ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0488.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: renewable energy; startups; affordability; current condition; future potential
Online: 22 August 2020 (03:34:55 CEST)
India’s energy needs are in demand with the increase in energy and other electric uses which is highest among the world. There are sectors which heavily rely on energy generated by fossil fuels but there is also seen a paradigm shift towards renewable energy sources. If India continues to rely on the former then they end up blocking development in energy system meeting uncertainties and face difficulties in supply of fossil fuels. To meet the fast-growing economy, India needs to supply the energy 3-4 times more of what they are supplying now. Government of India has become aware of the situation and has started facilitating polices in action towards a sustainable energy. As of 2019, India’s on grid renewable energy capacity is 85.9 GW. Government is working to establish 500 GW of renewable energy source by 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0559.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: minimum gravitational potential; Mercury's orbit; mass-energy space; function space
Online: 30 November 2021 (11:27:58 CET)
After proposing the Principle of Minimum Gravitational Potential, in a pursuit to find the explanation behind the correction to Newton's gravitational potential that accounts for Mercury's orbit, by finding all the higher-order corrections it is shown that the consequences of the existence of speed of light for gravity are not yet fully explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0196.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy systems; land eligibility; Onshore wind energy; technical potential; economic potential; simulation
Online: 17 December 2018 (11:12:51 CET)
Considering the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, onshore wind energy is certain to play a major role in future energy systems. This topic has received significant attention from the research community, producing many estimations of Europe's onshore wind potential for capacity and generation. Despite this focus, previous estimates have relied on distribution assumptions and simulation schemes that summarily under predict both the amount of available future wind capacity as well as its performance. Foremost in this regard is the common use of contemporary, or at least near-future, turbine designs which are not fitting for a far-future context. To fulfill this role, an improved, transparent, and fully reproducible work flow is presented for determining European onshore wind potential. Within a scenario of turbine cost and design in 2050, 13.5 TWof capacity is found to be available, allowing for 34.4 PWh of generation. By sorting the explicitly-placed potential generation locations by their expected generation cost, national relations between turbine cost and performance versus a desired capacity are exposed. In this way, it is shown that all countries possess some potential for onshore wind energy generation below 4 €ct kWh-1. and, furthermore, that it is unlikely for these costs to exceed 6 €ct kWh-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0082.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: current source; diode; divergent current density; new superconductivity type; zero voltage; symmetric electric circuit; Meissner effect; electric potential; vector potential; Lorentz conservation law
Online: 4 July 2019 (17:26:56 CEST)
This paper proposes a method of extracting energy from zero-point energy and evaluates the amount of energy gained. In addition, this electric circuit-based approach exhibits the Meissner effect, suggesting a new type of superconductivity that does not require refrigeration. The proposed method can provide extremely large amounts of energy, which is more than a conventional power station, without consuming fossil fuels or emitting radiation. Thus, it has the potential to solve the global energy problem. It involves preparing two electric loops containing diodes and connecting the loops together with current sources. The diodes are oriented in the same direction within each loop but in opposite directions in different loops. With this setup, the currents from the current sources build iteratively within the loops, resulting in large output currents. Our numerical analysis indicates that extremely large electric potentials are produced, which in turn yield large output currents. In addition, we confirm numerically that the voltage is zero around a loop and show analytically that the Meissner effect is present, proving the existence of a new type of superconductivity. Furthermore, when we introduce induction coils to not break the loop’s symmetry, they store extremely large amounts of energy and we can thus obtain energy from them via discharge currents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0223.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Renewable energy; land eligibility analysis; onshore wind; open-field photovoltaics; Mexico; renewable potential; technical potential
Online: 9 July 2021 (13:23:51 CEST)
Due to the increasing global importance of decarbonizing human activities, especially the production of electricity, the optimal deployment of renewable energy technologies will play a crucial role in future energy systems. To accomplish this, particular attention must be accorded to the geospatial and temporal distribution of variable renewable energy sources (VRES) such as wind and solar radiation in order to match electricity supply and demand. This study presents a techno-economical assessment of four energy technologies in the hypothetical context of Mexico in 2050, namely: onshore and offshore wind turbines, and open-field and rooftop photovoltaics. A land eligibility analysis incorporating physical, environmental, and socio-political eligibility constraints and individual turbine and photovoltaic park simulations, drawing on 39 years of climate data, is performed for individual sites across the country in an effort to determine the installable potential and the associated levelized costs of electricity. The results reveal that up to 54 PWh of renewable electricity can be produced as a cost of less than 70 EUR/MWh. Around 91% (49 PWh) of this would originate from 23 TW of open-field photovoltaic parks that could occupy up to 578,000 km2 of eligible land across the country. The remaining 9% (4.8 PWh) could be produced by 1.9 TW of onshore wind installations allocated to approximately 68,500 km2 of eligible land that is almost fully adjacent to three mountainous zones. The combination of rooftop photovoltaic and offshore wind turbines account for a very small share of less than 0.03% of the overall techno-economical potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0414.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Elasticity; Machine learning; Minimum potential energy; Partial differential equations (PDEs); Physics-informed neural network
Online: 30 June 2022 (04:25:56 CEST)
The deep energy method (DEM) employs the principle of minimum potential energy to train neural network models to predict displacement at a state of equilibrium under given boundary conditions. The accuracy of the model is contingent upon choosing appropriate hyperparameters. The hyperparameters have traditionally been chosen based on literature or through manual iterations. The displacements predicted using hyperparameters suggested in the literature do not ensure the minimum potential energy of the system. Additionally, they do not necessarily generalize to different load cases. Selecting hyperparameters through manual trial and error and grid search algorithms can be highly time-consuming. We propose a systematic approach using the Bayesian optimization algorithms and random search to identify optimal values for these parameters. Seven hyperparameters are optimized to obtain the minimum potential energy of the system under compression, tension, and bending loads cases. In addition to Bayesian optimization, Fourier feature mapping is also introduced to improve accuracy. The models trained using optimal hyperparameters and Fourier feature mapping could accurately predict deflections compared to finite element analysis for linear elastic materials. The deflections obtained for tension and compression load cases are found to be more sensitive to values of hyperparameters compared to bending. The approach can be easily extended to 3D and other material models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0040.v3
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: hard coating; TiN; atomic nature; expansion-contraction; potential energy; force-energy behaviors; ground point; structure evolution
Online: 25 June 2018 (07:43:20 CEST)
Coatings of reliable materials of thickness in few atoms to several microns on a viable substrate is the basic need of society which attend regular attention of scientific community working in various fields. Decorative and protective coatings, transparent and insulating coatings, coatings of medical implants and surgical instruments, coatings for drug delivery and security purposes, ultra-precision machine coatings and coatings of other miscellaneous uses are in routine demand for research and commercial purposes. Different hard coatings develop with significant composition of different nature atoms where their force-energy behaviors when recovering certain transition states provide provision for electron of outer ring belonging to gas atom to react for another clamp of energy knot clamping unfilled state of outer ring belonging to solid atom. Set suitable process conditions regulate switching force-energy behaviors of different nature atoms, which are nearly opposite to the ones originally existing in them. Thus, different nature transition state atoms locate points of developing hard coating between their original ground points as the gaseous nature atoms increase their potential energy as per increasing the gravitational force exerting at electron level while the solid atoms decrease their potential energy as per decreasing the gravitational force exerting at electron level. Ti-atom to Ti-atom binding is taken place under the difference of expansion level of lattice in the just land atom and landed atom where the position of nitrogen atoms becomes nearly at their interstitial site. Thus, different nature transition state atoms accommodate to be deposited at substrate surface positioned in the deposition chamber under suitable set parameters. In random arc-based vapor deposition system, depositing different nature atoms at substrate surface depends on the supplied energy where non-conserved forces are remained engage to keep adherence. On undertaking electron (of gas atom), another clamp of energy knot (of solid atom) is being endorsed by the mutually adjusting expansion-contraction of lattices belonging to two different nature atoms developing structure in the form of hard coating, which is known since antiquity. Different properties and characteristics of hard coatings emerged as per engaged forces under the set conditions of involved energy. The present study sets new trends not only in the field of films and coatings but also in the diversified class of materials, wherever, atoms recall their roles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0474.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Offshore wind farm siting; Suitability maps; Geographical Information Systems (GIS); Multi-criteria; Analytic hierarchy process (AHP); Offshore wind energy potential.
Online: 18 December 2020 (14:54:47 CET)
Current global commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases encourage national targets for renewable generation. Due to its small land mass, offshore wind could help Bahrain to fulfill its obligations. However, no scoping study has yet been carried out. The methodology presented here addresses this research need. It employs Analytical Hierarchy Process and pairwise comparison methods in a Geographical Information Systems environment. Publicly available land use, infrastructure and transport data are used to exclude areas unsuitable for development due to physical and safety constraints. Meteorological and oceanic opportunities are ranked, then competing uses are analyzed to deliver optimal sites for wind farms. The potential annual wind energy yield is calculated by dividing the sum of optimal areas by a suitable turbine footprint, to deliver maximum turbine number. Ten favourable wind farm areas were identified in Bahrain’s territorial waters, representing about 4% of the total maritime area, and capable of supplying 2.68 TWh/yr of wind energy or almost 10% of the Kingdom’s annual electricity consumption. Detailed maps of potential sites for offshore wind construction are provided in the paper, giving an initial plan for installation in these locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0270.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: potential dependent special relativity; Gauss law; gravity; vacuum energy; Schrödinger equation; spherical symmetry
Online: 18 March 2022 (17:04:55 CET)
Potential dependent special relativity and Gauss's law for the electric field have been used for gravity by assuming vacuum energy to be generated when the energy is a minimum useful expression for vacuum energy has been found. This expression shows that elementary particles are generated by gravity vacuum filling their hollow balls; using Schrödinger equation for spherically symmetric particles vacuum energy is quantized. Treating mass as vibrating spheres thus solving Schrödinger, coordinate harmonic oscillator energy relation has been found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0036.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Quantum Theory; Double Potential Well; Phase-Amplitude Relations; Wave Function; Conditions of Log Analytical Uncertainty
Online: 5 January 2022 (11:35:52 CET)
We study the connection between the phase and the amplitude of the wave function and the conditions under which this relationship exists. For this we use model of particle in a box. We have shown that the amplitude can be calculated from the phase and vice versa if the log Analytical uncertainty relations are satisfied.
Subject: Keywords: energy system; energy policy; climate neutrality; renewable gas; biomethane; power-to-gas; technical potential; support level
Online: 19 March 2019 (10:30:53 CET)
Background: Mitigating climate change requires fundamentally redesigned energy systems in which renewable energy sources ultimately replace fossil fuels such as natural gas. In this context, the question how and to which extent the gas sector can contribute to an increasingly climate-neutral future EU energy system is heavily debated among scholars, energy industry experts and policy makers. Methods: We take a two-step approach: We begin with a review of studies from energy industry and academia to discuss potential gas sector contributions from a holistic energy system design point of view; this is followed by a comprehensive discussion of technical potentials, micro-economic conditions and societal implications of renewable gas. We then enrich our findings with the results of an empirical focus group process. Results: The gas sector can not only contribute to balancing volatile renewable energy production but also enable the supply of renewable energy to end-users in gaseous form; based on existing infrastructure. This could reduce costs for society, increase public acceptance and ultimately speed up the energy system transformation. There is the theoretical technical potential to substitute major parts of natural gas with renewable gas of biogenic and synthetic nature. This, however, crucially requires a supportive policy framework like the one established for renewable electricity. Conclusion: Given the societal benefits and the competitiveness of renewable gas as compared to renewable alternatives, energy policy makers should incorporate renewable gas and the existing gas infrastructure in the future energy system framework. The objective should be an optimized interplay of various energy vectors and their infrastructure along the entire energy supply chain. This requires a level playing field for different renewable technologies across different policy areas and a form of public support that strikes the balance between facilitating the gradual substitution of natural gas by renewable gas while maintaining public acceptance for this transformation despite higher costs for end-users.: Given the societal benefits and the competitiveness of renewable gas as compared to renewable alternatives, energy policy makers should incorporate renewable gas and the existing gas infrastructure in the future energy system framework. The objective should be an optimized interplay of various energy vectors and their infrastructure along the entire energy supply chain. This requires a level playing field for different renewable technologies across different policy areas and a form of public support that strikes the balance between facilitating the gradual substitution of natural gas by renewable gas while maintaining public acceptance for this transformation despite higher costs for end-users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0529.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: membrane potential; Nernst; Bernstein; action potential; propagation; theory
Online: 9 September 2020 (09:24:15 CEST)
Man has always been interested in animal electricity, which seems to be measured in every living cell. He has been fascinated by trying to elucidate the mechanisms by which this potential is created and maintained. Biology is the science that seeks to explain this mystery. Biology is based on basic sciences such as physics or chemistry. The latter, in turn, make systematic use of mathematics to measure, evaluate and predict certain phenomena and to develop "laws" and models that are as general as possible while respecting, as closely as possible, observations and facts. The Nernst equation was one of the pillars of electrochemistry. Biology also uses this same equation as one of the indispensable bases for the computation of membrane potential. Man has established a cellular model that highlights this equation in several forms. However, we are going to show by various means that this model is inadequate or even inapplicable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0200.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: membrane potential; Nernst equation; ion adsorption; surface charge; surface potential
Online: 16 May 2022 (08:12:52 CEST)
Although there is a common physiological notion that the origin of the membrane potential is attributed to transmembrane ion transport, it is theoretically possible to explain its generation by the mechanism of ion adsorption. It was previously suggested that the ion adsorption mechanism led even to the potential formulas which are even identical to either the famous Nernst equation or Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. Our further analysis shown in this paper indicates that the potential formula based on the ion adsorption mechanism leads to one equation which is the function of material surface charge density and the material surface potential. Furthermore, we confirmed that the equation holds in all the different experimental systems we studied. Although we have not succeeded in elucidating why such an equation is established, the equation appears to be the key equation governing the characteristics of the membrane potential regardless of the systems in question.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0257.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: divergent current density; new superconductivity; Meissner effect; new type of condensation; energy generation; electrostatic potential; independent current source; voltage-controlled current source; renewable energy
Online: 16 March 2020 (04:18:23 CET)
Societies around the world face serious energy problems related to the consumption of fossil fuels and the emission of dangerous radiation. To solve these problems, a new superconductor exhibiting a critical temperature higher than room temperature has been pursued but not achieved. This paper proposes a new energy generation system based on a circuit approach. Secondary to this process, a new type of superconductivity without refrigeration is demonstrated. In our previous paper , this system was proposed, but it did not describe the underlying theory in detail and did not mention an actual method to generate energy from the system. The present paper describes the theory of the existence of divergent current density and new superconductivity with no refrigeration. Moreover, the present paper proposes a method for extracting energy from the system by employing a voltage-controlled current source (i.e., a voltage–current converting method).The principle of the system is based on a circuit of two loops and independent current sources. First, the two electric loops are prepared, each with 4 diodes, where the diodes are oriented in the same direction within each loop, but their direction is opposite from loop to loop; four independent current sources connect the loops. In this circuit system, current is added iteratively as it flows along the loop according to Kirchhoff’s circuit law. As a result, a large current and electric potential are present along the loop. To confirm that this system works properly, it is necessary to demonstrate the presence of divergent currents in the transient state, and to do this, the present paper employs the Dirac equation and Lorentz conservation. Electric circuit software is employed to demonstrate that the presented method generates energy actually from our system.Our results confirm the presence of divergent current at a connected point of an independent current source in the transient state. Moreover, in the steady state, the theory demonstrates the Meissner effect (i.e., a London equation) and a new type of macroscopic wave function and condensation. For an initial small input current of 0.1 μA, the simulation reveals a large generating current of 7 kA and electric power of 1011 W, which is much larger than unit of power from an average thermal power station; moreover, the system presents with superconducting electrical transport conditions.The present study is significant because it demonstrates theoretically the existence of divergent current density and a new type of superconductivity requiring no refrigeration. Secondly, the simulations show the generation of a large energy density that can be obtained in a small laboratory room with minimal cost.
Subject: Keywords: membrane potential, constant electric field , resting potential, action potentia, GHK eq., HH model
Online: 22 June 2021 (16:03:03 CEST)
An embryonic version of membrane theory can be date back to the Bernstein's work reported more than a hundred years ago. Such an originally old work has evolved conceptually and mathematically up until today, and it plays a central role in current membrane theory. Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation (GHK eq.) is one of the math-based monumental works, which constitutes the present membrane theory. Goldman theoretically derived GHK eq., but its physiological meaning was provided by the two renowned scientists, Hodgkin and Katz. These two employed an assumption that the electric field (EF) across the plasma membrane is constant to validate the GHK eq. physiologically. Proposal of Hodgkin-Huxley model (HH model) is another math-based monumental works developed from the membrane theory and now forms a fundamental part of the current membrane theory. GHK eq. and HH model are quite fundamental central concepts in the current physiology. Despite the broad acceptance of GHK eq. at present time, its prerequisite that the EF within the plasma membrane is constant is hardly believable. Especially when the action potential is generated, it sounds totally nonsense. Furthermore, the existence of constant EF within the plasma membrane is conceptually almost in conflict with the HH model. The authors will discuss those problematic issues the membrane theory inherits.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: conservation tillage; water potential; water potential gradient; water transfer resistance; water use efficiency
Online: 9 August 2019 (04:11:21 CEST)
Water availability is a major constraint for spring wheat production on the western Loess Plateau of China. The impact of tillage practices on water potential, water potential gradient, water transfer resistance, yield, and water use efficiency (WUEg) of spring wheat was monitored on the western Loess Plateau in 2016 and 2017. Six tillage practices were assessed, including conventional tillage with no straw (T), no-till with straw cover (NTS), no-till with no straw (NT), conventional tillage with straw incorporated (TS), conventional tillage with plastic mulch (TP), and no-till with plastic mulch (NTP). No-till with straw cover, TP, and NTP significantly improved soil water potential and root water potential at the seedling stage and leaf water potential at the seedling, tillering, jointing, and flowering stages, compared to T. These treatments also significantly reduced the soil-leaf water potential gradient at the 0-10 cm soil layer at the seedling stage and at the 30-50 cm soil layer at flowering, compared to T. Thus, NTS, TP, and NTP reduced soil-leaf water transfer resistance and enhanced transpiration. Compared to T, the NTS, TP, and NTP treatments significantly increased biomass yield (BY) by 18, 36, and 40%, respectively, and grain yield (GY) by 28, 22, and 24%, respectively, with corresponding increases in WUEg of 24, 26, and 24%, respectively. These results demonstrate that NTS, TP, and NTP improved GY and WUEg of spring wheat by decreasing the soil-leaf water potential gradient and soil-leaf water transfer resistance and enhancing transpiration, and are suitable tillage practices for sustainable intensification of wheat production in semi-arid areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0157.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: airy beam; harmonic potential; dynamic linear potential; self-Fourier beam; phase; transition; soliton
Online: 20 March 2017 (09:48:40 CET)
Owing to the nondiffracting, self-accelerating, and self-healing properties, Airy beams of different nature have become a subject of immense interest in the past decade. Their interesting properties have opened doors to many diverse applications. Consequently, the questions of how to properly design spatial manipulation of Airy beams or how to implement them in different setups have become important and timely in the development of various optical devices. Here, based on our previous work, we present a short review on the spatial control of Airy beams, including the interactions of Airy beams in nonlinear media, beam propagation in harmonic potential, and the dynamics of abruptly autofocusing Airy beams in the presence of a dynamic linear potential. We demonstrate that under the guidance of nonlinearity and external potential, the trajectory, acceleration, structure, and even the basic properties of Airy beams can be adjusted to suit specific needs. We describe other fascinating phenomena observed with Airy beams, such as self-Fourier transformation, periodic inversion of Airy beams, and the appearance of spatial solitons in the presence of nonlinearity. These results have promoted the development of Airy beams, and have been utilized in various applications, including particle manipulation, self-trapping, and electronic matter waves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0510.v1
Online: 30 August 2022 (06:00:56 CEST)
The occurrence of potential spikes in a cell is a sign of life, and it is called action potential. There is a common notion that neuron signal conduction is the conduction of action potential. Hence, action potential is a typical and essential life activity. However, such potential spikes occur even in simple nonliving systems. According to the experimental observations by Pollack, structured water molecules can generate a negative potential environment. From this observation, the potential spike generation process for both living and nonliving systems caused by ion and water molecule adsorption-desorption process could be explained in this paper. So, taking into consideration the electrically neutral water molecules,the action potential generation mechanism could be explained. It is a fully inanimate model. Hence, the action potential may not be a life activity. Here, the role of water molecules in life is investigated further. It was found that the phase transition of the membrane is involved in the neuron signal conduction, but the membrane phase transition could be due to the change of state of the water molecules, which forms a large-scale structure in the cavities created by a number of lipids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0220.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: spontaneous potential logging; electrochemical potential; finite element method; numerical modelling; synthetic and practical data; clayey sandstone reservoir
Online: 14 December 2021 (08:01:45 CET)
(1) The article is devoted to the development of a theoretical and algorithmic basis for numerical modeling of the spontaneous potential method (SP) as applied to the study of sandy-argillaceous reservoirs. (2) In terms of coupled flows, we consider a physical-mathematical model of SP signals from an electrochemical source, with regard to the case of fluid-saturated shaly sandstone. (3) An algorithm for 2D finite-element modeling of SP signals was developed and implemented in software, along with its internal and external testing with analytical solutions. The numerical SP modeling was carried out, with determining the dependences on the reservoir thickness and porosity, the amount of argillaceous material and the type of minerals. We performed a comparative analysis of the simulated and field SP data, using the results of laboratory core examinations taken from wells in a number of fields in the Latitudinal Ob Region of Western Siberia. (4) The results of the study may be used either for the development of the existing SP techniques, by providing them with a consistent computational model, or for the design of new experimental approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: neurogenic potential; neurites; SCAPs; sphere; stem cells
Online: 5 August 2022 (09:59:07 CEST)
Abstract: Cell-based neural regeneration is challenging due to the difficulty in obtaining sufficient neural stem cells with clinical applicability. SCAPs originating from embryonic neural crest with high neurogenic potential could be a promising cell source for neural regeneration. This study aimed to investigate whether the formation of 3D spheres can promote SCAPs neurogenic potential. Material and methods: 3D SCAPs spheres were first generated in 256-well agarose microtissue mold. The spheres and single cells were individually cultured on collagen I coated μ-Slide for 4 and 7 days. Cell morphological changes, neural marker expression, and neurite outgrowth were evaluated under a confocal microscope. Secretion of BDNF and NGF-β was measured by ELISA kits. Results: Pronounced morphological changes were noticed in a time-dependent manner. The migrating cells’ morphology changed from fibroblast-like cells to neuron-like cells. Compared to the 2D culture, neurite length, number, and the expression of neural markers, including Nestin, β-tubulin III, NeuN, and MAP-2 were significantly increased in the 3D spheres, while the secretion of BDNF and NGF-β was markedly downregulated at day 7. Conclusion: The formation of 3D spheres enhanced the neurogenic potential of SCAPs, suggesting the advantage of using the 3D spheres of SCAPs for the treatment of neural diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0413.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: solenoidal field; potential field; Helmholmtz-Weyl decomposition
Online: 15 June 2021 (15:28:07 CEST)
There are given algebraic and integral identities for a pair or a triple of plane solenoidal fields. As applications, we obtain sufficient potentiality conditions for a plane vector field. The integral identities are also important for exact a priori estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0560.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: ae mutant; amylose; breeding potential; maize; SBEIIb
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:44:31 CEST)
Maize varieties with high amylose proportion are more valuable for starch industry. The SBEⅡb gene encodes one of the starch branching isozymes (SBEⅠ, SBEⅡa, and SBEⅡb). Its recessive mutant amylose-extender (ae/sbe2b) decreases the total activities of SBEs and increases amylose proportion up to 60%. Here, the breeding potential of introduced germplasm line GEMS-0067 was evaluated by genotyping and phenotyping. The deletion of the ninth exon of the SBEⅡb gene, high amylose proportion, and the typical irregular granules suggested that this germplasm line was derived from the same resource of high amylose line AE11. The gelatinization and thermal properties, and degree of polymerization of starch chain showed its advantages used for high amylose breeding. However, the negative correlation between amylose proportion and starch content, as well as ker-nel filling characteristics should be overcome during breeding process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0206.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Fractured media; Streaming potential; Electrical conductivity; Fractal
Online: 5 March 2021 (21:51:27 CET)
The electrokinetics methods have a great potential to characterize hydrogeological processes in geological media, especially in complex hydrosystems such as fractured formations. In this work, we conceptualize fractured media as a bunch of parallel capillary fractures following the fractal size distribution. This conceptualization permits to obtain analytical models for both the electrical conductivity and the electrokinetic coupling in water saturated fractured media. We explore two different approaches to express the electrokinetic coupling. First, we express the streaming potential coupling coefficient as a function of the zeta potential and then we obtain the effective charge density in terms of macroscopic hydraulic and electrokinetic parameters of porous media. We show that when the surface electrical conductivity is negligible, the proposed models reduces to the previously proposed one based on a bundle of cylindrical capillaries. This model opens up a wide range of applications to monitor the water flow in fractured media.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0510.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: gravitation; singular potential; global solutions; spiraling orbit
Online: 5 January 2021 (10:07:44 CET)
The usual equation for both motions of a single planet around the sun and electrons in the deterministic Rutherford-Bohr atomic model is conservative with a singular potential at the origin. When a dissipation is added, new phenomena appear which were investigated thoroughly by R. Ortega and his co-authors between 2014 and 2017, in particular all solutions are bounded and tend to $0$ for $t$ large, some of them with asymptotically spiraling exponentially fast convergence to the center. We provide explicit estimates for the bounds in the general case that we refine under specific restrictions on the initial state, and we give a formal calculation which could be used to determine practically some special asymptotically spiraling orbits. Besides, a related model with exponentially damped central charge or mass gives some explicit exponentially decaying solutions which might help future investigations. An atomic contraction hypothesis related to the asymptotic dying off of solutions proven for the dissipative model might give a solution to some intriguing phenomena observed in paleontology, familiar electrical devices and high scale cosmology
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0309.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: gravitation; singular potential; global solutions; spiraling orbit
Online: 16 December 2020 (10:09:41 CET)
The usual equation for both motions of a single planet around the sun and electrons in the deterministic Rutherford-Bohr atomic model is conservative with a singular potential at the origin. When a dissipation is added, new phenomena appear. It is shown that whenever the momentum is not zero, the moving particle does not reach the center in finite time and its displacement does not blow-up either, even in the classical context where arbitrarily large velocities are allowed. Moreover we prove that all bounded solutions tend to $0$ for $t$ large, and some formal calculations suggest the existence of special orbits with an asymptotically spiraling exponentially fast convergence to the center.
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: polymer solution; critical micellization concentration; Zeta Potential
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:29:49 CEST)
The interaction of solution of poly (diallyldimethylammonium) chloride, PDADMAc and sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS has been studied using conductometric, densimeter and zeta potential methods. the critical micellization concentration (cmc) was determinated with conductance results and increased with the addition of PDADMAc comparing with solutions containing pure SDS. Further the degree of dissociation, and thermodynamic parameters viz. free energy of micellization, and entropy of micellization, has been evaluated. there results demonstrated that surfactant/polymer complex is governed by both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The apparent molar volume, Vϕ and adiabatic compressibility, Kϕ;s have been determined for the SDS solution from density and speed sound data. the negative charge of the SDS solutions with polymer shows that these complexes probably do not contain surfactant in the form of micelles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0356.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: potential; groundwater; geoelectrical; chemical parameter; physical parameter
Online: 30 October 2019 (10:20:22 CET)
The purpose of this study was to recommend to the government about the appropriate land use based on geoelectric and hydrochemical works. The results were supposed to be used as models for effective land use. During the study, a groundwater survey using a geoelectrical method was conducted and was used to map an aquifer flow. In general, Solok groundwater mapping was meant to provide information necessary to optimize follow-up activities for the use of clean water. It was also intended to minimize the negative impacts of exploitation and utilization of groundwater. This research aimed to provide information on groundwater conditions in Solok. It focused on the survey of groundwater sources, the inversion of measurement data on Sclumberger electrode configuration geoelectric in thirteen districts, and chemical analysis of pH, Fe, Nitrite, and DHL. The results show there was a great potential for groundwater-unconfined aquifers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0103.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: cross sections; molecular beam scattering; charge trasfer; coupled cluster; excited states; ionization potential; electron affinity; interaction potential; stereoselectivity
Online: 10 November 2019 (09:53:18 CET)
In order to clarify the nature of the halogen bond (XB), we considered the prototype noble gas – dihalogen molecule (Ng-X2) systems, focusing on the nature, range and strength of the interaction. We exploited data gained from molecular beam scattering experiments with the measure of interference effects to obtain a suitable formulation of the interaction potential, with the support of high-level ab initio calculations, and charge displacement analysis. The essential interaction components involved in the Ng-X2 adducts have been characterized, pointing at their critical balance in the definition of the XB. Particular emphasis is devoted to the energy stability of the orientational Ng-X2 isomers, the barrier for the X2 hindered rotation, and the influence of the X2 electronic state. The present integrated study returns reliable force fields for molecular dynamics simulations in Ng-X2 complexes that can be extended to systems with increasing complexity and whose properties depend on the selective formation of XB.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: carbon; atomic structure; electron-dynamics; potential energy; force-exertion; atomic binding
Online: 17 May 2019 (08:36:23 CEST)
Many studies discuss carbon-based materials because of the versatility of its element. They include different opinions for scientific problems and discuss fairly at convincing and compelling levels within the scope and application. A gas-state carbon atom converts into various states depending on its conditions of processing. The electron transfer mechanism in the gas-state carbon atom is responsible to convert it into various states, namely, graphite, nanotube, fullerene, diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene. The shape of ‘energy trajectory’ enables transferring electrons from the left- and right-sides of an atom is like a parabola. That ‘energy trajectory’ is linked to states (filled state and suitable nearby unfilled state) where force-exertion along the poles of transferring electrons is remained balance. So, the mechanism of originating different states of a gas-state carbon atom is under the involvement of energy first. This is not the case for atoms executing confined inter-state electron-dynamics as the force is involved first. Graphite-, nanotube- and fullerene-state atoms ‘partially evolve partially develop’ (form) their structures. These possess one-dimensional, two-dimensional and four-dimensional ordering of atoms, respectively. Their structural formation also comprises ‘energy curve’ having a shape-like parabola. Transferring suitable filled state electron to suitable nearby unfilled state is under a balance force exerting along the poles. The graphite structure under only attained-dynamics of atoms can also be formed but in two-dimension. Here, binding energy between graphite-state carbon atoms is for a small difference of exerting forces along their opposite poles. Structural formation in diamond, lonsdaleite and graphene atoms involve energy to gain required infinitesimal displacements of electrons through which they maintain orientationally-controlled exerting forces along dedicated poles. In this study, the growth of diamond is found to be south to east-west (ground) where atoms bound ground to south. Thus, diamond atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to south topological structure. Lonsdaleite atoms merge for a bi-electron ground to just-south topological structure. The growth of graphene is found to be north to ground where atoms bound ground to north. Thus, graphene atoms merge for a tetra-electron ground to north topological structure. Glassy carbon exhibits layered-topological structure where, tri-layers of gas-, graphite- and lonsdaleite-state atoms successively bind in repetitive order. Nanoscale hardness is also sketched based on different force-energy behaviors of different state carbon atoms. Here, structure evolution in each carbon state atom explores its own science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0160.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: membrane pump theory; membrane potential; diffusion; Biophysics; Biology
Online: 11 February 2022 (10:27:36 CET)
The generation and maintenance of membrane potential is a fundamental part of Membrane Pump Theory. One of the key points of this hypothesis is based on a natural or facilitated molecular diffusion through several types of ion channels and pumps like the Na/K ATPase. Chemistry, physics and especially electrochemistry, however, bring strong contradictions to this theoretical assumption. By respecting the principles of chemistry and electrostatics, it becomes obvious that this theoretical hypothesis cannot work. The ionic diffusion that would be at the origin of this potential cannot take place. Indeed, the topology and the forces involved definitively exclude the current model, which must absolutely be revised according to the current state of our knowledge and allow an advance in the understanding of the phenomena and open new research perspectives.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: positron; model potential; wavepacket propagation; vibrational cross section
Online: 7 September 2021 (12:00:07 CEST)
The vibrational excitation cross section of a diatomic molecule by positron impact is obtained using wavepacket propagation techniques. The dynamics was carried on a two-dimensional potential energy surface which couples a hydrogen-like harmonic oscillator to a positron via a spherically symmetric correlation polarization potential. The cross section for the excitation of the first vibrational mode is in good agreement with previous reports. Our model suggests that a positron couples to the target vibration by responding instantly to an interaction potential which depends on the target vibrational coordinate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0092.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: petroleum; metagenomics; core microbiota, functional potential, oil fields
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:29:57 CEST)
Microorganisms inhabiting subsurface petroleum reservoirs are key players in biochemical transformations. The interactions of microbial communities in these environments are highly complex and still poorly understood. This work aimed to assess publicly available metagenomes from oil reservoirs and implement a robust pipeline of genome-resolved metagenomics to deci-pher metabolic and taxonomic profiles of petroleum reservoirs worldwide. Analysis of 301,2 Gb of metagenomic information derived from heavily flooded petroleum reservoirs in China and Alaska to non-flooded petroleum reservoirs in Brazil enabled us to reconstruct 148 MAGs of high and medium quality. At the phylum level, 74% of MAGs belonged to bacteria and 26% to ar-chaea. The profiles of these MAGs were related to the physicochemical parameters and recovery management applied. The analysis of the potential functional core in the reservoirs showed that the microbiota was specialized for each site, with 31.7% of the total KEGG orthologies annotated as functions (1,690 genes) common to all oil fields, while 18% of the functions were site-specific, i.e., present only in one of the oil fields. The oil reservoirs with lower level of intervention were the most similar to the potential functional core, while the oil fields with longer history of water in-jection had greater variation in functional profile. These results show how key microorganisms and their functions respond to the distinct physicochemical parameters and interventions of the oil field operations such as water injection and expand the knowledge of biogeochemical trans-formations in these ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Climate Change Scenario; Generation Potential; Hydropower; Renewable Energy
Online: 10 March 2021 (16:08:37 CET)
The interest in renewable energy to replace fossil fuel is increasing as the problem caused by climate change become more severe. Small hydropower (SHP) is evaluated as a resource with high development value because of its high energy density compared to other renewable energy sources. SHP may be an attractive and sustainable power generation environmental perspective because of its potential to be found in small rivers and streams. The power generation potential could be estimated based on the discharge in the river basin. Since the river discharge depends on the climate conditions, the hydropower generation potential changes sensitively according to climate variability. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the SHP potential in consideration of future climate change. In this study, the future prospect of SHP potential is simulated for the period of 2021 to 2100 considering the climate change in three hydropower plants of Deoksong, Hanseok, and Socheon stations, Korea. As the results, SHP potential for the near future (2021 to 2040) shows a tendency to be increased and the highest increase is 23.4% at the Deoksong SPH plant. Through the result of future prospect, we have shown that hydroelectric power generation capacity or SHP potential will be increased in the future. Therefore, we believe that it is necessary to revitalize the development of SHP in order to expand the use of renewable energy. Also, a methodology presented in this study could be used for the future prospect of the small hydropower potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0268.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: ozone enhancement; Irene; ozone decline; potential vorticity; ozonesondes
Online: 18 February 2020 (11:25:41 CET)
This study aims to investigate the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange (STE) events and ozone trends over Irene (25.5°S, 28.1°E). Twelve years of ozonesondes data (2000–2007, 2012–2015) from Irene station operating in the framework of the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesodes (SHADOZ) was used to study the troposphere (0–16 km) and stratosphere (17– 28 km) ozone (O3) vertical profiles. Ozone profiles were grouped into three categories (2000–2003, 2004–2007 and 2012–2015) and average composites were calculated for each category. Fifteen O3 enhancement events were identified over the study period. These events were observed in all seasons (one event in summer, four events in autumn, five events in winter and five events in spring), however, they predominantly occur in winter and spring. The STE events presented here are observed to be influenced by the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex. During the STE events, the advected potential vorticity maps assimilated using Modélisation Isentrope du transport Méso–échelle de l’Ozone Stratosphérique par Advection (MIMOSA) model for the 350 K (~12–13 km) isentropic level indicated a transport of high latitude air masses which seems to be responsible for the reduction of the O3 mole fractions at the lower stratosphere over Irene which takes place at the same time with the enhancement of ozone in the upper troposphere. In general, the stratosphere is dominated by higher Modern Retrospective Analysis for Research Application (MERRA-2) potential vorticity (PV) values compared to the troposphere. However, during the STE events, higher PV values from the stratosphere were observed to intrude the troposphere. Ozone decline was observed from 12 km to 24 km with highest decline occurring from 14 km to 18 km. An average decrease of 6.0 and 9.1% was calculated from 12 to 24 km in 2004–2007 and 2012–2015 respectively. The observed decline occurred in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere with winter and spring showing more decline compared with summer and autumn.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: information; entropy; energy; thermodynamics; Landauer's principle; action potential
Online: 4 February 2020 (04:42:05 CET)
In computational neuroscience, spiking neurons are often analyzed as computing devices that register bits of information, with each action potential carrying at most one bit of Shannon entropy. Here, I question this interpretation by using Landauer's principle to estimate an upper limit for the quantity of thermodynamic information that can be dissipated by a single action potential in a typical mammalian neuron. I show that an action potential in a typical mammalian cortical pyramidal cell can carry up to approximately 3.4e11 natural units of thermodynamic information, or about 4.9e11 bits of Shannon entropy. This result suggests that an action potential can process much more information than a single bit of Shannon entropy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0230.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: concentric eyewall; typhoon; eyewall replacement; hydrometeor; potential vortex
Online: 19 November 2019 (10:18:02 CET)
To explore the characteristics of the concentric eyewall of a typhoon during its formation and replacement processes, with Super Typhoon Muifa in 2011 as the example case, the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mode was used to carry out a numerical simulation to reproduce the entire formation and replacement processes of the concentric eyewall. The physical quantities such as the tangential wind speed, radar echo, radial wind speed, vertical wind speed, and potential vortex were diagnosed and analyzed. The results of the analysis show that the outward expansion of the isovelocity in the lower troposphere was the early signal of the formation of the outer eyewall. After the outer eyewall formed, there was a center of second-highest tangential wind speed in the corresponding area. The second-highest wind speed increased as the strength of the outer eyewall increased, and the position of the second-highest wind speed center was retracted with the retraction of the outer eyewall. The tangential wind speed of the moat area was smaller than that corresponding to the concentric eyewall and this feature gradually disappeared with the increase of the height. The echo in the moat area was weak, and this characteristic was particularly evident when the moat area was relatively wide and the outer eyewall was relatively strong. With the formation and development of the outer eyewall, the intensity of the inflow in the boundary layer corresponding to the inner eyewall was reduced, the intensity of the outflow in the upper layers declined, and the intensities of the inflow and outflow corresponding to the outer eyewall were enhanced. After the second outer eyewall matured, there was a significant inflow in the upper layer of the moat area. Once the outer eyewall formed, a large amount of hydrometeors appeared in the corresponding area, and there was a strong ascending motion inside that area. The strength of the ascending motion and the content of hydrometeors increased as the outer eyewall increased. When the moat area was relatively wide, the divergent airflow generated by the developed outer eyewall in the upper layer would produce a significant descending motion in the moat area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0085.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: H9N2; avian influenza viruses; zoonotic; pandemic potential; poultry
Online: 11 June 2019 (07:44:44 CEST)
H9N2 avian influenza viruses have become globally widespread in poultry over the last two decades and represent a genuine threat both to the global poultry industry but also humans through their high rates of zoonotic infection and pandemic potential. H9N2 viruses are generally hyperendemic in effected countries and have been found in poultry in many new regions in recent years. In this review we examine the current global spread of H9N2 avian influenza viruses as well as their host range, tropism, transmission routes and the risk posed by these viruses to human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0196.v2
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: motor evoked potential; MEP; arm cranking; pedaling; exercise
Online: 13 February 2019 (09:54:08 CET)
Background: The present study compared corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii muscle during arm cycling at a self-selected and a fixed cadence (SSC and FC, respectively). We hypothesized that corticospinal excitability would not be different between the two conditions. Methods: The SSC was initially performed and the cycling cadence was recorded every 5 seconds for one minute. The average cadence of the SSC cycling trial was then used as a target for FC of cycling that the participants were instructed to maintain. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited via transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex were recorded from the biceps brachii during each trial of SSC and FC arm cycling. Results: Corticospinal excitability as assessed via normalized MEP amplitudes (MEPs were made relative to a maximal compound muscle action potential) were not different between groups. Conclusions: Focusing on maintaining a FC cadence during arm cycling does not influence corticospinal excitability as assessed via TMS-evoked MEPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0021.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: quark; linear interactive potential; mass of a proton; spin; quark confinement; pi-meson
Online: 22 August 2022 (15:50:41 CEST)
In this study, we describe quark confinement in terms of linear interaction potentials and solve the problem of the net spin of a proton. The three quarks in a proton are assumed to revolve around a common center, and their masses are determined assuming they are Dirac particles. On the basis of these assumptions, the magnetic moment of a proton can be derived. Moreover, the rotation of the quarks is considered, in which an electrical current induces a magnetic field. Thus, the scalar product of the magnetic moment and field describes the linear interaction potential between the quarks, and the mass of the proton can be obtained. The proton mass predicted by this physical model is consistent with experimental values, and no numerical or fitting calculations are required. Furthermore, using the newly derived spins and angular momentum of the three quarks, we derived the net spin of a proton. Additionally, we predicted the mass of a pi-meson from the same model, which agrees with the experimental values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0516.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: grass pea; bioplastics; mechanical properties; transglutaminase; zeta potential
Online: 23 October 2018 (04:23:21 CEST)
The aim of this work was to prepare bioplastics from renewable and biodegradable molecules. In particular, the bioplastics were produced by using as biopolymer source the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) flour, the proteins of which were structurally modified by means of microbial transglutaminase, an enzyme able to catalyze isopeptide bonds between glutamines and lysines. We analyzed, by means of Zeta-potential, the flour suspension with the aim to choose which pH is more stable for the production of film-forming solutions. The bioplastics were produced by casting and they were characterized according to several technological properties. Optical analysis demonstrated that films cast in the presence of the microbial enzyme are more transparent compared to the untreated ones. Moreover, the visualization by Scanning Electron Microscopy demonstrated that the enzyme-modified films possessed a more compact and homogeneous structure. Furthermore, the presence of microbial transglutaminase allowed to obtain film more mechanically resistant. Finally, digestion experiments under physiological conditions performed in order to obtain information useful for applying these novel biomaterials as carriers in the industrial field, indicated that the enzyme-treated coatings might allow the delivery of bioactive molecules in the gastro-intestinal tract.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0065.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Egrets and herons; MaxEnt; potential habitat; residential district
Online: 3 August 2018 (11:59:19 CEST)
Potential breeding habitat of egrets and herons was evaluated using the Maximum Entropy Model (MaxEnt). Model output can help guide management of nuisance egret and heron rookeries in urban forests of Daejeon Metropolitan City, Korea. This study examined 126 locations regarded as breeding sites of egrets and herons at the nationwide census conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research between 2011 and 2012. In addition, 252 randomly selected locations were used to identify the significant variables among a total of 15 environmental variables within 4 factors (topography, natural environment, distance and climate). Twelve variables were significantly different between the breeding and randomly selected points. The final 10 variables were selected through Pearson’s correlation analysis. Using MaxEnt, breeding area was estimated using the 10 selected variables in Daejeon. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.950, which was the average value through 10-fold cross-validation to estimate the model reliability. The potential breeding habitat for egrets and herons was estimated to be 106.69 km2 (19.76% of the total area) in Daejeon. Within the estimated potential habitat, 11.82 km2 (12.46%) were less than 50 m from the residential district while 79.85 km2 (88.92%) were more than 50m from the residential district. Discriminative management strategies considering the breeding location of egrets and herons should be applied not only to minimize conflicts with residents, but also to maintain stable egret and heron breeding sites in Daejeon, Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0016.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: 4th order gravity; quantum potential; ER = EPR; wormholes
Online: 24 July 2018 (05:15:34 CEST)
A classical origin for the Bohmian quantum potential, as that potential term arises in the quantum mechanical treatment of black holes and Einstein-Rosen (ER) bridges, can be based on 4th-order extensions of Einstein's equations. In Bohm's ontological interpretation, black hole radiation, and the analogous tunneling process of quantum transmission through an ER bridge, are classically allowed if the dynamics are modified to include such a quantum potential. The 4th-order extension of general relativity required to generate the quantum potential is given by adding quadratic curvature terms with coefficients that maintain a fixed ratio, as their magnitudes approach zero. Quantum transmission through the classically non-traversable bridge is replaced by classical transmission through a traversable wormhole. If entangled particles are connected by a Planck-width ER bridge, as conjectured by Maldacena and Susskind, then the classical wormhole transmission effect gives the ontological nonlocal connection between the particles posited in Bohm's interpretation of their entanglement. It is hypothesized that higher-derivative extensions of classical gravity can account for the nonlocal part of the quantum potential generally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0200.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: farmland change; soybean; production potential; GAEZ; Western Jilin
Online: 12 June 2018 (16:01:54 CEST)
In recent 40 years, the quantity and spatial patterns of farmland in Western Jilin have changed dramatically, which had great impact on soybean production potential. This study used one of the most advanced crop production potential models, the Global Agro-cological Zones model, to calculate the soybean production potential in Western Jilin based on meteorological, terrain, soil and land use data, and analyzed impact of farmland change on soybean production potential during 1975-2013. The main conclusions were the following. First, the total soybean production potential in Western Jilin in 2013 was 89.22 thousand tons. The production potential of eastern area was higher than the other areas of Western Jilin. Second, farmland change led to a growth of 33.03 thousand tons in soybean production potential between 1975 and 2000, and a decrease of 10.30 thousand tons between 2000 and 2013. Third, taking account of two situations of farmland change, the conversion between dryland and other categories, and the change of irrigation percentage led to the total soybean production potential in Western Jilin increased by 23.13 and only 2.87 thousand tons respectively between 1975 and 2000, and increased by 1.13 and 2.81 thousand tons respectively between 2000 and 2013. In general, the increase of soybean potential production was mainly due to grassland and woodland reclamation. The results of this study would be a good reference for protecting safe baseline of farmland, managing land resources, and ensuring continuity and stability of soybean supply and food security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: CKD-aP; ion channels; action potential; hyperpolarization; RT-PCR
Online: 29 July 2022 (04:50:39 CEST)
Expression levels of Cav3.2, BKCa, and anoctamin 1 were previously found to be significantly elevated in patients with chronic kidney disease–associated pruritus (CKD-aP). On the other hand, the expression of TRPV1 was significantly reduced. We further compared CKD patients with and without CKD-aP in terms of the expression levels of several ion channels in the skin, including in peripheral nerve endings。Based on CKD-aP severity, subjects were divided into two groups: non-CKD-aP (no or slight pruritus; n = 16) and CKD-aP (mild, moderate, or severe pruritus; n = 16). Skin samples were obtained from the forearm or elbow during arteriovenous fistula surgery. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure the skin expression levels of the following ion channels in the skin: Nav1.7, Kv7.2, TREK1, HCN2, TrkA, and Piezo2. RT-PCR analyses showed that CKD-aP patients had significantly higher levels of TREK1 and Piezo2 transcripts and significantly lower levels of HCN2 transcripts than non–CKD-aP patients. No significant differences were noted between groups in the expression of Nav1.7 or TrkA. Moreover, Kv7.2 transcripts were not detected in either group. In skin samples collected from CKD-aP patients, ion channel expression patterns were altered to enhance hyperpolarization of pruriceptive neurons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0218.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Deccan basalts; Indus Basin (Pakistan); Seismic interpretation; Hydrocarbon potential
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:43:59 CEST)
Due to the use of structural and seismic techniques an attempt has been made in this study to determine the hydrocarbon potential and future exploration in Pakistan's Lower Indus basin area and offshore region. In addition to the possibility of hydrocarbon accumulation, the major goals of this research are to analyze structural patterns in the subsurface of the study region, identify the horizons of various formations using surface seismic, and interpret seismic lines. Seismic data has been used to find and integrate the exposed Cretaceous/Tertiary basalt at Ranikot in the lower Indus basin to the well-known Deccan basalts of the Indo-Pak plate, which is the secondary goal of the current investigation. According to the interpretation of seismic data, the Indo-Pakistan plate has experienced rifting because of tectonic activity. Graben and horst structures have been identified in the study area horizon, which indicates that the area has undergone major structural and depositional changes. While faults provide a pathway for hydrocarbons to migrate from their source to reservoir rock, grabens are principally responsible for the accumulation of hydrocarbons. We further deduce that the prior exploration failures in the area were due to a lack of knowledge of the subsurface formations and structural trends, which are essential for characterizing the hydrocarbon play and trap features. Our results can be productive for the local hydrocarbon drilling projects as well as worldwide tectonic stratigraphy studies on passive continental edges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0029.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Lacticaseibacillus species; probiotic potential; genetic traits; presence in genomes
Online: 6 April 2022 (04:54:20 CEST)
This study aimed to exploring the intra-species distribution of genetic characters that favor the persistence in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and host interaction of bacteria belonging to the species Lacticaseibacillus genus. These bacterial species comprise commercial probiotics with the widest use among consumers and strains naturally occurring in GIT and in fermented food. Since little is known on the distribution of genetic traits for adhesion capacity, polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, utilization of substrates critically important for survival in GIT, that influence probiotic characteristics, a list of genetic determinants involved in such functions was created by a search for specific genes involved in the above aspects in the genome the extensively characterized probiotic L. rhamnosus GG. The presence/absence and variability of each gene in other Lacticaseibacillus spp. genomes was assessed by alignment with the publicly available fully annotated genome sequences. Eighty-two gene loci were compared, and 49 of these were found to be absent in some genomes in a species or strain-specific mode. A set of genes was found to be conserved, indicating that all strains of the genus may exert some probiotic effects. Among the variable loci a taurine utilization operon and a α-L-fucosidase were examined for presence/absence in 26 strains isolated from infant feces by PCR based tests. Results were variable among the isolates, though their common origin indicated the capacity to survive in the intestinal niche. This study indicated that the capacity to exert probiotic actions of Lacticaseibacillus spp. depends on a conserved set of genes and is enhanced by variable genetic factors whose role is only in part elucidated. The selection of strains of the most promising probiotic candidates to be used in food is feasible by analyzing presence/absence of a set of variable traits.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Fullerene; Endofullerene; Aqueous Fullerene Dispersion; Antioxidant Potential; Kinetic Chemiluminometry
Online: 26 May 2021 (14:19:39 CEST)
The antioxidant potential (capacity and activity) of aqueous fullerene dispersions (AFD) of non-functionalized C60, C70, and Gd@C82 endofullerene (in micromolar concentration range) was estimated based on chemiluminescence measurements of the model of luminol and generation of organic radicals by 2,2’-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (ABAP). The antioxidant capacity was estimated by the TRAP method, from the concentration of half-suppression, and from the suppression area in the initial period. All three approaches agree and show that the antioxidant capacity of AFDs increased in the row Gd@C82 < C70 < C60. Mathematical modeling of the long-term kinetics data was used for antioxidant activity estimation. The effect of C60 and C70 is found to be quenching of the excited product of luminol with ABAP-generated radical and not an actual antioxidant effect; quenching constants differ insignificantly. Apart from quenching with a similar constant, the AFD of Gd@C82 exhibits actual antioxidant action. The antioxidant activity in Gd@C82 is 300-fold higher than quenching constants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: theta rhythm; gamma rhythm; coherence; local field potential; hippocampus
Online: 14 May 2021 (15:48:27 CEST)
The brain rhythms are essential for information processing in neuronal networks. Oscillations recorded in different brain regions can be synchronized and have a constant phase difference, i.e. be coherent. Coherence between local field potential (LFP) signals from different regions in the brain may be correlated with the performance of cognitive tasks, from which it is concluded that these regions of the brain are involved in the task performance together. In this review, we discuss why coherence occurs and how it is coupled to the information transfer between different regions of the hippocampal formation. Coherence in theta and gamma frequency ranges is described since these rhythms are most pronounced during the hippocampus-dependent attention and memory. We review in vivo studies of interactions between different regions of the hippocampal formation in theta and gamma frequency bands. The kay provisions of the review: 1) coherence emerges from synchronous postsynaptic currents in principal neurons, occurring as a result of synchronization of neuronal spike activity; 2) synchronization of neuronal spike patterns in two regions of the hippocampal formation can be realised through induction or resonance; 3) coherence at a specific time point reflects the transfer of information between regions of the hippocampal formation, in particular, gamma coherence reflects the coupling of active neuronal ensembles. Overall, coherence is not an epiphenomenon, but an important physiological process that has certain generation mechanisms and performs important functions in information processing and transmission across the brain regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0047.v3
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Sustainable agriculture; allelopathy; biocidal potential; phytotoxic effects; weed management.
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:00:35 CET)
Along with climate change, the native forest replacement by exotic species, such as Eucalyptus globulus, is contributing to a highly fire-prone environment. Since E. globulus detains several post-fire regeneration strategies, sustainable practices are needed to manage eucalyptus stands. Thus, eucalyptus allelopathic potential can be used for weed control. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the herbicidal potential of post-fire regenerated E. globulus leaves in Portulaca oleracea, and unraveling the main physiological processes disturbed by biocide application. For this, an aqueous extract prepared with fresh leaves (FLE; 617 gfresh weightL-1) and other with oven-dried leaves (DLE; 250 gdry weightL-1) were prepared and foliar-sprayed twice-a-week at different dilutions in 7-days-old purslane plants. As positive control, glyphosate was used. After five weeks, results revealed that DLE at the highest dose detained the greatest herbicidal activity against P. oleracea. To understand how DLE impacted weed physiology, several biochemical and redox-related parameters were evaluated in purslane plants treated with DLE highest dose. Results suggested an overproduction of hydrogen peroxide, causing severe oxidative damage in roots. Overall, this study showed that young E. globulus dried leaves had powerful herbicidal properties against P. oleracea and can represent a feasible approach for weed management, while reducing fire hazard.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0319.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Corynebacterium glutamicum; Oxidative stress; Mycothiol; Mrx1-roGFP2; Redox potential
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:58:07 CEST)
In aerobic environments, bacteria are exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS). To avoid an excess of ROS, microorganisms are equipped with powerful enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Corynebacterium glutamicum, a widely used industrial platform organism, uses mycothiol (MSH) as major low molecular weight (LMW) thiol and non-enzymatic antioxidant. In aerobic bioreactor cultivations C. glutamicum becomes exposed to oxygen concentrations surpassing the air saturation, which are supposed to constitute a challenge for the intracellular MSH redox balance. In this study, the role of MSH was investigated at different oxygen levels (pO2) in bioreactor cultivations in C. glutamicum. Despite the presence of other highly efficient antioxidant systems, such as catalase, the MSH deficient ΔmshC mutant was impaired in growth in bioreactor experiments performed at pO2 values of 30%. At a pO2 level of 20% this growth defect was abolished, indicating a high susceptibility of the MSH-deficient mutant towards elevated oxygen concentrations. Bioreactor experiments with C. glutamicum expressing the Mrx1-roGFP2 redox biosensor revealed a strong oxidative shift in the MSH redox potential (EMSH) at pO2 values above 20%. This indicates, that the LMW thiol MSH is an essential antioxidant to maintain the robustness and industrial performance of C. glutamicum during aerobic fermentation processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0187.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Salt caverns; salt structures; technical storage potential; hydrogen storage
Online: 16 October 2019 (11:40:43 CEST)
The role of hydrogen in a future energy system with a high share of variable renewable energy sources (VRES) is regarded as crucial in order to balance fluctuations in electricity generation. These fluctuations can be compensated for by flexibility measures such as the expansion of transmission, flexible generation, larger back-up capacity and storage. Salt cavern storage is the most promising technology due to its large storage capacity, followed by pumped hydro storage. For the underground storage of chemical energy carriers such as hydrogen, salt caverns offer the most promising option owing to their low investment cost, high sealing potential and low cushion gas requirement. This paper provides a suitability assessment of European subsurface salt structures in terms of size, land eligibility and storage capacity. Two distinct cavern volumes of 500,000 m3 and 750,000 m3 are considered, with preference being given for salt caverns over bedded salt deposits and salt domes. The storage capacities of individual caverns are estimated on the basis of thermodynamic considerations based on site-specific data. The results are analyzed using three different scenarios: onshore and offshore salt caverns, only onshore salt caverns and only onshore caverns within 50 km of the shore. The overall technical storage potential across Europe is estimated at 84.8 PWhH2, 27% of which constitutes only onshore locations. Furthermore, this capacity decreases to 7.3 PWhH2 with a limitation of 50 km distance from shore. In all cases, Germany has the highest technical storage potential, with a value of 9.4 PWhH2, located onshore only in salt domes in the north of the country. Moreover, Norway has 7.5 PWhH2 of storage potential for offshore caverns, which are all located in the subsurface of the North Sea Basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0055.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: P-MFCs; Cynodon dactylon; energy; bioelectric potential; electricity generation
Online: 5 September 2019 (09:55:54 CEST)
In these times electricity is big trouble of problem facing by the world. Therefore, there is necessitating for the property basis of energy that is employed for as bio-electricity. Many of the scientists and researchers are trying to find out the sustainable energy generates with the help of plant microbial fuel cell. Plant microbial fuel cell (P-MFCs) could be feasibility technology approach of bio-electricity generation which is mutualism interaction of the plants along with their rhizospheric bacteria. In the present study, Plant-microbial fuel cell was observed in grass e-table evaluated in term of bioelectricity generation from Cynodon dactylon (Dooba Ghas). This e-table was connected with electrode and different condition (physical and chemical) to detect the change in bioelectric potential. It was found that maximum voltage generated among all the conditions was 4.24 ±2V at 15 days by using Cynodon dactylon through P-MFCs. The potential difference generated through P-MFCs was measured using a multimeter. The generation of bioelectricity was observed under different conditions like exposure to light and shade condition measured for voltage was found to be significantly different parameters. The maximum recorded under light and shade conditions were 3.82 ±2 V and 4.25 ±2 V respectively at 15 days of incubation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0250.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fault diagnosis, stochastic resonance, periodic potential, underdamped, weak signal
Online: 27 March 2019 (08:49:38 CET)
The vibration feature of weak gear fault is often covered in strong background noise, which makes it necessary to establish weak feature enhancement methods. Among the enhancement methods, stochastic resonance (SR) has the unique advantage of transferring noise energy to weak signals and has a great application prospection in weak signal extraction. But the traditional SR potential model cannot form a richer potential structure and may lead to system instability when the noise is too great. To overcome these shortcomings, the article presents a periodic potential underdamping stochastic resonance (PPUSR) method after investigating the potential function and system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In addition, system parameters are further optimized by using ant colony algorithm. Through simulation and gear experiments, the effectiveness of the proposed method was verified. We concluded that compared with the traditional underdamped stochastic resonance (TUSR) method, the PPUSR method had a higher recognition degree and better frequency response capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0508.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Moringa oleifera L., antioxidant activity, cell culture, irritant potential
Online: 26 September 2018 (13:16:14 CEST)
Extracts obtained from leaves of Moringa tree (Moringa oleifera) are a rich source of many bioactive compounds: flavonoids, phenolic acids or carotenoids. It also contains such components as, vitamins (A, C, niacin, pantothenic acid), alkaloids, tannins or saponins. Extracts and plant substances derived from the leaves of Moringa oleifera L. have a strong antioxidant, toning and anti-inflammatory effect. The work attempts to obtain a multifunctional plant extract derived from Moringa tree leaves. Obtained extracts was analyzed for their biochemical and physicochemical properties. The obtained results indicate on a strong antioxidative potential of the tested extracts. The further step was an attempt to apply the extracts in the model body wash cosmetic. The biological activity of extracts and model cosmetic formulation were assayed by in vitro analysis on two human cell lines: keratinocytes (HaCat,) and fibroblasts (BJ). The results showed that the tested extracts may affect on increasing of cell proliferation and reduce oxidative stress in cells. The addition of the tested extracts to the model cosmetic formulation, were contributed to the reduction of their ability to irritate the skin and improve the safety of use of the product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0138.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Gadolinium oxide, mesoporous, silica, biocompatible, zeta potential, luminescence properties
Online: 7 September 2018 (13:22:19 CEST)
Highly colloidal Eu-doped Gd2O3 nanoparticles(core-NPs) were synthesized by thermal decomposition via weak base at low temperature (150oC), subsequently, silica layers were deposited to increased colloidal stability, solubility, biocompatibility and no-toxicity at the environmental condition. XRD results indicate the highly purified, crystalline, single phase cubic phase Gd2O3 nanocrystals. TEM image shows the mesoporous thick silica layer was effectively coated over the core nanocrystals, which have irregular size with nearly spherical shape and a mean grain size is about 10-30 nm. Absorption spectra and zeta potential results in aqueous media revealed that solubility, colloidal stability, and biocompatibility character was enhanced from core to core-shell structure because of silica layer surface encapsulation. The samples demonstrate excellent photoluminescence properties (dominant emission 5D0→7F2 transition in red region at 610 nm) indicated the advantage to use in optical bio-detection and bio-labeling etc. The photoluminescence intensity of the silica shell modified core/shell nanoparticles were suppressed relatively core-nanoparticles, it indicates the multi-photon relaxation pathways arising from the surface coated high vibrational energy molecules of the silanol groups. The core/nSiO2/mSiO2 nanocrystals display strong emission (5D0→7F2) transition along with excellent solubility and biocompatibility, which may find promising applications in photonic based biomedical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0191.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanohybrid; synthesis; standard electron potential; crystal phase; reducing agents
Online: 14 May 2018 (11:51:21 CEST)
Carbon nanotubes are hybridized with metal crystals to impart multifunctionality into the nanohybrids (NHs). Simple but effective synthesis techniques are desired to form both zero-valent and oxides of different metal species on carbon nanotube surfaces. Sol-gel technique brings in significant advantages and is a viable technique for such synthesis. This study probes the efficacy of sol-gel process and aims to identify underlying mechanisms of crystal formation. Standard electron potential (SEP) is used as a guiding parameter to choose the metal species; i.e., highly negative SEP (e.g., Zn) with oxide crystal tendency, highly positive SEP (e.g., Ag) with zero-valent crystal-tendency, and intermediate range SEP (e.g., Cu) to probe the oxidation tendency in crystal formation are chosen. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to evaluate the synthesized NHs. Results indicate that SEP can be a reliable guide for the resulting crystalline phase of a certain metal species, particularly when the magnitude of this parameter is relatively high. However, for intermediate range SEP-metals, mix phase crystals can be expected. For example, Cu will form Cu2O and zero-valent Cu crystals, unless the synthesis is performed in a reducing environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0095.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: China；economic growth；export market；economic policy； potential drivers
Online: 20 June 2017 (11:18:07 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to apply China’s economy growth prospects and its potential drivers of future. China's fast rise and its growth model have accelerated important existing structural trends in the global economy and made them decisive characteristics of the world economy. China's role in the world economy over the coming decades, an exercise which would not be possible without an investigation of the prospects for China's continued economic rise. On the one hand, China is a large export market for the United States. A lot of U.S. firms use China as the final destination of assembly in their global supply chain networks. China’s huge holdings of U.S. Treasury securities support the federal government finance its budget failures. However, some analysts contend that China consolidates a number of distortive economic policies such as protectionist industrial policies and an undervalued currency that undermine U.S. economic interests. They warn that efforts by the Chinese government to promote indigenous innovation, often through the use of subsidies and other distortive measures, could negatively affect many leading U.S. industries
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: under-potential deposition; bismuth sub-layer; lead ions; DPV
Online: 4 April 2017 (10:43:35 CEST)
The accumulation of high levels of lead or lead ions in a human body is harmful, particularly to children. Its neurotoxic effect is profound, damaging the central and peripheral nervous systems, resulting in stunted growth, behavioral problems and learning disabilities. The major source of lead or lead ions comes from the drinking water and tap water. The assessment of the water quality, including lead or lead ion content, is usually completed by a regional water department professional. This assessment is time-consuming and requires expensive instruments and skilled operators. Therefore, there is a need to produce a simple-use and relatively inexpensive method to detect lead or lead ions in water samples. This research has developed a simple-use, cost effective sensor system for the detection of lead ions in tap water. An under-potential deposited bismuth sub-layer on a thin gold film based electrochemical sensor was designed, manufactured and evaluated. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement technique was employed in this detection. Tap water from the Cleveland, Ohio, USA regional water district was the test medium. Concentrations of lead ion in the range of 8 X 10-8 M to 8 x 10-4 M were evaluated. This DPV detection system required 3 -6 minutes to complete the detection measurement. A longer measurement time of 6 minutes was used for the lower lead ion concentration. The selectivity of this lead ion sensor was very good, and Fe III, Cu II, Ni II and Mg II at a concentration level of 5×10-4 M did not interfere with the lead ion measurement.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0248.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: action potential; soliton/wave; lipid phase transition; scientific method; membrane
Online: 15 August 2022 (04:27:26 CEST)
This article is a followup to an earlier review which outlined some of the interesting features of the soliton/wave-action potential (AP) model, and noted the need to test its key aspects; including the need to test if its presumed lipid phase transition is actually happening during AP firings in excitable cells. The intent here is to point out the sort of tests, and evidence from them, that might be needed if the soliton/wave-AP model is to be accepted broadly by biologists. Here, after an overview of the modern electrophysiological-AP model and of the soliton/wave-AP model, there are three areas considered. First, possible compositional influences on membrane properties relative to the soliton/wave-AP model are presented. Including questions with regard to the soliton/wave-AP model’s assumption that changes in surface potentials influence the transmembrane potential. Second, some recent work from the good folks who advocate for the soliton/wave-AP model concerning the occurrence of lipid phase transitions in neurons or in extracts from nervous tissues are examined. Here it is noted that there is a need to consider whether these lipid phase transitions happen within normal physiological conditions or not. Third, and finally, the advocates for the soliton/wave-AP model have adopted a thermodynamic/theory-based philosophical approach in their studies. It is argued that this philosophical approach is a radical departure from the philosophical approach used under the scientific method. The features of this new approach, and implications its use, are examined.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0448.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: automated vehicles; land use; potential implication; urban mobility; use cases
Online: 29 July 2022 (04:31:50 CEST)
Automated vehicles (AVs), which are expected to enter the market within the near future, represent the current frontiers in mobility and urban planning. AVs are assumed to bring substantial benefits to cities in many aspects. The present study attempts to investigate this broad assumption by conducting a literature review on the possible implications of AVs in cities as well as synthesizing the current state of practice of AV pilots to detect trends in their deployment. In this paper, literature findings on AVs’ implication on vehicle ownership, mobility, land use as well thirteen uses cases were synthesized to capture the big picture of them in cities. The findings showed that, in the AV pilots, the operation of AVs is limited to routes stretching less than 3.5km and an operation speed of less than 18km/h; low speed has been one of the main concerns of the participating passengers to use them for daily trips. The results also revealed that although shared AVs are expected in urban mobility, private ownership will stay competitive since vehicle ownership has been a socio-cultural identity in the history of automobiles. The findings also underlined that the potential influence of AVs on active mobility is still unclear as the AVs have not been introduced on a larger scale. Regarding AVs’ impact on land use, their introduction results in the effective use of space, but they will cause suburbanization in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0038.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz eq.; Nernst eq.; ion adsorption; membrane potential
Online: 6 April 2022 (08:37:53 CEST)
Current physiology attributes the mechanism of membrane potential generation to transmembrane ion transport, but ion adsorption could just as well play this fundamental role. The evidence shows that the ion adsorption mechanism accurately reproduces the experimentally measured membrane potential. The Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation (GHK eq.) and the Nernst equation (Nernst eq.) are the typical mathematical formulas representing the membrane potential in current physiology. However, the authors were able to show that the potential formulas by ion adsorption mechanism give identical results to GHK eq. and Nernst. eq. Our experimental and theoretical analyses suggest that there is a special relationship between the membrane potential and the membrane surface charge density, and this unique equation inevitably leads to the establishment of a GHK eq and/or a Nernst eq. The authors found that the unique equation is the foundation of thermodynamics “Boltzmann distribution”. Thus, the GHK eq. and the Nernst eq. are simply the natural consequence of thermodynamics from the view of the ion adsorption mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0064.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: methane; nitrous oxide; global warming potential; water productivity; paddy yield
Online: 3 February 2022 (17:02:55 CET)
In dry season paddy farming, the alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation improves water productivity, paddy production, and has the potential to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions when compared to continuous flooding (CF). However, there is a lack of research in Bangladesh on the effects of water management on CH4 and N2O emissions. During November 2017–April 2018, participatory on-farm trials were conducted at Feni and Chattogram districts of Bangladesh. Total 105 farmers comprising 20-hectare of land (62 farmers at Feni and 43 farmers at Chattogram district, each location having 10 hectare of land). We compared irrigation water and cost reductions, paddy yield, and CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy fields irrigated using AWD and CF irrigation methods. The CH4 and N2O emissions were determined using the Cool Farm Beta-3 methodology, and the global warming potential (GWP) was estimated using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-2014 standard approach. The mean results of randomly selected 30 farmers from two locations (15 of each) showed that AWD remarkably decreased irrigation water consumption by about 24% and increased water productivity by 224%. We estimated 23% savings for irrigation costs in AWD. By this time, AWD improved paddy production by 3% over CF. The AWD irrigation resulted in a 47% reduction in cumulative CH4 emissions having a lower CH4 emission factor (0.74 kg ha-1 day-1) than CF (1.39 kg ha-1 day-1). There was no obvious difference in N2O emission between AWD and CF. When compared to CF, AWD decreased the overall GWP by 27% and lowered the GHG intensity by 42%. The CH4 and N2O emissions did not differ substantially between Feni and Chattogram.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0423.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: non-conventional yeasts; Saccharomyces; fermentation; beer; dry-hopping; brewing potential
Online: 19 July 2021 (16:08:39 CEST)
Consumer demands for new sensory experiences have driven the research of unconventional yeasts in beer. While much research exists on the use of various common Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as well as non-Saccharomyces yeasts, there exists a gap in knowledge regarding other non-cerevisiae Saccharomyces species in the fermentation of beer, outside that of S. pastorianus. Here, five distinct species of Saccharomyces from the UC Davis Phaff Yeast Culture Collection, as well as one interspecies hybrid from Fermentis, were chosen to ferment 40 L pilot scale beers. S. kudriavzevii, S. mikatae, S. paradoxus, S. bayanus, and S. uvarum yeasts were fermented in duplicate, with one fermenter in each pair receiving 10 g/L dry-hop during fermentation. Analytical measurements were made each day of fermentation and compared to controls of SafAle US-05 and SafLager W 34/70 for commercial brewing parameters of interest. Finished beers were also analyzed for aroma, taste, and mouthfeel to determine the flavor of each yeast as it pertains to brewing potential. All beers exhibited spicy characteristics, likely from the presence of phenols; dry-hopping increased fruit notes while also increasing perceived bitterness and astringency. All of the species in this study displayed great brewing potential, and might be an ideal addition to beer depending on a brewery’s desire to experiment with flavor and willingness to bring a new yeast into their production environment
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: exciton-polaritons; PT-symmetry; double-well potential; Bose-Einstein condensates
Online: 5 July 2021 (13:21:48 CEST)
We investigate the dynamics and stationary states of a semiconductor exciton-polariton condensate in a double well potential. We find that upon the population build up of the polaritons by above-threshold laser pumping, coherence relaxation due to the phase fluctuations of the polaritons drives the system into a stable fixed point corresponding to a self-organized PT-symmetric phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0408.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: rural clean heating project; rural Gansu; sustainability; potential solutions; benchmarking
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:23:11 CEST)
Rural clean heating project (RCHP) in China aims to increase flexibility in the rural energy system, enhance the integration of renewable energy and distributed generation, and reduce environmental impact. While RCHP-enabling routes have been studied from a technical perspective, the economic, ecological, regulatory, and policy dimensions of RCHP are yet to be analysed in depth, especially in the underdeveloped areas in China. This paper discusses RCHP in rural Gansu in a multi-dimension approach. We firstly focus on the current issues and challenges of RCHP in rural Gansu. Then the RCHP-enabling areas are briefly zoned into six typical regions based on the resource distribution in Gansu Province, and a matching framework of RCHP is recommended. Then we focus on the economics and sustainability of RCHP-enabling technologies. Based on the medium-term assessment of RCHP in the demonstration provinces, various technical schemes and routes are analysed and compared so as to be adopted in rural Gansu. In addition to technical and economic effects of those schemes, the corresponding ecology, policy, finance, and market implications are also concerned. We briefly discuss how the national regulators incentivise the implementation of RCHP in rural Gansu. Major barriers to RCHP are identified as the sustainability of technology, economy, ecology, policy, finance, and market. Subsequently, some policy solutions to overcome these barriers are proposed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0193.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: gasotransmitters; hydrogen sulfide; cardiovascular system; circulation; hemostasis; erythrocytes; therapeutic potential.
Online: 11 January 2021 (12:48:43 CET)
this review summarizes current knowledge of the hydrogen sulfide role in cardiovascular system, the proposed mechanisms of its action and the prospects for its applicability in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Hydrogen sulfide was recently recognized as gasotransmitter – simple signaling molecule which freely penetrates the cell membrane and regulates a number of biological functions. In humans endogenous H2S is generated via enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways and its content varies in different tissues and is strictly regulated. In cardiovascular system H2S is produced by myocardial, vascular and blood cells and regulates a number of vital functions. Numerous experimental data prove that endogenously generated as well as exogenously administered H2S exerts a wide range of actions in cardiovascular system, including vasodilator/vasoconstrictor effects, regulation of blood pressure, pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in the vascular smooth muscle cells, influence on angiogenesis and erythropoiesis, myocardial cytoprotection in ischemia-reperfusion injury, oxygen sensing, inhibition of platelet aggregation and blood coagulation, modification of erythrocyte microrheological properties (aggregability and deformability). Understanding of molecular mechanisms of H2S action and molecular crosstalk between H2S, NO, and CO is essential for the development of its diagnostic and therapeutic potential.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: axon; neuron; saltatory conduction; action potential; impulse propagation; HH model
Online: 30 August 2020 (18:39:44 CEST)
For more than 70 years, biologists and biophysicists have been trying to unravel the mystery that exists regarding the saltatory conduction of so-called myelinated neurons. Albert Einstein used the train metaphor to explain the theory of relativity. It is possible to use a similar metaphor to better understand this transient functioning of the neuron: the action potential. We will, once again, use a train to demonstrate unequivocally that the action potential does not jump from node of Ranvier to node of Ranvier (noR) as we thought it would. It is possible to describe that the neuron uses an elegant method to increase the speed of transmission of the neural message. It is also important to conclude that this increase in speed, contrary to the common idea, has a certain energy cost that is proportional to speed and in accordance with thermodynamics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0182.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Airborne aerosols; Reactive oxygen species (ROS); health effects; oxidative potential
Online: 9 July 2020 (11:29:50 CEST)
The mass concentration of particulate matter (PM) has been systematically used in epidemiological studies as exposure indicator, to relate airborne concentrations with a wide variety of human health effects, which can be hardly explained by using this single parameter. In fact, PM is a “particle cocktail” that includes a complex mixture of compounds with a wide range of sizes, chemical compositions and emission sources. Current research hypothesizes that many of the adverse health effects are derived from oxidative stress in biological systems caused by the deposition of PM into the lungs. This emerging hypothesis is called the oxidative stress paradigm. In this commentary article we analize how this new paradigm could help to answer the as-of-yet unanswered questions related to the mechanism of action of PM pollution on human health. Acellular oxidative potential (OP) assays have been emerged as a promising approach to quantify the PM potential to induce oxidative stress and to relate it with the chemical composition and size distribution of PM. Recent researches have shown that the OP is related to the presence of metals, organic carbon, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and quinones. However, the association between PM and particle-induced toxicity is still largely unknown. Therefore, additional research is needed to identify the specific PM characteristic(s), such as its specific size, emission source or chemical content, which contribute the most to its redox activity. Thus, the OP measurements provide information that allows us to evaluate and integrate the toxic potential of PM in a unique parameter, whose relationships with emission sources, size distribution and/or chemical composition should be faced in the near future.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0278.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: photosystem II; redox potential; electron transfer; charge separation; photo-inhibition
Online: 27 June 2019 (05:54:13 CEST)
Structural perturbations in the Mn4CaO5 cluster site, an oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II, such as those induced by Ca2+/Sr2+ exchanges or Ca/Mn-removal have been known to induce long-range positive shifts (+30 mV to +150 mV) in the redox potential of the primary quinone electron acceptor plastoquinone A (QA) located 40 Å distant from the OEC. Here, we reanalyzed the crystal structure of Sr-PSII solved at 2.1 Å and compare it with the native Ca-PSII of 1.9 Å with focus on the acceptor site and report on the possible long-range interactions between the donor, Mn4Ca(Sr)O5 cluster, and acceptor sites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0166.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: relativistic cell potential; relativistic thermodynamics; time dilation; graviton; virtual photon.
Online: 10 July 2018 (10:43:56 CEST)
From the theory of relativistic chemical kinetics [M. W. Baig, Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 31, 1750177 (2017)] relativistic thermodynamics and kinetics for electrode processes have been developed to explain time dilation for electrode processes. For a moving observer moving at fractions of the speed of light, cell potential is observed to decrease. This results in the slower oxidation and reduction of ions at the respective electrodes. The newly formulated Lorentz transformation of the electrode and cell potential is explained in terms of generation of spin 2-boson “gravitons” from fusion of spin-1 boson “virtual-photons” mediating electrostatic force of attraction between ions and electrodes. It is postulated that birth of spin 2-boson i.e. gravitons is followed by their eventual escape in any of higher 4+n dimensions. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the present theory, the Daniel cell is considered as a numerical example.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0323.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Potential active ingredients; Naomaitong; PK - PD correlation; Support vector machines
Online: 24 May 2018 (10:38:35 CEST)
NaoMaiTong (NMT: Radix et Rhi-zoma Rhei, Radix Ginseng, Radix Puerariae, and Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong as 9: 9: 6: 6) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription for treating ischemia cerebral apoplexy. In this work, four cell injury models of ischemic stroke were establish, namely hypoxic injury, glutamate damage, injury of potassium chloride and hydrogen peroxide damage model. The protective effects of NMT and its single herbs-containing sera of different time points on PC12 cell damage were evaluated respectively, and the corresponding efficacy-time curves were drawn. Cell viability was measured by MTT (3-(4,5)-Dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide) assay. Furthermore, an statistical methods of support vector machine (SVM) were used to establish the correlation between concentration-time-efficacy for the first time. These results revealed that NMT-containing serum has obvious protective effect on the four injury models and can significantly improve cell viability. The PK-PD correlation between fifteen ingredients in the NMT compound with four model efficacy indexes indicated that rhein, puerarin, and 3'-methoxy puerarin might be the most important constituents controlling the pharmacological effects of NMT. The study suggested that these fifteen components are likely to be the material basis of NMT and recommended to increase the amounts of Pueraria in the NMT compound. That provided the scientific basis and demonstration for the research of efficacy material base of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0152.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: onion drying; exergy analysis; exergetic improvement potential rate; sustainability index
Online: 19 March 2018 (09:44:37 CET)
This research work is concerned in the exergy analysis of the continuous-convection drying of onion. The influence of temperature and air flow rate was studied in terms of exergy parameters. The energy and exergy balances were carried out taking into account the onion drying chamber. Its behaviour was analysed based on exergy efficiency, exergy loss rate, exergetic improvement potential rate and sustainability index. The exergy loss rates increase with the temperature and air flow rate augmentation. Exergy loss rate is augmented at higher drying air temperatures and flow rates because the overall heat transfer coefficient increase. On the other hand, the exergy efficiency increases with the air flow rate augmentation. This behavior is due to the energy utilization was improved because the most amount of supplied energy was utilized for the moisture evaporation. However, the exergy efficiency decreases with the temperature augmentation due to the free moisture is less, then, the moisture begins diffusing from the internal structure to the surface. The exergetic improvement potential rate values show that the onion drying process presents a high potential to improve the exergy efficiency. The sustainability index of the drying chamber varied from 1.9 to 5.1. To reduce the environmental impact of the process, the parameters must be modified in order to ameliorate the exergy efficiency of the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0343.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Massive particle; Static black hole; f(R) gravity; Pseudo-Newtonian Potential
Online: 22 July 2022 (14:14:20 CEST)
In this paper, we investigated the trajectory of the massive particle in the vicinity of a general spherical symmetric black hole. Also, in the framework of general sphericalily symmetric black hole, Pseudo-Newtonian potential (PNP) and effective potentials has been investigated. As an example, static spherically symmetric black hole in f(R) gravity is considered and presented the brief discussion on the structure of spacetime and horizons. We calculated energy and angular momentum in the framework of general relativity as well as in Pseudo-Newtonian theory. A graphical comparison of angular momentum in this both framework has been studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0178.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: entropy; event; deterministic system; indeterministic system; entropic potential of an event
Online: 13 May 2022 (04:38:38 CEST)
This article analyses entropy changes triggered by specific events in deterministic and indeterministic systems. Article considers a simple model consisting of water in a cuvette, an ice cube in the device above the cuvette and a random number generator (RNG) that controls the probability of dropping the ice into water. Article introduces the entropic potential Z(T, A) of an event A occurred in a system R at the moment Т0, which describes the influence of the event A to the entropy of the system R in the future (for the moments T>Т0). The entropic potential of an event Z(T,A) can be calculated as the difference between the mathematical expectations of entropy of the system R for the moment T (T>Т0) made immediately before and immediately after the event A as Z(T, A) = ŜT(Т0+dT) - ŜT(Т0-dT). Article also presents examples of calculations of the entropic potentials of events in indeterministic systems with different probabilities of events. Since real-life systems are mostly indeterministic, the entropic potentials of events in real-life usually have non-zero values. The entropic potentials of the events "useful" for the system are negative, and entropic potentials of the events "harmful" for the system are positive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0149.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: organotin(IV) dithiocarbamate; childhood leukemia; antileukemia activity; anticancer potential; inhibitory effects
Online: 11 May 2022 (08:27:20 CEST)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of leukemia affecting children under the age of 15 years old in Malaysia. Chemotherapy is the primary treatment for cancer, which involves the intake of chemotherapeutic drugs to kill cancer cells. Glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone are chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of ALL. Although dexamethasone is highly effective, it is also associated with adverse effects such as bone fractures and organ toxicity. Therefore, there is a need to develop a new anticancer drug which milder side effects and better efficacy. Organometallic compounds such as organotin have a high potential to be developed as an antineoplastic agent and show high specificity towards cancer cells compared to normal cells. This study is done to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of diphenyltin(IV) diisopropyl dithiocarbamate (DPDT) against leukemic cells CCL-119 using the Trypan Blue exclusion (TBE) method at the intervals of 24, 48 and 72 h. Dexamethasone was used as a positive control. The cell’s morphological changes were observed at 12, 24 and 48 h using the IC50 values obtained using TBE assay. Results show that DPDT has a lower IC50 value than dexamethasone against CCL-119 cells at 24 h with a value of 4.16 ± 0.44µM and a selectivity index of 2.02. Dexamethasone exhibited cytotoxic effects against CCL-119 but only IC25 and IC10 values were obtained. Cytotoxicity testing has shown that DPDT is toxic on CCL-119 cells with IC50 values of less than 10µM. Morphological changes in cells show characteristics of apoptosis such as cell shrinkage, blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies. In conclusion, DPDT has the potential to be made into an antineoplastic agent but requires a more detailed study involving the molecular pathway of DPDT leading to cell death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0457.v1
Subject: Keywords: Thermoelectric Generator; Ratchet Potential; Brownian Ratchet; Electrostatic; Particles Distribution; Energy Harvesting.
Online: 24 November 2021 (13:07:10 CET)
The novel Ionized Gas Thermoelectric Generator (IG-TEG) system that has been studied theoretically showing capabilities to continually extracting energy from the thermal energy of the ambient air, at low temperatures within the standard room temperature and below. This system does not need a temperature gradient in order to work, unlike the other TEGs that use Seebeck effect, and therefore this new system can be utilized for cooling purposes, by extracting energy instead of wasting energy in compressing the gas for cooling. This novel system was designed based on Static Ratchet Potential (SRP), which is known as a spatially asymmetric electric potential produced by an array of positive and negative electrodes. The ratchet potential produces electrical current from random Brownian Motion of charged particles that are driven by thermal energy. Ratchet potential was studied and investigated by several researches in the fields of sensing and energy harvesting. The main ratchet potential system parameter is the particles transportation, this parameter was studied under the condition of flashing ratchet potentials, and was analyzed based on several methods. In this study, a different approach is pursued to estimate particles transportation, by evaluating the charged particles distribution, and applying the other conditions of the SRP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0435.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Magnetic vector potential; magnetic field; mutual inductance; magnetic force; torque; stiffness
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:56:12 CEST)
In this paper we give the improved and new analytical and semi-analytical expression for calcu-lating the magnetic vector potential, magnetic field, magnetic force, mutual inductance, torque, and stiffness between two inclined current-carrying arc segments in air. The expressions are ob-tained either in the analytical form over the incomplete elliptic integrals of the first and the sec-ond time or by the single numerical integration of some elliptical integrals of the first and the second kind. The validity of the presented formulas is proved from the special cases when the inclined circular loops are treated. We mention that all formulas are obtain by the integral ap-proach except the stiffness which is found by the derivative of the magnetic force.
Subject: Keywords: membrane theory; Association-Induction Hypothesis; ion transport, ion adsorption; membrane potential
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:53:04 CEST)
Accurate prediction of the membrane potential by membrane theory is possible on the basis that the plasma membrane is selectively permeable to ions and that permeability determines the characteristics of the membrane potential. However, an experimental and artificial cell system with an impermeable membrane serving as a model plasma membrane has a non-zero membrane potential, and this potential generated across the membrane is somehow consistent with the potential characteristics predicted by the membrane theory, despite the impermeability of the membrane to ions. A long-forgotten theory, called the association-induction hypothesis (AIH), has emerged as a more plausible mechanism for generating the membrane potential than the membrane theory to explain this unexpected behavior. The AIH asserts that ion-selective membrane permeability is not necessary for the generation of the membrane potential, which is contrary to the membrane theory. Although such an idea is not easy to accept, the experimental results clearly suggest the correctness of the AIH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0206.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Remote sensing; GIS; AHP; Groundwater potential zone; Weighted overlay analysis; Kilinochchi
Online: 9 August 2021 (16:56:29 CEST)
The scarcity of surface water resources in the dry season in the Kilinochchi district increases the demand for freshwater. Therefore, the existing groundwater resources should be managed to overcome the situation. Several authors worldwide have published studies on the delineation of potential groundwater zone. However, only a few studies addressed the delineation of potential groundwater zones in the Kilinochchi district. This study aims to delineate potential groundwater zones in Kilinochchi, Sri Lanka using integrated Remote Sensing, Geographic Information Systems, and Analytic Hierarchy Process techniques. Groundwater potential zones are demarcated for the Kilinochchi district by overlaying thematic layers: geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, soil types, drainage density, slope, lineament, and rainfall. Saaty's scale was applied to the assigned weights of the chosen thematic layers and their features. The thematic layers were integrated into a Geographic Information System, and a weighted overlay analysis is carried out to delineate groundwater zones. Thus the resultant map is categorized into five different potential zones: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. It was found that the very high groundwater potential zone is mainly found in the north-eastern part of the study area covering 111.26 km2. The upper north-western, middle, and eastern parts of the study area fall within the high groundwater potential zone covering about 507.74 km2. The moderate groundwater potential zones (309.89 km2) mainly occurred in the western part, and the extreme west part of the study area falls under low (207.78 km2) and very low (59.12 km2) zones. The groundwater potential map was validated with the existing seventy-nine wells, which indicated a good prediction accuracy of 81.8%. This research will help policymakers better manage the Kilinochchi district's groundwater resources and gives scope for further research into groundwater exploration in the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0356.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cell model; Bernstein; Nernst equation; membrane potential; GHK equation; HH model
Online: 14 June 2021 (11:50:34 CEST)
The cellular model we teach and have theorized assumes that the cell is the basic unit of multicellular living beings. This fundamental element has been the subject of many theories concerning its properties and the exchanges that exist with its environment. In this article, we demonstrate that certain functional aspects, in particular the electrical aspects related to diffusion, have not been correctly assumed or that certain initial conditions have been purely ignored and are in contradiction with physics, chemistry and thermodynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0381.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: EGB Gravity; Compact Stars; Equation of State; Metric Potential; Coupling Constant
Online: 14 April 2021 (13:52:36 CEST)
In this paper, we present some new models for anisotropic compact stars within the framework of 5-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGB) gravity with a linear and nonlinear equation of state considering a metric potential proposed for Thirukkanesh and Ragel (2012) and generalized for Malaver (2014). The new obtained models satisfy all physical requirements of a physically reasonable stellar object. Variables as energy density, radial pressure and the anisotropy are dependent of the values of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0165.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: base temperature; base water potential; predictive weed emergence model; weed germination
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:12:28 CET)
The efficacy of weed management depends on the correct control timing according to the seedling emergence dynamics. Since soil temperature and soil moisture are two main factors that determine weed germination, the hydrothermal time model can be used to predict their emergence. The aim of this study was to estimate the base temperature (Tb) and base water potential (Ψb) for germination of Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Setaria pumila and Panicum capillare collected from fields in continental Croatia and then to compare these values with those of Italian populations embedded in the AlertInf model. Germination tests were performed at seven constant temperatures (ranging from 4 to 27°C) and eight water potentials (0.00 to - 1.00 MPa). Estimated Tb and Ψb were 3.4°C, -1.38 MPa for C. album, 13.9°C, -0.36 MPa for A. retroflexus, 6.6°C, -0.71 MPa for S. pumila and 11.0°C, -0.87 MPa for P. capillare, respectively. According to the criterion of overlap of the 95% confidence intervals, only Tb of C. album, and Ψb of A. retroflexus were similar between Croatian and Italian populations. Further field experiments should be conducted in the Croatian field to monitor weed emergence patterns of C. album and to calibrate the AlerInf equation parameters.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0092.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: quantum network; quantum potential; complex system; Coherence Domains; Hopfield Networks; information
Online: 20 November 2020 (11:36:16 CET)
As a complex system, our body acts as a whole system connected to the environmental incitements. It is ordered, coherent, and tries to maintain the least possible entropy, saving the greatest amount of energy. In order to explain the dynamics of the systemic regulative network, a theoretical and speculative model is proposed, with a comprehensive approach that allows seeing the entire regulative system as a continuous unicuum. This paper covers two themes: 1) the connections between the quantum level and the classical one, through some principles of the QFT and through the Coherence Domains. The system is modeled as a field described by the wave function, with synchronous and consistent events, driven in a global computing by the quantum potential Q. The quantum potential implies the non-locality, and it needs only ultra-weak waves to occur, so it may explain how the rapid and global activation of the organism in response to perturbation/punctiform information works. The initial hypothesis is that some consistent quantum phenomena are amplified through the systemic regulative network until they become macroscopic observable. This is possible because of Coherence Domains. 2) The reactions of the different systemic networks to perturbations/punctiform information, with the attempt to model and measure information in biology, going beyond the Shannon and Turing theories. Hopfield Networks and an informational point of view are used to address the crucial informational and organizational role of proteins and nucleic acids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0136.v1
Subject: Keywords: species composition; fagaceae; keystone; restoration potential; anthropogenic disturbance; fragmented forests; coppicing
Online: 6 August 2020 (05:09:00 CEST)
The montane subtropical broadleaved humid forests of Meghalaya (Northeast India) are highly diverse and situated at the transition zone between the Eastern Himalayas and Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspots. Fagaceae family are the keystone species forms an important component of these forests. These forests in Meghalaya are highly degraded and fragmented due to anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., mining, unsustainable forest utilization, shifting cultivation, browsing, etc.). In this study, we assessed for the first time, the restoration potential (i.e. capacity to naturally regenerate and sustain desired forest structure) of Fagaceae species (2 Lithocarpus, 4 Castanopsis, and 4 Quercus species) in Meghalaya and how the biotic and abiotic factors, as well as anthropogenic disturbances, influence the restoration potential of these species. We selected fragmented forest patches in six locations on an elevational gradient on south-facing slopes in the Khasi Hills, Meghalaya. Fagaceae was the most dominant family in all sites except one site (Laitkynsew) where Fagaceae was co-dominant with Lauraceae. The family also had high natural regeneration (i.e., a high number of seedlings and saplings) but low recruitment to adult trees (DBH ≥ 10cm) at all sites. This study provides a means for assessing regeneration and a basis for forest management strategies in degraded and fragmented forests of Meghalaya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0653.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Intestinal microflora; Microbiota; Pain; Transient Receptor Potential; TRP channels; TRPA1; TRPV1
Online: 26 July 2020 (18:02:33 CEST)
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family proteins are sensors for pain, which sense variety of thermal and noxious chemicals. Sensory neurons innervating the gut abundantly express TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels and are in close proximity of gut microbes. Emerging evidence indicates a bi-directional gut-brain cross-talk in several entero-neuronal pathologies; however, the direct evidence of TRP channels interacting with gut microbial populations is lacking. Herein, we examine whether and how the knockout (KO) of TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels individually or combined TRPA1/V1 double-knockout (dKO) impacts the gut microbiome in mice. We detect distinct microbiome clusters among the three KO mouse models versus wild-type (WT) mice. All three TRP-KO models have reduced microbial diversity, harbor higher abundance of Bacteroidetes, and reduced proportion of Firmicutes. Specifically distinct arrays in the KO models are determined mainly by S24-7, Bacteroidaceae, Clostridiales, Prevotellaceae, Helicobacteriaceae, Rikenellaceae, and Ruminococcaceae. A1KO mice have lower Prevotella, Desulfovibrio, Bacteroides, Helicobacter and higher Rikenellaceae and Tenericutes; V1KO mice demonstrate higher Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcus, Desulfovibrio and Mucispirillum; while A1V1dKO mice exhibit higher Bacteroidetes, Bacteroides and S24-7 and lower Firmicutes, Ruminococcaceae, Oscillospira, Lactobacillus and Sutterella abundance. Also, the abundance of taxa involved in biosynthesis of lipids and primary and secondary bile acids is higher while that of fatty acid biosynthesis-associated taxa is lower in all KO groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating distinct gut microbiome signatures in TRPA1, V1 and dKO models and should facilitate prospective studies exploring novel diagnostic/ therapeutic modalities regarding the pathophysiology of TRP channel proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0056.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: color-flavor-locked phase; gravitational potential; adjustable parameter; anisotropy; strange matter
Online: 6 November 2019 (06:56:23 CET)
In this paper, we found new classes of exact models to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations which describe the internal structure of a compact star made of strange matter considering the equation of state proposed by Rocha, Bernardo, de Avellar and Horvath in 2019. It has been assumed that this matter is composed of equal number of up, down and strange quarks and a small amount of electrons required to reaching the charge neutrality. If this hypothesis is correct, the neutron stars could be strange stars or hybrid stars with a thin crust of nuclei where the temperatures and pressures are capable of converting hadronic matter into this new stable phase of quarks. We have chosen a particular form of gravitational potential Z(x) that depends on an adjustable parameter related to degree of anisotropy of the models and the new solutions can be written in terms of elementary and polynomial functions. The obtained models satisfy all physical features expected in a realistic star and the expressions for mass, density and stellar radius are comparable with the experimental results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Plants-Microbial Fuel Cells; clean energy; electric potential; power output; resistivity
Online: 18 September 2019 (08:21:05 CEST)
Plants Microbial Fuel Cells (PMFC) is a new technology that generates electricity in a renewable, clean and sustainable way. In spite of these advantages, it still faces limitations in power generation and current density, reaching lower production values than other renewable technologies. Different studies maintain that the high resistivity of the cathode is the main limitation in the generation of energy; therefore, non-metallic materials to obtain a better performance are replacing the metallic electrodes. The implementation of these materials applied to PMFC requires a complex interdisciplinary work. Through three experimental tests using metallic electrodes for the extraction of electrons, this research study shows that the treatment of the substrate with natural materials, the volume plant roots, and substrate temperature and humidity control have a significant influence in the increase of the electric potential and the generated current.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0284.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: tridiagonal representation; orthogonal polynomials; potential functions; asymptotics; recursion relation; spectrum formula
Online: 29 January 2019 (04:37:49 CET)
Using an algebraic method for solving the wave equation in quantum mechanics, we encountered a new class of orthogonal polynomials on the real line. One of these is a four-parameter polynomial with a discrete spectrum. Another that appeared while solving a Heun-type equation has a mix of continuous and discrete spectra. Based on these results and on our recent study of the solution space of an ordinary differential equation of the second kind with four singular points, we introduce a modification of the hypergeometric polynomials in the Askey scheme. Up to now, all of these polynomials are defined only by their three-term recursion relations and initial values. However, their other properties like the weight function, generating function, orthogonality, Rodrigues-type formula, etc. are yet to be derived analytically. This is an open problem in orthogonal polynomials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0185.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: LTCC; thick film metallization; biocompatibility; surface properties; chemical composition; zeta potential
Online: 18 January 2019 (11:18:05 CET)
Low temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) have conquered a niche segment in biological microelectromechanical systems (BioMEMS) during the last two decades. Since 3-dimensional assembly and rapid prototyping capability are outstanding features of the technology, bioreactors with complex geometry can easily be produced. Particularly needed functions are working electrodes, e.g. for impedance measurements and reference electrodes consisting in platinum or silver-silver chloride. Although the distinct grainy surface of thick film materials influences the double layer properties, data describing the bioelectronic interface and biocompatibility of common thick film materials are rarely published up to now. This works aims to fill this gap by studying the surface properties, composition, electrochemical properties and biocompatibility of commercially available thick film materials. It was found that thick film gold is suitable as electrode material in direct cell contact since an appropriate proliferation of the cell culture was observed. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) coating decreases the absolute value of the zeta potential of thick film gold from 16.55 V to 11.78 mV without any change in vitality of the cells. Thick film platinum layers have a porous structure entailing an enlargement of the effective surface by a factor of 21.6 and can be used as reference instead of silver/silver chloride, which was identified to be incompatible with cell culture. The investigations show that some commercially available cost-effective thick film materials are compatible with cell culture and the here presented data give an orientation for the use of the same in LTCC bioreactors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010007.v1
Subject: Keywords: quantum mechanics; EEG; short term memory; astrocytes; neocortical dynamics; vector potential
Online: 11 December 2018 (00:00:00 CET)
Background: Previous papers have developed a statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI) fit to short-term memory and EEG data. Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) has been developed to perform fits to such nonlinear stochastic systems. An N-dimensional path-integral algorithm for quantum systems, qPATHINT, has been developed from classical PATHINT. Both fold short-time propagators (distributions or wave functions) over long times. Previous papers applied qPATHINT to two systems, in neocortical interactions and financial options. Objective: In this paper the quantum path-integral for Calcium ions is used to derive a closed-form analytic solution at arbitrary time that is used to calculate interactions with classical-physics SMNI interactions among scales. Using fits of this SMNI model to EEG data, including these effects, will help determine if this is a reasonable approach. Method: Methods of mathematical-physics for optimization and for path integrals in classical and quantum spaces are used for this project. Studies using supercomputer resources tested various dimensions for their scaling limits. In this paper the quantum path-integral is used to derive a closed-form analytic solution at arbitrary time that is used to calculate interactions with classical-physics SMNI interactions among scales. Results: The mathematical-physics and computer parts of the study are successful, in that there is modest improvement of cost/objective functions used to fit EEG data using these models. Conclusions: This project points to directions for more detailed calculations using more EEG data and qPATHINT at each time slice to propagate quantum calcium waves, synchronized with PATHINT propagation of classical SMNI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: context-aware; UAV-assisted networks; communication probability; cache content; potential game
Online: 10 September 2018 (12:45:40 CEST)
This paper investigates the problem of the optimal arrangement for both UAVs’ caching contents and service locations in UAV-assisted networks based on the context awareness, which considers the influence between users and environment. In the existing work, users within the coverage of UAVs are considered to be served perfectly, which ignores the communication probability caused by line-of-sight (LOS) and non- line-of-sight (NLOS) links. However, the links are related to UAV deployment. Moreover, the transmission overhead should be taken into account. To balance the tradeoff between these two factors, we design the ratio of users’ probability and transmission overhead as the performance measure mechanism to evaluate the performance of UAV-assisted networks. Then, we formulate the objective for maximizing the performance of UAV-assisted networks as a UAV-assisted caching game. It is proved that the game is an exact potential game with the performance of UAV-assisted networks serving as the potential function. Next, we propose the log-linear caching algorithm (LCA) to achieve the Nash equilibrium (NE). Finally, related simulation results reflect the great performance of the proposed algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0005.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: natural stones; alkylalkoxysilane; nanocomposite coatings; surface modification; zeta potential; streaming current
Online: 2 September 2018 (11:48:29 CEST)
Protective coatings, in recent years also from nanocomposite formulations, are commonly applied onto architectural stone and stone artefacts, mainly to prevent absorption into the porous stone structure of condensed water and dissolved atmospheric pollutants. While standard protocols are available to assess a coating’s performance, understanding the response of the coating-stone system is a complex task, due to the interplay of various factors determining the overall behaviour. Characterization techniques allowing to correlate the extent and nature of surface modification upon treatment with the most relevant physical properties (i.e water absorption and surface wettability) are thus of great interest. Electrokinetic analysis based on streaming current measurements, thanks to its sensitivity towards even minor changes in the surface chemical composition, may fulfil such requirement. Indeed, by involving the interaction with a testing aqueous electrolyte solution, this technique allows to probe not only the outer surface but also the outermost layer of the pore network, which plays a crucial role in the interaction of the stone with condensed atmospheric water. In this work a correlation was found between the extent of surface modification, as determined by streaming current measurements, surface wettability and capillary water absorption of 6 coating-lithotype combinations (3 lithotypes and 2 nanocomposites).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0145.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: CO2; Keeling curve; Mauna Loa; carbonates; ocean pH; chemical potential; acidification 1
Online: 12 September 2022 (10:00:52 CEST)
Seasonal oscillations in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the Earth’s atmosphere stronger in northern latitudes are assumed to show that terrestrial photosynthesis exceeds respiration in summer reducing the pCO2, but increasing in winter when respiration exceeds photosynthesis. We disagree, proposing that variations in the temperature of the surface mixing zone of seawater also regulate the atmospheric pCO2, thermodynamically. We show that carbonate (CO32-) concentrations will therefore increase in summer with CaCO3 (calcite or aragonite) becoming less soluble, so calcium and carbonate ions are predicted to aggregate more while CO2 concentration falls in warmer seawater, thermodynamically favoring lower atmospheric pCO2. In winter, these physical processes are reversed, redissolving suspended calcite thus increasing carbonate alkalinity; carbonate concentration lessens as bicarbonate and soluble CO2 increase, raising the pCO2 in air. Our numerical computation shows that thermal fluctuations in equilibria favor absorption from air of more than one mole of CO2 per square meter in summer, coinciding with calcite formation maximizing in warmer water, potentially augmenting limestone reefs if there is a trend for increasing temperature . Another assumption we challenge is that upwelling from deeper water is the sole cause of increases in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkalinity in surface waters, particularly in the southern hemisphere. Instead, calcite dissolution is favored as water temperature falls near the surface. It is well established that the seasonal summer decline in atmospheric CO2 coincides in fertile seawater with higher rates of biotic calcification and acidity, allowing increased CO2 capture by photosynthesis. However, its reversal in winter is proposed to be also a result of the cyclic dissolution of calcite as temperature falls, facilitated by biogenic respiration now exceeding photosynthesis; this can mutually provide the CO2 needed to convert carbonate ion alkalinity from calcite dissolution with bicarbonate increasing. Physical reasons why this oscillation is more obvious in the northern hemisphere include greater seasonal variations in water temperature (ca. 7.1 oC) being almost twice that in the cooler southern hemisphere (ca. 4.7 oC) and the greater depth of the surface mixing zone of seawater in the southern oceans. Evidence from 13CO2 fluxes between surface seawater and air is also assessed to test this hypothesis but questions remain regarding the regional rates of inorganic precipitation and dissolution of CaCO3 in the mixing zone. In summary, rapid biogenic calcification is favored by summer photosynthesis, but slower abiogenic calcification is more likely in warmer water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0230.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: membrane pump theory; membrane potential; ion channel; Na/K ATPase; thermodynamics; elecrtromagnetism
Online: 26 April 2022 (06:11:34 CEST)
The membrane potential or resting potential of the neuron has been the subject of many studies. Although this theory explains the generation and maintenance of the membrane potential by direct or even facilitated diffusion, there are too many contradictions to doubt that these forces are sufficient or even at work in a process whose initial conditions are of rare complexity. The aim of this article is to show that already in the past, a competing theory has been developed whose hypothesis seems more scientifically sound. To confirm this last theory, Hirohisa Tamagawa carried out an experiment of great simplicity which makes it possible to invalidate the current theory and to question the teaching and the knowledge in Biology and Biophysics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0182.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: membrane pump theory; membrane potential; ion channel; NA/K ATPase; Biophysics; Biology
Online: 20 April 2022 (03:42:28 CEST)
The generation and maintenance of membrane potential is a fundamental part of Membrane Pump Theory. One of the key points of this hypothesis is based on a natural or facilitated molecular diffusion through several types of ion channels and pumps like the Na/K ATPase. Following the principles of chemistry, electrostatics and geometry, it becomes clear that ion channels cannot function in this way. The ions channels cannot by their location have both a filter function and be ion concentrators, and the Na/K pump by its position in the membrane and by the proposed assumptions is not able to perform its regulatory function. The current model must absolutely be revised according to the current state of our knowledge and allow an advance in the understanding of the phenomena opening new research perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0313.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Gliders; Altimetry; Mesoscale; Eddies; Warm-core rings; Potential Vorticity; Gulf of Mexico
Online: 13 May 2021 (17:27:59 CEST)
This study investigates the vertical structure of the dynamical properties of a warm-core ring in the Gulf of Mexico (Loop Current ring) using glider observations. We introduce a new method to correct the glider’s along-track coordinate which is, in general, biased by the unsteady relative movements of the glider and the eddy, yielding large errors on horizontal derivatives. Here, we take advantage of the synopticity of satellite along-track altimetry to apply corrections on the glider’s position, by matching in situ steric height with satellite-measured sea surface height. This relocation method allows to recover the eddy’s azimuthal symmetry, to precisely estimate the rotation axis position, and to compute reliable horizontal derivatives. It is shown to be particularly appropriate to compute the eddy’s cyclo-geostrophic velocity, relative vorticity, and shear strain, which are otherwise out of reach when using the glider’s raw traveled distance as an horizontal coordinate. The Ertel potential vorticity (PV) structure of the warm core ring is studied in details, and we show that the PV anomaly is entirely controlled by vortex stretching. Sign reversal of the PV gradient across the water column suggests that the ring might be baroclinically unstable. The PV gradient is also largely controlled by gradients of the vortex stretching term. We also show that the ring’s total energy partition is strongly skewed, with available potential energy being 3 times larger than kinetic energy. The possible impact of this energy distribution on the Loop Current rings longevity is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0412.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Galactic dynamics; Spiral structure; Bared spiral structure; Density wave; Gravitational retarded potential
Online: 27 February 2020 (16:10:59 CET)
Most fully developed galaxies have vivid spiral structure, but the formation and evolution of spiral structure is still a mystery that is not fully understood in astrophysics. We find that the currently used equations of galactic dynamics contain some unreasonable components. In this paper, the following three working assumptions are introduced to simplify the galactic structural equations. 1. In the research of large-scale structure, the retarded potential of the gravitational field should be taken into account. The propagating time of the gravitational field from center to border is longer than the revolution periods of the stars near the center of galaxy. Newton's gravitational potential is unreasonable for such case, and the weak field and low velocity approximation of Einstein's field equation should be adopted. 2. The stars in a fully developed galaxy should be zero-pressure and inviscid fluid, and the equation of motion is different from that of ordinary continuum mechanics. Stars move along geodesics. 3. The structure of the galaxy is only related to the total mass density distribution. The equation of state of dark halo is different from that of ordinary luminous interstellar matter, so their trajectories are also very different. Dark halo and ordinary matter in galaxy are automatically separated. The total mass density distribution can be presupposed according to the observation data, and then it can be determined by comparing the solution of the equations with the observed data. These assumptions and treatments are supported by theory and observation. The variables of the equations of simplified galactic dynamics are separated from each other, and the equations are well-posed and can be solved according to a definite procedure. Therefore, this simplified dynamic equation system provides a more reasonable and practical framework for the further study of galactic structure, and can solve many practical problems. Besides, it is closely related to the study of dark energy and dark matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0025.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: resource potential; point center quarter methods; Acacia seyal structure; species composition; diversity
Online: 2 August 2019 (09:27:50 CEST)
The study was conducted in north wollo, south wollo and orimiya zone, in Eastern Amhara with an aim to assess the resource potential of Acacia seyal in the selected sites. The data from the selected sites were collected using point center quarter method. A total of 90 quadrates from nine study areas with plot size 50m*50m, (22.5ha) were systematically located along each transect, 100 m apart, and was spatially captured with the aid of GPS. At every sampling point, four quadrants (90 degrees) were created, using the transect line and a line perpendicular to it. Species composition Acacia seyal structure and its regeneration status, at points along transects were taken to analyze diversity and target species structure of the sites. The highest and least density of Acacia seyal ha-1 were attained by Mehale mecharie (148) and Alene sefer (52). The highest shannon weiner diversity and species richness was observed in Alene sefer(Kemessie). Acacia seyal structure in all study sites showed an inverted J shape except lastie gerdao (Gubalafeto). Therefore, Acacia seyal deserves immediate conservation and appropriate management measures in order to get sustainable product and services from the species. Based on the results, awareness creation on the values and management of Acacia seyal, study on the management options of Acacia seyal for firewood, fuel wood, charcoal production and also investigation of gum production techniques of Acacia seyal for the sustainable use of the resource are recommended.
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: carbon sequestration; methane; carbon dioxide; nitrous oxide; global warming potential; paddy field
Online: 23 June 2019 (13:54:38 CEST)
Three rice paddy fields under farmers’ actual management conditions were investigated from May to April at Bibai (43°18′N, 141°44′E), in central Hokkaido, Japan to evaluate the carbon (C) sequestration and contribution of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes to a global warming potential (GWP). CH4 and N2O fluxes were measured by placing the chamber over the rice plants covering four hills and CO2 fluxes from rice plants root free space in paddy fields were taken as an indicator of soil microbial respiration (Rm) using the closed chamber method. Annual cumulative Rm ranged from 422 to 519 g C m-2 yr-1; which accounted for 54.7 to 55.5 % mainly during the rice growing season. Annual cumulative CH4 emission ranged from 75.5 to 116 g C m-2 yr-1 and this contribution occurred entirely during the rice growing period. Annual cumulative N2O emission ranged from 0.091 to 0.154 g N m-2 yr-1 and 73.5 to 81.3% of the positive annual N2O emission observed during the winter-fallow season. Soil C sequestration was estimated as the difference between net primary production (NPP) and C loss through Rm, CH4 emission and crop C harvest. The soil C sequestration ranged from -305 to -365 g C m- 2 yr-1, indicating that the C loss could not be compensated for by C input through NPP. Carbon loss was much higher (62 to 66%) in winter-fallow season than growing season. The annual net GWP from the investigated paddy fields ranged from 3823 to 5016 g CO2 equivalent m-2 yr-1. Annual GWPCH4 accounted for 71.9 to 86.1% of the annual net GWP predominantly from the rice growing period. These results indicate that CH4 dominated the rice paddy’s net GWP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0119.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: embodied language, grip force modulation, intraparietal sulcus, motor-evoked potential, right hemisphere
Online: 11 January 2019 (16:08:14 CET)
Objective: To evaluate the effects of left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) inhibition by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on grip force modulation (GFM) for both hands during a unimanual task. Methods: GFM induced by manual action-verb listening was evaluated for each hand in a unimanual task, and the motor-evoked potentials (MEP) were recorded for both left and right hemispheres prior to and following the left IPS inhibition. Left IPS inhibition was obtained by rTMS (5 min of 1.0 Hz, 60% of maximal stimulator output) of the international 10–20 system P3 point. Seven healthy right-handed subjects were evaluated. Results: One-way repeated measures ANOVA found that MEP amplitude and duration increased following IPS inhibition in the left hemisphere and did not change in the right hemisphere. Language-induced modulation did not change in the left hemisphere, while it was significantly attenuated in the right hemisphere. Since IPS inhibition increased the left primary motor cortex (M1) excitability, the maintenance of language-induced modulation intensity suggests it was also attenuated. Conclusion: Left IPS inhibition increased left M1 excitability without changing right M1 excitability, while attenuating the language-induced GFM for both the left and right hands.