ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: pregnant and non-pregnant women; health behaviours; preconceptional lifestyle; personal values; symbols of happiness
Online: 28 December 2017 (03:34:01 CET)
Preconception lifestyle modification and reducing several known risk factors may have an influence on the future pregnancy outcome. The aim of the study was to analyse health behaviour and personal values, as well as to assess the relationship of these factors in women without children, in pregnant ones and in women who had already delivered babies. The questionnaire survey included Health Behaviour Inventory (HBI), Personal Value List (PVL) and the sociodemographic data and was conducted in 538 women. These women were divided into 3 groups: women who recently delivered (n = 235), pregnant women (n = 121) and childless women (n = 182). Pregnant women demonstrated a significantly higher level of declared health behaviours and also they rated higher subscales values "positive mental attitude" and "health practices" in comparison to women who recently delivered and to childless women. In all tested groups the highest rated personal value was "a successful family life", while the most appreciated symbol of happiness was "love and friendship". Our results suggest that the system of values and the perception of happiness symbols may influence women's health behaviours. Positioning “health” in the hierarchy of personal values as the most important one may facilitate introduction of healthy behaviours. This in turn could reduce several adverse pregnancy outcomes that are potentially modifiable with changing preconception health attitudes. Our results also identify several unanswered questions and highlights areas where new research is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pica; iron deficiency anemia; Relationship; pregnant women
Online: 7 July 2021 (07:54:39 CEST)
INTRODUCTION. The most common cause of eating non-food items (pica) is specific deficiencies of minerals, such as iron. This study aimed to assess the relationship between Pica and Iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women. METHODS. The study was conducted in the out-patient department, antenatal Clinic at East Jeddah Hospital from July to September 2020. Design: A quantitative descriptive correlation design. Sample size: A total of 400 pregnant women, included anemic pregnant women, ≥ 18 years old, with singleton fetus and iron deficiency anemia. RESULTS. The mean age was 32.2 ± 6.6, half of the participants reported food cravings. Ice was the main item in pica followed by clay and chalk. Two-thirds had pica, more than half during the 1st trimester. There is a statistically significant relationship between pica and the history of a family member, parity, and gravidity at (P< 0,001, P <0,001, P <0,005) respectively. Hb and hematocrit in relation to pica reflected a statistically significant relationship (P< 0,001) and (P< 0,001), respectively. The symptoms attributed to iron deficiency were significantly associated with pica (P< 0,006). CONCLUSION. The pica and iron deficiency anemia had a significant association with pregnant women in EJH. RECOMMENDATION. The follow-up visits should integrate the food behavior inquiry to check if the pica existing with anemic or non-anemic pregnant women. Also, increase the awareness among midwives-nurses about the prevalence of pica and iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0096.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis E; Associated risk factors; Pregnant women; Environment; Prevention; Senegal
Online: 7 June 2022 (08:06:52 CEST)
In West Africa, research on the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is barely covered despite the recorded outbreaks. The still low level of access to safe water and adequate sanitation is one of the main factors of HEV spread in developing countries. HEV infection induces acute or sub-clinical liver diseases with a mortality rate ranging from 0.5 to 4%. The mortality rate is more alarming (15 to 25%) among pregnant women, especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. Here, we conducted a multicentric socio-demographic and seroepidemiological survey of HEV in Senegal among pregnant women. A total of 1,227 consenting participants attending antenatal clinics responded to our questionnaire. Plasma samples were collected and tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG by using the WANTAI HEV-IgM and IgG ELISA assay. HEV global seroprevalence was 7.9% with 0.5% and 7.4% for HEV IgM and HEV IgG, respectively. One participant's sample was IgM/IgG positive, while four were declared indeterminate to anti-HEV IgM as per the manufacturer's instructions. From one locality to another, the seroprevalence of HEV antibodies varied from 0 to 1% for HEV IgM and from 1.5 to 10.5% for HEV IgG. The data also showed that seroprevalence varied significantly by marital status (p<0.0001), by the regularity of income (p=0.0043) and by access to sanitation services (p=0.0006). These data could serve as a basis to setup national prevention strategies focused on socio-cultural, environmental and behavioral aspects for a better management of HEV infection in Senegal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0667.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Zinc deficiency; children; non-pregnant women; national micronutrient status survey; Nepal
Online: 25 December 2020 (14:22:32 CET)
Zinc deficiency, a common malnutrition in children and women is a global public health problem.Burden of zinc deficiencyis more in countries with low meat and high cereal food consumption like Nepal. Nationally representative data on zinc status in Nepal is lacking at present. This study analysed the data from the recent Nepal National Micronutrient status survey 2016(NNMSS-2016) to determinethe prevalence of zinc deficiency and associated risk factors among children aged 6-59 months (n=1462) and non-pregnant women aged 15-49 years(n=1923) from three ecological zones, Hill, Terai, and Mountainof the country. Venous blood was collected from the participants to measure micronutrients such as zinc, markers of anaemia, vitamin A, and markers of inflammation. Stool was collected to assessthe soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and Helicobacterpylori infection. Socio-demographic, household and other relevant information were collected by a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the predictors of zinc deficiency among the participants.The overall zinc deficiency in children was found to be 22.9% while it was higher in non-pregnant women (24.7%). Predictors associated with zinc deficiency among enrolled children in the study were,living in rural areas (AOR=2.25, 95% CI, [1.13, 4.49]),occurrence of diarrhoea during the two weeks preceding the survey (AOR=1.57, 95% CI, [1.07, 2.30]), household wealth quintile (AOR= 0.48, 95% CI,[0.25, 0.92]) and vitamin A status (AOR=0.49, 95% CI,[0.28, 0.85]. Risk factors associated with zinc deficiency among the non-pregnant women were being underweight (AOR=1.60, 95% CI,[1.15, 2.23]), fever occurrence during two weeks preceding the survey (AOR=1.45, 95% CI,[ 1.06, 1.99]), H. pylori in the stool (AOR=1.32, 95% CI, [1.03, 1.70]), being rich (AOR=0.64, 95% CI,[0.42, 0.98]) and being in the risk of folate deficiency (AOR=0.60, 95% CI,[0.37, 0.96]). We conclude that community focused intervention programs including health and nutrition counselling and livelihood opportunities focusing groups at high-risk may improve the zinc status in Nepal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS); pregnant women; questionnaire; urinary cotinine; oxidative stress parameters
Online: 15 March 2019 (14:03:35 CET)
Abstract: Background: Exposure to ETS (Environmental Tobacco Smoke) is one of the most toxic environmental exposures. Objective: To investigate the impact of ETS on physiological, biochemical, psychological indicators, on the urine antioxidant capacity (AC) and oxidative damage to lipids in a pilot sample of healthy pregnant women. Methods: The exposure to ETS was investigated by a validated questionnaire, urine cotinine and the marker of oxidative damage to lipids - 8-isoprostane concentrations using an ELISA kit. Urine AC was determined by the spectrophotometric TEAC method. From the sample of pregnant women (n=319, average age 30.84 ± 5.09 years) in 80 the levels of cotinine and oxidative stress markers were analyzed. Results: From our sample, 5 % individuals (7.4 % objectified by cotinine) were current smokers and 25 % reported passive smoking in the household (18.8 % objectified by cotinine). The Kappa was 0.78 for smokers and 0.22 for ETS exposed non-smokers. Smokers as well as non-smokers had significantly higher (p<0.05) urine AC than ETS exposed non-smokers. Non-smokers had significantly lower levels of 8-isoprostane than smokers (p<0.01) and ETS-exposed non-smokers (p<0.05). Correlations between urine levels of cotinine and AC were positive in ETS exposed non-smokers. Conclusion: The harmful effect of active and passive smoking on oxidative stress parameters has been indicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0538.v1
Online: 22 June 2021 (10:22:56 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic put pregnant women in high risk, but behavioural changes has also led to lower rates of preterm births in high-income countries. The main goal in this article is to study the impact that COVID-19 pandemic is having on pregnancy control and outcomes. This is a joint analysis of two cohorts. A pre-pandemic one includes 969 pregnant women recruited in 2018. The pandemic cohort comprises 1168 pregnant women recruited in 2020. Information on demographic and socio-economic characteristics, reproductive history, characteristics of the current pregnancy and its outcome were obtained from medical records. Caesarean section was more frequent in the pre-pandemic cohort (24% vs. 18%, p = 0.004). Birth with less than 37 weeks of gestational age was more frequent in the pre-pandemic cohort (6% vs. 5%, p = 0.04). Weight at birth lower than 2500 grams occurred more frequently in the pre-pandemic cohort (9% vs. 6%, p = 0.001). Exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge was more frequent in the pandemic cohort than in the pre-pandemic one (60% vs. 54%, p = 0.005). We are reporting reductions in Caesarean section and preterm birth during the pandemic in a hospital located Northern of Spain. Further analysis would clarify if these lessening are related to changes in health-related behaviour or health-care functioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection; Liver; Pregnant Women; Cord blood; PBMCs (Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells); subclinical index
Online: 16 August 2022 (14:17:53 CEST)
BACKGROUND&AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major public health problem. The interaction between HBV and the host inflammatory response is an important factor contributing to liver damage and disease development. We compared the correlation between the subclinical index and PBMCs concentration in two groups of pregnant women (HBsAg positive), which are different in HBV DNA concentration in Vietnam. METHODS: The Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was run with 20 different clustering methods on data collected from 80 Vietnamese pregnant women and their babies (60/80 cord blood). RESULTS: In the high viral load group (HBV DNA ≥ 5x10^7 copies/ml), a strong correlation between CBMCs with serum maternal Haemoglobin concentration and maternal platelet and maternal ALT. Their R values are: -0.88, 0.82, and 0.84 with p=8.97E-03, 2.41E-02 and 1.75E-01, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found a significant correlation shift of subclinical index between the two groups, which may be important in diagnosing pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0401.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: pregnant women; quarantine; mental health; pandemic; survey
Online: 26 July 2022 (09:54:30 CEST)
The objective of this study was to compare the mental well-being of French women who were and were not pregnant during the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. We performed a nationwide online quantitative survey including all women between 18 and 45 years of age during the second and third weeks of global lockdown (March 25–April 07, 2020). The main outcome measures was the mental well-being measured by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS). This study analysed 275 responses from pregnant women and compared them with those from a propensity score–matched sample of 825 non-pregnant women. The median WEMWBS score was 49.0 and did not differ by pregnancy status. Women living in urban areas reported better well-being, while those with sleep disorders or who spent more than an hour a day watching the news reported poorer well-being. During the first lockdown in France, women had relatively low mental well-being scores, with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. More than ever, health-care workers need to find a way to maintain their support for women’s well-being. Minor daily annoyances of pregnancy, such as insomnia, should not be trivialised because they are a potential sign of poor well-being.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0248.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Case report; Covid-19; Critically ill; Pregnant; Invasive care
Online: 12 October 2020 (15:11:13 CEST)
In this retrospective report we present five cases of critically ill pregnant or newly delivered women positive for Covid-19 admitted to our obstetrical departments at Karolinska University Hospital. They compose 6% of eighty-three pregnant women that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the period March 25 to May 4, 2020. Three patients were at the time of admission in gestational week between 21+4 to 22+5 and treated during their antenatal period, meanwhile the other two were admitted within 1 week postpartum. All of them were in a need of intensive care, one was treated with high flow oxygen therapy, the other four with invasive mechanical ventilation (three with endotracheal intubation and one with extra corporeal membrane oxygenation). Age above thirty, overweight and gestational diabetes are notable factors in the cases presented. At the time of admission, they all presented with symptoms as fever, cough and dyspnea. Chest imaging with computer tomography scan was performed in each case and demonstrated multifocal pneumonic infiltrates in all of them but no pulmonary embolism was confirmed in any. Neither did the echocardiogram indicates any cardiomyopathy. Four of the patients have been discharged from the hospital, with an average of 20 hospital days. One antenatal pregnant woman needed prolonged ECMO therapy, in gestational week 27+3 she went into cardiac arrest, resulting in an urgent c-section on maternal indication. At the time of writing she is still hospitalized. In coherence with other published reports our cases indicate that critically ill pregnant women infected by SARS-Cov-2 may develop severe respiratory distress syndrome requiring prolonged intensive care. The material is limited for conclusions to be taken, more detailed information on symptoms, treatment, and outcomes for pregnant and postpartum women managed in intensive care is therefore needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0211.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: prediction; model; risk score; low birthweight; pregnant women; decision curve analysis
Online: 13 April 2020 (11:15:32 CEST)
At least one ultrasound is recommended to predict fetal growth restriction and low birthweight earlier in pregnancy. However, in low-income countries imaging equipment and trained manpower are scarce. Hence, we developed and validated a model and risk score to predict low birthweight using maternal characteristics during pregnancy, for use in resource limited settings. We conducted a prospective cohort study among 379 pregnant women in South Ethiopia. A step-wise multivariable analysis was done to develop the prediction model. To improve clinical utility, we developed a simplified risk score to classify pregnant women at high- or low-risk of low birthweight. The accuracy of the model was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) and calibration plot. We evaluated the clinical impact of the model using a decision curve analysis across various threshold probabilities. Age at pregnancy, underweight, anemia, height, gravidity, and presence of comorbidity remained in the final multivariable prediction model. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) of the model was 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.78 to 0.88). The decision curve analysis shows the model provides a higher net benefit across ranges of threshold probabilities. In general, this study showed the possibility of predicting low birthweight using maternal characteristics during pregnancy. The model could help to identify those at higher risk of having a low birthweight baby. This feasible prediction model would offer an opportunity to reduce obstetric-related complications and thus improving the overall maternal and child healthcare in low- and middle-income countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0028.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: pregnant mothers, physical activity; maternal wellbeing; antenatal mothers; newborn outcomes; m-health; low birth weight; small for gestation; gestation age; hemoglobin
Online: 1 November 2021 (17:50:14 CET)
Maternal and child nutrition has been a critical component of health, sustainable development, and progress in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). While a decrement in maternal mortality is an important indicator, simply surviving pregnancy and childbirth does not imply better maternal health. One of the fundamental obligations of nations under international human rights law is to enable mothers and teenage girls to endure pregnancy and delivery as an aspect of their enjoyment of reproductive and sexual health and rights and live a dignified life. The aim of this study was to discover the correlation between the Maternal Observation and Motivation (MOM) program and m-Health support for maternal and newborn health. A Comparative study was done among 109 pregnant mothers (study group-94; control group-102 mothers) with not less than 20 weeks of gestation. Maternal outcomes such as Hb, weight gain and newborn results like birth weight and crown- heel length was obtained on the baseline, 28 and 36 weeks of gestation. Other secondary data collected were abortion, stillbirth, low birth weight, major congenital malformations, twin or triplet pregnancies, physical activity and maternal wellbeing. The MOM intervention included initial face to face education, three in-person visits and eight virtual health coaching by WhatsApp. The baseline data on Hb of the mothers show that 31(32.98%) vs 27(28.72%) of the study and control group had anaemia, which improved to 27.66% and 14.98% among study group mothers at 28 and 36 weeks of gestation (p<0.001). The weight gain (p< 0.001), level of physical activity (p< 0.001), and maternal wellbeing (p< 0.01) also had significant differences after the Intervention. Even after controlling for potentially confounding variables, the maternal food practices regression model revealed that birth weight was directly correlated with consumption of milk (p 0.001), fruits (p 0.01), and green vegetables (p 0.05).As per the physical activity and maternal wellbeing regression model, the birth weight and crown heel length were strongly related with the physical activity and maternal wellbeing of mothers at 36 weeks of gestation (p <0.05). Combining the MOM intervention with standard antenatal care is a safe and effective way to improve maternal welfare while upholding pregnant mothers' human rights.