ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0072.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: IoT; Fungal disease forecast; Botrytis cinerea; Precise agriculture; Decision support
Online: 3 August 2021 (11:20:03 CEST)
This paper presents the evaluation of a fungal disease forecast model in vineyards for qualitative parameter analysis using the data from off the shelf sensors, i.e. temperature and air relative humidity, rain precipitation, and leaf wetness. The rules for the fungal disease models are digitalized as a decision support tool that serve as an indicator to farmers for the need of spraying of the chemical substances to ensure the best growing condition and suppress the level of parasites. The temperature and humidity contexts are used interchangeably in practice to detect the risk of the disease occurrence. By taking into account a number of influences on these parameters collected from the shelf sensors, new topics for research in the multidimensional field of precision agriculture emerge. In this study, the impact of the humidity is evaluated by assessing how different humidity parameters correlate with the accuracy of the Botrytis cinerea fungi forecast. Each humidity parameter has it’s own threshold that triggers the second step of the disease modeling - risk index based on the temperature. The research showed that for humidity a low-cost relative humidity sensor can detect in average 14.61% risk values, a leaf wetness sensor an additional 3.99% risk cases, and finally, a precipitation sensor will detect only an additional 0.59% risk cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0349.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: Time Frequency Transfer; Precise Point Positioning; Ambiguity Resolution (AR); Analysis Center (AC)
Online: 24 October 2022 (05:33:45 CEST)
These days, numerous organizations and Analysis Centers (AC) offer various Ambiguity Resolution (AR) products using various methodologies. To use it for time-frequency transfer, there is no associated study. This paper chooses 16 MGEX stations with external high-precision atomic clocks to constitute 15 international time comparison links and uses AR products data from CNES, SGG, CODE, and PRIDE laboratory, using three ambiguity-fixed strategies, to thoroughly evaluate the effects of various strategies and AR products for high-precision time-frequency transfer. We reach the following results by using the IGS final clock product as a reference and comparing it to ambiguity-float. With various ambiguity-fixed procedures, the time stability STD of time transfer is increased for a single GPS, and the improvement ranges from 10% to 40%. The frequency stability has barely improved; up to 40%, the most notable improvement comes from FCB with GRM products. The time stability STD of combinations has improved after the addition of the Galileo system compared to the single GPS, and the improvement ranges from 2% to 9%. Most strategies have improved, while a few techniques have weakened with the GEC (GPS+Galileo+BDS) combination. We feel that the stability has not significantly increased with the system's increase within short-term stability after comparing multiple groups of linkages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0358.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: BDS-3; Time transfer; Precise point positioning; Single frequency; Group and Phase Ionospheric Correction (GRAPHIC)
Online: 24 October 2022 (10:01:41 CEST)
In this paper, four types of open service signals of BDS-3 satellite (B1I, B1C, B2a, and B3I) and B2I signals broadcasted by BDS-2 satellites were used in the time frequency transfer and positioning experiments with signal coexisting in BDS system, and the single frequency PPP (precise point positioning) method was used. Modified GRoup And PHase Ionospheric Correction (GRAPHIC) method was proposed and verified by the experiment. The results show that 18 selected stations can achieve decimeter-level positioning results with single frequency. Compared with the general observation method, the proposed modified GRAPHIC method improves the stability and precision of positioning and timing significantly, and the positioning accuracy of 5 frequency signals is increased 40.4%, 32.2%, 80.3%, 12.4%, and 10.3%, respectively. The frequency stability can reach the same accuracy as that of dual-frequency with BDS in the current state.