REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0052.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Plant stress, abiotic stress, biotic stress, metabolomics, phytometabolomics, sensomics, phytohormonics, LC-MS/MS, NMR, targeted metabolomics, untargeted metabolomics, functional food.
Online: 3 July 2018 (14:18:19 CEST)
The breeding of stress-tolerant cultivated plants that would allow for a reduction in harvest losses and undesirable decrease in quality attributes requires a new quality of knowledge on molecular markers associated with relevant agronomic traits, on quantitative metabolic responses of plants on stress challenges, and on the mechanisms controlling the biosynthesis of these molecules. By combining metabolomics with genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics datasets a more comprehensive knowledge of the composition of crop plants used for food or animal feed is possible. In order to optimize crop trait developments, to enhance crop yields and quality, as well as to guarantee nutritional and health factors, that provides the possibility to create functional food or feedstuffs, the knowledge about the plants’ metabolome is crucial. Next to classical metabolomics studies, this review focusses on several metabolomics based working techniques, such as sensomics, lipidomics, hormonomics and phytometabolomics, which were used to characterize metabolome alterations during abiotic and biotic stress, to find resistant food crops with a preferred quality or at least to produce functional food crops are highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0106.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: within-plant phenotypic plasticity; combined stresses; additive, antagonistic and synergic effects; VOC
Online: 9 October 2022 (03:56:12 CEST)
Background: Drought, N deficiency and herbivory are considered the most important stressors caused by climate change in the agro- and eco-systems and varied in space and time shaping a highly dynamic and heterogeneous stressful environments. This study aims to evaluate the to-mato morpho-physiological and metabolic responses to combined abiotic and herbivory at dif-ferent within-plant spatial levels and temporal scales. Methods: Leaf-level morphological, gas exchange traits and VOC profiles were measured in to-mato plants exposed to N deficiency and drought, T. absoluta larvae and their combination. Ad-ditive, synergistic or antagonistic effects of the single stress when combined were also evaluat-ed. Morpho-physiological traits and VOC profile were also measured on leaves located at three different positions along the shoot axes. Results: The combination of the abiotic and biotic stress has been more harmful than single stress with antagonistic and synergistic but non-additive effects for the morpho-physiological and VOC tomato responses, respectively. Combined stress also determined a high within-plant phenotypic plasticity of the morpho-physiological responses. Conclusions: These results suggest that the combined stress in tomato determined a “new stress state” and a higher within-plant phenotypic plasticity which could permit an efficient use of the growth and defence resources in the heterogeneous and multiple stressful environmental condi-tions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0184.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: CRISPR; genome editing; gene editing; forage grass; abiotic stress; plant
Online: 12 December 2022 (01:38:47 CET)
Due to an increase in the consumption of food, feed, and fuel and to meet global food security needs for the rapidly growing human population, there is a necessity to obtain high-yielding crops that can adapt to future climate changes. Currently, the main feed source used for ruminant livestock production is forage grasses. In temperate climate zones, perennial grasses grown for feed are widely distributed and tend to suffer under unfavorable environmental conditions. Gene editing has been shown to be an effective tool for the development of abiotic stress-resistant plants. The highly versatile CRISPR-Cas system enables increasingly complex modifications in genomes while maintaining precision and low off-target frequency mutations. In this review, we provide an overview of forage grass species that have been subjected to gene editing. We offer a perspective view on the generation of plants resilient to abiotic stresses. Due to the broad factors contributing to these stresses the review focuses on drought, salt, heat, and cold stresses. The application of new genomic techniques (e.g., CRISPR-Cas) allows addressing several challenges caused by climate change and abiotic stresses for developing forage grass cultivars with improved adaptation to the future climatic conditions. Gene editing will contribute towards developing safe and sustainable food systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0411.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: abiotic stresses; gene-expression; genomics; ion homeostasis; plant growth and development; plasma membrane; sugar translocation
Online: 20 August 2021 (11:43:31 CEST)
Membrane transporters (MTs) are mainly localized at the plasma membrane (PM), tonoplast and vacuolar membrane (VM) of cells in all plant organs. Their work is to maintain the cellular homeostasis by controlling ionic movements across PM channels from roots to upper plant parts, xylem loading and remobilization of sugar molecules from photosynthesis tissues in the leaf (source) to roots, stem and seeds (sink) via phloem loading. The plant’s whole source-to-sink relationship is regulated by multiple transporting proteins in a highly sophisticated manner and driven based on different stages of plant growth and development (PG&D), and environmental changes. The MTs play a pivotal role in PG&D in terms of increased plant height, branches/tiller numbers, enhanced numbers, length and filled panicles per plant, seed yield and grain quality. Dynamic climatic changes disturbed the ionic balance (salt, drought and heavy metals) and sugar supply (cold and heat stress). Due to poor selectivity, some of the MTs also uptake toxic elements in the roots that negatively impact on PG&D, later on also exported to upper parts and then deteriorate the grain quality. As an adaptive strategy, in response to salt and HMs plants activated PM and VM localized MTs that export toxic elements into vacuole, and also translocate in the root’s tips and shoot. However, in case of drought, cold and heat stresses, MTs increased the water and sugar supply to all organs. In this review, we mainly reviewed recent literature from Arabidopsis, halophytes, and major field crops such as rice, wheat, maize and oilseed rape to argue on the global role of MTs in PG&D and abiotic stress tolerance. We also discussed the gene expression level changes and genomic variations within a species as well as within a family in response to developmental and environmental cues.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0103.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant immune response; reactive oxygen species; salicylic acid; reactive oxygen species-salicylic acid crosstalk; programmed cell death; hypersensitive response-conferred resistance; RBOH NADPH oxidases; chloroplastic redox state; biosensors; precision transcriptomics
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:46:28 CET)
One of the earliest hallmarks of plant immune response is production of reactive oxygen spe-cies (ROS) in different subcellular compartments, which regulate plant immunity. A suitable equilibrium, which is crucial to prevent ROS over-accumulation leading to oxidative stress, is maintained by salicylic acid (SA), a chief regulator of ROS. However, ROS are not only acting downstream of SA signaling, but were also proposed to be a central component of a self-amplifying loop that regulates SA signaling as well as the interaction balance between dif-ferent phytohormones. The exact role of this crosstalk, the position where SA interferes with ROS signaling and ROS interferes with SA signaling and the outcome of this regulation depend on the origin of ROS but also on the pathosystem. The precise spatiotemporal regulation of or-ganelle specific ROS and SA levels determine the effectiveness of pathogen arrest and is there-fore crucial for a successful immune response. However, the regulatory interplay behind still remain poorly understood, as up till now, the role of organelle specific ROS and SA in HR-conferred resistance has mostly been studied by altering the level of a single component. In order to address these aspects, a sophisticated combination of research methods for monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of key players and transcriptional activity in plants is needed, and will most probably consist of biosensors and precision transcriptomics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0142.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Arabidopsis thaliana; indole-3-acetic acid; jasmonic acid; plant hormone crosstalk; transcriptional regulation; wound response; biotic stress; growth-defense trade-off
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:20:15 CEST)
The indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway is the major route for auxin biosynthesis in higher plants. Tryptophan aminotransferases (TAA1/TAR) and members of the YUCCA family of flavin-containing monooxygenases catalyze the conversion of L-tryptophan via indole-3-pyruvic acid into indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). It has been described that locally produced jasmonic acid (JA) in response to mechanical wounding, triggers de novo-formation of IAA through the induction of two YUCCA genes, YUC8 and YUC9. Here, we report the direct involvement of a small number of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors of the MYC family in this process. We show that the JA-mediated regulation of YUC8 and YUC9 gene expression depends on the abundance of MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4. In support of this observation, seedlings of myc knockout mutants displayed a strongly reduced response to JA-mediated IAA formation. In addition, transactivation assays provided experimental evidence for the binding of the MYC transcription factors to a particular tandem G-box motif abundant in the promoter regions of YUC8 and YUC9, but not in those of the other YUCCA genes. Moreover, we clearly demonstrate that YUC8ox and YUC9ox overexpressing plants show less damage after spider mite infestation, thereby underlining a role of auxin in plant responses toward biotic stress cues.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0639.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Plants; polyamines; abiotic stresses; biotic stresses; transgenic plants; Plant-pathogen interaction; Plants-fungal interaction
Online: 30 October 2020 (13:10:51 CET)
The biotic and abiotic stresses are the main causes of the loss of agricultural crops productivity, their normal growth and development in the environment. It has been calculated that two-thirds of the major crops are frequently lost due to adverse environmental conditions. The productivity of crops under unfavorable environmental stresses is apparently the main challenge to the breeders and farmers where polyamines (PAs) play diverse roles in environmental stimuli. PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) are low molecular weight positively charge compounds have the active potential power to negative charge molecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) is widely distributed in all living organisms. Evidence showed that PAs contribute a lot of different physiological and biological functions, such as cell growth and development, controlling the cell cycle, involve in gene expression, cell signaling, replication, transcription, translation, and membrane stabilization. Naturally occurring polyamines activity acuminated to their involvement with different biotic and abiotic stresses and contribute to the survival of the plant in the environment. Here, we have described the potential mechanisms, synthesis, and various roles of PAs during stresses tolerant and disease resistance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0454.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: CRISPR-Cas technology; pest management; plant stress resistance; insect resistance
Online: 29 September 2022 (07:08:41 CEST)
Global crop yield and food security are being threatened by phytophagous insects. Innovative methods are required to increase agricultural output while reducing reliance on hazardous synthetic insecticides. It appears to be quite effective at reducing production costs and boosting farm profitability to use the ground-breaking CRISPR-Cas technology to create plants that are insect resistant. In contrast, this new technique can modify an insect's genome to either produce gene drive or get beyond an insect's tolerance to various insecticides. This paper reviews and critically discusses the use of CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology in long-term insect pest management. The emphasis of this review is on the prospective uses of the CRISPR-Cas system for insect stress management in crop production by creating genome-edited crops and insects. The potential and difficulties of using CRISPR-Cas technology to reduce pest stress in crop plants are critically examined and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0387.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: explainable artificial intelligence; high-level explainable feature; entropy; plant stress; early diagnosis
Online: 22 August 2022 (15:47:02 CEST)
The article is devoted to solving the problem of searching for universal explainable features that can remain explainable for a wide class of objects and phenomena and become an integral part of Explainable AI (XAI). The study is implemented on the example of an applied problem of early diagnostics of plant stress, using Thermal IR (TIR) and HSI, presented by 8 vegetation indices/channels. Each such index was presented by 5 statistical values. A Single-Layer-Perceptron classifier was used as the main instrument. TIR turned out to be the best of the indices in terms of efficiency in the field and sufficient to detect all 7 key days with 100% accuracy. Our study shows also that there are a number of indices, inluding NDVI, and usual color channels Red, Green, Blue, which are close to TIR possibilities in early plant stress detection with 100% accurasy or near, and can be used for wide class of plants and in different conditions their treatment. The stability of the stress classification in our study was maintained when the training set was reduced up to 10% of the dataset volume. The entropy-like feature of (max-min) for any indices/channels have determined as a leadersheep universal high-level explainable feature for the plant stress detection, which used in interaction with some of other statistical features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0536.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Breeding population, internal standards, matrix effects, plant volatiles, SPME, odorant analysis
Online: 30 August 2018 (21:22:47 CEST)
Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is widely employed for volatile analyses of plants, including mapping populations used in plant breeding research. Studies often employ a single internal surrogate standard, even when multiple analytes are measured, with the assumption that any relative changes in matrix effects among individuals would be similar for all compounds, i.e. matrix effects do not show Compound × Individual interactions. We tested this assumption using individuals from two plant populations, an interspecific grape (Vitis spp.) mapping population (n = 140) and a tomato (Solanum spp.) recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (n = 148). Individual plants from the two populations were spiked with a cocktail of internal standards (n = 6, 9, respectively) prior to HS-SPME-GC-MS. Variation in the relative responses of internal standards indicated that Compound × Individual interactions exist but were different between the two populations. For the grape population, relative responses among pairs of internal standards varied considerably among individuals, with a maximum of 249% relative standard deviation (RSD) for the pair of [U13C]hexanal and [U13C]hexanol. However, in the tomato population, relative responses of internal standard pairs varied much less, with pairwise RSDs ranged from 8% to 56%. The approach described in this paper could be used to evaluate the suitability of using surrogate standards for HS-SPME-GC-MS studies in other plant populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0694.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Transpiration; PV Heat Conversion; Plant Heat Stress; Agrivoltaic system; Sustainable Integration; Thermal Analysis
Online: 29 July 2020 (11:20:25 CEST)
This paper shares some new information on the ambient temperature profile and the heat stress occurrences directly underneath ground-mounted Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Arrays (monocrystalline-based) focusing on different temperature levels. A common ground for this work lies on the fact that 10C increase of PV cell temperature results in reduction of 0.5% energy conversion efficiency thus any means of natural cooling mechanism would gain much benefit especially to the Solar Farm operators. Transpiration process plays an important role in the cooling of green plants where in average it could dissipate around 32.9% of the total solar energy absorbed by the leaf making it a good natural cooling mechanism. This condition is relatively applied for herbs specifically for this project, Orthosiphon Stamineus or generally known as Java Tea are used as the high value crops. The thermal process via convective heat and mass exchange of leaves with the environment is relevant for a better understanding of plant physiological processes in response to environmental conversion factors for a wide range of applications. An important fact for plant heat stress with respect to the Ambient temperature is that the range lies between 10 C to 15 C above the surrounding value. This heat stress condition is relatively important and should be modelled in crops-energy integration. Agrivoltaic concept is a system that combines commercial agriculture and photovoltaic electricity generation in the same space. The concept is in line with the Kyoto Protocol and the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDG) which highlights the clean energy and sustainable urban living. The integration of agrivoltaic systems would optimize the yield, improving clean system efficiency and solving the issue of land resource sustainability. The PV bottom surface temperature are the main source of dissipated heat as shown in the thermal images recorded at 5 minutes interval at 3 sampling time. Statistical analysis shows that the Thermal correlations for transpiration process and heat stress occurrences between PV bottom surface and plant height will be an important finding for large scale plant cultivation in agrivoltaic farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0197.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: sodium chloride; photosystem II; Green Forest; carbon assimilation; salt-sensitive; C3 plant; climate change; abiotic stress
Online: 14 June 2022 (08:04:31 CEST)
Lettuce is a salt-sensitive crop and has a threshold electrical conductivity of 1.3–2.0 mS cm-1 and above that is considered detrimental. As there has been very little information on the physio-logical response of different critical stages of lettuce under different salt stress (SS), the current study is focused on investigating the effects of SS on the critical physiological traits influencing the carbon assimilation in different growth stages of lettuce. The experiment was conducted in deep-water culture hydroponic system in a greenhouse condition. Four levels of sodium chloride salt treatments (EC: 20, 16, 8, and 1.8 mS cm-1) were applied. During both growth stages (day 11 (GS1) and day 19 (GS2) after salt treatment), the leaf transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 were severely decreased. However, the carbon assimilation rate remained unchanged under SS. Similarly, the water use efficiency increased under the SS. It is concluded that the increasing SS increased stomatal and non-stomatal limiting factors during GS1 suggesting the enhanced limitation in photosynthetic activity while no such trend was observed during GS2. The decreased gm with increased SS at GS1 and GS2 suggested that SS induced the irreversible decrease of gm, which in turn can be responsible for the transient reduction in the Vcmax and Jmax during GS2. Taken together, the evidence from this research recommends that varying the SS levels can significantly affect the physiological performance of lettuce at both growth stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0122.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: explainable artificial intelligence; hyperspectral image; thermal IR training; zero-shot learning; plant stress; early diagnosis
Online: 6 January 2023 (09:56:11 CET)
The work is devoted to the search for effective solutions to the applied problem of early diagnostics of plant stress in the conditions of smart farming and based on modern explicable artificial intelligence (XAI). The study mostly oriented on the theory and practice of XAI, focused on the use of hyperspectral imagery (HSI) and Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) sensor data at the input of a neural network. The first our goal is to build an XAI neural network, explainable due to its structure, the input of which is a datascientist oriented HSI 'explanator', and the output is a biologist oriented TIR 'explanator'. In the middle is SLP-regressor which solves the universal problem of training HSI pixels to temperatures of plants, needed for early plant stress diagnostic. The result can be considered as prototype of a special XAI explanator which is assigned to transform explanator specialized on area 1 onto explanator specialized on area 2. Using this HSI-TIR explanator we ensured the follows: extend HSI data by TIR attribute; providing TIR data for early diagnostic of plant stress; reducing dimensionality HSI needed for TIR training 25 times (from 204 to 8) preserving the same accuracy of temperature prediction (RMSE=0.2-0.3C). This reducing was achieved without using PCA methods. The constructed model is computationally efficient in training: the average training time is significantly less then 1 min (Intel Core i3-8130U, 2.2 GHz, 4 cores, 4 GB). One of the 8 channels, 820 nm, is the leader in correlation with TIR, what allows building local linear temperature prediction functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0223.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Abiotic Stress; Forestry; Tree Physiology; Plant Selection; Urban Forestry
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:42:34 CET)
Responses to water stress were measured for sugar maple (Acer saccharum subsp. saccharum Marshall) sources from Oklahoma (Caddo sugar maple), Missouri, Tennessee, Ontario and a black maple (Acer saccharum subsp. nigrum F. Michx.) source from Iowa. Seedling sources were selected for differences in temperature and precipitation of their geographic origins. Seedlings were preconditioned through moist (watered daily) or dry (watered every 4-7 days) cycles and then exposed to prolonged water stress. Dry preconditioned sugar maple seedlings from Oklahoma, Missouri, and Tennessee, sources from warmer and/or drier climates with greater relative evapotranspiration potentials, declined less rapidly in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency (WUE) as water stress increased than dry preconditioned seedlings from Ontario and Iowa having origins in cooler, moister climates. Under imposed water stress the Ontario and Iowa sourced seedlings increased their root to shoot ratios and decreased their specific leaf area, mechanisms for drought avoidance. However, no corresponding changes in these values occurred for Oklahoma, Missouri, and Tennessee sources. Results from this study suggest greater tolerance of water stress in the Oklahoma, Missouri and Tennessee ecotypes from the western and southern range of sugar maple resulted primarily with WUE rather than other water stress coping mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0026.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: rhizosphere; phyllosphere; endophyte; plant microbiome; plant mycobiome; rare microbiome; fungi; bacteria; microbes; soil microbiology; inoculum; microbial ecology
Online: 1 August 2022 (15:22:30 CEST)
A plant’s health and productivity is influenced by its associated microbes. Although the common microbiome is often thought to be the most influential, significant numbers of rare or uncommon microbes (eg. specialized endosymbionts) may also play an important role in the health and productivity of certain plants in certain environments. To help identify rare/specialized bacteria and fungi in the most important angiosperm plants, we contrasted microbiomes of the shoots, roots and rhizospheres of Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, maize, wheat, sugarcane, rice, tomato, coffee, common bean, cassava, soybean, switchgrass, sunflower, Brachiaria, barley, sorghum, and pea. Plants were grown inside sealed jars on sterile sand or field soil. About 95% and 86% of fungal and bacterial diversity inside plants was uncommon, however judging by read abundance, up to half of the mycobiome consists of uncommon fungal cells, while less than 11% of bacterial endophytes are rare. Uncommon seed transmitted microbiomes consisted mostly of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes that most heavily colonized shoots, to a lesser extent roots and least of all rhizospheres. Soil served as a more diverse source of rare microbes than seeds, replacing or excluding the majority of the uncommon seed transmitted microbiome. With the rarest microbes, their colonization pattern could either be the result of stringent biotic filtering by most plants, or uneven/stochastic inoculum distribution in seeds or soil. Several strong plant-microbe associations were observed such as seed transmission to shoots, roots and/or rhizospheres of Sarocladium zeae (maize), Penicillium (pea and Phaseolus), and Curvularia (sugarcane), while robust bacterial colonization from cassava field soil occurred with the cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya into Arabidopsis and Panicum roots, and Streptomyces into cassava roots. Some abundant microbes such as Sakaguchia in rice shoots or Vermispora in Arabidopsis roots appeared in no other samples, suggesting they were infrequent, stochastically deposited propagules from either soil or seed (impossible to know based on the available data). Future experiments with culturing and cross inoculation of these microbes between plants may help us better understand host preferences and their role in plant productivity, perhaps leading to their use in crop microbiome engineering and enhancement of agricultural production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0136.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: endophytes; resistance inducers; biological control; abiotic stress; plant-microbe interactions; sustainability; integrated pest management; microorganisms; plant disease control
Online: 4 February 2021 (12:07:42 CET)
Plant diseases cause losses of approximately 16% globally. Thus, management measures must be implemented to mitigate losses and guarantee food production. In addition to traditional management measures, resistance induction and biological control have gained ground in agriculture due to their enormous potential. Endophytic fungi colonize plant tissues internally and have the potential to act as biological control agents, as elicitors in the process of resistance induction and in attenuating abiotic stresses. In this review, we list the action of this group of microorganisms as potential agents which can act in controlling plant diseases and describe several examples in which endophytes were able to reduce the damage caused by pathogens and adverse conditions. This is due to their arsenal of molecules generated during the interaction by which they form a kind of biological shield in the plant. Studies on these microorganisms have grown due to the existing diversity and the multiple benefits they can offer. Finally, considering that endophytic fungi can be an important tool in managing diseases due to the large amount of biologically active substances produced, bioprospecting this class of microorganisms is tending to increase and generate valuable products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0223.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: abiotic stress; antioxidant defense; enzyme regulations; oxidative stress; plant nutrients; reactive oxygen species; soil fertility
Online: 24 January 2018 (07:01:05 CET)
Among the plant nutrients potassium (K) is one of the vital elements required for plant growth and physiology. Potassium is not only a constituent of plant structure but also plays regulatory function in several biochemical processes related to protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme activation. There are several physiological processes like stomatal regulation and photosynthesis are dependent on K. In the recent decades K was found to provide abiotic stress tolerance. Under salt stress, K helps in maintaining ion homeostasis and regulation of osmotic balance. Under drought stress condition K regulates the stomatal opening and makes the plants adaptive to water deficit. Many reports provided the notion that K enhances the antioxidant defense in plants and therefore, protects the plants from oxidative stress under various environmental adversities. Also, it provides some cellular signaling alone or in association with other signaling molecules and phytohormones. Although a considerable progress in understanding K-induced abiotic stress tolerance in plants has been achieved the exact molecular mechanisms of such protections are still under research. In this review, we summarized the recent literature on the biological functions of K, its uptake, and translocation and its role in plant abiotic stress tolerance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0200.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Diet: Functional foods: Western foods: Mediterranean foods: Feeding, Plant breeding
Online: 29 May 2017 (17:38:59 CEST)
There is evidence that optimal nutrition is fundamental to human health and in the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in adult life. The identification, production and consumption of functional foods worldwide can increase health benefits for all who can access and afford such foods subject to advice from nutritionists. Recent meetings organized by the health agencies, give a crucial opportunity to make nutrition, a central part of the post-2015 sustainable human and agricultural development agenda. The aim of discussions in these meetings was to provide functional crops and foods to achieve optimal health by prevention of NCDs. It is possible that these efforts might ensure that the goals and targets set in the agenda are adequate to address the many challenges of global undernutrition as well as obesity which are major risk factors of NCDs. In many developing and middle income countries, food security provided by the governments, in one sense understandably, gave least consideration to functional foods supply and the prevention of obesity and metabolic syndrome, resulting in to emergence of NCDs. The Thailand Declaration reiterates that commitments to eradicate hunger and undernutrition as well as over-nutrition, and to increase investments in effective interventions; designers foods and designers crops. However, in planning coherent policies, our past experience on rapidly absorbed, energy-rich processed foods should be taken in to account while developing sustainable food systems. The food industry should be educated to exploit the expertise of food scientists and health professionals in designing functional foods taking cognizance of manufacturing and processing. Similarly, agriculture scientists may be actively involved in educating farmers so as to grow cash crops providing functional foods. The aim should be to achieve an increase in the availability of functional foods to an extent, or by a policy, by which such foods are available to poors, at affordable cost to prevent hunger and undernutrition and related diseases as well as NCDs. In addition our efforts might help in developing an international consensus on how to approach the development of new designer foods by farmers and food industry to produce low glycemic index foods. Such efforts may establish an international framework for the prevention of NCDs, so that human susceptibility to these diseases is substantially diminished.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0113.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: microbial communities; plant-microbe interractions; rhizodeposition; SEED subsystem; shotgun metagenomics
Online: 7 July 2022 (06:05:13 CEST)
The plant microbiome is involved in enhancing nutrient acquisition, plant growth, stress tolerance and reduces chemical inputs. The identification of microbial functional diversity offers the chance to comprehend and engineer them for various agricultural processes. Using a shotgun metagenomics technique, this study examined the functional diversity and metabolic potentials of microbial communities in the rhizosphere soybean. 18 genera were selected out of which six are prominent in sample AB, the prominent genera are Geobacter, Nitrobacter, Burkholderia, Candidatus, Bradyrhizobium and Streptomyces. Twenty-one functional categories were present with 14 of the functions being dominant. The dominant functions include carbohydrates, fatty acids, lipids and isoprenoids, amino acids and derivatives, sulfur metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. Kruskal- Wallis test was used to test samples’ diversity differences. There was a significant difference in the diversity with p-value of 0.04. ANOSIM was used to analyse the similarities of the samples, p-values and R-values of the samples were 0.01 and 0.5835 respectively. Phosphorus with p-value of0.718 and 64.3% contribution was more prominent among the soil properties that have influence on functional diversity of the samples. Given the functional groups reported in this study, it is clear that soil characteristics had an impact on on the functions role of the rhizospheric microbiome of soybean
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: nutrition; plant-based diet; vegan diet; lifestyle; obesity; body composition; weight-loss
Online: 24 October 2019 (15:30:39 CEST)
Failure of various weight-loss programs and long-term maintenance of favorable body composition in all kinds of people is high, since the majority go back to old dietary patterns. Many studies have documented the efficacy of a plant-based diet (PBD) for body mass management, but there are opinions that maintaining a PBD is difficult. We aimed to evaluate the long-term success of a whole-food plant-based (WFPB) lifestyle program. We investigated the differences in the obesity indices and lifestyle of 151 adults (39.6 ± SD 12.5 years), who were on our program for short (0.5–<2 years), medium (2–<5 years), or long term (5–10 years). Body-composition changes were favourable for all three groups, both genders and all participants. There were no differences in relative body-composition changes (BMI, body fat percentage and muscle mass index (MMI)) between the three groups. All participants improved their BMI (baseline mean pre-obesity BMI range (kg/m2): 26.4 ± 5.6 to normal 23.9 ± 3.8, p < 0.001), decreased body mass (–7.1 ± 8.3 kg, p < 0.001) and body fat percentage (–6.4 ± 5.6 % points, p < 0.001). Those with the highest BMI at baseline lost the most of: a) BMI units, b) total body mass and c) body fat (a) (kg/m2) (–5.6 ± SD 2.9, –2.4 ± 1.8 and –0.9 ± 1.5), b) (kg) (–16.1 ± SD 8.8, –7.1 ± 5.4 and –2.5 ± 4.5) and c) (% points) (–9.5 ± SD 5.7, –6.6 ± 4.6 and –4.7 ± 5.3) for participants who had baseline BMI in obese, overweight and normal range, respectively; pbaseline vs. current < 0.001 for all). 85.6% (101 out of 118) of parents of underage children (< 18 years), introduced WFPB lifestyle to their children. WFPB lifestyle program provides long-term lifestyle changes for reversal of obesity and is effective transferred to the next generation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0751.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Maillard reaction; protein-polysaccharide conjugate; plant proteins; technofunctionality; application; Amadori products; AGEs
Online: 30 December 2020 (11:21:19 CET)
Plant proteins being considered to become the most important protein source of the future, they must be able to replace the animal-derived proteins currently in use as technofunctional food ingredients. This poses challenges because plant proteins are oftentimes storage proteins with a high molecular weight and low water solubility. One promising approach to overcome these limitations is the glycation of plant proteins. The covalent bonding between the proteins and different carbohydrates created via the initial stage of the Maillard reaction can improve the technofunctional characteristics of these proteins without the involvement of potentially toxic chemicals. However, compared to studies with animal-derived proteins, glycation studies on plant proteins are currently still underrepresented in literature. This review provides an overview of the existing studies on the glycation of the major groups of plant proteins with different carbohydrates using different preparation methods. Emphasis is put on the reaction conditions used for glycation as well as the modifications to physicochemical properties and technofunctionality. Different applications of these glycated plant proteins in emulsions, foams, films, and encapsulation systems are introduced. Another focus lies on the reaction chemistry of the Maillard reaction and ways to harness it for controlled glycation and to limit the formation of undesired advanced glycation products. Finally, challenges related to the controlled glycation of plant proteins to improve their properties are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0249.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Cervus nippon; mineral requirements; sodium; TRY Plant Traits Database
Online: 13 January 2023 (09:34:30 CET)
Deficient minerals in overabundant populations could act as an attractant to cull sika deer (Cervus nippon). Because selective culling of female deer is reported to be effective in reducing sika deer populations, it is particularly important to clarify the differences in mineral requirements between male and female. Here, using global plant trait data and a published list of sika deer food plants in Japan, we estimated whether food plants provide sika deer sufficient sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg), and compared the results between male and female. An analysis of 191 food plant species suggested that food plants can provide sufficient Mg, whereas sufficient Na and Ca is not always provided, especially when the intake is small or the deer large. Na deficiency was more intense for lactating females than males, suggesting that Na can be an effective attractant for selectively culling female deer. In summary, this study demonstrated that sika deer in Japan might require extra Na and Ca sources in addition to food plants, and therefore these minerals could be useful for developing effective culling methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0618.v1
Subject: Keywords: active packaging; bio-based polymers; bioeconomy; essential oil; food waste; natural additives; permeability; plant extracts; shelf life; sustainable packaging
Online: 25 May 2021 (15:28:12 CEST)
Abstract: The promotion of sustainable packaging is part of the European Green Deal and plays a key role in the EU’s social and political strategy. One option is the use of renewable resources and biomass waste as raw materials for polymer production. Lignocellulose biomass from annual and perennial industrial crops and agricultural residues are a major source of polysaccharides, proteins, and lignin, and can also be used to obtain plant-based extracts and essential oils. Therefore, these biomasses are considered as potential substitute for fossil-based resources. Here, the status quo of bio-based polymers is discussed and evaluated in terms of properties related to packaging applications such as gas and water vapor permeability as well as mechanical properties. So far, their practical use is still restricted due to lower performance in fundamental packaging functions that directly influence food quality and safety, the length of shelf life and thus the amount of food waste. Besides bio-based polymers, this review focuses on plant extracts as active packaging agents. Incorporating extracts of herbs, flowers, trees, and their fruits is inevitable to achieve desired material properties that are capable to prolong the food shelf life. Finally, the adoption potential of packaging based on polymers from renewable resources is discussed from a bioeconomy perspective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0194.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: AMF; Vegetable production; plant pests; plant diseases
Online: 13 October 2021 (10:30:06 CEST)
AMF (Arbuscular Mychorhizal Fungi) are very well known due to their importance in promoting growth and developments of plants especially vegetables. These fungi can be grown easily, stored and multiplied with simple means, also the application of these fungi is generally on the layer of the soil or near the roots in the inner layers of the soils. The growth of the amf fungi is very easy and they are highly adjustable to any soil and environmental conditions. In this review our main focus is on the use of amf for production of vegetables and also the effect of amf against insects and pests. The amf is known to reduce several symptoms caused by different insect pests and also plant diseases thereby promoting healthy growth of the plants. Also use of this amf will increase the uptake of nutrient from the soils through symbiotic relationships between plants and fungi. The uptake of important minerals which are drawn from deeper layers of soils is observed with the help pf amf. This study reveals the benefits of the use of amf under severe disease and pest incidences thereby known as an alternate for harmful chemical pesticides and fungicides.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0351.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Ash; ash dieback; disease management; Fraxinus excelsior; fungal plant pathogen; Hymenoscyphus fraxineus; mycology; plant pathology; plant pathogen; plant science; tree disease
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:50:43 CET)
Ash trees have considerable economic, cultural and environmental value on the island of Ireland. However, European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is currently under threat from the invasive ascomycete pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. This pathogen is the causal agent of ash dieback disease, which was initially reported in Poland in 1992. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has since spread across Europe and the first recorded case of the disease on the island of Ireland was in 2012 at a forestry plantation in Co. Leitrim. The pathogen is now present in all 26 counties in Ireland and 6 counties in Northern Ireland, and it is considered unfeasible to eradicate. The spread of ash dieback disease is reflected in recent policy changes, which focus on management rather than eradication strategies. Since the first formal description of H. fraxineus in 2006, considerable research efforts have been made by the international scientific community to understand the biology of the pathogen and to develop management strategies against it. This review provides an update of current knowledge of H. fraxineus biology and infection. We then explore examples of mitigation techniques that have been trialled in Europe, in order to identify strategies that are feasible for disease management at a local level on the island of Ireland. Finally, we outline five key avenues of research that have the potential to provide breakthroughs in methods to protect valuable F. excelsior resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Game theory; Plant behavioral ecology; Plant competition; Plant interaction mechanisms; Root foraging strategies; Root methods
Online: 14 February 2022 (11:29:43 CET)
Understanding how plants change their root foraging strategy in the presence of neighbors is of paramount importance for plant ecology and agriculture. The root tragedy of the common (RToC) is a plant behavior predicted by game theory models in which competing plants forage for soil resources inefficiently. The RToC is generally assumed to be induced by non-self root recognition, and researchers consider root overproliferation and reduced fitness with respect to a plant growing solo as the trace left by plants engaging in an RToC in experiments and model results. Herein, I first challenge both notions, and argue that the RToC is a suboptimal phenotypically plastic response of plants that is based in soil resource information exclusively. Second, I discuss how this new perspective carries important implications for the design of experiments investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying observable plant root responses. Finally, I discuss why placing the RToC theory in the context of more general root research is fundamental: The RToC represents a mechanistic foundation for understanding the belowground behavior of plants interacting with neighbors, and a spatially explicit approach to RToC may produce more comprehensive results.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0080.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: plant-parasitic nematodes; resistance; xenobiotic metabolism; ABC transporters; gene silencing
Online: 17 November 2020 (11:40:02 CET)
The molecular interaction between the nematode and the host plant cells is complex and sophisticated. Initial contact with the plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) triggers immune response in the host plant system which includes the release of toxic molecules. To put a bridle on this immune response, PPNs trigger pivotal cytoprotective mechanisms, such as antioxidant and detoxification pathways. Mechanisms of these pathways have been studied in PPNs and the specific genes involved have been targeted for gene silencing research in view of developing novel control measures. However, one of the important group of proteins involved in detoxification pathways known as ABC-transporters are not being studied until recently in PPNs. This opinion article focusses on the current knowledge and future prospects of ABC transporters in PPNs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0152.v1
Online: 13 September 2022 (02:33:37 CEST)
A synoptic review of plant disease epidemics and outbreaks was made using two complementary approaches. The first approach involved reviewing scientific literature published in 2021, in which quantitative data related to new plant disease epidemics or outbreaks had been obtained via surveys or similar methodologies. The second approach involved retrieving new pest presence records added to the CABI Distribution Database in 2021. The literature review for the first approach had two stages. Stage 1 aimed to identify publications on plant diseases caused by pathogen taxonomic groups and led to retrieval of 99 core articles describing studies in 62 categories (pathogen species or species complexes) across more than 40 host species in 6 continents. In Stage 2, the core articles were augmented with further articles providing more context and information for the pathogen species identified in Stage 1. When both sets of articles were combined, the pathogen species with more than 5 articles were: Bursephalenchus xylophilus, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, cassava mosaic viruses, citrus tristeza virus, Erwinia amylovora, Fusarium spp. complexes, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense, Magnaporthe oryzae, maize lethal necrosis co-infecting viruses, Meloidogyne spp. complexes, Pseudomonas syringae pvs, Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici, Xylella fastidiosa, and Zymoseptoria tritici. The automated search of the CABI Distribution Database led to 617 new distribution records from 283 plant pathogens in 2021 and was followed by manual review of all pathogens with more than 4 new records, to identify confirmed first reports in a new location. A total of 15 pathogens was identified: apple hammerhead viroid, apple rubbery wood viruses, Aphelenchoides besseyi, Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, citrus tristeza virus, Colletotrichum siamense, cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus, Erwinia rhapontici, Erysiphe corylacearum, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense Tropical Race 4, Globodera rostochiensis, Nothophoma quercina, potato spindle tuber viroid, and tomato brown rugose fruit virus. Although 3 very important pathogens – Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, citrus tristeza virus and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense – were represented in the results of both approaches, in general the two approaches revealed distinct sets of plant disease outbreaks and new records, with little overlap in the results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0270.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: MPDB2.0,; medicinal plant; medicinal plant database of Bangladesh; folk medicine
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:29:00 CET)
Medicinal plants are generally defined as rare herbals with potent medicinal activities that can be used as an alternative treatment for diseases. Recent studies exploring novel medicine developments, originating from folk-medicinal practices challenges this notion and suggests that both the circumference of the term medicinal plant and their potential application covers a substantially extensive verse than previously suggested. While medicinal plants are not limited to the borders of any country, Bangladesh and its south-east Asian neighbors do boast a huge collection of potent medicinal plants with considerable folk-medicine history compared to most other countries of the world. MPDB 2.0 is the continuation of MPDB 1.0, it serves as both a data repertoire for medicinal of Bangladesh and a user-friendly interface for researchers, health practitioners, drug developers, and students who wish to study the various medicinal & nutritive plants scattered around Bangladesh and the underlying phytochemicals contributing to their efficacy in folk medicine. While in developing MPDB 2.0 human diseases have been highly focused upon, the information in this database is not limited in its application for human diseases or diseases only, as many of the plants indexed here can serve in developing biofuel or bioremediation technologies or nutritive diets or cosmetics, etc. MPDB 2.0 comprises a collection of more than five hundred medicinal plants from Bangladesh along with a record of their corresponding scientific, family, and local names together with their utilized parts, information regarding ailments, active compounds, and PubMed ID of related publications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0108.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Plant phenotyping, Plant pixel classification, Colour space, , Gaussian mixture model, Earth mover distance, Variance ratio, Plant segmentation.
Online: 15 December 2017 (16:52:23 CET)
Segmentation of a region of interest is an important pre-processing step for many colour image analysis techniques. Similarly segmentation of plant in digital images is an important preprocessing step in phenotying plants by image analysis. In this paper we present an analytical study to statistically determine the suitability of colour space representation of an image to best detect plant pixels and separate them from background pixels. Our hypothesis is that the colour space representation in which the separation of the distributions representing plant pixels and background pixels is maximized would be the best for detection of plant pixels. The two classes of pixels are modelled as a Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In our GM modelling we don't make any prior assumption about the number of Gaussians in the model. Rather a constant bandwidth mean-shift filter is used to cluster the data and the number of clusters and hence the number of Gaussians is automatically determined. Here we have analysed following representative colour spaces like $RGB$, $rgb$, $HSV$, $Ycbcr$ and $CIE-Lab$. This is because these colour spaces represent several other similar colour spaces and also an exhaustive study of all the colour space will be too voluminous. We also analyse the colour space feature from the two-class variance ratio perspective and compare the results of our hypothesis with this metric. The dataset for this empirical study consist of 378 digital images of plants and their manual segmentation. Dataset consist of various species of plants (arabidopsi, tobacco, wheat, rye grass etc.) imaged under different lighting conditions, indoor and outdoor, controlled and uncontrolled background. In results we obtain better segmentation of the plants in $HSV$ colour space, which is supported by its Earth mover distance (EMD) on the GMM distribution of plant and background pixels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0520.v3
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: plant-plant interactions; stress gradient hypothesis; functional trait ecology; inter-plant distance; individual-based models; consumer-resource models
Online: 17 February 2022 (19:37:10 CET)
Ecologists use the net biotic interactions among plants to predict fundamental ecosystem features. Following this approach, ecologists have built a giant body of theory founded on observational evidence. However, due to the limitations that a phenomenological approach raises both in empirical and theoretical studies, an increasing number of scientists claim the need for a mechanistic understanding of plant interaction outcomes, and a few studies have taken such a mechanistic approach. In this synthesis, we propose a modeling framework to study the plant interaction mechanistically. We first establish a conceptual ground to frame plant-plant interactions, and then, we propose to formalize this research line theoretically developing a family of individual-based, spatially-explicit models in which biotic interactions are an emergent property mediated by the interaction between plants’ functional traits and the environment. These models allow researchers to evaluate the strength and sign of biotic interactions under different environmental scenarios and thus constitute a powerful tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying facilitation, species coexistence, or the formation of vegetation spatial patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0466.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Butyrylcholinesterase; plant cell suspension cultures; kifunensine; N-glycosylation; plant-made biopharmaceuticals
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:22:12 CEST)
The production and N-glycosylation of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), a model highly glycosylated therapeutic protein, in a transgenic rice cell suspension culture treated with kifunensine, a strong α-mannosidase I inhibitor, was studied in a 5 L bioreactor. A media exchange was performed at day 7 of cultivation by removing spent sugar rich media (NB+S) and adding fresh sugar free (NB-S) media to induce the rice α-amylase 3D (RAmy3D) promoter to produce rice recombinant human BChE (rrBChE). Using a 1.25X concentrated sugar-free medium together with an 80% reduced working volume during the media exchange lead to a total active rrBChE production level of 79 ± 2 µg (g FW)-1 or 7.5 ± 0.4 mg L-1 in the presence of kifunensine, which is 1.5-times higher than our previous bioreactor runs using normal sugar free medium with no kifunensine treatment. Importantly, the amount of secreted active rrBChE in culture medium was enhanced in the presence of kifunensine, comprising 44% of the total active rrBChE at day 5 post-induction. Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE gel and Western blot analyses reveal different electrophoretic migration of purified rrBChE bands with and without kifunensine treatment, which is attributed to different N-glycoforms. N-Glycosylation analysis shows substantial increase of oligomannose glycans (Man5/6/7/8) in rrBChE treated with kifunensine compared to controls. However, mass transfer limitation of kifunensine is likely the major reason for incomplete inhibition of α-mannosidase I in this bioreactor study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0398.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: intellectual property; intellectual property protection; plant variety protection, plant breeders’ rights, essentially derived variety; utility patent; plant breeding; biotechnology.
Online: 17 May 2021 (17:03:30 CEST)
This review examines the categorization of Essentially Derived Varieties (EDV) introduced in the 1991 revision of the Convention of the Union internationale pour la protection des obtentions végétales (UPOV). Challenges in the implementation of the concept and progress made on a crop-by-crop basis to provide greater clarity and more efficient implementation are reviewed. The current approach to EDV remains valid provided i) clarity on thresholds can be achieved including through resource intensive research on an individual crop species basis and ii) that threshold clarity does not lead to perverse incentives to avoid detection of essential derivation. However, technological advances leading to new varieties resulting from the simultaneous introduction or change in expression of more than “a few” genes will so challenge the concept to require a new Convention. Revision could include deletion of the concept of essential derivation and revision on a crop-by-crop basis of the breeder exception. Countries that allow utility patents for individual plant varieties per se should consider removing that possibility unless plant breeders utilize those encouragements for risk taking and investment to broaden the germplasm base upon which the long-term sustainability of plant breeding resides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0378.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: FHB; plant metabolomic; plant-pathogen interaction; barley; wheat; Brachypodium distachyon; pathway enrichment
Online: 26 July 2022 (03:22:55 CEST)
Background: Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious fungal disease of crop plants due to substantial yield reduction and production of mycotoxins in the infected grains. The breeding progress in increasing resistance with maintaining a high yield is not possible without a thorough examination of the molecular basis of plant immunity responses; Methods: LC-MS based metabolomics approaches powered by three-way ANOVA and differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) selection, correlation network and functional enrichment were conducted on grains of resistant and susceptible to FHB genotypes of barley and wheat as well as model grass Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) still poorly known at metabolomic level; Results: We selected common and genotype-specific DAMs in response to F. culmorum inoculation. Immunological reaction at metabolomic level was strongly diversified between resistant and susceptible genotypes. DAMs common for all tested species from porphyrins, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids metabolic pathways were highly correlated and reflects conservativeness in FHB response in Poaceae family. Resistant related DAMs belonged to different structural classes including tryptophan derived metabolites, pirimidines, amino acids proline and serine as well as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. Physiological response to F. culmorum of Bd was close to barley and wheat genotypes however, metabolomic changes were strongly diversified. Conclusions: Combined targeted and untargeted metabolomics provides comprehensive knowledge about significant elements of plant immunity with potential of being molecular biomarkers of enhance resistance to FHB in grass family. Thorough examination of Bd21 metabolome in juxtaposition with barley and wheat diversified genotypes facilitate their setting as model grass for plant-microbe interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0167.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: plant in vitro culture; plant extracts; gas chromatography; hexadecanoic acid, antifungal activity
Online: 3 November 2020 (15:26:36 CET)
Eysenhardtia platycarpa (Fabaceae) is a medicinal plant used in México and it lacks biotechnological studies for its use. The aim of this work was to establish a cell suspension cultures (CSC) of E. platycarpa, determine the phytochemical profile, and evaluate its antifungal activity. Friable callus and CSC were established with 2 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid plus 0.1 mg/L kinetin. The highest total phenolics of CSC was 15.6 mg GAE/g dry weight and the total flavonoids content ranged from 56.2 to 104.1 µg QE/g dry weight. CG‒MS analysis showed that the dichloromethane extracts of CSC, sapwood and heartwood have a high amount of hexadecanoic acid (22.3 ‒ 35.3 %) and steroids (13.5 ‒ 14.7%). Heartwood and sapwood defatted hexane extracts have the highest amount of stigmasterol (≈ 23.4%) and β-sitosterol (≈ 43%), and leaf extracts presented β-amyrin (16.3%). Methanolic leaves extracts showed mostly sugars and some polyols, mainly D-pinitol (74.3%). Dichloromethane and fatty hexane extracts of CSC exhibited the percentages inhibition higher for Sclerotium cepivorum with 71.5 and 62.0%, respectively. The maximum inhibition for Rhizoctonia solani was with fatty hexane extracts of the sapwood (51.4%). Our study suggest that CSC extracts could be used as a possible complementary alternative to synthetic fungicides.
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: global change; plant-herbivore interactions; plant-pathogen interactions; coexistence; antagonistic biotic interactions
Online: 23 July 2020 (10:36:26 CEST)
Indirect effects of global change via changing species interactions have been largely ignored in studies predicting global change impacts on ecosystems. Antagonistic biotic interactions, however, can strongly affect ecosystems and are likely to be affected by global change drivers themselves. We synthesize current knowledge on the impact of invertebrate herbivores and pathogens on plant productivity, diversity and community composition, and outline theory and expectations on how important global change drivers – nitrogen enrichment, climate change and elevated CO2, and plant and insect diversity loss, may affect enemy impact on plant communities. We illustrate that our ability to predict global change impact requires a holistic perspective, taking into account direct as well as indirect effects via the biotic component of ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0072.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Mediterranean flora; endemic plants; IUCN assessments; island biogeography; plant conservation; Tyrrhenian islands; biological forms; plant evolution and distribution; plant diversity
Online: 4 February 2022 (12:06:51 CET)
The vascular flora of Sardinia has been investigated for more than 250 years, with particular attention to the endemic component, due to their phylogeographic and conservation interest. However, continuous changes in the floristic composition through natural processes, anthropogenic drivers or modified taxonomical attributions require constant updating. We checked all available literature, web sources, field and unpublished data from authors and acknowledged external experts to compile an updated checklist of vascular plants endemic to Sardinia. Life and chorological forms, and the conservation status of the updated taxa list were reported. Sardinia hosts 340 taxa (15% of the total native flora) endemic to the Tyrrhenian islands and other limited continental territories; 195 of these are exclusive to Sardinia. Asteraceae (50 taxa) and Plumbaginaceae (42 taxa) are the most representative families, while the most frequent life forms are hemicryptophytes (118 taxa) and chamaephytes (105 taxa). The global conservation status, available for 200 taxa, indicates that most endemics are under the ‘Critically Endangered’ (25 taxa), ‘Endangered’ (31 taxa) or ‘Least Concern’ (90 taxa) IUCN categories. This research provides an updated basis for future biosystematics, taxonomic, biogeographical and ecological studies, and for supporting more integrated and efficient policy tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0472.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: grass endophyte; Festuca; symbiosis; microbiome; plant hormone; defense response; plant-fungal interactions; holobiont
Online: 25 November 2022 (07:08:50 CET)
Plants harbor a large diversity of endophytic microbes. Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) is a cool-season grass known for its symbiotic relationship to the systemic and vertically- via seeds - transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë uncinata but the effect of the endophyte on the microbial endophyte community and phytohormones is largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the endophytic bacterial and fungal communities in the leaves and roots, analyzed phytohormone concentrations and plant performance parameters in Epichloë-symbiotic (E+) and Epichloë-free (E-) individuals of two meadow fescue cultivars. The endophytic leaf microbial community differed between leaf and root tissues independent of endophyte symbiosis while the fungal community was different in leaves of Epichloë-symbiotic and Epichloë-free plants in both cultivars. At the same time, endophyte symbiosis decreased salicylic acid and increased auxin concentrations in leaves. Epichloë-symbiotic plants showed a higher biomass, chlorophyll content (SPAD) and higher seed mass at the end of the season. Our results demonstrate that Epichloë-symbiosis alters the leaf fungal microbiome, which coincides with changes in phytohormone concentrations, indicating that Epichloë endophytes affect both, plant immune responses and other fungal endophytes. Whether the effect of Epichloë endophytes on other fungal endophytes is connected to changes in the phytohormone concentrations remains to be elucidated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0142.v3
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Plant Diseases; Modern Agriculture; Plant Health; AWS DeepLens; SageMaker; Machine Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 14 September 2020 (06:24:16 CEST)
In the Agriculture sector, control of plant leaf diseases is crucial as it influences the quality and production of plant species with an impact on the economy of any country. Therefore, automated identification and classification of plant leaf disease at an early stage is essential to reduce economic loss and to conserve the specific species. Previously, to detect and classify plant leaf disease, various Machine Learning models have been proposed; however, they lack usability due to hardware incompatibility, limited scalability and inefficiency in practical usage. Our proposed DeepLens Classification and Detection Model (DCDM) approach deal with such limitations by introducing automated detection and classification of the leaf diseases in fruits (apple, grapes, peach and strawberry) and vegetables (potato and tomato) via scalable transfer learning on A.W.S. SageMaker and importing it on AWS DeepLens for real-time practical usability. Cloud integration provides scalability and ubiquitous access to our approach. Our experiments on extensive image data set of healthy and unhealthy leaves of fruits and vegetables showed an accuracy of 98.78% with a real-time diagnosis of plant leaves diseases. We used forty thousand images for the training of deep learning model and then evaluated it on ten thousand images. The process of testing an image for disease diagnosis and classification using AWS DeepLens on average took 0.349s, providing disease information to the user in less than a second.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0277.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: revegetation; forest, springs preservation; Arjuna mount; plant species; nursery; fertilization; planting; plant care
Online: 27 August 2019 (04:34:25 CEST)
The research objectives was to determine the plants vegetation profile in forest revegetation and Mount Arjuna springs. The method used was descriptive method. While based on the techniques and tools used to research, the author uses the survey method to obtain facts that occur in the research area, namely in the area around the springs of Arjuna mount, Pasuruan, East Java, Indonesia. Data obtained in the field are then processed and analyzed using GIS, ArcView 3.3 and Google Earth programs. The results of the study explain the profile of plant vegetation, namely plant stratification, bird wealth, taxonomic wealth and plant density have a significant effect on forest revegetation and springs in Arjuna mount. The forest vegetation profile has a positive and significant effect on the preservation of springs. The better the profile of forest vegetation, the preservation of springs will be better, and vice versa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0714.v1
Online: 31 May 2021 (08:32:16 CEST)
Plant sterols are compounds with multiple biological functions, mainly cholesterol-reducing. There are no comprehensive databases on plant sterols, which makes it difficult to estimate their intake in the Polish population. In this study we used international food databases, supplemented by scientific data from the literature, to create a database on plant sterols in the food consumed in Poland to assess the size and sources of dietary plant sterols in the adult population of Poland. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify possible sources of published food composition data for plant sterols. The study group consisted of 5690 participants of the WOBASZ II survey. We identified 361 dietary sources of plant sterols based on the consumption of foods and dishes reported by participants. Cereals and fats provided 61% of the total plant sterols, and together with vegetables and fruits, this totaled 80%. Total plant sterol intake for the Polish population was 282.97 mg/day, and divided by men and women was 320.77 and 252.19 mg/day, respectively. Canola oil provided the most plant sterols at 16.92%, followed by white bread at 16.65% and soft margarine at 8.33%. This study found that the database of plant sterols facilitates the calculation of plant sterols in the typical Polish diet, and the results are comparable to those of other studies, despite different methodologies of nutritional assessment and slightly different databases. The main sources of dietary plant sterols did not differ from the data for other populations. This study confirmed the observations of other research that women's diets may have a higher plant sterol density compared to men.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0035.v3
Online: 24 October 2019 (11:04:57 CEST)
EuAP2 genes are famous for their role in flower development. A legacy of the founding member of this subfamily of transcription factor, whose mutants lacked petals in Arabidopsis. However, studies of other euAP2 genes in several species have accumulated evidence highlighting the diverse roles of euAP2 genes in other aspects of plant development. Here, we emphasize other developmental roles of euAP2 genes in various species and suggest a shift from regarding euAP2 genes as just flowering genes to consider the global role they may be playing in plant development. We hypothesize that their almost universal expression profile and pleiotropic effects of their mutation suggest their involvement in fundamental plant development processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0089.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Signalling, rhizosphere microbiome, plant hormones
Online: 7 March 2019 (11:58:15 CET)
Signalling is a strongly influenced area trending to be applied in almost every focus of biological sciences. The part of signalling or communication from cellular level to a whole organism including plant as well as animal drags a vast diversity of wealthy structural compounds. There is immense demand for new bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, agro and food industries. Plant-associated microbes present an attractive and promising source. The concept of the microbiome and the significance it has to host health, diseases state, and the role of immune have been the hub of research that has led to advances in our understanding of the massive power of the small unseen majority of the microbes (Peterson Andrew H., 2013). Before we say about microbiome—plant relation, it is important to first understand the working concept of the microbiome. Every organism on earth counts on their neighbours to sustain life. Microbiome can be considered a community of microorgasims who can prove to be loveable and hateful. The analysis of microbiome structure and function was protagonise in studies of human hosts and has been extensively documented as essential to genetic and functional capacity attributed to the host, comprehending aspects of metabolism and physiology. Plants are crowded with microbial organisms, counting those that colonize internal tissues, also those that adhere to external surfaces. The wide diversity of microorganisms in the soil rhizosphere is collectively plant–soil-associated microbes cover the plant microbiome. The intricate involvement of microbiome serves to plant health and as a tank of additional genes that plants can access when needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0057.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: tomato cultivar; allelopathy; competitive ability; plant-plant interactions; weed suppression; sustainable agriculture; weed management; vegetable
Online: 3 September 2021 (10:33:20 CEST)
The present study aims to identify tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars with weed-suppressive ability against target weed species in the tomato growing season. A greenhouse study was conducted with 17 tomato cultivars and target weeds Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.). Tomato plants and weed species were grown in the same pot. The height, chlorophyll, and dry weight biomass of the weeds were measured 28 days after sowing. The largest effect of tomato interference was on Palmer amaranth. Cultivar 15 reduced Palmer amaranth height, chlorophyll, and biomass by 58, 28, and 83%, respectively. Chlorophyll percentage of yellow nutsedge seedlings was suppressed by 15% by cultivar 64, whereas 13% of its height was reduced by cultivar 20. Cultivar 15 reduced biomass of yellow nutsedge by 40%. The percentage of chlorophyll of large crabgrass was reduced by 22% with cultivar 5, whereas the height and biomass were reduced by 35 and 44% with cultivars 38 and 63, respectively. Factoring all parameters evaluated, cultivars 38, 33, and 7 were most suppressive against the problematic weed species in tomato.
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Plant water transport, plant long-distance water transport, sorption hypothesis, cohesion theory, cohesion-tension theory
Online: 12 April 2019 (20:55:26 CEST)
In the case of vascular plants the process of water loss by leafs and water absorption by the root is well known. There is agreement on the passive nature of long-distance moisture movement in the dead cells of the xylem; however, controversy exists focusing on the long-distance water transport principle. Hales (1726) founded a view of bulk flow based on water suction after experiments with cut twigs. The previous doctrine of long-distance water transport within vessel elements and tracheid of the xylem of intact plants – the relevant cohesion theory in text books – was developed mainly by Boehm (1893), Renner (1911) and Dixon (1914) with plant artefacts. Water movement according to this theory is based on an assumed hydrodynamic bulk fluid flow in xylem in continuous water columns (free of water vapour space), under tension, according to the law of Poiseuille (see e.g. Dixon 1914). Physically hydrodynamics is part of fluid mechanics, as a result Poiseuille’s law is usually valid only for hydrodynamic bulk flow in ideal capillaries (Sutera & Skalak, 1993). Besides the basic requirement for transport, according to cohesion theory, the existence of ideal capillaries is not compatible with either: “Because vessel elements and tracheid do not stand as ideal capillaries. …” (Bresinsky et al. 2008, translated from German). Unlike ideal capillaries, the walls of vessel elements and tracheid interact with the transported water. These walls are able to function as a source or as a sink for the transported water because of interaction with the cell walls. With the interaction, vessel elements and tracheid, part of the xylem, can shrink and swell, unlike ideal capillaries. Because the xylem (in woody plants part of the wood) is inconsistent with the basic law of fluid flow, the equation of mass balance (Zimmermann et al. 2004) and cohesion theory are not strictly followed.Many plant physiologists view the cohesion theory as appropriate, however, this theory remains controversial, i.e. by Eisenhut (1988), Laschimke (1990) and Hahn (1993). Nultsch (1996) gives doubts referring to the present doctrine of plant water transport. Zimmermann et al. (2004) reject the cohesion theory and conclude: “... that the arguments of the proponents of the Cohesion Theory are completely misleading” (Zimmermann et al. 2004). Hence cohesion theory can be treated as inapplicable and the question arises: how does water transport in fact function? In the following, it is gone into in more detail. A sorption hypothesis of actual water transport, based on empirical fact, shall be addressed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0135.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: rice; endophyte; sustainable agriculture; plant microbiome; simplified bacterial community; syncom; taxonomic profiling; core plant microbiome
Online: 21 November 2017 (03:33:00 CET)
Rice is currently the most important food crop in the world and we are only just beginning to study the bacterial associated microbiome. It is of importance to perform screenings of the core rice microbiota and also to develop new plant-microbe models and simplified communities for increasing our understanding about the formation and function of its microbiome. In order to begin to address this aspect, we have performed the isolation of bacterial strains from the endorhizosphere of two rice cultivars from Venezuela. The validation of plant-growth promoting bacterial activities in vitro has led us to select and characterize 15 isolates for in planta studies such as germination test, endophytism ability and plant growth promotion. Consequently, a set of 10 isolates was selected for the set-up of an endophytic consortium as a simplified model of the natural rice bacterial endomicrobiota. Upon inoculation, the colonization and abundance of each strain within the rice roots was tracked by a culture-independent technique in gnotobiotic conditions in a 30 days period. Four strains belonging to Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Delftia genera have shown a promising capacity for colonizing and coexistence in root tissues. On the other hand, a bacterial community taxonomic profiling of the rhizosphere and the endorhizosphere of both cultivars were obtained and are discussed. This study is part of a growing body of research on core crops microbiome and simplified microbiomes, which strengthens the formation process of the endophytic community leading to a better understanding of the rice microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0031.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: rice; endophyte; sustainable agriculture; plant microbiome; simplified bacterial community; syncomm; taxonomic profiling; core plant microbiome
Online: 8 September 2017 (14:02:56 CEST)
Rice is currently the most important food crop in the world and we are only just beginning to study the bacterial associated microbiome. It is of importance to perform screenings of the core rice microbiota and also to develop new plant-microbe models and simplified communities for increasing our understanding about the formation and function of its microbiome. In order to begin to address this aspect, we have performed the isolation of hundreds bacterial isolates obtained from endorhizosphere of two rice cultivars from Venezuela. The validation of plant-growth promoting bacterial activities in vitro has led us to select and characterize 15 isolates for in planta studies such as germination test, endophytism ability and plant growth promotion. Consequently, a set of 10 isolates was selected for the set-up of an endophytic consortium as a simplified model of the natural rice bacterial endomicrobiota. Upon inoculation, the colonization and abundance of each strain within the rice roots was tracked by a culture-independent technique in gnotobiotic conditions in a 30 days period. Four strains belonging to Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Delftia genera have shown a promising capacity for colonizing and coexistence in root tissues. On the other hand, a bacterial community taxonomic profiling of the rhizosphere and the endorhizosphere of both cultivars were obtained and are discussed. This study is part of a growing body of research on core crops microbiome and simplified microbiomes, which strengthens the formation process of the endophytic community leading to a better understanding of the rice microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0333.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Nanotechnology; Plant Nutrition; Nano Urea; Potato
Online: 19 December 2022 (09:14:27 CET)
In today’s world, it is the need of the hour to adopt new technology to sustain the production of the future. Nanotechnology is gaining popularity for its efficiency in various applied fields of science. In agriculture, nanomaterials have a huge impact on the efficiency of fertilizers pesticides, etc. As it requires very fewer quantities and has a negligible residual effect the environment is safe with the innovation of Nano fertilizer. Keeping this view into account an experimental Trial at a farmer’s field was carried out at Berui village in the Hooghly District of West Bengal during the winter (rabi) season of 2019 – 20 under the supervision of Berui Cooperative, KVK-Hooghly, BCKV, and IFFCO with nano-Urea, nano-Zn and nano-Cu using RBD design with 10 treatments and 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that the highest tuber yield was obtained in T-7 (50% N+100% P & K+ 2 spray of nano-Urea), and that was followed by T-10 (50% N + 100% P & K + 50% Zn + 1 spray each of Nano-Urea, Zn and Cu) and T-8 (100% N-P-K + 50% Zn + 2 spray of Nano-Zn). The performance of nano fertilizers, Nano- Urea, was quite promising and economically viable as compared to the 100% recommended dose with commercial fertilizers (RDF).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0375.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: melanin; extraction; isolation; animal; plant; microbes
Online: 27 May 2022 (09:07:30 CEST)
Melanins are phenolic biopolymers synthesised by most of the living organism mainly for photoprotection or surviving in harsh conditions. Melanin is localised in different areas or complexed with different other biomolecules when observed from animals to microbes. This makes the melanin extraction procedure different in animal, plant and microbial tissues. Basically, the alkali-acid extraction is used in most protocols of which slight variations are there depending on the tissue used. This review will try to compile melanin extraction procedures from different cells and tissues ranging from animals to bacteria.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0205.v2
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:37:29 CET)
There are many medicinal plants that have various medicinal properties in their different parts. The medicinal plants are major backbone of pharmaceutical industries. In this article we compare the antioxidants properties from various plants parts (root, stem, leaf, flower and bark) of the most important medicinal plant, Justicia adhatoda L. Various plant parts showed the good amount of antioxidant properties. These results enhance the medicinal properties of this plant due to the presence of good amount of antioxidants; among all the plant parts leaves and flowers showed maximum natural antioxidants, hence the study could be saying that this plant has good efficacy of antioxidants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0168.v1
Online: 10 May 2020 (14:48:23 CEST)
Trees provide key ecosystem services, but the health and sustainability of these plants is under increasing biotic and abiotic threat, including from the growing incidences of non-native invasive plant pests (including pathogens). The island of Ireland (Ireland and Northern Ireland) is generally accepted to have a high plant health status, in part due to its island status and because of the national and international regulations aimed at protecting plant health. To establish a baseline of the current pest threats to tree health for the island of Ireland, the literature and unpublished sources were reviewed to produce a dataset of pests of trees on the island of Ireland. The dataset contains 396 records of pests of trees on the island of Ireland, the majority of pests being arthropods and fungi, and indicating potentially more than 44 non-native pest introductions. The reliability of many (378) of the records was judged to be high, therefore the dataset provides a robust assessment of the state of pests of trees recorded on the island of Ireland. We analyse this dataset and review the history of plant pest invasions, including (i) discussion on notable native and non-native pests of trees, (ii) pest interceptions at borders and (iii) pests and climate change. The dataset establishes an important baseline for the knowledge of plant pests on the island of Ireland, and will be a valuable resource for future plant health research and policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0015.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant; sesquiterpenes; biosynthesis; graph grammars; database;
Online: 1 March 2019 (14:30:16 CET)
Plants produce a diverse portfolio of sesquiterpenes that are important in their response to herbivores and the interaction with other plants. Their biosynthesis from farnesyl diphosphate depends on the sesquiterpene synthases. Here, we investigate to what extent metabolic pathways can be reconstructed just from knowledge of the final product and the reaction mechanisms catalyzed by sesquiterpene synthases. We use the software package MedØlDatschgerl (MØD) to generate chemical networks and elucidate pathways contained in them. As examples, we successfully consider the reachability of the important plant sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and β-farnesene. We also introduce a graph database to integrate simulation results with experimental biological evidence for selected predicted sesquiterpenes biosynthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0371.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: biosynthesis; nanoparticles; plant extracts; Citrus reticulata
Online: 16 November 2018 (04:33:22 CET)
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutic agents has introduced new opportunities in upgrading medical treatment. Plant extracts contains different capping and reducing agents naturally thus provided simpler and less expensive way to synthesize AgNPs. In present work, Citrus reticulata mediated stabilised AgNPs was synthesized. Optimum concentration of reactants was achieved by varying the amount of extracts (1-11 ml) and AgNO3 concentration (0.5-3 mM). Surface Plasmon peak of Citrus reticulata mediated AgNPs was determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer and functional groups of capping agents were examined by FTIR analysis. Surface Plasmon peaks of Citrus reticulata fresh peel, seed, and juice extracts were observed at 420 nm. But in dry peel extract, absorption peak of AgNPs appeared at 410 nm. Colour of different extracts was changed after the reduction of AgNO3 to AgNPs by reducing agents present in the extracts. FTIR analysis showed band peaks at 3316 cm-1 correspond to amide (N-H and O-H) stretching vibrations while alkanes peaks was observed at 1638 cm-1 which showed C=C stretching aromatic ring (flavonoids). Furthermore, Citrus reticulata fresh peel mediated AgNPs showed impressive stability up-to 112 days. In conclusion, Citrus reticulata fresh peel extract provided an excellent source of reducing agents for synthesizing stabilized AgNPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0049.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: plant extracts; antifungal activity; fungal pathogens
Online: 13 October 2016 (11:50:21 CEST)
Abstract Plant fungal pathogens are frequently found as one of limiting factors for crop production. More than 10,000 species of fungi can cause disease in plants. To control the diseases, many farmers are still rely on the use of chemical fungicides, however most synthetic fungicides can cause acute toxicity, and some cause chronic toxicity as well. Thus, an appropriate technological improvement towards a more effective use of natural resources is required in agriculture to develop environmentally friendly sustainable farming system. This paper highlights the potential of extracts of tropical plants as antifungal agent to control plant fungal diseases. Information and data presented in this paper are mainly derived from selected and related references that previously published in the scientific journals. Many higher plants of tropical origin with fungicidal activities and their potential for fungal disease control of agricultural crops have been studied, however most of the studies have been done under in vitro condition. Some plant extracts showed strong antifungal activities on in vitro as well as in vivo tests, but some plant extracts showed significant antifungal activities on in vitro test, but did not obvious on in vivo tests. A great variation in antifungal activities were shown by plants extracts of different species and plant parts, in one hand, and on the other hand, variation was also observed on the responses of different fungal species to the same plant extract. Since the purpose of the use of plant extract is to control plant fungal diseases, the field trial is needed to ensure the stability of efficacy of certain plant extract. In addition, isolation and identification of active substances in the extracts is needed to assess possible mode of action and side effect of their use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0398.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Preparation of Off-Site Consequence Analyses; Chemicals Control Act; Risk Assessment; Paint Manufacturing Plant; Plating Industry Plant
Online: 23 September 2021 (10:18:56 CEST)
: Chemical accidents can occur anywhere. The need for chemical management in Korea was realized following the 2012 Gumi hydrofluoric acid accident in 2012. The Chemicals Control Act was enacted in 2015. This system evaluates the risks (high, medium, low) and consequent safety management at all plants that handle hazardous chemical substances. However, the system was criticized as excessive when most plants were designated high-risk without considering their size. Thus, laboratories and hospitals handling very small quantities were subject to regulation. Accordingly, in 2021 Korea revised the system to include off-site consequence analyses and a Korean-style risk analysis. Plants handling very small quantities, such as laboratories and hospitals, were exempt from regulation. In this study, plating and paint manufacturing companies, which were classified as high-risk in the previous system, even though they were medium-size business plants, were re-evaluated as low-risk plants. In the Korean-style risk analysis, it is possible to see at a glance what is lacking in the plants, such as cooperation between local residents and local governments and the construction of safety facilities according to the type of accident scenario. The revised system is a reasonable regulation for medium business plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0463.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: disturbance; drylands; photovoltaic; plant community; plant traits; rare species; renewable energy; seed traits; seed banks; solar energy
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:55:44 CEST)
Seed bank survival underpins plant population persistence but studies on seed bank trait-environment interactions are few. Changes in environmental conditions relevant to seed banks occur in desert ecosystems owing to solar energy development. We developed a conceptual model of seed bank survival to complement methodologies using in-situ seed bank packets. Using this framework, we quantified the seed bank survival of two closely related annual desert plant species, one rare (Eriophyllum mohavense) and one common (Eriophyllum wallacei) and the seed bank-environment interactions of these two species in the Mojave Desert within a system that emulates microhabitat variation associated with solar energy development. We tracked 4,860 seeds buried across 540 seed packets and found, averaged across both species, that seed bank survival was 21% and 6% for the first and second growing seasons, respectively. After two growing seasons, the rare annual had a significantly greater seed bank survival (10%) than the common annual (2%). Seed bank survival, across both species, was significantly greater in Shade (10%) microhabitats compared to Runoff (5%) microhabitats and Control microhabitats (3%). Our study confers insight into this early life-stage across rare and common congeners and their environmental interactions using a novel conceptual framework for seed bank survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0198.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: plant vegetation profile; forest rehabilitation; vegetation stratification; bird wealth; taxonomic wealth; plant density; springs in Arjuna mount
Online: 20 August 2019 (04:02:08 CEST)
The research objectives was to determine the plants vegetation profile in forest revegetation and Mount Arjuna springs. The method used was descriptive method. While based on the techniques and tools used to research, the author uses the survey method to obtain facts that occur in the research area, namely in the area around the springs of Arjuna mount, Pasuruan, East Java, Indonesia. Data obtained in the field are then processed and analyzed using GIS, ArcView 3.3 and Google Earth programs. The results of the study explain the profile of plant vegetation, namely plant stratification, bird wealth, taxonomic wealth and plant density have a significant effect on forest revegetation and springs in Arjuna mount. The forest vegetation profile has a positive and significant effect on the preservation of springs. The better the profile of forest vegetation, the preservation of springs will be better, and vice versa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0222.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: plant movement; circumnutation; machine learning; classification; kinematics
Online: 12 January 2023 (09:34:31 CET)
Climbing plants require an external support to grow vertically and enhance light acquisition. Climbers that find a suitable support have greater performance and fitness than those that remain prostrate. Support search is characterized by oscillatory movements (i.e., circumnutation), in which plants rotate around a central axis during their growth. Numerous studies have elucidated the mechanistic details of circumnutation, but how this phenomenon is controlled remains unclear. Here, we use supervised machine learning algorithms to generate models that learn to discriminate between the presence/absence of a support in the environment. Results indicate that there is a difference in the pattern of circumnutation, depending on the presence of a support, that can be learned and classified rather accurately. We also identify distinctive kinematic features that contribute to the classification tasks. Overall, machine learning approaches appear to be powerful tools for understanding the movement of plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0081.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Phytocytokines; Induced resistance; Priming; Plant Immunity; Peptides
Online: 4 January 2023 (12:07:11 CET)
The plant immunity system is more and more revisited and new elements and roles are attributed to participate in the response to biotic stress. New terminology is also applied trying to identify different players in the whole scenario of immunity: Phytocytokines are one of those elements that are gaining more attention due the characteristics of processing and perception, and showing they are part of a big family of compounds that can amplify the immune response. This review aims to highlight the last findings about the role of phytocytokines in the whole immune response on biotic stress, including basal and adaptive immunity, and to expose the complexity in their action in plant perception and signaling events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0210.v1
Online: 8 March 2021 (10:56:37 CET)
Vascular pathogens are the causal agents of main diseases threatening the health and growth of olive crops worldwide. The use of endophytic microorganisms represents a challenging and promising strategy for management of vascular diseases in olive. Although current research has been focused on analyzing the structure and diversity of the endophytic microbial communities inhabiting the olive xylem, the characterization of this ecological niche has been overlooked and to date remain unexplored, despite that the characterization of the xylem sap composition is essential to unravel the nutritional requirements of xylem-limited microorganisms. In this study, branches from plantlets and adult olive trees of cultivars ‘Picual’ and ‘Arbequina' were selected to characterize the chemical composition of olive xylem sap extracted using a Scholander pressure chamber. Metabolome and ionome analyses of xylem sap were performed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based and by inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. Olive xylem sap metabolites included a higher relative percentage of sugars (54.35%), followed by alcohols (28.85%), amino acids (8.01%), organic acids (7.68%) and osmolytes (1.12%). Within each of these groups, the main metabolites in the olive xylem sap were mannitol, ethanol, glutamine, acetate and trigonelline, whereas K and Cl- were the main element and inorganic anion, respectively. Metabolomic profile varied when comparing olive plant age and genotype. The levels of glucose, fructose, sucrose and mannitol, choline, B and PO43 were significantly higher in adult trees than in plantlets for both olive genotypes, whereas NO3- and Rb content showed the opposite behavior. On the other hand, levels of aspartate, phenylalanine and Na were significantly higher in ‘Picual’ than in ‘Arbequina’ whereas Fe showed the opposite behavior but only for adult trees. Non-supervised hierarchical clustering analysis separated xylem sap composition firstly according to the plant age and then by the olive cultivar. Supervised PLS-DA analysis revealed that B, ethanol, Fe, Fructose, glucose, mannitol, sucrose and Sr were the most significative compounds discriminating adult trees from plantlets, whereas asparagine, aspartate, glutamate and phenylalanine or aspartate, arginine, ethanol and Sr were the most contributory compounds in the discrimination of both olive genotypes for adult trees or plantlets, respectively. Knowledge of the chemical composition of xylem sap will lead to a better understanding of the complex nutritional requirements of olive xylem-inhabiting microorganisms, including its vascular pathogens, and would allow the design of artificial growing media to improve culturing the olive microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0545.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: LCIA; plant protection; compost; sustainable greenhouse production
Online: 22 December 2020 (09:32:12 CET)
Italian floriculture is facing structural changes. Possible options to maintain competitiveness of the involved companies include promotion of added values, from local productions to environmental sustainability. To quantify value and benefits of cleaner production processes and choices, a holistic view is necessary, and could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Previous studies on ornamental products generally focused on data from one company or a small sample. The aim of this study was a gate-to-gate life cycle assessment of two ornamental species (Cyclamen persicum Mill. and Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey) using data from a sample of 20 companies belonging to a floriculture district in Treviso, Veneto region. We also assessed the potential benefits for the environmental impact of the selected species of alternative management choices regarding plant protection and reuse of composted waste biomass. Life cycle impact assessment showed the higher impact scores for the zonal geranium, mainly as a consequence of greenhouse heating with fossil fuels. This factor, along with higher uniformity of production practices and technological level of equipment, translated in lower variability observed in comparison with cyclamen production, which shows a wider results range, in particular for eutrophication, acidification and human toxicity potentials. The application of integrated pest management had significant benefits in terms of impact reduction for acidification and human toxicity of cyclamen, while reduced use of mineral nutrients through compost amendment of growing media resulted in a reduced eutrophication potential. The achievable benefits for zonal geranium were not observable because of the dominant contribution of energy inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0444.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: blueberry; crop modeling; plant nutrition; machine learning
Online: 19 September 2020 (03:27:32 CEST)
Nutrient management of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) depends on several yield-limiting features. Machine learning models can process such yield-impacting variables to predict berry yield. We investigated the effects of local variables on yields and nutrient management of lowbush blueberry. We collected 1504 observations from N-P-K fertilizer trials conducted in Quebec, Canada. Meteorological indices at various phenological stages showed the greatest impact on yield. High mean temperature at flower bud opening and after fruit maturation, and total precipitation at flowering showed positive effects. Low mean temperature and low total precipitation before bud opening, at flowering, and by fruit maturity, as well as number of freezing days (< -5ºC) before flower bud opening, showed negative effects. Soil fertility variables, leaf nutrient compositions and N-P-K fertilization showed smaller effects. Gaussian processes predicted berry yields from historical weather data, soil analysis, fertilizer dosage, and leaf nutrients with a root-mean-square-error of 1447 kg ha-1 on the testing data set. An in-house Markov chain algorithm optimized yields modelled with Gaussian processes from leaf nutrient composition, soil test value, and fertilizer dosage conditioned to specified historical weather features. We propose to use conditioned machine learning models to manage nutrients of lowbush blueberry at local scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0086.v1
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:31:34 CEST)
Space missions have always assumed that the risk of spacecraft malfunction far outweighs the risk of human system failure. This assumption breaks down for longer duration exploration missions and exposes vulnerabilities in space medical system. Space agencies can no longer buy down the majority of human system risk through the crew member selection process and emergency re-supply or evacuation. No mature medical solutions exist to close the risk gap. With recent advances in biotechnology, there is promise in augmenting a space pharmacy with a biologically-based space foundry for on-demand manufacturing of high-value medical products. Here we review the challenges and opportunities of molecular pharming, the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, as the basis of a space medical foundry to close the risk gap in current space medical systems. Plants have long been considered an important life support object in space and can now also be viewed as programmable factories in space. Advances in molecular pharming-based space foundries will have widespread application in promoting simple and accessible pharmaceutical manufacturing on Earth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0090.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: biostimulant; plant defence; mushrooms; antioxidant; septoriosis; wheat
Online: 5 March 2020 (12:08:56 CET)
The Septoria Leaf Blotch Complex (SLBC), caused by the two ascomycetes Zymoseptoria tritici and Parastagonospora nodorum, can reduce global yearly yield of wheat by up to 50%. In the last decade in Italy, SLBC incidence has increased; notably, durum wheat has proven to be more susceptible than common wheat. Field fungicide treatment can efficiently control these pathogens, but it leads to the emergence of resistant strains and adversely affects human and animal health, and the environment. Our previous studies indicated that active compounds produced by Trametes versicolor can restrict the growth of mycotoxigenic fungi and the biosynthesis of their secondary metabolites (e.g. mycotoxins). Specifically, we identified Tramesan: a 23 KDa -heteropolysaccharide secreted by T. versicolor that acts as a pro-antioxidant molecule in animal cells, fungi, and plants. Foliar-spraying of Tramesan (3.3 µM) in SLBC-susceptible varieties of durum significantly diminished symptoms of Stagonospora Nodorum Blotch (SNB) and Septoria Tritici Blotch (STB) by 75% and 65%, respectively. Tests were conducted under controlled conditions as well as in field. We show that Tramesan elicits wheat defence against SNB and STB augmenting the synthesis of defence-related hormones, notably JA and SA, that in turn switch on the expression of markers of defence (PR1, PR4 inter alia). In field experiments, yield of durum wheat plants treated with Tramesan was similar to that of untreated ones. The results suggest the use of Tramesan for protecting durum wheat against SLBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0215.v4
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: coevolution; herbivory; host-plant specialization; phylogeny; speciation
Online: 17 October 2019 (10:12:05 CEST)
During the last two decades, ecological speciation has been a major research theme in evolutionary biology. Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation between populations evolves as a result of niche differentiation. Phytophagous insects represent model systems for the study of this evolutionary process. The host-plants on which these insects feed and often spend parts of their life cycle constitute ideal agents of divergent selection for these organisms. Adaptation to feeding on different host-plant species can potentially lead to ecological specialization of populations and subsequent speciation. This process is thought to have given birth to the astonishing diversity of phytophagous insects and is often put forward in macroevolutionary scenarios of insect diversification. Consequently, numerous phylogenetic studies on phytophagous insects have aimed at testing whether speciation driven by host-plant adaptation is the main pathway for the diversification of the groups under investigation. The increasing availability of comprehensive and well-resolved phylogenies and the recent developments in phylogenetic comparative methods are offering an unprecedented opportunity to test hypotheses on insect diversification at a macroevolutionary scale, in a robust phylogenetic framework. Our purpose here is to review the contribution of phylogenetic analyses to investigate the importance of plant-mediated speciation in the diversification of phytophagous insects and to present suggestions for future developments in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0258.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: power quality; wind power plant; voltage fluctuations
Online: 21 May 2019 (11:19:57 CEST)
Integration of wind energy into the grid faces a great challenge regarding power quality. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)~61400-21 standard defines the electrical characteristics that need to be assessed in a Wind Turbine (WT), as well as the procedure to measure the disturbances produced by the WT. One of the parameters to be assessed are voltage fluctuations or flicker. To estimate the flicker emission of a Wind Power Plant (WPP), the standard establishes that a quadratic exponent should be used in the summation of the flicker emission of each WT. This exponent was selected based on studies carried out in WPPs with type I and II WTs. Advances in wind turbines technology have reduced their flicker emission, mainly thaks to the implementation of power electronics for the partial or total management of the power injected into the grid. This work is based on measurements from a WPP with 16 type III WTs. The flicker emission of a single WT and of the WPP were calculated. Low flicker emission values at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) of the WPP were obtained. The flicker estimation at the PCC, based on the measurement from a single WT, was analyzed using different exponents. The results show that a cubic summation performs better than the quadratic one in the estimation of the flicker emission of a WPP with type III WTs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0123.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass crops; biofuels; plant miRNAs; miR156; miR156/SPL-system; plant biotechnology; abiotic and biotic stresses; bio-confinement
Online: 9 June 2020 (11:52:23 CEST)
Currently, energy security and environmental degradation are the two biggest challenges before humanity that can be surmounted with the use of green and sustainable biofuels produced from lignocellulosic crops. In the future, to ensure adequate and cost-effective supply of biofuels, it requires a sufficient amount of amenable and quality lignocellulosic feedstocks. Therefore, agricultural yields of lignocellulosic biomass crops should be substantially increased by intense genetic maneuvering of key gene regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways that control plant biomass yield. Recently, numerous miRNAs families are identified, characterized, and validated across the plant kingdom. Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are 21 to 24 nucleotides long, non-coding small RNAs, act as regulators of their target genes via inducing modifications in transcription, translation, and epigenome. MiRNAs represent many hallmark characteristics like sequence-specific regulation, tissue, and species-specific expression, evolutionary conservation, and functional diversity. They coordinate well physiological and life cycle processes in plants under adverse environmental conditions. Hence, miRNAs offer accurate, precise, and efficient regulatory switches in the miRNA-targeted genetic networks. It is evident from the study of the miR156 family and its target SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes network that controls highly significant agronomic traits in crop plants. The miR156/SPL module acts as a master circuit that synchronizes many intricate complex biological functions such as growth and development, and metabolic processes by sensing internal and external environmental signals in plants. Therefore, miR156 can prove a potential target for miRNAs based plant biotechnology to harmonize complex biofuel traits and improve biomass yield in lignocellulosic biomass crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0246.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: agriculture 4.0; chlorophyll; early diagnosis; fungal tree pathogens; mycology; plant disease; plant pathology; smart viticulture; vegetation indices; wine grapes
Online: 11 May 2021 (14:21:25 CEST)
The Armillaria genus represents one of the most common causes of chronic root rot disease in woody plants. The disease damage prompt assessment is crucial for pest management. However, the disease detection current methods are limited at the field scale. Therefore, an alternative approach that can enhance or supplement traditional techniques is needed. In this study, we investigated the potential of hyperspectral methods to identify the changes between fungi-infected and uninfected plants of Vitis vinifera in early detecting the Armillaria disease. The hyperspectral imaging sensor Specim-IQ was used to acquire images of leaves of the Teroldego Rotaliano grapevine cultivar. We analysed three groups of plants: healthy, asymptomatic, and diseased. Highly significant differences were found in the Near infrared (NIR) spectral region with a decreasing pattern from healthy to diseased plants attributable to internal leaf structure changes. Asymptomatic plants emerged from the other groups due to a smaller reflectance in the red-edge spectrum (around 705nm). Hypothetically associated with the presence of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence strategy. Furthermore, significant differences were observed in the wavelengths close to 550 nm in diseased plants versus asymptomatic. We used linear discriminant analysis from a machine learning context to classify the leaves based on the most significant variables (vegetation indices and single bands), with resulting overall accuracies of 85% and 84% respectively in healthy vs. diseased and healthy vs. asymptomatic. To our knowledge, this study represents the first report on the possibility of using hyperspectral data for root rot disease diagnosis on woody plants. Although further validation studies are required, it appears that the spectral reflectance technique, possibly implemented on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), could be a promising tool for a cost-effective, non-destructive method of Armillaria disease early diagnosis and mapping in the field, contributing to a significant step forward in precision viticulture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0110.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: invasion ecology; biotic resistance; exotic plants; heterospecific pollen; reproductive interference; alien plants; indirect plant-plant interactions; Darwin's naturalization hypothesis
Online: 9 February 2020 (16:32:53 CET)
1. Heterospecific pollen interference has recently been proposed as a mechanism contributing to the success of alien invaders, as heterospecific pollen of alien plants interferes with the reproduction of natives by reducing fruit and seed set. However, no study has looked at the opposite interaction. Moreover, few studies have considered the roles of phylogenetic and trait distances between pollen donors and recipients. 2. We did a large multi-species experiment in which we used alien and native species both as pollen recipients and as pollen donors, and included phylogenetic as well as trait distance as explanatory variables. 3. We found that both alien and native recipients suffered from heterospecific pollen from donors of the opposite status in terms of seed and fruit set. Phylogenetic distance and trait distance both affected heterospecific pollen interference, but the effect depended on recipient and donor statuses. 4. We conclude that heterospecific pollen interference affects both native and alien recipients, thus indirectly altering community composition and increasing biotic resistance against invaders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0186.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Air pollution; coal-fired thermal power plant; oil thermal power plant; geocoded; lung cancer; bladder cancer; North-eastern Italy
Online: 20 June 2017 (08:50:26 CEST)
This study investigated the risk of lung and bladder cancers in people residing in proximity of a coal-oil-fired thermal power plant in an area of north-eastern Italy, covered by a population-based cancer registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) by sex, age, and histology were computed according to tertiles of residential exposure to benzene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particular matter, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among 1076 incident cases of lung and 650 cases of bladder cancers. In men of all ages and in women under 75 years of age, no significant associations were observed. Conversely, in women aged >75 years significantly increased risks of lung and bladder cancers were related to high exposure to benzene (IRR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 2.00 for lung cancer and 1.94 for bladder cancer) and NO2 (IRR: 1.72 for lung cancer; and 1.94 for bladder cancer). In these women, a 1.71-fold higher risk of lung cancer was also related to a high exposure to SO2. The findings of this descriptive study indicated that air pollution may have a role with regard to the risk of lung and bladder cancers, limited to women aged ≥ 75 years. Such increased risk warrants further analytical investigations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0487.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Plant proteins; legumes; protein digestibility; germination; peptidomics; proteomics
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:14:36 CET)
Legume seed protein is an important source of nutrition, but it is less digestible than animal protein. Poor protein digestibility in legume seeds and seedlings may partly reflect defences against herbivores. Protein changes during germination typically increase proteolysis and digestibility, by lowering the levels of anti-nutrient protease inhibitors, activating proteases, and breaking down storage proteins (including allergens). Germinating legume sprouts also show striking increases in free amino acids (especially asparagine), but their roles in host defence or other processes are not known. While the net effect of germination is generally to increase the digestibility of legume seed proteins, the extent of improvement in digestibility is species and strain dependent. Further research is needed to highlight which changes contribute the most to improved digestibility of sprouted seeds. Such knowledge could guide the selection of varieties that are more digestible, and also guide the development of food preparations that are more digestible, potentially combining germination with other factors altering digestibility, such as heating and fermentation. Techniques to characterize the shifts in protein make-up, activity and degradation during germination need to draw on traditional analytical approaches, complemented by proteomic and peptidomic analysis of mass spectrometry identified peptide breakdown products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0117.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Temporary Immersion Bioreactor; Micropropagation; Plantain; plant tissue culture
Online: 6 January 2023 (06:26:15 CET)
The genus Musa spp. contains commercially important fleshy fruit producing plants including plantains and bananas with a strong potential of providing food security and source of revenue to farmers. Occasionally, plantlets are often not available to fulfill the supply demand of farmers particularly in Caribbean region. Concerns with the quality of vegetative tissues along with the possibility of the transmission of phytopathogens makes availability of plantlets limited to farm-ers. Micropropagation of plantains offers an alternative to producing large number of in-vitro plantlets. However, conventional methods of micropropagation techniques require high produc-tion costs and are labor-intensive. Recently, Temporary Immersion Bioreactor (TIB) has emerged as an alternative to conventional micropropagation methods. Our work utilized SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), molecular and biochemical tools (qRT-PCR and ICP-OES) to characterize and compare the morphological, elemental composition, and photosynthetic gene expression of plantains cultured on TIB. Additionally, morphological features of growth and propagation rates were analyzed for comparing outputs obtained from temporary immersion bioreactor with conventional micropropagation (CM) techniques. Results showed higher growth and multiplication rates for plantlets cultivated in TIB. Gene expression analysis of selected photosynthetic genes demonstrated high transcript abundance of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in plantain tissues obtained by TIB. Elemental composition analysis showed higher content of iron in plantains grown in TIB suggesting a potential correlation with PEPC expression. These results demonstrate the potential of TIB to be an efficient method to produce healthy in-vitro plantains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0521.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: plant–microbe interactions; endophytes; comparative transcriptomics; velvet genes
Online: 29 November 2022 (02:06:31 CET)
Epichloë species form bioprotective endophytic symbioses with many cool-season grasses, including agriculturally important forage grasses. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the molecular details of the interaction and the regulatory genes involved. VelA is a key global regulator in fungal secondary metabolism and development. In previous studies, we showed the requirement of velA for E. festucae to form a mutualistic interaction with Lolium perenne. We showed that VelA regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in membrane transport, fungal cell wall biosynthesis, host cell wall degradation and secondary metabolism, along with several small-secreted proteins in Epichloë festucae. Here, by a comparative transcriptomics analysis on perennial ryegrass seedlings and mature plants, which are endophyte free or infected with wild type (mutualistic interaction) or mutant ∆velA E. festucae (antagonistic or incompatible interaction), regulatory effects of the endophytic interaction on perennial ryegrass development was studied. We show that ∆velA mutant associations influence the expression of genes involved in primary metabolism, secondary metabolism and response to biotic and abiotic stresses compared to wild type associations, providing an insight into processes defining mutualistic versus antagonistic interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0366.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Vibration Detection; Progress; Power Plant; Bibliometrics; Visual Analysis
Online: 17 October 2022 (10:50:11 CEST)
After long years of development, the technology of analyzing the working condition of power units based on vibration signals has had relatively stable applications, but the accuracy and the degree of automation and intelligence for fault diagnosis are still inadequate due to the limitations of the current development of key technologies. With the development of big data and artificial intelligence technology, the involvement of new technologies will be an important boost to the development of this field. To support the subsequent research, bibliometrics is used as a tool to sort out the development of the technology in this field at the macro level; at the micro level, the classical and key literature is studied to grasp the development status at the technical level and prepare for the selection of entry points to continue in-depth innovation afterwards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0302.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Verticillium wilt; cotton; transmembrane protein; resistance; plant immunity
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:28:04 CEST)
Verticillium wilt (VW) is a soil borne fungal diseases caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb, and lead to serious damage to cotton production annually in the world. In our previous study, a transmembrane protein 214 protein (TMEM214) gene associated with VW resistance was map-based cloned from Gossypium barbadense (G. barbadense). TMEM214 proteins are a kind of transmembrane protein, but their function in plants is rarely studied. To reveal the function of TMEM214s in VW resistance, all six TMEM214s were cloned from G. barbadense in this study. These genes were named as GbTMEM214-1, GbTMEM214-4 and GbTMEM214-7 according to their location on the chromosomes, and the encoded proteins are all located on cell membrane. TMEM214 genes were all induced by Verticillium dahliae inoculation and showed significant differences between resistant and susceptible varieties, but the expression patterns of GbTMEM214s under different hormone treatments were significantly different. Virus-induced gene silencing analysis showed the resistance to VW of GbTMEM214s-silenced lines decreased significantly, which further proves the important role of GbTMEM214s in the resistance to Verticillium dahliae. Our study provides an insight into the involvement of GbTMEM214s in VW resistance, which was helpful to better understand the disease resistance mechanism of plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0593.v1
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:56:26 CEST)
Cacao is an understory plant cultivated under full-sun monocultures to multi-strata agroforestry systems, where cocoa trees are planted together with fruit, timber, firewood, and leguminous trees, or grown within thinned native forests. Under agroforestry systems of cultivation, cacao is subjected to excess shade due to high density of shade trees, and overgrown or unmanaged pruning of shade trees. Cacao is tolerant to shade, and the maximum photosynthetic rate occurs around irradiance of 400 μmol m−2 s−1 but excess shade reduces the irradiance further which is detrimental to photosynthesis and growth functions. Intra-specific variation is known to exist in cacao for the required saturation irradiance. A greenhouse study was implemented with 58 cacao genotypes selected from four geographically diverse groups: (i) wild cacao from river basins of the Peruvian Amazon, (PWC), (ii) Peruvian farmers’ collection (PFC), (iii) Brazilian cacao collection (BCC) and (iv) national and international cacao collections (NIC). All the cacao genotypes were subjected to 50% and 80% shade where photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was 1000 and 400 μmol m-2 ּs-1 respectively. Intra-specific variations were observed for growth, physiological and nutritional traits, and tolerance to shade. Cacao genotypes tolerant to shade were: UNG-77 and UGU-130 from PWC; ICT-2173, ICT-2142, ICT-2172, ICT-1506, ICT-1087, and ICT-2171 from the PFC; PH-21, CA-14, PH-990 and PH-144 from BCC; and ICS-1, ICS-39, UF-613 and POUND-12 from NIC. Genotypes that tolerate excess shade might be useful plant types to maintain productivity and sustainability in agroforestry systems of cacao management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0461.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Germplasm; Genetic plant resources; Preservation; Propagation; in vitro
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:28:31 CEST)
Germplasm is a valuable natural resource in plant diversity that is crucial for its potential use. It provides knowledge about a species genetic composition. Germplasm protection strategies are not just planting hope threatened with extinction, they preserve medicinal and other essential plants on which survival rests. The successful use of genetic plant resources necessitates diligent collection, storage, analysis, documentation, and germplasm exchange. Slow growth cultures, cryopreservation, pollen and DNA banks, botanic gardens, genetic reserves and farmer’s fields are few conservation techniques. However, usage of an in vitro procedure with any chance of genetic instability leads to the destruction of the entire substance. Improved understanding of basic regeneration biology would, in turn, undoubtedly increase the capacity to regenerate plants from in vitro harvested explants, thus expanding selection possibilities. Germplasm conservation seeks to conserve endangered and vulnerable plant species worldwide for future proliferation and development; it is also the bedrock of agricultural production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0336.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: plant fructans; fructosyltransferase; metabolism; evolution aspects; functional foods
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:11:41 CEST)
Fructan, a fructose polymer, is used as carbohydrate reserve in many plants. The nutritional and therapeutic benefits of fructans have attracted increasing interest by consumers and food industry. In the course of evolution, many plants have developed the ability of regulating plant frunctan metabolism genes to produce different structures and chain length fructans, which are strongly correlated with their survival in harsh environments. De nevo domestication of fructan-rich plants based on genome editing is a viable and promising approach to improve human dietary quality and reduce the risk of chronic disease. These advances will greatly facilitate breeding and production of tailor-made fructans as a healthy food ingredient from wild plants such as polygonati rhizoma. The purpose of this review is to broaden our knowledge on plant fructan biosynthesis, evolution and beneficial applications for human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0030.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: micro minerals, selenium, deficiency, soil-plant relationship, Kosovo
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:17:35 CEST)
Minerals play many important functions in plant and animal metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the concentration of Se and other minerals and their relationships in soils and fodder plants in Kosovo. Seventy-three samples of each soil and fodder plants (grass, maize, and wheat) from 30 farms were collected. Both soil and plant samples, after processing and digestion, were analyzed for mineral concentration by ICP-MS. Mineral concentrations in soil and fodder crops, and the best predicting/explanatory models for micro minerals concentration, achieved by stepwise linear regression, are presented. Results showed very low concentration of Se in most of the soil and all fodder samples. In addition, the concentration of Co, Zn and Fe was not sufficient to satisfy requirements for all categories of farm animals. Plant Se concentration showed a positive relationship with Se concentration in soils. Plant Zn, Mo, Mn, Fe and Pb, in general, showed no significant relationship with their concentration in soil, while plant Co and Cd showed positive relationship only in maize, and Cu in wheat grain. Among the soil properties, pH had the highest effect on the concentrations of Co, Mo, Mn, Cd and Pb in fodder crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0325.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: meat substitute; meathybrid; consumer preference, plant-based proteins
Online: 14 December 2020 (11:44:14 CET)
High levels of meat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein in comparison to meat. This alternative offers several social, environmental and health benefits and may play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on how specific meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace or partially replace meat in their diets. Research demonstrates that in many countries consumers are highly attached to meat. They consider it as an essential and integral element of their daily diet. For these consumers which are not interested in vegan or vegetarian alternatives to meat, so-called meathybrids could be a low-threshold option for a more sustainable food consumption behaviour. In meathybrids only a fraction of the meat product (e.g. 20% to 50%) is replaced with plant-based proteins. In this paper, the results of an online survey with 501 Belgium consumers are presented with focus on preferences and attitudes relating to meathyrids. The results show that more than fifty percent of consumers substitute meat at least occasionally. Thus, about half of the respondents reveal an eligible consumption behaviour in respect to sustainability and healthiness to a certain degree. Concerning the determinants of choosing either meathybrid or meat it becomes evident that a strong effect is exerted by the health perception. The healthier meathybrids are perceived, the higher is the choice probability. Thus, this egoistic motive seems to outperform altruistic motives like animal welfare or environmental concerns when it comes to choice for this new product category.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0241.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: meat substitute; meathybrid; consumer preference, plant-based proteins
Online: 10 December 2020 (09:22:00 CET)
High levels of meat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein that, in comparison to meat, offer a number of social, environmental and health benefits and may play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on the role they can play in the policy agenda and how specific meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace partially replace meat in their diets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0677.v1
Online: 26 November 2020 (23:08:59 CET)
High levels ofmeat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, 2 and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein in 3 comparison to meat. This alternative offers several social, environmental and health benefits and may 4 play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on how specific 5 meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace or partially replace meat in their diets. 6 Research demonstrates that in many countries consumers are highly attached to meat.They consider 7 it as an essential and integral element of their daily diet. For these consumers which are not interested 8 in vegan or vegetarian alternatives to meat, so-called meathybrids could be a low-threshold option 9 for a more sustainable food consumption behaviour. In meathybrids only a fraction of the meat 10 product (e.g. 20% to 50%) is replaced with plant-based proteins. In this paper, the results of an online 11 survey with 500 German consumers are presented with focus on preferences and attitudes relating 12 to meathyrids. The results show that more than fifty percent of consumers substitute meat at least 13 occasionally. Thus, about half of the respondents reveal an eligible consumption behaviour in respect 14 to sustainability and healthiness to a certain degree. Concerning the determinants of choosing either 15 meathybrid or meat it becomes evident that the highest effect is exerted by the health perception. The 16 healthier meathybrids are perceived, the higher is the choice probability. Thus, this egoistic motive 17 seems to outperform altruistic motives like animal welfare or environmental concerns when it comes 18 to choice for this new product category.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0460.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: plant breeding; genomic selection; Bayes; BLUP; machine learning
Online: 18 November 2020 (11:21:50 CET)
Estimation of breeding values through Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) using pedigree-based kinship and Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) are the two fundamental breeding methods used before and after the introduction of genetic markers, respectively. The emergence of high-density genome-wide markers has led to the development of two parallel series of approaches inspired by BLUP and MAS, which are collectively referred to as Genomic Selection (GS). The first series of GS methods alters pedigree-based BLUP by replacing pedigree-based kinship with marker-based kinship in a variety of ways, including weighting markers by their effects in genome-wide association study (GWAS), joining both pedigree and marker-based kinship together in a single-step BLUP, and substituting individuals with groups in a compressed BLUP. The second series of GS methods estimates the effects for all genetic markers simultaneously. For the second series methods, the marker effects are summed together regardless of their individual significance. Instead of fitting individuals as random effects like in the BLUP series, the second series fits markers as random effects. Differing assumptions regarding the underlying distribution of these marker effects have resulted in the development of many Bayesian-based GS methods. This review highlights critical concept developments for both of these series and explores ongoing GS developments in machine learning, multiple trait selection, and adaptation for hybrid breeding. Furthermore, considering the increasing use and variety of GS methods in plant breeding programs, this review addresses important concerns for future GS development and application, such as the use of GWAS-assisted GS, the long-term effectiveness of GS methods, and the valid assessment of prediction accuracy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0068.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Microbiome; Plant Immunity; Priming; Transgenerational Immune Priming (TGIP)
Online: 5 July 2020 (11:35:04 CEST)
One of the biggest demanding situations for food security in the 21st century is to enhance crop yield stability through the improvement of diseases-resistant crops. Managing plant health is a major challenge for modern food production and compounded by the lack of common ground among the many disease control disciplines involved. All plants simultaneously engage with billions of microbes which can be collectively referred to as the plant microbiome. Most microbes inside the plant microbiome are harmless or even beneficial to the plant as they promote plant growth or provide protection in opposition to diseases. However, some of these microbes also cause disease with devastating effects on crop yields. To prevent pathogen infection, plants have evolved an advanced innate immune system that recognizes conserved cell surface molecules that most pathogen possesses. Activation of the plant immune system stops the invading pathogen, however this comes with fitness cost that significantly reduces plant growth and leads to yield penalty. Apart from their innate immune system controlling pre-programmed defense reactions, plants can also increase the responsiveness of their immune system in response to selected environmental signals. This phenomenon is known as “defense priming”. Although defense priming rarely provides full protection, its broad-spectrum effectiveness, low-fitness cost, long‐lasting durability and inherited to future generations make it attractive for sustainable crop protection.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0306.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: ideal plant architecture; food-nutritional security; climate change
Online: 24 June 2020 (18:12:06 CEST)
Crop domestication and breeding considerably increased productivity over centuries, but simultaneously involved unconscious selection against ‘selfish plant behavior’. Paradoxically, modern-day crop breeding largely enhances individual plant-fitness. As agriculture relies on community performance, embracing an “Agroecological Genetics and Genomics” viewpoint might maximize communal yield by matching crop genotypes to target environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0226.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COVID-2019; Mpro; 6LU7; medicinal plant compounds; docking
Online: 13 March 2020 (03:19:02 CET)
COVID-19, a new strain of coronavirus (CoV), was identified in Wuhan, China, in 2019. No specific therapies are available and investigations regarding COVID-19 treatment are lacking. Liu et al. (2020) successfully crystallised the COVID-19 main protease (Mpro), which is a potential drug target. The present study aimed to assess bioactive compounds found in medicinal plants as potential COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors, using a molecular docking study. Molecular docking was performed using Autodock 4.2, with the Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm, to analyse the probability of docking. COVID-19 Mpro was docked with several compounds, and docking was analysed by Autodock 4.2, Pymol version 184.108.40.206 Edu, and Biovia Discovery Studio 4.5. Nelfinavir and lopinavir were used as standards for comparison. The binding energies obtained from the docking of 6LU7 with native ligand, nelfinavir, lopinavir, kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, demethoxycurcumin, naringenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, oleuropein, curcumin, catechin, epicatechin-gallate, zingerol, gingerol, and allicin were -8.37, -10.72, -9.41, -8.58, -8.47, -8.17, -7.99, -7.89, -7.83, -7.31, -7.05, -7.24, -6.67, -5.40, -5.38, and -4.03 kcal/mol, respectively. Therefore, nelfinavir and lopinavir may represent potential treatment options, and kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, demethoxycurcumin, naringenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, oleuropein, curcumin, catechin, and epicatechin-gallate appeared to have the best potential to act as COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors. However, further research is necessary to investigate their potential medicinal use.
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: host plant resistance; pest management; Planococcus ficus; vineyard
Online: 11 September 2019 (02:41:28 CEST)
Mealybugs cause economic loss to vineyards through physical damage, fouling fruit and leaves with honeydew, and the transmission of viruses. Planococcus ficus is one of several mealybug species in vineyards, and one that causes economic damage over a relatively large global range. To develop novel management tools, host resistance to P. ficus, which has not previously been identified for any grape cultivars, was studied. Ten grape lines (species, cultivars, and rootstocks) were evaluated for P. ficus resistance across two separate potted plant assays. Significant differences were detected among cultivars and rootstocks in the recorded number of P. ficus juveniles, adults and egg sacs. Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay were two of the most susceptible grape cultivars for mealybug population growth, whereas rootstocks IAC 572, 10-17A and RS-3 all demonstrated some level of resistance. Southern fire ant (Solenopsis xyloni) was positively associated with mealybug populations, but did not have a negative effect on the observed presence of other arthropod species including potential predators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: virtual power plant; distributed energy sources; smart grid
Online: 8 July 2019 (04:00:00 CEST)
This article presents an in-depth review of Virtual Power Plant (VPP), its organization in the energy system and its prospects in the face of the promising future of the increasing bidirectional complexity exposed in the current scenario. A new paradigm for the operations of modern power distribution and transmission systems requires greater grid flexibility that is accompanying an extensive change in the structure of electricity markets, the fruit of the development of the renewable industry and of the growing photovoltaic systems popularized, but in contrast due to the intermittent nature cause variable uncertainties in the power system. Innovative concepts like VPP are becoming a reality, establishing an efficient and effective mechanism. The objectives and components are described in a comprehensive way, and some of the most important are pointed out and presented in detail to contribute with a description of the energy systems and the implicit research needed for sustainability and resilience in the eminent energy scenario with this technology. In addition, the literature and studies of this technology already indicate a direction of this new tool as a promising solution to manage the uncertainties of the renewable energies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0111.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Multispectral; Radiometric calibration; Classification; Plant disease; Aerial imagery
Online: 13 February 2019 (10:40:40 CET)
In recent years, using multispectral cameras on UAVs has provided an opportunity to capture separate bands that offer the extraction of spectral features used for early detection of diseased plants. One of the main steps in disease detection is radiometric calibration that converts digital numbers to reflectance values commonly using white reference panels. This paper focused on the necessity of radiometric calibration to distinguish disease trees in orchards based on aerial multi-spectral images. For this purpose, two study sites with various climate conditions and tree species as well as different disease types were selected where multispectral images were taken using a multirotor UAV. The impact of radiometric correction on plant disease detection was assessed in two ways: 1) comparison of separability between the healthy and diseased classes using T-test and entropy distances; 2) radiometric calibration effect on the accuracy of classification. The experimental result showed the insignificant effect of radiometric calibration on separability criteria. Furthermore, based on T-test and entropy distances criteria, NIR and R spectral features made highest distances between healthy and Greening infected citrus trees, respectively, at the first study site while NDRE and BNDVI spectral features made highest distances between healthy and peach leaf curl infected trees, respectively, at the other study site. In the second strategy, the experimental result showed that radiometric calibration had no effect on the accuracy of classification. As a result, the overall accuracy and kappa values for both un-calibrated and calibrated orthomosaic classifications of the citrus orchard were 96.6% and 0.94%, respectively, using five spectral bands as well as DVI, NDRE, NDVI and GNDVI vegetation indices using a random forest classifier. The experimental results were also similar at the other study site. Therefore, the overall accuracy and kappa values for both the un-calibrated and calibrated orthomosaic classifications were 96.1%, 0.92, respectively, using five spectral bands as well as NDRE, BNDVI, GNDVI, DVI, and NDVI vegetation indices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0383.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ADCC; glycosylation; kifunensine; plant made pharmaceuticals; monoclonal antibody
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:24:35 CET)
N-glycosylation has been shown to affect the pharmacokinetic properties of several classes of biologics including monoclonal antibodies, blood factors, and lysosomal enzymes. In the last two decades, N-glycan engineering has been employed to achieve a N-glycosylation profile that is either more consistent or aligned with a specific improved activity (i.e. effector function or serum half-life). In particular, attention has focused on engineering processes in vivo or in vitro to alter the structure of the N-glycosylation of the Fc region of anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies in order to increase antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here we applied the mannosidase I inhibitor kifunensine to the Nicotiana benthamiana transient expression platform to produce an afucosylated anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab). We determined the optimal concentration of kifunensine used in the infiltration solution, 0.375 µM, which was sufficient to produce exclusively oligomannose glycoforms, at a concentration 14 times lower than previously published levels. The resulting afucosylated rituximab revealed a 14-fold increase in ADCC activity targeting the lymphoma cell line Wil2-S when compared with rituximab produced in the absence of kifunensine. When applied to the cost-effective and scalable N. benthamiana transient expression platform, the use of kifunensine allows simple in-process glycan engineering without the need for transgenic hosts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0085.v1
Online: 5 November 2018 (05:28:33 CET)
In this article the methodology for the determination of the theoretical gamma spectrum originated by applying DGNAA (delayed gamma neutron analysis activation) techniques for the elemental analysis of ash from thermal power plants is exposed. This is a study must be prior to the experimentation in order to define the parameters of the test to obtain the optimal conditions for the detection of each element present in the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0089.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: agrobiodiversity; vegetables; plant genetic resources; Italy; safeguarding; landraces
Online: 4 May 2018 (09:34:09 CEST)
The study attempts, above all, to provide a summary, with a strictly scientific basis, about the strategies of conservation of autochthonous agrobiodiversity followed in Italy. A special focus is dedicated on vegetables and, therefore, could represent a contribution to improve the national strategy for the safeguarding of its agrobiodiversity in general. The paper offers also an outlook on the most critical factors of the ex situ conservation and some actions which need to be taken. Some examples of ‘novel’ recovered neglected crops are also given. Finally a case study is proposed: ‘Mugnolicchio’, a neglected race of Brassica oleracea L., cultivated in Altamura (Ba) in southern Italy. ‘Mugnolicchio’ might be considered as an early step in the evolution of broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica Plenck) like ‘Mugnoli’ another neglected race described from Salento (Apulia).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; combined cycle power plant; energy losses
Online: 2 May 2018 (10:12:31 CEST)
Natural gas combined cycle power plants (CCPPs) are widely used to meet peak loads in electric energy production. Continuous monitoring of the output electrical power of CCPPs is a requirement for power performance. In this study, the role of ambient temperature change having the greatest effect on electric production is investigated for a natural gas CCPP. The plant has generated electricity for fourteen years and setup at 240 MW in Aliağa, İzmir, Turkey. Depending on the seasonal temperature changes, the study data were obtained from each gas turbine (GT), steam turbine (ST) and combined cycle blocks (CCBs) in the ambient temperature range of 8-23°C. It has been found that decreases of the electric energy in the GTs because of the temperature increase and indirectly diminishes of the electricity production in the STs. As a result, the efficiency of each GT, ST and CCB reduced, although the quantity of fuel consumed by the controllers in the plant was decreased. As a result of this data, it has been recommended and applied that additional precautions have been taken for the power plant to bring the air entering the combustion chamber to ideal conditions and necessary air cooling systems have been installed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0232.v2
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: obesity; plant secondary compound; Clinacanthus nutans; gene expression
Online: 24 April 2018 (10:04:11 CEST)
Obesity is a universal health concern that can lead to serious diseases. The side effects of synthetic anti-obesity drugs necessitate the finding of suitable natural/herbal alternatives. Mother nature offers a wide range of plants with medicinal properties that include crude extracts and isolated compounds which are effective for controlling and reducing weight gain. Obesity was induced in 60, 3-week-old male ICR mice, using high-fat diet (60% dietary energy from fat) for 16-week. The mice were divided at random into six groups with 10 mice: mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) only, mice fed normal diet only (NC), and orlistat at 15.9 mg/kg (HFD+Orlistat), and mice in three other high-fat diet groups treated with methanolic leaf extract of Clinacanthus nutans (MECN) at 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg. After 21-day of the treatment, MECN significantly reduced (P<0.05) the body weight, visceral fat and muscle saturated fatty acid compositions. There was also significant downregulation of HSL, PPAR α and PPAR γ and SCD genes expressions in the obese mice treated with 1500 mg/kg MECN compared to the HFD group. Therefore, MECN is a potentially useful natural supplement for alleviating obesity and obesity-mediated metabolic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal; power plant; utilization factor; plant load factor; PLF; generation mix; renewable; future; declared capacity; NTPC; energy; peak; deficit; environment; India
Online: 19 August 2020 (11:38:11 CEST)
As on 31.03.2020, 55.4 % (205135 MW) of total installed capacity (370106 MW) in India is through coal and lignite based power plants. These plants, set up by central, state and private utilities with substantial capital investment are facing consistently reducing Plant Utilization Factor (known as Plant Load Factor, PLF, in India). In the year 2019-20 the national average thermal power PLF stood at 55.4%, down from 78.6 % in 2007-08. On the other hand, the electricity demand is consistently rising in the country and there exists a peak and energy shortage at national level. In 2019-20 energy shortage was 0.7 % and peak shortage was 0.5 %. A disturbing paradox therefore exists here. On one hand, the country is power deficit, and on the other hand, a large amount of coal based affordable power, ready to be generated by thermal power generators, remains grossly unused. Looking into the fact that considerable investment has gone into developing these thermal power generation assets in the country, the falling PLF is a matter of concern for all the key stakeholders including the power producers, lenders, regulators and consumers. This paper identifies seven major factors that are affecting PLF of thermal power plants and then makes an attempt to project future scenario of PLF so that critical stakeholders can intervene through appropriate actions. Primary research with responses from power professionals has been used to find out the major factors. Future projection of PLF has been done using Partial Least Square (PLS) regression. Projection shows that in the Business As Usual case (Factors increasing at the current CAGR rate), the thermal power plants will face very low level of PLF (14.76 %) by 2024-25. This will mean that many plants will be shut down and many will run for only few hours in a day that too at very low loads. If the future generation mix is kept as indicated by Central Electricity Authority (CEA), a Govt. of India in its report (Draft report on optimal generation capacity mix for 2029-30- CEA- Govt of India) then the thermal power plant average PLF can sustain above 68 % until 2024-25. If followed, this path can be a breather for the thermal power plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0215.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum; virulence; FTF gene family; plant colonization; effector
Online: 12 January 2023 (07:31:36 CET)
The FTF (Fusarium Transcription Factor) gene family is composed of two members (FTF1 and FTF2) with high sequence homology. Both genes encode Zn(II)2Cys6 binuclear zinc finger transcription factors involved in the modulation of virulence in the F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC). While FTF1 is a multicopy gene exclusive of highly virulent strains of FOSC and is located in the accessory genome, FTF2 is a single copy gene, located in the core genome, and well conserved in all filamentous ascomycete fungi, except yeast. The involvement of FTF1 in the colonization of the vascular system and regulation of the expression of SIX effectors has been stablished. To address the role of FTF2 we generated and characterized null FTF2 mutants in a F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli weakly virulent strain and analyzed them together with the equivalent mutants formerly obtained in a highly virulent strain. The results obtained highlight a role for FTF2 as a negative regulator of the production of macroconidia and demonstrate that it is required for full virulence and positive regulation of SIX effectors. In addition, gene expression analyses provide compelling evidence that FTF2 is involved in the regulation of hydrophobins likely required for plant colonization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0177.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Plant disease; Machine vision; UAV; Smartphone; Convolutional Neural Network
Online: 19 April 2022 (07:44:29 CEST)
Stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat and causes large-scale epidemics and severe yield loss. Applying fungicides during early epidemic development is crucial to controlling the disease but is often challenged by resource-limited human visual scouting. Deep learning has the potential to process images and videos captured from affordable devices to empower high-throughput phenotyping for early detection of stripe rust for timely application of fungicides and improve control efficiency. Here, we developed RustNet, a neural network-based image classifier, for efficiently monitoring fields for stripe rust. RustNet was built on a ResNet-18 architecture pre-trained with ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) dataset using transfer learning. RGB images and videos of multiple wheat fields with different wheat types (winter and spring wheat), conditions (irrigated and non-irrigated), and locations were acquired using smartphones or unmanned aerial vehicles near the canopy. A semi-automated image labeling approach was conducted to improve labeling efficiency by combining automated machine labeling and human correction. Cross-validations across multiple categories (sensor platforms, wheat types, and locations) achieved Area Under Curve from 0.72 to 0.87. Independent validation on a published dataset from Germany achieved accuracies ranging from 0.79 to 0.86. The visualization of the last convolutional layer of RustNet demonstrated the identification of pixels with stripe rust. RustNet is freely available at https://zzlab.net/RustNet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0190.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: mites; insects; trophic relation; plant-arthropod interactions; SEKEM; fayoum
Online: 16 February 2022 (02:46:57 CET)
Due to a lack of knowledge about arthropod biodiversity in Egyptian organic agro-ecosystems; the study aimed to introduce information on the diversity, richness, and distribution of insect and mite species in two organic agro-ecosystems, also, to investigate the impact of plant-arthropod interactions. Samples collected from two organic farms, i) Shampoliah farm, Fayoum (GCS 29°21'07.4"N 30°44'17.8"E), and ii) SEKEM farm, Sharkia (GCS 18 30°22'56.1"N 31°39'17.4"E). Results shown 39 species recorded in Shampoliah farm, and 35 species in SEKEM of mite, insect, medicinal, and weed species. When 14 species shared among two sites. Study has measured the H', D and 1/D indices within each location, and the similarity/dissimilarity between locations. The study hypothesized the possible plant-arthropod interactions that explain why diversity differs from an ecosystem to another; due to; plant size, plant morphological characters, soil fertilization, plant nutritional content, and the prey-predator interactions. The added hypothesis; is to show that the importance of natural habitat is supporting natural enemies and distribution of arthropods, which could vary dramatically with the type of pest species, IPM, and landscape type considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0091.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Plant extracts; VEG’LYS; antimicrobial effects; curative and preventive treatment
Online: 6 January 2022 (14:06:53 CET)
The objective of this work was to determine the antimicrobial properties of an allium-based antimicrobial formulation named VEG’LYS (https://phytoauxilium.com/) on the growth of plant pathogenic microorganisms such as fungi, oomycetes, and bacteria. Two anthracnose-related species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum, C. gloeosporioides, and C. fragariae, the oomycete Phytophthora cactorum and the bacterium Xanthomonas fragariae associated with strawberry plants and two fungi Alternaria dauci and Botrytis cinerea, associated with carrot plants were tested in vitro. In in planta experiments, A. dauci and B. cinerea were used.. VEG’LYS inhibited the growth of all plant pathogens tested. We found that both curative and preventive in planta treatments with VEG’LYS inhibited the growth of A. dauci and B. cinerea in carrot. Furthermore, after spraying VEG’LYS on carrot plants the expression of the Pathogenesis-related (PR) 10 gene correlated with the magnitude of infection both in treated and untreated plants. Additionally, it has been shown, that the field application of VEG’LYS on strawberry plants results in a reduction of bacterial and fungal pathogens of strawberry fruits stored in refrigerator. In summary, VEG’LYS is a potential resistance inducer that seems to be suitable for use in both curative and preventive treatments to reduce the diseases and rotting of fruits and vegetables caused by different plant pathogens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0503.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Plant Pathogen; Biocontrol; Microbes; AMF; Bacteriophages; Microbiome; Sustainable strategies
Online: 31 December 2021 (10:45:32 CET)
Food security has become a major concern worldwide in recent years due to ever increasing population. Providing food for the growing billions without disturbing environmental balance is incessantly required in the current scenario. In view of this, sustainable modes of agricultural practices offer better promise and hence are gaining prominence recently. Moreover, these methods have taken precedence currently over chemical-based methods of pest restriction and pathogen control. Adoption of Biological Control is one such crucial technique that is currently in the forefront. Over a period of time, various biocontrol strategies have been experimented with and some have exhibited great success and promise. This review highlights the different methods of plant-pathogen control, types of plant pathogens, their modus operandi and various biocontrol approaches employing a range of microorganisms and their byproducts. The study lays emphasis on the use of upcoming methodologies like microbiome management and engineering, phage cocktails, genetically modified biocontrol agents and microbial volatilome as available strategies to sustainable agricultural practices. More importantly, a critical analysis of the various methods enumerated in the paper indicates the need to amalgamate these techniques in order to improve the degree of biocontrol offered by them.