and the Potential Impact Fraction (PIF) combined with work-related risk estimates for these three disorders from systematic reviews. The percentage of workers exceeding these risk esti-mates was based on worksite observations among in total 28 floor layers. For LBP, 16/18 work-ers were at risk using the traditional working technique with PAF=38%, and for the manually moved screed levelling machine this was 6/10 with PIF=13%. For LRS, these data were 16/18 with PAF=55% and 14/18 with PIF=18% and for KOA, 8/10 with PAF=35% and 2/10 with PIF=26%. A manually moved screed levelling machine might have a significant impact on the prevention of LBP, LRS and KOA among floor layers in the Netherlands and a health impact assessment is a feasible approach to assess health gains in an efficient way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: diabetes type-1; T1D; diabetes type-2; T2D; antibiotics; antibiotic classes; microbiome; dysbiosis; prevalence; concordance
Online: 3 December 2021 (12:45:23 CET)
Abstract: Several publications have raised the issue that the development of diabetes is preceded by alteration of the microbiome (dysbiosis) and hence, the role of environmental factors, triggering dysbiosis, should be considered. Antibiotics are powerful agents inducing dysbiosis and the authors wanted to explore the possible relationship between the consumption of different major classes of antibiotics and the prevalence of diabetes (type-1, /T1D/, type-2 /T2D/) in thirty European countries. According to our hypothesis, if such association exists, the dominant use of certain major antibiotic classes might be reflected in the prevalence of T1D and T2D in different countries. Comparisons were performed between the prevalence of diabetes (T1D and T2D) estimated for 2019 and featured in the Diabetes Atlas with the average yearly consumption of major antibiotic classes of the previous 10 years (2010-19) extracted from the ECDC yearly reports on antibiotic consumption in Europe. Pearson correlation and variance analysis were used to estimate the possible relationship. Strong, positive (enhancer) associations were found between the prevalence of T1D and the consumption of tetracycline (J01A /p: 0.001/) and the narrow spectrum penicillin (J01CE /p: 0,006/, CF /p: 0.018/). Strong negative (inhibitor) association was observed with broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CR /p: 0.003/), macrolide (J01F /p: 0.008/) and quinolone (J01M /p: 0.001/). T2D showed significant positive associations with cephalosporin (J01D /p: 0.048/) and quinolone (J01M /p: 0.025/), and a non-significant negative association was detected with broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase-sensitive penicillin (J01CA /p: 0.67/). Countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (first 10 positions) showed concordance with the higher consumption of “enhancer” and the lower consumption of “inhibitor” antibiotics (first 10 positions) as indicated by variance analysis. Countries with high prevalence of T1D showed high consumption of tetracycline (p: 0.015), and narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase sensitive penicillin (p: 0.008), and low consumption of “inhibitor” antibiotics (broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant, combination penicillin (p: 0.005), cephalosporin (p: 0.036), and quinolone (p: 0.003). Countries with a high prevalence of T2D consumed more cephalosporin (p: 0.084), quinolone (p: 0.54), and less broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase sensitive penicillin (p: 0.012) than other countries. Conclusion/Interpretation: The development of diabetes-related dysbiosis might be attached to higher consumption of specific classes of antibiotics, showing positive (enhancer) associations with the prevalence of diabetes, and the low consumption of other classes of antibiotics shoving negative (inhibitory) associations. Those groups of antibiotics are different in T1D and T2D
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0598.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Zambezi; Health Care Workers; cigarette smoking; Cigarettes; Gender differences; Prevalence; Tobacco use; Vulnerable populations; Risk factors
Online: 23 December 2020 (16:28:15 CET)
Smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases and remains a significant public health challenge in many lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) including Namibia. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associated risk factors among HCWs and non-HCWs in Zambezi region. An exploratory cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and October 2020 among residents of the eight (8) constituencies of Zambezi region. Four hundred and sixty-one (461) respondents who had been residents of the selected constituencies for over five years and aged between 17-60 years were selected for the study. The main outcome measure was current cigarette smoking status. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. We stratified data analysis by individual being health workers or non-health workers. A bivariate Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and the smoking status. Statistically significant variables in the bivariate analysis were used as predictors in the univariate and multivariate models. The response rate of potential participants was 95% (n=434). The mean (±SD) age of participant’s was 32.5 (± 11.34 years). Significant relationships were observed between smoking status and area of residency (constituency), gender, age category, level of education, age of onset of smoking and the daily smoking frequency. The majority of smokers (n=108) were none-HCWs with males being the majority (n=62). Age (p=0.001), education levels (p=0.001) and area of residency (p=0.022) were highly associated with smoking among none-HCW while marital status was associated with smoking among HCWs (p=0.013). In the final multivariate model, the odds of smoking among female non-HCWs were significantly lower (OR: 0.386; 95% CI: 0.228 – 0.655). Furthermore, the odds of smoking among this same group were lower among those who had secondary level education (OR: 0.178; 95% CI: 0.0659 – 0.483), post-secondary (OR: 0.117, 95% CI: 0.0412 – 0.330) and first stage tertiary (OR: 0.306: 95% CI: 0.106 – 0.881) compared to those who had primary school education. In conclusion, smoking prevalence among none HCWs and HCWs working in Zambezi included in the study was similar to that of the general Namibian population but higher than other neighboring countries within SADC. The results showed a need for the establishment of specific smoking related strategies that target HCWs to address smoking use parallel to the running of none HCWs which would ultimately decrease the smoking prevalence and improve health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1773.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: metabolic syndrome; rising prevalence; cardiovascular disease; risk factors; obesity; high blood pressure; dietary habits; preventive strategies; management
Online: 25 August 2023 (05:01:36 CEST)
This article explores the relationship between metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, providing a comprehensive overview of its risk factors and prevalence. Metabolic syndrome, characterized by a cluster of interconnected risk factors, significantly increases the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. The study, conducted over a one-year period, involved 117 patients with ages between 30 to 79 years old. Various elements such as gender, age, education level, background, smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary aspects, physical activity, and their contribution in developing the metabolic syndrome, were analysed.Central adiposity and high blood pressure emerged as prominent elements of the condition. The findings underscore the importance of a healthy lifestyle in the prevention and management of metabolic syndrome. Encouraging regular physical activity, maintaining a balanced diet, rich in fresh vegetables and fruits, and avoiding harmful behaviours, such as smoking or alcohol consumption, are essential in reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome and its associated cardiovascular complications. The study highlights the need for public health initiatives, as well as individualized preventive strategies to combat the rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Through promoting awareness of its risk factors and implementing effective interventions, healthcare professionals can contribute to better cardiovascular health worldwide. Further research in this area will continue to enhance our understanding of the metabolic syndrome and refine preventive and therapeutic approaches for its management.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0367.v9
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Prevalence; Expected Value; Uniform Measure; Measure theory; Uniform Cover; Entropy; Sample; Linear; Superlinear; Choice Function; Bernard's Paradox; Pseudo-random
Online: 6 April 2023 (10:04:39 CEST)
In this paper, we will extend the expected value of the function w.r.t the uniform probability measure on sets measurable in the Caratheodory sense to be finite for a larger class of functions, since the set of all measurable functions with infinite or undefined expected values forms a prevalent subset of the set of all measurable functions, which means "almost all" measurable functions have infinite or undefined expected values. Before we define the specific problem in section 2, we will outline some preliminary definitions. We'll then define the specific problem (along with a partial solution in section 3) to visualize the complete solution. Along the way, we will ask a series of questions to clarify our understanding of the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0618.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Chemical Intolerance, Drug Intolerance, Food Intolerance, QEESI, BREESI, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Toxicant-induced Loss of Tolerance, Prevalence
Online: 25 June 2021 (11:49:32 CEST)
Keywords: Chemical Intolerance, Drug Intolerance, Food Intolerance, QEESI, BREESI, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Toxicant-induced Loss of Tolerance, Prevalence
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0292.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Multi-scale model; system of differential equations; HIV propagation; complex network; basic reproduction number; antiretroviral therapy; prevalence.
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:35:52 CEST)
A multiscale mathematical model is proposed seeking to study the propagation dynamics of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in a group of young people between 15 and 24 years of age, through sexual contact without protection, considering the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and therapeutic failure. The model consists in a scale-free complex network that follows a power law, coupled with the immunological dynamics of each individual, that is, it considers the infection by the virus in the immune system of each HIV carrier, through a system of non-linear differential equations that govern the infection’s behavior in the immune system. Propagation of the virus in the network is modelled by taking into account information from the immunological status of each person. The study found that for a population to have high HIV prevalence, it is not necessary at the beginning of the simulation time for the virus to propagate rapidly. In addition, the study proves that with a higher number of sexual partners, there will be greater prevalence of HIV in the population and that the use of ART helps to control the propagation of the infection in the population. As an interesting result, it was also found that there is a higher number of HIV carriers who abandon ART than those who have access to it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: seasonal change; honeybee; adult bee; capped brood; Varroa mite; colony size; dinotefuran; neonicotinoid; mite-prevalence; field experiment
Online: 12 October 2020 (16:35:43 CEST)
Neonicotinoids, such as dinotefuran (DF), have caused a variety of problems, such as massive loss and winter failure of the bee colony, as a price for the benefit of reducing farm work, because it continues to maintain a high insecticide activity over a long period of time. In this study, a field experiment was conducted for about six months to investigate the effects of DF on bee colonies damaged by Varroa mites. This study examined the long-term changes in such as the size of bee colonies, the intake of sugar syrup (SS), intake of pollen paste (PP), which is a vehicle for administering DF, the intake of DF, the mite-prevalence of bees and the inside and outside temperatures of hive-boxes. The variation width of the inner temperature of the hive-box is less than that of the ambient temperature (Ta). The inner temperature of the hive-box is adjusted with about 30 ℃ of Ta as the boundary. If Ta is lower than 30 ℃, the inner temperature of the box is higher than Ta, and if Ta is higher than 30 ℃, it is lower than Ta. The temperature variation width of the DF-exposed colony is greater than that of the control colony. The average intake of SS per bee per day of the DF-exposed colony is more than that of the control colony. The average intake of PP per bee per day of the DF-exposed colony is almost equal to that of the control colony. These results suggest that bees do not avoid DF, and ingest PP without distinction between toxic and pesticide-free. In the period from the start of DF administration to the colony extinction, the intake of DF per colony is about 865 µg/colony, the intake per bee is 14 ng/bee, and the intake per bee per day is less than 0.1 ng/bee/day in this work. These intakes are much lower than the previous ones (60-65 ng/bee, 0.27-2.32 ng/bee/day). These discrepancies may be because attacks of mites and Japanese giant hornets hastened the colony collapse. Seasonal changes in mite-prevalence of honeybees is approximately the same regardless of the bee colonies. At the end of August (the start of attacks by Japanese giant hornets), the mite-prevalence will increase rapidly. Even if the number of bees damaged by mites turns to decrease, the mite-prevalence will continue to increase, with approaching 100% before bee colonies become extinct. In this study, it was found that the bee colony was collapsed by the intake of a smaller amount of DF due to the synergistic effect of DF and mite-damage. To prevent a bee colony collapse, not only to make an effort to minimalize the adverse effect on the bee colony of neonicotinoids such as DF with long-term residual effect and high insecticide properties, it is necessary to reduce the damage of mites as much as possible, while considering the synergistically adverse effects of neonicotinoids and miticides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0121.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Allergy; Asthma; Wheeze; Rhinitis; Home Allergens; Household Dust; Mildew; Cockroach; Dust mites; Pets; Endotoxin; Population Study; Prevalence Study; NHANES
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:23:09 CEST)
Our study examines the association of the presence of mildew, cockroaches, and pets in homes as well as household dust allergens with the prevalence and/or severity of allergic diseases. No study has concurrently assessed home environment exposures in relation to allergic conditions in the general US population. Data from 5,409 participants from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey living in their current homes for ≥1 year were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses between home exposures and allergic diseases prevalence and severity were performed. In adjusted analyses, mildew was associated with higher current asthma, allergies, and allergic rhinitis prevalence; endotoxin, with higher current asthma prevalence), and dust Canis familiaris (Can f) 1, with higher allergic rhinitis prevalence. However, presence of cockroaches and dust Dermatogoides farinae (Der f) 1 were associated respectively with lower current asthma and allergies prevalence. Presence of mildew, dust Der f1, Dermatogoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1, Feline domesticus (Fel d) 1, and endotoxin were all associated with asthma and/or wheeze severity. Non-atopic asthma was more frequent with mildew and/or musty smell dust and higher dust Fel d1 concentration, while atopic asthma was more prevalent with higher Can f1and endotoxin concentrations in dust. This study confirms previous relationships and reports novel associations, generating hypotheses for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1918.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: MCV1 coverage; DTP1 coverage; composite coverage; zero-dose prevalence; demographic and health surveys; multiple indicator cluster survey; Bayesian geostatistical modelling; Bayesian multilevel modelling
Online: 1 November 2023 (02:34:23 CET)
The persistence of geographic inequities in vaccination coverage often evidences the presence of zero-dose and missed communities and vulnerabilities to vaccine-preventable diseases. These inequities were exacerbated in many places during the COVID-19 pandemic, due to severe disruptions to vaccination services. Understanding changes in zero-dose prevalence and associated risk factors in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic is, therefore, critical to designing effective strategies to reach vulnerable populations. Using data from nationally representative household surveys conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic in 2018 and during the pandemic in 2021 in Nigeria, we fitted Bayesian geostatistical models to map the distribution of three vaccination coverage indicators: receipt of DTP1, MCV1 and any of the four basic vaccines (BCG, OPV0, DTP1 and MCV1), and corresponding zero-dose estimates independently at 1x1 km resolution and the district level during both time periods. We also explored changes in the factors associated with non-vaccination at the national and regional levels using multilevel logistic regression models. Our results revealed no increases in zero-dose prevalence due to the pandemic at the national level, although considerable increases were observed in a few districts. We found substantial subnational heterogeneities in vaccination coverage and zero-dose prevalence both before and during the pandemic, showing broadly similar patterns in both time periods. Areas with relatively higher zero-dose prevalence occurred mostly in the north and a few places in the south in both time periods. We also found consistent areas of low coverage and high zero-dose prevalence using all three zero-dose indicators, revealing areas in greatest need. At the national level, risk factors related to socioeconomic/ demographic status (e.g., maternal education), maternal access to and utilization of health services and remoteness were strongly associated with the odds of zero dose in both time periods, while those related to communication were mostly relevant before the pandemic. These associations were also supported at the regional level, but we additionally identified risk factors specific to zero dose in each region; for example, communication and cross-border migration in the northwest. Our findings can help guide tailored strategies to reduce zero-dose prevalence and boost coverage levels in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii; rodents; rodent-borne diseases; environment contamination; biomonitoring; wildlife; molecular detection; PCR assay; nested-PCR assay prevalence; serological detection; agglutination test; ELISA method; seroprevalence
Online: 7 March 2023 (09:38:21 CET)
Rodents are known to be reservoirs of Toxoplasma gondii and keep the parasite circulation in the environment. We conducted biomonitoring to assess the role of sylvatic rodents in maintaining T. gondii and to analyse the prevalence and seroprevalence of the parasite in seven wild rodent species. Rodents were collected in our study sites (woodland and open grasslands) located in northeastern Poland and dissected. We collected brain, spleen, blood and serum samples. We applied both molecular (PCR assay, nested-PCR assay) and serological (ELISA and agglutination tests) methods to indicate the best approach for application in the biomonitoring of T. gondii in small mammals. We screened samples from 95 individuals sing PCR assays and found no T. gondii DNA. The agglutination test showed no signal. We found antibodies against T. gondii in 6 sera samples out of 74 analysed (seroprevalence = 8.11% [4.0-17.1]). Our results confirm that rodents participate in the life cycle of T. gondii as reservoirs of this parasite in the sylvatic environment. However, biomonitoring should be performed with the ELISA tests to search for T. gondii antigens, rather than a molecular approach only.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0419.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Intimate partner violence; Domestic violence; Prevalence rates, forms of IPV (physical, sexual, emotional, economic); Risk factors; cultural attitudes towards violence and gender roles, GCC, Arab, Khaliji
Online: 17 April 2023 (07:22:16 CEST)
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), locally known as Khaliji, is a group of six Arab nations, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health concern in the GCC region, but the research that synthesized the trend has received scant attention. The present narrative review examines existing research on the prevalence and frequency of IPV among Khaliji women in GCC nations. This review synthesized studies on physical violence, sexual violence, emotional abuse, and controlling behaviors perpetrated by an intimate partner. The prevalence rates of IPV among Khaliji women are observed to be high: women reported facing different types of abuse from their partners, namely physical (7% - 71%), sexual (3.7% - 81%), financial (21.3% - 26%) and psychological (7.5% - 89%), which is a culmination of controlling behavior (36.8%), emotional (22% - 69%) and social violence (34%). The extant studies in the GCC suggest that the most endorsed IPV was psychological abuse (89%) followed by sexual violence (81%). Qualitative content analysis of the associated factors resulted in four meaningful descriptors such as demographics of the victim, sociocultural factors, socioeconomic, and perpetrator-related issues. The study on IPV is still nascent and few. The way forward will require developing culturally appropriate interventions that address unique risk factors for IPV among Khaliji populations, strengthening institutional responses, and increasing awareness and social support for the victim of IPV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1497.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19); Emergency Use Authorization (EUA); false negative (FN); false omission rate (RFO); point-of-care testing (POCT); prevalence boundary (PB); rapid antigen test (RAgT); repeated testing; sensitivity and specificity; tier
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:25:00 CEST)
Abstract: A prevalence boundary (PB) marks the point in prevalence where the false omission rate, RFO=FN/(TN+FN), exceeds the tolerance limit for missed diagnoses. Objectives were to mathematically analyze rapid antigen test (RAgT) performance, determine why PBs are breeched, and evaluate the merits of testing three times over five days, now required by the US Food and Drug Administration for asymptomatic persons. Equations were derived to compare test performance patterns, calculate PBs, and perform recursive computations. An independent July 2023 FDA-university-commercial evaluation of RAgTs provided performance data used in theoretical calculations. Tiered sensitivity/specificity comprise: Tier-1) 90%, 95%; Tier-2) 95%, 97.5%; and Tier-3) 100%, ≥99%, respectively. Repeating a T2 test improves the PB from 44.6% to 95.2% (RFO 5%). In the FDA-university-commercial evaluation, RAgTs generated sensitivity of 34.4%, which improved to 55.3% when repeated, then 68.5% with the third test. With RFO=5%, PBs were 7.37/10.46/14.22%, respectively. PB analysis suggests RAgTs should achieve clinically proven sensitivity of 91.0-91.4%. When prevalence exceeds PBs, missed diagnoses can perpetuate virus transmission. Repeating low-sensitivity RAgTs delays diagnosis. In homes, high-risk settings, and hotspots, PB breaches may prolong contagion, defeat mitigation, facilitate new variants, and transform outbreaks into endemic disease. Molecular diagnostics can help avoid these potential vicious cycles
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Emergency Use Authorization; endemic; false omission; false omission rate; home testing; point-of-care testing (POCT); positive predictive value geometric mean-squared; prevalence boundary; recursive protocol; tier; visual logistics
Online: 30 April 2022 (08:42:08 CEST)
Goals: To use visual logistics for interpreting COVID-19 molecular and rapid antigen test (RAgT) performance, determine prevalence boundaries where risk exceeds expectations, and evaluate benefits of recursive testing along home, community, and emergency spatial care paths. Methods: Mathematica/open access software helped graph relationships, compare performance patterns, and perform recursive computations. Results: Tiered sensitivity/specificity comprise: T1) 90%/95%; T2) 95%/97.5%; and T3) 100%/≥99%, respectively. In emergency medicine, median RAgT performance peaks at 13.2% prevalence, then falls below T1, generating risky prevalence boundaries. RAgTs in pediatric ERs/EDs parallel this pattern with asymptomatic worse than symptomatic performance. In communities, RAgTs display large uncertainty with median prevalence boundary of 14.8% for 1/20 missed diagnoses, and at prevalence >33.3-36.9% risk 10% false omissions for symptomatic subjects. Recursive testing improves home RAgT performance. Home molecular tests elevate performance above T1, but lack adequate validation. Conclusions: Widespread RAgT availability encourages self-testing. Asymptomatic RAgT and PCR-based saliva testing present the highest chance of missed diagnoses. Home testing twice, once just before mingling, and molecular-based self-testing help avoid false omissions. Community and ER/ED RAgTs can identify contagiousness in low prevalence (<22%). Real-world trials of performance, cost-effectiveness, and public health impact could identify home molecular diagnostics as the optimal diagnostic portal.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci2030068
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; pooling clinical trials; hyperinfection; steroids; treatment; targeted healthcare; population health management; cancer treatment; clinical research; clinical trials; developing vaccines; ranking and rating hospital quality; school closures; interventions for delirium; assessments of COVID-19 death inequities; regulatory safeguards; preventing child abuse and maltreatment; prevalence of health care worker burnout; nursing home ratings; challenging oncology practice; addressing racial; ethnic; social and economic divides; violence against sexual minority adolescents; primary tumors; metastasis; stages of cancer; reforming cancer clinical trials; supporting carers; protection and prevention; benign and malignant tumors; reforming cancer clinical trials; protection of healthcare personnel; comparing excess deaths in NYC; 1918 influenza pandemic; the possibility of full recovery from COVID-19; mental health impact of COVID-19 on young adults; ranking and rating nursing home quali
Online: 21 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease has wreaked havoc on the world community in terms of every imaginable parameter. The research output on COVID-19 has been nothing short of phenomenal, especially in the medical and biomedical sciences, where the search for a potential vaccine is being conducted in earnest. Much of the advanced research has been distributed in the leading medical journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), where the latest research is distributed on a daily basis. The purpose of this paper is to provide some perspectives on 44 interesting and highly topical research papers that have been published in JAMA, at the time of writing, within the past two weeks. The diverse topics include public health, general medicine, internal medicine, oncology, paediatrics, geriatrics, and biostatistics.