ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0440.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: infectious diseases; chikungunya; antiviral; flavonoids; fisetin; toll-like receptors
Online: 28 September 2022 (12:15:36 CEST)
In the chronic phase of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, excessive inflammation manifests as incapacitating joint pain and prolonged arthritis. Arthritis resulted from a large influx of infiltrating immune cells driven by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines originating from the toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate antiviral response. This study investigated fisetin's ability to modulate TLR-mediated antiviral responses against CHIKV in Huh7 cells. The CHIKV inhibitory potential of fisetin was assessed by plaque-forming unit assay, virus yield reduction assay, and bright-field microscopy (cytopathic effect, immunofluorescence). Fisetin’s modulatory potential on TLR-mediated antiviral response was evaluated by immunofluorescence assay (expression of TLR proteins), qRT-PCR (mRNA level of antiviral genes), human cytokine array, and immunoblotting of key transcription factors. The present study showed fisetin induced the expression of the antiviral genes at an early time-point by promoting the phosphorylation of IRF3 and IRF7. Fisetin reduced excessive inflammatory cytokine responses in CHIKV-infected Huh7 cells by impeding the over-phosphorylation of NF-κB. Fisetin also reduced CHIKV-induced cytopathic effects in CHIKV-infected Huh7 cells. Altogether, our study suggests that fisetin modulates TLR-mediated antiviral responses by affecting the CHIKV-induced inflammatory responses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0492.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; antiviral; therapeutics; natural products; traditional Chinese medicines; plant extracts
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:34:31 CEST)
Despite the fact that COVID-19 treatment and management are now considerably regulated, SARS-CoV-2 is still one of the leading causes of death in 2022. The availability of COVID-19 vaccines, FDA-approved antivirals, and monoclonal antibodies in low-income countries still poses an issue to be addressed. Natural products, particularly traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and medicinal plant extracts (or their active component) have challenged the dominance of drug repurposing and synthetic compound libraries in COVID-19 therapeutics. Abundant resources and excellent antiviral performance make natural products a relatively cheap and easily available alternative for COVID-19 therapeutics. Here, we deliberately review the anti-SARS-CoV-2 mechanisms of the natural products, their potency (pharmacological profiles), and application strategies for COVID-19 intervention. In light of their advantages, this review is intended to acknowledge the potential of natural products as COVID-19 therapeutic candidates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: influenza A virus; avian influenza virus; virus tropism in human; antiviral; vaccine
Online: 6 February 2023 (06:03:08 CET)
A pandemic happens when a novel influenza A virus is able to infect and transmit efficiently to a new, distinct host species. Although the exact timing of pandemics is uncertain, it is known that both viral and host factors play a role in their emergence. Species-specific interactions between the virus and the host cell determine the virus tropism. These include binding and entering cells, replicating the viral RNA genome within the host cell nucleus, assembling, maturing, and releasing the virus to neighbouring cells, tissues, or organs before transmitting it between individuals. Influenza has a vast and antigenically varied reservoir. In wild aquatic birds, the infection is typically asymptomatic. Avian influenza virus (AIV) can cross into new species, and occasionally, it can acquire the ability to transmit from human to human. A pandemic might occur if a new influenza virus acquires enough adaptive mutations to maintain transmission between people. This review highlights the key determinants AIV must achieve to initiate a human pandemic and describes how AIV mutates to establish tropism and stable human adaptation. Understanding the tropism of AIV may be crucial in preventing virus transmission in humans and may help design vaccines, antivirals and therapeutic agents against the virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0906.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Infectious Diseases; Arboviruses; Dengue Virus; Baicalin; Baicalein
Online: 13 June 2023 (08:49:48 CEST)
Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family and is responsible for the most common mosquito-borne human disease. Currently, there are no available antiviral drugs to treat DENV infections. However, certain flavonoids, including baicalein and baicalin, have demon-strated significant anti-DENV effects in vitro. This study aimed to assess the bioavailability of baicalein and its metabolite, baicalin, in the blood serum of Albino Wistar rats using the LC/MS/MS method. The in vitro activity of sera obtained from rats administered baicalein was evaluated for its anti-DENV properties using quantitative RT-PCR and the Foci Forming Reduction Assay (FFRA). The results obtained through LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that the bioavailability of baicalin in rat blood serum reached 44.20 µg/ml one hour after oral administration of baicalein. Furthermore, the sera collected from rats given baicalein exhibited a significant 78.26% inhibition of DENV-2 replication when tested against Dengue-2 using both quantitative RT-PCR and FFRA. These findings suggest that baicalein and baicalin hold promise as potential therapeutic candidates for further investigation in the development of treatments against DENV infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0247.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Antivirals; arbovirus; dengue virus; Streptomyces; virus replication
Online: 15 February 2023 (01:51:33 CET)
Dengue has long been a serious health burden to the global community, especially for those living in the tropics. In spite of the availability of vaccines, effective treatment for the infection is still needed and currently remained absent. In the present study, antiviral properties of the KSF 103 ME which consisted of a number of potential antiviral compounds were investigated against DENV-2. The effects of this extract against DENV-2 replication were determined using the qRT-PCR. Findings from the study suggested that the KSF 103 ME showed maximum inhibitory properties toward the virus during the virus entry stage at concentrations of more than 12.5 µg/mL. Minimal antiviral activities were observed at other virus replication stages; adsorption (42% reduction at 50 µg/mL), post-adsorption (67.6% reduction at 50 µg/mL), prophylactic treatment (68.4% and 87.7% reductions at 50 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL, respectively) and direct virucidal assay (48% and 56.8% reductions at 50 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL, respectively. The KSF 103 ME inhibited dengue virus repication with an IC50 value of 20.3 µg/mL and SI value of 38.9. The KSF 103 ME showed potent antiviral properties against DENV during the entry stage. Further studies will be needed to deduce the antiviral mechanisms of the KSF 103 ME against DENV.