REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0194.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: AMF; Vegetable production; plant pests; plant diseases
Online: 13 October 2021 (10:30:06 CEST)
AMF (Arbuscular Mychorhizal Fungi) are very well known due to their importance in promoting growth and developments of plants especially vegetables. These fungi can be grown easily, stored and multiplied with simple means, also the application of these fungi is generally on the layer of the soil or near the roots in the inner layers of the soils. The growth of the amf fungi is very easy and they are highly adjustable to any soil and environmental conditions. In this review our main focus is on the use of amf for production of vegetables and also the effect of amf against insects and pests. The amf is known to reduce several symptoms caused by different insect pests and also plant diseases thereby promoting healthy growth of the plants. Also use of this amf will increase the uptake of nutrient from the soils through symbiotic relationships between plants and fungi. The uptake of important minerals which are drawn from deeper layers of soils is observed with the help pf amf. This study reveals the benefits of the use of amf under severe disease and pest incidences thereby known as an alternate for harmful chemical pesticides and fungicides.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0351.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Ash; ash dieback; disease management; Fraxinus excelsior; fungal plant pathogen; Hymenoscyphus fraxineus; mycology; plant pathology; plant pathogen; plant science; tree disease
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:50:43 CET)
Ash trees have considerable economic, cultural and environmental value on the island of Ireland. However, European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) is currently under threat from the invasive ascomycete pathogen Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. This pathogen is the causal agent of ash dieback disease, which was initially reported in Poland in 1992. Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has since spread across Europe and the first recorded case of the disease on the island of Ireland was in 2012 at a forestry plantation in Co. Leitrim. The pathogen is now present in all 26 counties in Ireland and 6 counties in Northern Ireland, and it is considered unfeasible to eradicate. The spread of ash dieback disease is reflected in recent policy changes, which focus on management rather than eradication strategies. Since the first formal description of H. fraxineus in 2006, considerable research efforts have been made by the international scientific community to understand the biology of the pathogen and to develop management strategies against it. This review provides an update of current knowledge of H. fraxineus biology and infection. We then explore examples of mitigation techniques that have been trialled in Europe, in order to identify strategies that are feasible for disease management at a local level on the island of Ireland. Finally, we outline five key avenues of research that have the potential to provide breakthroughs in methods to protect valuable F. excelsior resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0174.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Game theory; Plant behavioral ecology; Plant competition; Plant interaction mechanisms; Root foraging strategies; Root methods
Online: 14 February 2022 (11:29:43 CET)
Understanding how plants change their root foraging strategy in the presence of neighbors is of paramount importance for plant ecology and agriculture. The root tragedy of the common (RToC) is a plant behavior predicted by game theory models in which competing plants forage for soil resources inefficiently. The RToC is generally assumed to be induced by non-self root recognition, and researchers consider root overproliferation and reduced fitness with respect to a plant growing solo as the trace left by plants engaging in an RToC in experiments and model results. Herein, I first challenge both notions, and argue that the RToC is a suboptimal phenotypically plastic response of plants that is based in soil resource information exclusively. Second, I discuss how this new perspective carries important implications for the design of experiments investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying observable plant root responses. Finally, I discuss why placing the RToC theory in the context of more general root research is fundamental: The RToC represents a mechanistic foundation for understanding the belowground behavior of plants interacting with neighbors, and a spatially explicit approach to RToC may produce more comprehensive results.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0080.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: plant-parasitic nematodes; resistance; xenobiotic metabolism; ABC transporters; gene silencing
Online: 17 November 2020 (11:40:02 CET)
The molecular interaction between the nematode and the host plant cells is complex and sophisticated. Initial contact with the plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) triggers immune response in the host plant system which includes the release of toxic molecules. To put a bridle on this immune response, PPNs trigger pivotal cytoprotective mechanisms, such as antioxidant and detoxification pathways. Mechanisms of these pathways have been studied in PPNs and the specific genes involved have been targeted for gene silencing research in view of developing novel control measures. However, one of the important group of proteins involved in detoxification pathways known as ABC-transporters are not being studied until recently in PPNs. This opinion article focusses on the current knowledge and future prospects of ABC transporters in PPNs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0152.v1
Online: 13 September 2022 (02:33:37 CEST)
A synoptic review of plant disease epidemics and outbreaks was made using two complementary approaches. The first approach involved reviewing scientific literature published in 2021, in which quantitative data related to new plant disease epidemics or outbreaks had been obtained via surveys or similar methodologies. The second approach involved retrieving new pest presence records added to the CABI Distribution Database in 2021. The literature review for the first approach had two stages. Stage 1 aimed to identify publications on plant diseases caused by pathogen taxonomic groups and led to retrieval of 99 core articles describing studies in 62 categories (pathogen species or species complexes) across more than 40 host species in 6 continents. In Stage 2, the core articles were augmented with further articles providing more context and information for the pathogen species identified in Stage 1. When both sets of articles were combined, the pathogen species with more than 5 articles were: Bursephalenchus xylophilus, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, cassava mosaic viruses, citrus tristeza virus, Erwinia amylovora, Fusarium spp. complexes, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense, Magnaporthe oryzae, maize lethal necrosis co-infecting viruses, Meloidogyne spp. complexes, Pseudomonas syringae pvs, Puccinia striiformis f.sp tritici, Xylella fastidiosa, and Zymoseptoria tritici. The automated search of the CABI Distribution Database led to 617 new distribution records from 283 plant pathogens in 2021 and was followed by manual review of all pathogens with more than 4 new records, to identify confirmed first reports in a new location. A total of 15 pathogens was identified: apple hammerhead viroid, apple rubbery wood viruses, Aphelenchoides besseyi, Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, citrus tristeza virus, Colletotrichum siamense, cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus, Erwinia rhapontici, Erysiphe corylacearum, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense Tropical Race 4, Globodera rostochiensis, Nothophoma quercina, potato spindle tuber viroid, and tomato brown rugose fruit virus. Although 3 very important pathogens – Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus, citrus tristeza virus and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense – were represented in the results of both approaches, in general the two approaches revealed distinct sets of plant disease outbreaks and new records, with little overlap in the results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0270.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: MPDB2.0,; medicinal plant; medicinal plant database of Bangladesh; folk medicine
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:29:00 CET)
Medicinal plants are generally defined as rare herbals with potent medicinal activities that can be used as an alternative treatment for diseases. Recent studies exploring novel medicine developments, originating from folk-medicinal practices challenges this notion and suggests that both the circumference of the term medicinal plant and their potential application covers a substantially extensive verse than previously suggested. While medicinal plants are not limited to the borders of any country, Bangladesh and its south-east Asian neighbors do boast a huge collection of potent medicinal plants with considerable folk-medicine history compared to most other countries of the world. MPDB 2.0 is the continuation of MPDB 1.0, it serves as both a data repertoire for medicinal of Bangladesh and a user-friendly interface for researchers, health practitioners, drug developers, and students who wish to study the various medicinal & nutritive plants scattered around Bangladesh and the underlying phytochemicals contributing to their efficacy in folk medicine. While in developing MPDB 2.0 human diseases have been highly focused upon, the information in this database is not limited in its application for human diseases or diseases only, as many of the plants indexed here can serve in developing biofuel or bioremediation technologies or nutritive diets or cosmetics, etc. MPDB 2.0 comprises a collection of more than five hundred medicinal plants from Bangladesh along with a record of their corresponding scientific, family, and local names together with their utilized parts, information regarding ailments, active compounds, and PubMed ID of related publications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0108.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Plant phenotyping, Plant pixel classification, Colour space, , Gaussian mixture model, Earth mover distance, Variance ratio, Plant segmentation.
Online: 15 December 2017 (16:52:23 CET)
Segmentation of a region of interest is an important pre-processing step for many colour image analysis techniques. Similarly segmentation of plant in digital images is an important preprocessing step in phenotying plants by image analysis. In this paper we present an analytical study to statistically determine the suitability of colour space representation of an image to best detect plant pixels and separate them from background pixels. Our hypothesis is that the colour space representation in which the separation of the distributions representing plant pixels and background pixels is maximized would be the best for detection of plant pixels. The two classes of pixels are modelled as a Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In our GM modelling we don't make any prior assumption about the number of Gaussians in the model. Rather a constant bandwidth mean-shift filter is used to cluster the data and the number of clusters and hence the number of Gaussians is automatically determined. Here we have analysed following representative colour spaces like $RGB$, $rgb$, $HSV$, $Ycbcr$ and $CIE-Lab$. This is because these colour spaces represent several other similar colour spaces and also an exhaustive study of all the colour space will be too voluminous. We also analyse the colour space feature from the two-class variance ratio perspective and compare the results of our hypothesis with this metric. The dataset for this empirical study consist of 378 digital images of plants and their manual segmentation. Dataset consist of various species of plants (arabidopsi, tobacco, wheat, rye grass etc.) imaged under different lighting conditions, indoor and outdoor, controlled and uncontrolled background. In results we obtain better segmentation of the plants in $HSV$ colour space, which is supported by its Earth mover distance (EMD) on the GMM distribution of plant and background pixels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0520.v3
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: plant-plant interactions; stress gradient hypothesis; functional trait ecology; inter-plant distance; individual-based models; consumer-resource models
Online: 17 February 2022 (19:37:10 CET)
Ecologists use the net biotic interactions among plants to predict fundamental ecosystem features. Following this approach, ecologists have built a giant body of theory founded on observational evidence. However, due to the limitations that a phenomenological approach raises both in empirical and theoretical studies, an increasing number of scientists claim the need for a mechanistic understanding of plant interaction outcomes, and a few studies have taken such a mechanistic approach. In this synthesis, we propose a modeling framework to study the plant interaction mechanistically. We first establish a conceptual ground to frame plant-plant interactions, and then, we propose to formalize this research line theoretically developing a family of individual-based, spatially-explicit models in which biotic interactions are an emergent property mediated by the interaction between plants’ functional traits and the environment. These models allow researchers to evaluate the strength and sign of biotic interactions under different environmental scenarios and thus constitute a powerful tool to investigate the mechanisms underlying facilitation, species coexistence, or the formation of vegetation spatial patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0466.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Butyrylcholinesterase; plant cell suspension cultures; kifunensine; N-glycosylation; plant-made biopharmaceuticals
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:22:12 CEST)
The production and N-glycosylation of recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), a model highly glycosylated therapeutic protein, in a transgenic rice cell suspension culture treated with kifunensine, a strong α-mannosidase I inhibitor, was studied in a 5 L bioreactor. A media exchange was performed at day 7 of cultivation by removing spent sugar rich media (NB+S) and adding fresh sugar free (NB-S) media to induce the rice α-amylase 3D (RAmy3D) promoter to produce rice recombinant human BChE (rrBChE). Using a 1.25X concentrated sugar-free medium together with an 80% reduced working volume during the media exchange lead to a total active rrBChE production level of 79 ± 2 µg (g FW)-1 or 7.5 ± 0.4 mg L-1 in the presence of kifunensine, which is 1.5-times higher than our previous bioreactor runs using normal sugar free medium with no kifunensine treatment. Importantly, the amount of secreted active rrBChE in culture medium was enhanced in the presence of kifunensine, comprising 44% of the total active rrBChE at day 5 post-induction. Coomassie stained SDS-PAGE gel and Western blot analyses reveal different electrophoretic migration of purified rrBChE bands with and without kifunensine treatment, which is attributed to different N-glycoforms. N-Glycosylation analysis shows substantial increase of oligomannose glycans (Man5/6/7/8) in rrBChE treated with kifunensine compared to controls. However, mass transfer limitation of kifunensine is likely the major reason for incomplete inhibition of α-mannosidase I in this bioreactor study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0398.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: intellectual property; intellectual property protection; plant variety protection, plant breeders’ rights, essentially derived variety; utility patent; plant breeding; biotechnology.
Online: 17 May 2021 (17:03:30 CEST)
This review examines the categorization of Essentially Derived Varieties (EDV) introduced in the 1991 revision of the Convention of the Union internationale pour la protection des obtentions végétales (UPOV). Challenges in the implementation of the concept and progress made on a crop-by-crop basis to provide greater clarity and more efficient implementation are reviewed. The current approach to EDV remains valid provided i) clarity on thresholds can be achieved including through resource intensive research on an individual crop species basis and ii) that threshold clarity does not lead to perverse incentives to avoid detection of essential derivation. However, technological advances leading to new varieties resulting from the simultaneous introduction or change in expression of more than “a few” genes will so challenge the concept to require a new Convention. Revision could include deletion of the concept of essential derivation and revision on a crop-by-crop basis of the breeder exception. Countries that allow utility patents for individual plant varieties per se should consider removing that possibility unless plant breeders utilize those encouragements for risk taking and investment to broaden the germplasm base upon which the long-term sustainability of plant breeding resides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0378.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: FHB; plant metabolomic; plant-pathogen interaction; barley; wheat; Brachypodium distachyon; pathway enrichment
Online: 26 July 2022 (03:22:55 CEST)
Background: Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious fungal disease of crop plants due to substantial yield reduction and production of mycotoxins in the infected grains. The breeding progress in increasing resistance with maintaining a high yield is not possible without a thorough examination of the molecular basis of plant immunity responses; Methods: LC-MS based metabolomics approaches powered by three-way ANOVA and differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) selection, correlation network and functional enrichment were conducted on grains of resistant and susceptible to FHB genotypes of barley and wheat as well as model grass Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) still poorly known at metabolomic level; Results: We selected common and genotype-specific DAMs in response to F. culmorum inoculation. Immunological reaction at metabolomic level was strongly diversified between resistant and susceptible genotypes. DAMs common for all tested species from porphyrins, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids metabolic pathways were highly correlated and reflects conservativeness in FHB response in Poaceae family. Resistant related DAMs belonged to different structural classes including tryptophan derived metabolites, pirimidines, amino acids proline and serine as well as phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. Physiological response to F. culmorum of Bd was close to barley and wheat genotypes however, metabolomic changes were strongly diversified. Conclusions: Combined targeted and untargeted metabolomics provides comprehensive knowledge about significant elements of plant immunity with potential of being molecular biomarkers of enhance resistance to FHB in grass family. Thorough examination of Bd21 metabolome in juxtaposition with barley and wheat diversified genotypes facilitate their setting as model grass for plant-microbe interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0167.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: plant in vitro culture; plant extracts; gas chromatography; hexadecanoic acid, antifungal activity
Online: 3 November 2020 (15:26:36 CET)
Eysenhardtia platycarpa (Fabaceae) is a medicinal plant used in México and it lacks biotechnological studies for its use. The aim of this work was to establish a cell suspension cultures (CSC) of E. platycarpa, determine the phytochemical profile, and evaluate its antifungal activity. Friable callus and CSC were established with 2 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid plus 0.1 mg/L kinetin. The highest total phenolics of CSC was 15.6 mg GAE/g dry weight and the total flavonoids content ranged from 56.2 to 104.1 µg QE/g dry weight. CG‒MS analysis showed that the dichloromethane extracts of CSC, sapwood and heartwood have a high amount of hexadecanoic acid (22.3 ‒ 35.3 %) and steroids (13.5 ‒ 14.7%). Heartwood and sapwood defatted hexane extracts have the highest amount of stigmasterol (≈ 23.4%) and β-sitosterol (≈ 43%), and leaf extracts presented β-amyrin (16.3%). Methanolic leaves extracts showed mostly sugars and some polyols, mainly D-pinitol (74.3%). Dichloromethane and fatty hexane extracts of CSC exhibited the percentages inhibition higher for Sclerotium cepivorum with 71.5 and 62.0%, respectively. The maximum inhibition for Rhizoctonia solani was with fatty hexane extracts of the sapwood (51.4%). Our study suggest that CSC extracts could be used as a possible complementary alternative to synthetic fungicides.
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: global change; plant-herbivore interactions; plant-pathogen interactions; coexistence; antagonistic biotic interactions
Online: 23 July 2020 (10:36:26 CEST)
Indirect effects of global change via changing species interactions have been largely ignored in studies predicting global change impacts on ecosystems. Antagonistic biotic interactions, however, can strongly affect ecosystems and are likely to be affected by global change drivers themselves. We synthesize current knowledge on the impact of invertebrate herbivores and pathogens on plant productivity, diversity and community composition, and outline theory and expectations on how important global change drivers – nitrogen enrichment, climate change and elevated CO2, and plant and insect diversity loss, may affect enemy impact on plant communities. We illustrate that our ability to predict global change impact requires a holistic perspective, taking into account direct as well as indirect effects via the biotic component of ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0072.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Mediterranean flora; endemic plants; IUCN assessments; island biogeography; plant conservation; Tyrrhenian islands; biological forms; plant evolution and distribution; plant diversity
Online: 4 February 2022 (12:06:51 CET)
The vascular flora of Sardinia has been investigated for more than 250 years, with particular attention to the endemic component, due to their phylogeographic and conservation interest. However, continuous changes in the floristic composition through natural processes, anthropogenic drivers or modified taxonomical attributions require constant updating. We checked all available literature, web sources, field and unpublished data from authors and acknowledged external experts to compile an updated checklist of vascular plants endemic to Sardinia. Life and chorological forms, and the conservation status of the updated taxa list were reported. Sardinia hosts 340 taxa (15% of the total native flora) endemic to the Tyrrhenian islands and other limited continental territories; 195 of these are exclusive to Sardinia. Asteraceae (50 taxa) and Plumbaginaceae (42 taxa) are the most representative families, while the most frequent life forms are hemicryptophytes (118 taxa) and chamaephytes (105 taxa). The global conservation status, available for 200 taxa, indicates that most endemics are under the ‘Critically Endangered’ (25 taxa), ‘Endangered’ (31 taxa) or ‘Least Concern’ (90 taxa) IUCN categories. This research provides an updated basis for future biosystematics, taxonomic, biogeographical and ecological studies, and for supporting more integrated and efficient policy tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0472.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: grass endophyte; Festuca; symbiosis; microbiome; plant hormone; defense response; plant-fungal interactions; holobiont
Online: 25 November 2022 (07:08:50 CET)
Plants harbor a large diversity of endophytic microbes. Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) is a cool-season grass known for its symbiotic relationship to the systemic and vertically- via seeds - transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë uncinata but the effect of the endophyte on the microbial endophyte community and phytohormones is largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the endophytic bacterial and fungal communities in the leaves and roots, analyzed phytohormone concentrations and plant performance parameters in Epichloë-symbiotic (E+) and Epichloë-free (E-) individuals of two meadow fescue cultivars. The endophytic leaf microbial community differed between leaf and root tissues independent of endophyte symbiosis while the fungal community was different in leaves of Epichloë-symbiotic and Epichloë-free plants in both cultivars. At the same time, endophyte symbiosis decreased salicylic acid and increased auxin concentrations in leaves. Epichloë-symbiotic plants showed a higher biomass, chlorophyll content (SPAD) and higher seed mass at the end of the season. Our results demonstrate that Epichloë-symbiosis alters the leaf fungal microbiome, which coincides with changes in phytohormone concentrations, indicating that Epichloë endophytes affect both, plant immune responses and other fungal endophytes. Whether the effect of Epichloë endophytes on other fungal endophytes is connected to changes in the phytohormone concentrations remains to be elucidated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0142.v3
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Plant Diseases; Modern Agriculture; Plant Health; AWS DeepLens; SageMaker; Machine Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 14 September 2020 (06:24:16 CEST)
In the Agriculture sector, control of plant leaf diseases is crucial as it influences the quality and production of plant species with an impact on the economy of any country. Therefore, automated identification and classification of plant leaf disease at an early stage is essential to reduce economic loss and to conserve the specific species. Previously, to detect and classify plant leaf disease, various Machine Learning models have been proposed; however, they lack usability due to hardware incompatibility, limited scalability and inefficiency in practical usage. Our proposed DeepLens Classification and Detection Model (DCDM) approach deal with such limitations by introducing automated detection and classification of the leaf diseases in fruits (apple, grapes, peach and strawberry) and vegetables (potato and tomato) via scalable transfer learning on A.W.S. SageMaker and importing it on AWS DeepLens for real-time practical usability. Cloud integration provides scalability and ubiquitous access to our approach. Our experiments on extensive image data set of healthy and unhealthy leaves of fruits and vegetables showed an accuracy of 98.78% with a real-time diagnosis of plant leaves diseases. We used forty thousand images for the training of deep learning model and then evaluated it on ten thousand images. The process of testing an image for disease diagnosis and classification using AWS DeepLens on average took 0.349s, providing disease information to the user in less than a second.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0277.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: revegetation; forest, springs preservation; Arjuna mount; plant species; nursery; fertilization; planting; plant care
Online: 27 August 2019 (04:34:25 CEST)
The research objectives was to determine the plants vegetation profile in forest revegetation and Mount Arjuna springs. The method used was descriptive method. While based on the techniques and tools used to research, the author uses the survey method to obtain facts that occur in the research area, namely in the area around the springs of Arjuna mount, Pasuruan, East Java, Indonesia. Data obtained in the field are then processed and analyzed using GIS, ArcView 3.3 and Google Earth programs. The results of the study explain the profile of plant vegetation, namely plant stratification, bird wealth, taxonomic wealth and plant density have a significant effect on forest revegetation and springs in Arjuna mount. The forest vegetation profile has a positive and significant effect on the preservation of springs. The better the profile of forest vegetation, the preservation of springs will be better, and vice versa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0714.v1
Online: 31 May 2021 (08:32:16 CEST)
Plant sterols are compounds with multiple biological functions, mainly cholesterol-reducing. There are no comprehensive databases on plant sterols, which makes it difficult to estimate their intake in the Polish population. In this study we used international food databases, supplemented by scientific data from the literature, to create a database on plant sterols in the food consumed in Poland to assess the size and sources of dietary plant sterols in the adult population of Poland. The literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar to identify possible sources of published food composition data for plant sterols. The study group consisted of 5690 participants of the WOBASZ II survey. We identified 361 dietary sources of plant sterols based on the consumption of foods and dishes reported by participants. Cereals and fats provided 61% of the total plant sterols, and together with vegetables and fruits, this totaled 80%. Total plant sterol intake for the Polish population was 282.97 mg/day, and divided by men and women was 320.77 and 252.19 mg/day, respectively. Canola oil provided the most plant sterols at 16.92%, followed by white bread at 16.65% and soft margarine at 8.33%. This study found that the database of plant sterols facilitates the calculation of plant sterols in the typical Polish diet, and the results are comparable to those of other studies, despite different methodologies of nutritional assessment and slightly different databases. The main sources of dietary plant sterols did not differ from the data for other populations. This study confirmed the observations of other research that women's diets may have a higher plant sterol density compared to men.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0035.v3
Online: 24 October 2019 (11:04:57 CEST)
EuAP2 genes are famous for their role in flower development. A legacy of the founding member of this subfamily of transcription factor, whose mutants lacked petals in Arabidopsis. However, studies of other euAP2 genes in several species have accumulated evidence highlighting the diverse roles of euAP2 genes in other aspects of plant development. Here, we emphasize other developmental roles of euAP2 genes in various species and suggest a shift from regarding euAP2 genes as just flowering genes to consider the global role they may be playing in plant development. We hypothesize that their almost universal expression profile and pleiotropic effects of their mutation suggest their involvement in fundamental plant development processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0089.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Signalling, rhizosphere microbiome, plant hormones
Online: 7 March 2019 (11:58:15 CET)
Signalling is a strongly influenced area trending to be applied in almost every focus of biological sciences. The part of signalling or communication from cellular level to a whole organism including plant as well as animal drags a vast diversity of wealthy structural compounds. There is immense demand for new bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, agro and food industries. Plant-associated microbes present an attractive and promising source. The concept of the microbiome and the significance it has to host health, diseases state, and the role of immune have been the hub of research that has led to advances in our understanding of the massive power of the small unseen majority of the microbes (Peterson Andrew H., 2013). Before we say about microbiome—plant relation, it is important to first understand the working concept of the microbiome. Every organism on earth counts on their neighbours to sustain life. Microbiome can be considered a community of microorgasims who can prove to be loveable and hateful. The analysis of microbiome structure and function was protagonise in studies of human hosts and has been extensively documented as essential to genetic and functional capacity attributed to the host, comprehending aspects of metabolism and physiology. Plants are crowded with microbial organisms, counting those that colonize internal tissues, also those that adhere to external surfaces. The wide diversity of microorganisms in the soil rhizosphere is collectively plant–soil-associated microbes cover the plant microbiome. The intricate involvement of microbiome serves to plant health and as a tank of additional genes that plants can access when needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0057.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: tomato cultivar; allelopathy; competitive ability; plant-plant interactions; weed suppression; sustainable agriculture; weed management; vegetable
Online: 3 September 2021 (10:33:20 CEST)
The present study aims to identify tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars with weed-suppressive ability against target weed species in the tomato growing season. A greenhouse study was conducted with 17 tomato cultivars and target weeds Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.). Tomato plants and weed species were grown in the same pot. The height, chlorophyll, and dry weight biomass of the weeds were measured 28 days after sowing. The largest effect of tomato interference was on Palmer amaranth. Cultivar 15 reduced Palmer amaranth height, chlorophyll, and biomass by 58, 28, and 83%, respectively. Chlorophyll percentage of yellow nutsedge seedlings was suppressed by 15% by cultivar 64, whereas 13% of its height was reduced by cultivar 20. Cultivar 15 reduced biomass of yellow nutsedge by 40%. The percentage of chlorophyll of large crabgrass was reduced by 22% with cultivar 5, whereas the height and biomass were reduced by 35 and 44% with cultivars 38 and 63, respectively. Factoring all parameters evaluated, cultivars 38, 33, and 7 were most suppressive against the problematic weed species in tomato.
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Plant water transport, plant long-distance water transport, sorption hypothesis, cohesion theory, cohesion-tension theory
Online: 12 April 2019 (20:55:26 CEST)
In the case of vascular plants the process of water loss by leafs and water absorption by the root is well known. There is agreement on the passive nature of long-distance moisture movement in the dead cells of the xylem; however, controversy exists focusing on the long-distance water transport principle. Hales (1726) founded a view of bulk flow based on water suction after experiments with cut twigs. The previous doctrine of long-distance water transport within vessel elements and tracheid of the xylem of intact plants – the relevant cohesion theory in text books – was developed mainly by Boehm (1893), Renner (1911) and Dixon (1914) with plant artefacts. Water movement according to this theory is based on an assumed hydrodynamic bulk fluid flow in xylem in continuous water columns (free of water vapour space), under tension, according to the law of Poiseuille (see e.g. Dixon 1914). Physically hydrodynamics is part of fluid mechanics, as a result Poiseuille’s law is usually valid only for hydrodynamic bulk flow in ideal capillaries (Sutera & Skalak, 1993). Besides the basic requirement for transport, according to cohesion theory, the existence of ideal capillaries is not compatible with either: “Because vessel elements and tracheid do not stand as ideal capillaries. …” (Bresinsky et al. 2008, translated from German). Unlike ideal capillaries, the walls of vessel elements and tracheid interact with the transported water. These walls are able to function as a source or as a sink for the transported water because of interaction with the cell walls. With the interaction, vessel elements and tracheid, part of the xylem, can shrink and swell, unlike ideal capillaries. Because the xylem (in woody plants part of the wood) is inconsistent with the basic law of fluid flow, the equation of mass balance (Zimmermann et al. 2004) and cohesion theory are not strictly followed.Many plant physiologists view the cohesion theory as appropriate, however, this theory remains controversial, i.e. by Eisenhut (1988), Laschimke (1990) and Hahn (1993). Nultsch (1996) gives doubts referring to the present doctrine of plant water transport. Zimmermann et al. (2004) reject the cohesion theory and conclude: “... that the arguments of the proponents of the Cohesion Theory are completely misleading” (Zimmermann et al. 2004). Hence cohesion theory can be treated as inapplicable and the question arises: how does water transport in fact function? In the following, it is gone into in more detail. A sorption hypothesis of actual water transport, based on empirical fact, shall be addressed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0135.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: rice; endophyte; sustainable agriculture; plant microbiome; simplified bacterial community; syncom; taxonomic profiling; core plant microbiome
Online: 21 November 2017 (03:33:00 CET)
Rice is currently the most important food crop in the world and we are only just beginning to study the bacterial associated microbiome. It is of importance to perform screenings of the core rice microbiota and also to develop new plant-microbe models and simplified communities for increasing our understanding about the formation and function of its microbiome. In order to begin to address this aspect, we have performed the isolation of bacterial strains from the endorhizosphere of two rice cultivars from Venezuela. The validation of plant-growth promoting bacterial activities in vitro has led us to select and characterize 15 isolates for in planta studies such as germination test, endophytism ability and plant growth promotion. Consequently, a set of 10 isolates was selected for the set-up of an endophytic consortium as a simplified model of the natural rice bacterial endomicrobiota. Upon inoculation, the colonization and abundance of each strain within the rice roots was tracked by a culture-independent technique in gnotobiotic conditions in a 30 days period. Four strains belonging to Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Delftia genera have shown a promising capacity for colonizing and coexistence in root tissues. On the other hand, a bacterial community taxonomic profiling of the rhizosphere and the endorhizosphere of both cultivars were obtained and are discussed. This study is part of a growing body of research on core crops microbiome and simplified microbiomes, which strengthens the formation process of the endophytic community leading to a better understanding of the rice microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0031.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: rice; endophyte; sustainable agriculture; plant microbiome; simplified bacterial community; syncomm; taxonomic profiling; core plant microbiome
Online: 8 September 2017 (14:02:56 CEST)
Rice is currently the most important food crop in the world and we are only just beginning to study the bacterial associated microbiome. It is of importance to perform screenings of the core rice microbiota and also to develop new plant-microbe models and simplified communities for increasing our understanding about the formation and function of its microbiome. In order to begin to address this aspect, we have performed the isolation of hundreds bacterial isolates obtained from endorhizosphere of two rice cultivars from Venezuela. The validation of plant-growth promoting bacterial activities in vitro has led us to select and characterize 15 isolates for in planta studies such as germination test, endophytism ability and plant growth promotion. Consequently, a set of 10 isolates was selected for the set-up of an endophytic consortium as a simplified model of the natural rice bacterial endomicrobiota. Upon inoculation, the colonization and abundance of each strain within the rice roots was tracked by a culture-independent technique in gnotobiotic conditions in a 30 days period. Four strains belonging to Pseudomonas, Agrobacterium and Delftia genera have shown a promising capacity for colonizing and coexistence in root tissues. On the other hand, a bacterial community taxonomic profiling of the rhizosphere and the endorhizosphere of both cultivars were obtained and are discussed. This study is part of a growing body of research on core crops microbiome and simplified microbiomes, which strengthens the formation process of the endophytic community leading to a better understanding of the rice microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0333.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Nanotechnology; Plant Nutrition; Nano Urea; Potato
Online: 19 December 2022 (09:14:27 CET)
In today’s world, it is the need of the hour to adopt new technology to sustain the production of the future. Nanotechnology is gaining popularity for its efficiency in various applied fields of science. In agriculture, nanomaterials have a huge impact on the efficiency of fertilizers pesticides, etc. As it requires very fewer quantities and has a negligible residual effect the environment is safe with the innovation of Nano fertilizer. Keeping this view into account an experimental Trial at a farmer’s field was carried out at Berui village in the Hooghly District of West Bengal during the winter (rabi) season of 2019 – 20 under the supervision of Berui Cooperative, KVK-Hooghly, BCKV, and IFFCO with nano-Urea, nano-Zn and nano-Cu using RBD design with 10 treatments and 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that the highest tuber yield was obtained in T-7 (50% N+100% P & K+ 2 spray of nano-Urea), and that was followed by T-10 (50% N + 100% P & K + 50% Zn + 1 spray each of Nano-Urea, Zn and Cu) and T-8 (100% N-P-K + 50% Zn + 2 spray of Nano-Zn). The performance of nano fertilizers, Nano- Urea, was quite promising and economically viable as compared to the 100% recommended dose with commercial fertilizers (RDF).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0375.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: melanin; extraction; isolation; animal; plant; microbes
Online: 27 May 2022 (09:07:30 CEST)
Melanins are phenolic biopolymers synthesised by most of the living organism mainly for photoprotection or surviving in harsh conditions. Melanin is localised in different areas or complexed with different other biomolecules when observed from animals to microbes. This makes the melanin extraction procedure different in animal, plant and microbial tissues. Basically, the alkali-acid extraction is used in most protocols of which slight variations are there depending on the tissue used. This review will try to compile melanin extraction procedures from different cells and tissues ranging from animals to bacteria.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0205.v2
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:37:29 CET)
There are many medicinal plants that have various medicinal properties in their different parts. The medicinal plants are major backbone of pharmaceutical industries. In this article we compare the antioxidants properties from various plants parts (root, stem, leaf, flower and bark) of the most important medicinal plant, Justicia adhatoda L. Various plant parts showed the good amount of antioxidant properties. These results enhance the medicinal properties of this plant due to the presence of good amount of antioxidants; among all the plant parts leaves and flowers showed maximum natural antioxidants, hence the study could be saying that this plant has good efficacy of antioxidants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0168.v1
Online: 10 May 2020 (14:48:23 CEST)
Trees provide key ecosystem services, but the health and sustainability of these plants is under increasing biotic and abiotic threat, including from the growing incidences of non-native invasive plant pests (including pathogens). The island of Ireland (Ireland and Northern Ireland) is generally accepted to have a high plant health status, in part due to its island status and because of the national and international regulations aimed at protecting plant health. To establish a baseline of the current pest threats to tree health for the island of Ireland, the literature and unpublished sources were reviewed to produce a dataset of pests of trees on the island of Ireland. The dataset contains 396 records of pests of trees on the island of Ireland, the majority of pests being arthropods and fungi, and indicating potentially more than 44 non-native pest introductions. The reliability of many (378) of the records was judged to be high, therefore the dataset provides a robust assessment of the state of pests of trees recorded on the island of Ireland. We analyse this dataset and review the history of plant pest invasions, including (i) discussion on notable native and non-native pests of trees, (ii) pest interceptions at borders and (iii) pests and climate change. The dataset establishes an important baseline for the knowledge of plant pests on the island of Ireland, and will be a valuable resource for future plant health research and policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0015.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant; sesquiterpenes; biosynthesis; graph grammars; database;
Online: 1 March 2019 (14:30:16 CET)
Plants produce a diverse portfolio of sesquiterpenes that are important in their response to herbivores and the interaction with other plants. Their biosynthesis from farnesyl diphosphate depends on the sesquiterpene synthases. Here, we investigate to what extent metabolic pathways can be reconstructed just from knowledge of the final product and the reaction mechanisms catalyzed by sesquiterpene synthases. We use the software package MedØlDatschgerl (MØD) to generate chemical networks and elucidate pathways contained in them. As examples, we successfully consider the reachability of the important plant sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and β-farnesene. We also introduce a graph database to integrate simulation results with experimental biological evidence for selected predicted sesquiterpenes biosynthesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0371.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: biosynthesis; nanoparticles; plant extracts; Citrus reticulata
Online: 16 November 2018 (04:33:22 CET)
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles for delivery of therapeutic agents has introduced new opportunities in upgrading medical treatment. Plant extracts contains different capping and reducing agents naturally thus provided simpler and less expensive way to synthesize AgNPs. In present work, Citrus reticulata mediated stabilised AgNPs was synthesized. Optimum concentration of reactants was achieved by varying the amount of extracts (1-11 ml) and AgNO3 concentration (0.5-3 mM). Surface Plasmon peak of Citrus reticulata mediated AgNPs was determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer and functional groups of capping agents were examined by FTIR analysis. Surface Plasmon peaks of Citrus reticulata fresh peel, seed, and juice extracts were observed at 420 nm. But in dry peel extract, absorption peak of AgNPs appeared at 410 nm. Colour of different extracts was changed after the reduction of AgNO3 to AgNPs by reducing agents present in the extracts. FTIR analysis showed band peaks at 3316 cm-1 correspond to amide (N-H and O-H) stretching vibrations while alkanes peaks was observed at 1638 cm-1 which showed C=C stretching aromatic ring (flavonoids). Furthermore, Citrus reticulata fresh peel mediated AgNPs showed impressive stability up-to 112 days. In conclusion, Citrus reticulata fresh peel extract provided an excellent source of reducing agents for synthesizing stabilized AgNPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0049.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: plant extracts; antifungal activity; fungal pathogens
Online: 13 October 2016 (11:50:21 CEST)
Abstract Plant fungal pathogens are frequently found as one of limiting factors for crop production. More than 10,000 species of fungi can cause disease in plants. To control the diseases, many farmers are still rely on the use of chemical fungicides, however most synthetic fungicides can cause acute toxicity, and some cause chronic toxicity as well. Thus, an appropriate technological improvement towards a more effective use of natural resources is required in agriculture to develop environmentally friendly sustainable farming system. This paper highlights the potential of extracts of tropical plants as antifungal agent to control plant fungal diseases. Information and data presented in this paper are mainly derived from selected and related references that previously published in the scientific journals. Many higher plants of tropical origin with fungicidal activities and their potential for fungal disease control of agricultural crops have been studied, however most of the studies have been done under in vitro condition. Some plant extracts showed strong antifungal activities on in vitro as well as in vivo tests, but some plant extracts showed significant antifungal activities on in vitro test, but did not obvious on in vivo tests. A great variation in antifungal activities were shown by plants extracts of different species and plant parts, in one hand, and on the other hand, variation was also observed on the responses of different fungal species to the same plant extract. Since the purpose of the use of plant extract is to control plant fungal diseases, the field trial is needed to ensure the stability of efficacy of certain plant extract. In addition, isolation and identification of active substances in the extracts is needed to assess possible mode of action and side effect of their use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0026.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: rhizosphere; phyllosphere; endophyte; plant microbiome; plant mycobiome; rare microbiome; fungi; bacteria; microbes; soil microbiology; inoculum; microbial ecology
Online: 1 August 2022 (15:22:30 CEST)
A plant’s health and productivity is influenced by its associated microbes. Although the common microbiome is often thought to be the most influential, significant numbers of rare or uncommon microbes (eg. specialized endosymbionts) may also play an important role in the health and productivity of certain plants in certain environments. To help identify rare/specialized bacteria and fungi in the most important angiosperm plants, we contrasted microbiomes of the shoots, roots and rhizospheres of Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, maize, wheat, sugarcane, rice, tomato, coffee, common bean, cassava, soybean, switchgrass, sunflower, Brachiaria, barley, sorghum, and pea. Plants were grown inside sealed jars on sterile sand or field soil. About 95% and 86% of fungal and bacterial diversity inside plants was uncommon, however judging by read abundance, up to half of the mycobiome consists of uncommon fungal cells, while less than 11% of bacterial endophytes are rare. Uncommon seed transmitted microbiomes consisted mostly of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes that most heavily colonized shoots, to a lesser extent roots and least of all rhizospheres. Soil served as a more diverse source of rare microbes than seeds, replacing or excluding the majority of the uncommon seed transmitted microbiome. With the rarest microbes, their colonization pattern could either be the result of stringent biotic filtering by most plants, or uneven/stochastic inoculum distribution in seeds or soil. Several strong plant-microbe associations were observed such as seed transmission to shoots, roots and/or rhizospheres of Sarocladium zeae (maize), Penicillium (pea and Phaseolus), and Curvularia (sugarcane), while robust bacterial colonization from cassava field soil occurred with the cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya into Arabidopsis and Panicum roots, and Streptomyces into cassava roots. Some abundant microbes such as Sakaguchia in rice shoots or Vermispora in Arabidopsis roots appeared in no other samples, suggesting they were infrequent, stochastically deposited propagules from either soil or seed (impossible to know based on the available data). Future experiments with culturing and cross inoculation of these microbes between plants may help us better understand host preferences and their role in plant productivity, perhaps leading to their use in crop microbiome engineering and enhancement of agricultural production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0398.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Preparation of Off-Site Consequence Analyses; Chemicals Control Act; Risk Assessment; Paint Manufacturing Plant; Plating Industry Plant
Online: 23 September 2021 (10:18:56 CEST)
: Chemical accidents can occur anywhere. The need for chemical management in Korea was realized following the 2012 Gumi hydrofluoric acid accident in 2012. The Chemicals Control Act was enacted in 2015. This system evaluates the risks (high, medium, low) and consequent safety management at all plants that handle hazardous chemical substances. However, the system was criticized as excessive when most plants were designated high-risk without considering their size. Thus, laboratories and hospitals handling very small quantities were subject to regulation. Accordingly, in 2021 Korea revised the system to include off-site consequence analyses and a Korean-style risk analysis. Plants handling very small quantities, such as laboratories and hospitals, were exempt from regulation. In this study, plating and paint manufacturing companies, which were classified as high-risk in the previous system, even though they were medium-size business plants, were re-evaluated as low-risk plants. In the Korean-style risk analysis, it is possible to see at a glance what is lacking in the plants, such as cooperation between local residents and local governments and the construction of safety facilities according to the type of accident scenario. The revised system is a reasonable regulation for medium business plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0463.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: disturbance; drylands; photovoltaic; plant community; plant traits; rare species; renewable energy; seed traits; seed banks; solar energy
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:55:44 CEST)
Seed bank survival underpins plant population persistence but studies on seed bank trait-environment interactions are few. Changes in environmental conditions relevant to seed banks occur in desert ecosystems owing to solar energy development. We developed a conceptual model of seed bank survival to complement methodologies using in-situ seed bank packets. Using this framework, we quantified the seed bank survival of two closely related annual desert plant species, one rare (Eriophyllum mohavense) and one common (Eriophyllum wallacei) and the seed bank-environment interactions of these two species in the Mojave Desert within a system that emulates microhabitat variation associated with solar energy development. We tracked 4,860 seeds buried across 540 seed packets and found, averaged across both species, that seed bank survival was 21% and 6% for the first and second growing seasons, respectively. After two growing seasons, the rare annual had a significantly greater seed bank survival (10%) than the common annual (2%). Seed bank survival, across both species, was significantly greater in Shade (10%) microhabitats compared to Runoff (5%) microhabitats and Control microhabitats (3%). Our study confers insight into this early life-stage across rare and common congeners and their environmental interactions using a novel conceptual framework for seed bank survival.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0198.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: plant vegetation profile; forest rehabilitation; vegetation stratification; bird wealth; taxonomic wealth; plant density; springs in Arjuna mount
Online: 20 August 2019 (04:02:08 CEST)
The research objectives was to determine the plants vegetation profile in forest revegetation and Mount Arjuna springs. The method used was descriptive method. While based on the techniques and tools used to research, the author uses the survey method to obtain facts that occur in the research area, namely in the area around the springs of Arjuna mount, Pasuruan, East Java, Indonesia. Data obtained in the field are then processed and analyzed using GIS, ArcView 3.3 and Google Earth programs. The results of the study explain the profile of plant vegetation, namely plant stratification, bird wealth, taxonomic wealth and plant density have a significant effect on forest revegetation and springs in Arjuna mount. The forest vegetation profile has a positive and significant effect on the preservation of springs. The better the profile of forest vegetation, the preservation of springs will be better, and vice versa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0222.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: plant movement; circumnutation; machine learning; classification; kinematics
Online: 12 January 2023 (09:34:31 CET)
Climbing plants require an external support to grow vertically and enhance light acquisition. Climbers that find a suitable support have greater performance and fitness than those that remain prostrate. Support search is characterized by oscillatory movements (i.e., circumnutation), in which plants rotate around a central axis during their growth. Numerous studies have elucidated the mechanistic details of circumnutation, but how this phenomenon is controlled remains unclear. Here, we use supervised machine learning algorithms to generate models that learn to discriminate between the presence/absence of a support in the environment. Results indicate that there is a difference in the pattern of circumnutation, depending on the presence of a support, that can be learned and classified rather accurately. We also identify distinctive kinematic features that contribute to the classification tasks. Overall, machine learning approaches appear to be powerful tools for understanding the movement of plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0081.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Phytocytokines; Induced resistance; Priming; Plant Immunity; Peptides
Online: 4 January 2023 (12:07:11 CET)
The plant immunity system is more and more revisited and new elements and roles are attributed to participate in the response to biotic stress. New terminology is also applied trying to identify different players in the whole scenario of immunity: Phytocytokines are one of those elements that are gaining more attention due the characteristics of processing and perception, and showing they are part of a big family of compounds that can amplify the immune response. This review aims to highlight the last findings about the role of phytocytokines in the whole immune response on biotic stress, including basal and adaptive immunity, and to expose the complexity in their action in plant perception and signaling events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0210.v1
Online: 8 March 2021 (10:56:37 CET)
Vascular pathogens are the causal agents of main diseases threatening the health and growth of olive crops worldwide. The use of endophytic microorganisms represents a challenging and promising strategy for management of vascular diseases in olive. Although current research has been focused on analyzing the structure and diversity of the endophytic microbial communities inhabiting the olive xylem, the characterization of this ecological niche has been overlooked and to date remain unexplored, despite that the characterization of the xylem sap composition is essential to unravel the nutritional requirements of xylem-limited microorganisms. In this study, branches from plantlets and adult olive trees of cultivars ‘Picual’ and ‘Arbequina' were selected to characterize the chemical composition of olive xylem sap extracted using a Scholander pressure chamber. Metabolome and ionome analyses of xylem sap were performed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based and by inductively coupled plasma with optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. Olive xylem sap metabolites included a higher relative percentage of sugars (54.35%), followed by alcohols (28.85%), amino acids (8.01%), organic acids (7.68%) and osmolytes (1.12%). Within each of these groups, the main metabolites in the olive xylem sap were mannitol, ethanol, glutamine, acetate and trigonelline, whereas K and Cl- were the main element and inorganic anion, respectively. Metabolomic profile varied when comparing olive plant age and genotype. The levels of glucose, fructose, sucrose and mannitol, choline, B and PO43 were significantly higher in adult trees than in plantlets for both olive genotypes, whereas NO3- and Rb content showed the opposite behavior. On the other hand, levels of aspartate, phenylalanine and Na were significantly higher in ‘Picual’ than in ‘Arbequina’ whereas Fe showed the opposite behavior but only for adult trees. Non-supervised hierarchical clustering analysis separated xylem sap composition firstly according to the plant age and then by the olive cultivar. Supervised PLS-DA analysis revealed that B, ethanol, Fe, Fructose, glucose, mannitol, sucrose and Sr were the most significative compounds discriminating adult trees from plantlets, whereas asparagine, aspartate, glutamate and phenylalanine or aspartate, arginine, ethanol and Sr were the most contributory compounds in the discrimination of both olive genotypes for adult trees or plantlets, respectively. Knowledge of the chemical composition of xylem sap will lead to a better understanding of the complex nutritional requirements of olive xylem-inhabiting microorganisms, including its vascular pathogens, and would allow the design of artificial growing media to improve culturing the olive microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0545.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: LCIA; plant protection; compost; sustainable greenhouse production
Online: 22 December 2020 (09:32:12 CET)
Italian floriculture is facing structural changes. Possible options to maintain competitiveness of the involved companies include promotion of added values, from local productions to environmental sustainability. To quantify value and benefits of cleaner production processes and choices, a holistic view is necessary, and could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Previous studies on ornamental products generally focused on data from one company or a small sample. The aim of this study was a gate-to-gate life cycle assessment of two ornamental species (Cyclamen persicum Mill. and Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey) using data from a sample of 20 companies belonging to a floriculture district in Treviso, Veneto region. We also assessed the potential benefits for the environmental impact of the selected species of alternative management choices regarding plant protection and reuse of composted waste biomass. Life cycle impact assessment showed the higher impact scores for the zonal geranium, mainly as a consequence of greenhouse heating with fossil fuels. This factor, along with higher uniformity of production practices and technological level of equipment, translated in lower variability observed in comparison with cyclamen production, which shows a wider results range, in particular for eutrophication, acidification and human toxicity potentials. The application of integrated pest management had significant benefits in terms of impact reduction for acidification and human toxicity of cyclamen, while reduced use of mineral nutrients through compost amendment of growing media resulted in a reduced eutrophication potential. The achievable benefits for zonal geranium were not observable because of the dominant contribution of energy inputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0444.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: blueberry; crop modeling; plant nutrition; machine learning
Online: 19 September 2020 (03:27:32 CEST)
Nutrient management of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) depends on several yield-limiting features. Machine learning models can process such yield-impacting variables to predict berry yield. We investigated the effects of local variables on yields and nutrient management of lowbush blueberry. We collected 1504 observations from N-P-K fertilizer trials conducted in Quebec, Canada. Meteorological indices at various phenological stages showed the greatest impact on yield. High mean temperature at flower bud opening and after fruit maturation, and total precipitation at flowering showed positive effects. Low mean temperature and low total precipitation before bud opening, at flowering, and by fruit maturity, as well as number of freezing days (< -5ºC) before flower bud opening, showed negative effects. Soil fertility variables, leaf nutrient compositions and N-P-K fertilization showed smaller effects. Gaussian processes predicted berry yields from historical weather data, soil analysis, fertilizer dosage, and leaf nutrients with a root-mean-square-error of 1447 kg ha-1 on the testing data set. An in-house Markov chain algorithm optimized yields modelled with Gaussian processes from leaf nutrient composition, soil test value, and fertilizer dosage conditioned to specified historical weather features. We propose to use conditioned machine learning models to manage nutrients of lowbush blueberry at local scale.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0086.v1
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:31:34 CEST)
Space missions have always assumed that the risk of spacecraft malfunction far outweighs the risk of human system failure. This assumption breaks down for longer duration exploration missions and exposes vulnerabilities in space medical system. Space agencies can no longer buy down the majority of human system risk through the crew member selection process and emergency re-supply or evacuation. No mature medical solutions exist to close the risk gap. With recent advances in biotechnology, there is promise in augmenting a space pharmacy with a biologically-based space foundry for on-demand manufacturing of high-value medical products. Here we review the challenges and opportunities of molecular pharming, the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, as the basis of a space medical foundry to close the risk gap in current space medical systems. Plants have long been considered an important life support object in space and can now also be viewed as programmable factories in space. Advances in molecular pharming-based space foundries will have widespread application in promoting simple and accessible pharmaceutical manufacturing on Earth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0090.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: biostimulant; plant defence; mushrooms; antioxidant; septoriosis; wheat
Online: 5 March 2020 (12:08:56 CET)
The Septoria Leaf Blotch Complex (SLBC), caused by the two ascomycetes Zymoseptoria tritici and Parastagonospora nodorum, can reduce global yearly yield of wheat by up to 50%. In the last decade in Italy, SLBC incidence has increased; notably, durum wheat has proven to be more susceptible than common wheat. Field fungicide treatment can efficiently control these pathogens, but it leads to the emergence of resistant strains and adversely affects human and animal health, and the environment. Our previous studies indicated that active compounds produced by Trametes versicolor can restrict the growth of mycotoxigenic fungi and the biosynthesis of their secondary metabolites (e.g. mycotoxins). Specifically, we identified Tramesan: a 23 KDa -heteropolysaccharide secreted by T. versicolor that acts as a pro-antioxidant molecule in animal cells, fungi, and plants. Foliar-spraying of Tramesan (3.3 µM) in SLBC-susceptible varieties of durum significantly diminished symptoms of Stagonospora Nodorum Blotch (SNB) and Septoria Tritici Blotch (STB) by 75% and 65%, respectively. Tests were conducted under controlled conditions as well as in field. We show that Tramesan elicits wheat defence against SNB and STB augmenting the synthesis of defence-related hormones, notably JA and SA, that in turn switch on the expression of markers of defence (PR1, PR4 inter alia). In field experiments, yield of durum wheat plants treated with Tramesan was similar to that of untreated ones. The results suggest the use of Tramesan for protecting durum wheat against SLBC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0215.v4
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: coevolution; herbivory; host-plant specialization; phylogeny; speciation
Online: 17 October 2019 (10:12:05 CEST)
During the last two decades, ecological speciation has been a major research theme in evolutionary biology. Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation between populations evolves as a result of niche differentiation. Phytophagous insects represent model systems for the study of this evolutionary process. The host-plants on which these insects feed and often spend parts of their life cycle constitute ideal agents of divergent selection for these organisms. Adaptation to feeding on different host-plant species can potentially lead to ecological specialization of populations and subsequent speciation. This process is thought to have given birth to the astonishing diversity of phytophagous insects and is often put forward in macroevolutionary scenarios of insect diversification. Consequently, numerous phylogenetic studies on phytophagous insects have aimed at testing whether speciation driven by host-plant adaptation is the main pathway for the diversification of the groups under investigation. The increasing availability of comprehensive and well-resolved phylogenies and the recent developments in phylogenetic comparative methods are offering an unprecedented opportunity to test hypotheses on insect diversification at a macroevolutionary scale, in a robust phylogenetic framework. Our purpose here is to review the contribution of phylogenetic analyses to investigate the importance of plant-mediated speciation in the diversification of phytophagous insects and to present suggestions for future developments in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0258.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: power quality; wind power plant; voltage fluctuations
Online: 21 May 2019 (11:19:57 CEST)
Integration of wind energy into the grid faces a great challenge regarding power quality. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)~61400-21 standard defines the electrical characteristics that need to be assessed in a Wind Turbine (WT), as well as the procedure to measure the disturbances produced by the WT. One of the parameters to be assessed are voltage fluctuations or flicker. To estimate the flicker emission of a Wind Power Plant (WPP), the standard establishes that a quadratic exponent should be used in the summation of the flicker emission of each WT. This exponent was selected based on studies carried out in WPPs with type I and II WTs. Advances in wind turbines technology have reduced their flicker emission, mainly thaks to the implementation of power electronics for the partial or total management of the power injected into the grid. This work is based on measurements from a WPP with 16 type III WTs. The flicker emission of a single WT and of the WPP were calculated. Low flicker emission values at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) of the WPP were obtained. The flicker estimation at the PCC, based on the measurement from a single WT, was analyzed using different exponents. The results show that a cubic summation performs better than the quadratic one in the estimation of the flicker emission of a WPP with type III WTs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0136.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: endophytes; resistance inducers; biological control; abiotic stress; plant-microbe interactions; sustainability; integrated pest management; microorganisms; plant disease control
Online: 4 February 2021 (12:07:42 CET)
Plant diseases cause losses of approximately 16% globally. Thus, management measures must be implemented to mitigate losses and guarantee food production. In addition to traditional management measures, resistance induction and biological control have gained ground in agriculture due to their enormous potential. Endophytic fungi colonize plant tissues internally and have the potential to act as biological control agents, as elicitors in the process of resistance induction and in attenuating abiotic stresses. In this review, we list the action of this group of microorganisms as potential agents which can act in controlling plant diseases and describe several examples in which endophytes were able to reduce the damage caused by pathogens and adverse conditions. This is due to their arsenal of molecules generated during the interaction by which they form a kind of biological shield in the plant. Studies on these microorganisms have grown due to the existing diversity and the multiple benefits they can offer. Finally, considering that endophytic fungi can be an important tool in managing diseases due to the large amount of biologically active substances produced, bioprospecting this class of microorganisms is tending to increase and generate valuable products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0123.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass crops; biofuels; plant miRNAs; miR156; miR156/SPL-system; plant biotechnology; abiotic and biotic stresses; bio-confinement
Online: 9 June 2020 (11:52:23 CEST)
Currently, energy security and environmental degradation are the two biggest challenges before humanity that can be surmounted with the use of green and sustainable biofuels produced from lignocellulosic crops. In the future, to ensure adequate and cost-effective supply of biofuels, it requires a sufficient amount of amenable and quality lignocellulosic feedstocks. Therefore, agricultural yields of lignocellulosic biomass crops should be substantially increased by intense genetic maneuvering of key gene regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathways that control plant biomass yield. Recently, numerous miRNAs families are identified, characterized, and validated across the plant kingdom. Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are 21 to 24 nucleotides long, non-coding small RNAs, act as regulators of their target genes via inducing modifications in transcription, translation, and epigenome. MiRNAs represent many hallmark characteristics like sequence-specific regulation, tissue, and species-specific expression, evolutionary conservation, and functional diversity. They coordinate well physiological and life cycle processes in plants under adverse environmental conditions. Hence, miRNAs offer accurate, precise, and efficient regulatory switches in the miRNA-targeted genetic networks. It is evident from the study of the miR156 family and its target SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes network that controls highly significant agronomic traits in crop plants. The miR156/SPL module acts as a master circuit that synchronizes many intricate complex biological functions such as growth and development, and metabolic processes by sensing internal and external environmental signals in plants. Therefore, miR156 can prove a potential target for miRNAs based plant biotechnology to harmonize complex biofuel traits and improve biomass yield in lignocellulosic biomass crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0246.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: agriculture 4.0; chlorophyll; early diagnosis; fungal tree pathogens; mycology; plant disease; plant pathology; smart viticulture; vegetation indices; wine grapes
Online: 11 May 2021 (14:21:25 CEST)
The Armillaria genus represents one of the most common causes of chronic root rot disease in woody plants. The disease damage prompt assessment is crucial for pest management. However, the disease detection current methods are limited at the field scale. Therefore, an alternative approach that can enhance or supplement traditional techniques is needed. In this study, we investigated the potential of hyperspectral methods to identify the changes between fungi-infected and uninfected plants of Vitis vinifera in early detecting the Armillaria disease. The hyperspectral imaging sensor Specim-IQ was used to acquire images of leaves of the Teroldego Rotaliano grapevine cultivar. We analysed three groups of plants: healthy, asymptomatic, and diseased. Highly significant differences were found in the Near infrared (NIR) spectral region with a decreasing pattern from healthy to diseased plants attributable to internal leaf structure changes. Asymptomatic plants emerged from the other groups due to a smaller reflectance in the red-edge spectrum (around 705nm). Hypothetically associated with the presence of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence strategy. Furthermore, significant differences were observed in the wavelengths close to 550 nm in diseased plants versus asymptomatic. We used linear discriminant analysis from a machine learning context to classify the leaves based on the most significant variables (vegetation indices and single bands), with resulting overall accuracies of 85% and 84% respectively in healthy vs. diseased and healthy vs. asymptomatic. To our knowledge, this study represents the first report on the possibility of using hyperspectral data for root rot disease diagnosis on woody plants. Although further validation studies are required, it appears that the spectral reflectance technique, possibly implemented on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), could be a promising tool for a cost-effective, non-destructive method of Armillaria disease early diagnosis and mapping in the field, contributing to a significant step forward in precision viticulture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0110.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: invasion ecology; biotic resistance; exotic plants; heterospecific pollen; reproductive interference; alien plants; indirect plant-plant interactions; Darwin's naturalization hypothesis
Online: 9 February 2020 (16:32:53 CET)
1. Heterospecific pollen interference has recently been proposed as a mechanism contributing to the success of alien invaders, as heterospecific pollen of alien plants interferes with the reproduction of natives by reducing fruit and seed set. However, no study has looked at the opposite interaction. Moreover, few studies have considered the roles of phylogenetic and trait distances between pollen donors and recipients. 2. We did a large multi-species experiment in which we used alien and native species both as pollen recipients and as pollen donors, and included phylogenetic as well as trait distance as explanatory variables. 3. We found that both alien and native recipients suffered from heterospecific pollen from donors of the opposite status in terms of seed and fruit set. Phylogenetic distance and trait distance both affected heterospecific pollen interference, but the effect depended on recipient and donor statuses. 4. We conclude that heterospecific pollen interference affects both native and alien recipients, thus indirectly altering community composition and increasing biotic resistance against invaders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0186.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Air pollution; coal-fired thermal power plant; oil thermal power plant; geocoded; lung cancer; bladder cancer; North-eastern Italy
Online: 20 June 2017 (08:50:26 CEST)
This study investigated the risk of lung and bladder cancers in people residing in proximity of a coal-oil-fired thermal power plant in an area of north-eastern Italy, covered by a population-based cancer registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) by sex, age, and histology were computed according to tertiles of residential exposure to benzene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particular matter, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among 1076 incident cases of lung and 650 cases of bladder cancers. In men of all ages and in women under 75 years of age, no significant associations were observed. Conversely, in women aged >75 years significantly increased risks of lung and bladder cancers were related to high exposure to benzene (IRR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 2.00 for lung cancer and 1.94 for bladder cancer) and NO2 (IRR: 1.72 for lung cancer; and 1.94 for bladder cancer). In these women, a 1.71-fold higher risk of lung cancer was also related to a high exposure to SO2. The findings of this descriptive study indicated that air pollution may have a role with regard to the risk of lung and bladder cancers, limited to women aged ≥ 75 years. Such increased risk warrants further analytical investigations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0487.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Plant proteins; legumes; protein digestibility; germination; peptidomics; proteomics
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:14:36 CET)
Legume seed protein is an important source of nutrition, but it is less digestible than animal protein. Poor protein digestibility in legume seeds and seedlings may partly reflect defences against herbivores. Protein changes during germination typically increase proteolysis and digestibility, by lowering the levels of anti-nutrient protease inhibitors, activating proteases, and breaking down storage proteins (including allergens). Germinating legume sprouts also show striking increases in free amino acids (especially asparagine), but their roles in host defence or other processes are not known. While the net effect of germination is generally to increase the digestibility of legume seed proteins, the extent of improvement in digestibility is species and strain dependent. Further research is needed to highlight which changes contribute the most to improved digestibility of sprouted seeds. Such knowledge could guide the selection of varieties that are more digestible, and also guide the development of food preparations that are more digestible, potentially combining germination with other factors altering digestibility, such as heating and fermentation. Techniques to characterize the shifts in protein make-up, activity and degradation during germination need to draw on traditional analytical approaches, complemented by proteomic and peptidomic analysis of mass spectrometry identified peptide breakdown products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0117.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Temporary Immersion Bioreactor; Micropropagation; Plantain; plant tissue culture
Online: 6 January 2023 (06:26:15 CET)
The genus Musa spp. contains commercially important fleshy fruit producing plants including plantains and bananas with a strong potential of providing food security and source of revenue to farmers. Occasionally, plantlets are often not available to fulfill the supply demand of farmers particularly in Caribbean region. Concerns with the quality of vegetative tissues along with the possibility of the transmission of phytopathogens makes availability of plantlets limited to farm-ers. Micropropagation of plantains offers an alternative to producing large number of in-vitro plantlets. However, conventional methods of micropropagation techniques require high produc-tion costs and are labor-intensive. Recently, Temporary Immersion Bioreactor (TIB) has emerged as an alternative to conventional micropropagation methods. Our work utilized SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), molecular and biochemical tools (qRT-PCR and ICP-OES) to characterize and compare the morphological, elemental composition, and photosynthetic gene expression of plantains cultured on TIB. Additionally, morphological features of growth and propagation rates were analyzed for comparing outputs obtained from temporary immersion bioreactor with conventional micropropagation (CM) techniques. Results showed higher growth and multiplication rates for plantlets cultivated in TIB. Gene expression analysis of selected photosynthetic genes demonstrated high transcript abundance of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in plantain tissues obtained by TIB. Elemental composition analysis showed higher content of iron in plantains grown in TIB suggesting a potential correlation with PEPC expression. These results demonstrate the potential of TIB to be an efficient method to produce healthy in-vitro plantains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0521.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: plant–microbe interactions; endophytes; comparative transcriptomics; velvet genes
Online: 29 November 2022 (02:06:31 CET)
Epichloë species form bioprotective endophytic symbioses with many cool-season grasses, including agriculturally important forage grasses. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about the molecular details of the interaction and the regulatory genes involved. VelA is a key global regulator in fungal secondary metabolism and development. In previous studies, we showed the requirement of velA for E. festucae to form a mutualistic interaction with Lolium perenne. We showed that VelA regulates the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in membrane transport, fungal cell wall biosynthesis, host cell wall degradation and secondary metabolism, along with several small-secreted proteins in Epichloë festucae. Here, by a comparative transcriptomics analysis on perennial ryegrass seedlings and mature plants, which are endophyte free or infected with wild type (mutualistic interaction) or mutant ∆velA E. festucae (antagonistic or incompatible interaction), regulatory effects of the endophytic interaction on perennial ryegrass development was studied. We show that ∆velA mutant associations influence the expression of genes involved in primary metabolism, secondary metabolism and response to biotic and abiotic stresses compared to wild type associations, providing an insight into processes defining mutualistic versus antagonistic interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0366.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Vibration Detection; Progress; Power Plant; Bibliometrics; Visual Analysis
Online: 17 October 2022 (10:50:11 CEST)
After long years of development, the technology of analyzing the working condition of power units based on vibration signals has had relatively stable applications, but the accuracy and the degree of automation and intelligence for fault diagnosis are still inadequate due to the limitations of the current development of key technologies. With the development of big data and artificial intelligence technology, the involvement of new technologies will be an important boost to the development of this field. To support the subsequent research, bibliometrics is used as a tool to sort out the development of the technology in this field at the macro level; at the micro level, the classical and key literature is studied to grasp the development status at the technical level and prepare for the selection of entry points to continue in-depth innovation afterwards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0302.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Verticillium wilt; cotton; transmembrane protein; resistance; plant immunity
Online: 17 August 2022 (05:28:04 CEST)
Verticillium wilt (VW) is a soil borne fungal diseases caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb, and lead to serious damage to cotton production annually in the world. In our previous study, a transmembrane protein 214 protein (TMEM214) gene associated with VW resistance was map-based cloned from Gossypium barbadense (G. barbadense). TMEM214 proteins are a kind of transmembrane protein, but their function in plants is rarely studied. To reveal the function of TMEM214s in VW resistance, all six TMEM214s were cloned from G. barbadense in this study. These genes were named as GbTMEM214-1, GbTMEM214-4 and GbTMEM214-7 according to their location on the chromosomes, and the encoded proteins are all located on cell membrane. TMEM214 genes were all induced by Verticillium dahliae inoculation and showed significant differences between resistant and susceptible varieties, but the expression patterns of GbTMEM214s under different hormone treatments were significantly different. Virus-induced gene silencing analysis showed the resistance to VW of GbTMEM214s-silenced lines decreased significantly, which further proves the important role of GbTMEM214s in the resistance to Verticillium dahliae. Our study provides an insight into the involvement of GbTMEM214s in VW resistance, which was helpful to better understand the disease resistance mechanism of plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0593.v1
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:56:26 CEST)
Cacao is an understory plant cultivated under full-sun monocultures to multi-strata agroforestry systems, where cocoa trees are planted together with fruit, timber, firewood, and leguminous trees, or grown within thinned native forests. Under agroforestry systems of cultivation, cacao is subjected to excess shade due to high density of shade trees, and overgrown or unmanaged pruning of shade trees. Cacao is tolerant to shade, and the maximum photosynthetic rate occurs around irradiance of 400 μmol m−2 s−1 but excess shade reduces the irradiance further which is detrimental to photosynthesis and growth functions. Intra-specific variation is known to exist in cacao for the required saturation irradiance. A greenhouse study was implemented with 58 cacao genotypes selected from four geographically diverse groups: (i) wild cacao from river basins of the Peruvian Amazon, (PWC), (ii) Peruvian farmers’ collection (PFC), (iii) Brazilian cacao collection (BCC) and (iv) national and international cacao collections (NIC). All the cacao genotypes were subjected to 50% and 80% shade where photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was 1000 and 400 μmol m-2 ּs-1 respectively. Intra-specific variations were observed for growth, physiological and nutritional traits, and tolerance to shade. Cacao genotypes tolerant to shade were: UNG-77 and UGU-130 from PWC; ICT-2173, ICT-2142, ICT-2172, ICT-1506, ICT-1087, and ICT-2171 from the PFC; PH-21, CA-14, PH-990 and PH-144 from BCC; and ICS-1, ICS-39, UF-613 and POUND-12 from NIC. Genotypes that tolerate excess shade might be useful plant types to maintain productivity and sustainability in agroforestry systems of cacao management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0461.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Germplasm; Genetic plant resources; Preservation; Propagation; in vitro
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:28:31 CEST)
Germplasm is a valuable natural resource in plant diversity that is crucial for its potential use. It provides knowledge about a species genetic composition. Germplasm protection strategies are not just planting hope threatened with extinction, they preserve medicinal and other essential plants on which survival rests. The successful use of genetic plant resources necessitates diligent collection, storage, analysis, documentation, and germplasm exchange. Slow growth cultures, cryopreservation, pollen and DNA banks, botanic gardens, genetic reserves and farmer’s fields are few conservation techniques. However, usage of an in vitro procedure with any chance of genetic instability leads to the destruction of the entire substance. Improved understanding of basic regeneration biology would, in turn, undoubtedly increase the capacity to regenerate plants from in vitro harvested explants, thus expanding selection possibilities. Germplasm conservation seeks to conserve endangered and vulnerable plant species worldwide for future proliferation and development; it is also the bedrock of agricultural production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0336.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: plant fructans; fructosyltransferase; metabolism; evolution aspects; functional foods
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:11:41 CEST)
Fructan, a fructose polymer, is used as carbohydrate reserve in many plants. The nutritional and therapeutic benefits of fructans have attracted increasing interest by consumers and food industry. In the course of evolution, many plants have developed the ability of regulating plant frunctan metabolism genes to produce different structures and chain length fructans, which are strongly correlated with their survival in harsh environments. De nevo domestication of fructan-rich plants based on genome editing is a viable and promising approach to improve human dietary quality and reduce the risk of chronic disease. These advances will greatly facilitate breeding and production of tailor-made fructans as a healthy food ingredient from wild plants such as polygonati rhizoma. The purpose of this review is to broaden our knowledge on plant fructan biosynthesis, evolution and beneficial applications for human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0030.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: micro minerals, selenium, deficiency, soil-plant relationship, Kosovo
Online: 1 April 2021 (16:17:35 CEST)
Minerals play many important functions in plant and animal metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the concentration of Se and other minerals and their relationships in soils and fodder plants in Kosovo. Seventy-three samples of each soil and fodder plants (grass, maize, and wheat) from 30 farms were collected. Both soil and plant samples, after processing and digestion, were analyzed for mineral concentration by ICP-MS. Mineral concentrations in soil and fodder crops, and the best predicting/explanatory models for micro minerals concentration, achieved by stepwise linear regression, are presented. Results showed very low concentration of Se in most of the soil and all fodder samples. In addition, the concentration of Co, Zn and Fe was not sufficient to satisfy requirements for all categories of farm animals. Plant Se concentration showed a positive relationship with Se concentration in soils. Plant Zn, Mo, Mn, Fe and Pb, in general, showed no significant relationship with their concentration in soil, while plant Co and Cd showed positive relationship only in maize, and Cu in wheat grain. Among the soil properties, pH had the highest effect on the concentrations of Co, Mo, Mn, Cd and Pb in fodder crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0325.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: meat substitute; meathybrid; consumer preference, plant-based proteins
Online: 14 December 2020 (11:44:14 CET)
High levels of meat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein in comparison to meat. This alternative offers several social, environmental and health benefits and may play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on how specific meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace or partially replace meat in their diets. Research demonstrates that in many countries consumers are highly attached to meat. They consider it as an essential and integral element of their daily diet. For these consumers which are not interested in vegan or vegetarian alternatives to meat, so-called meathybrids could be a low-threshold option for a more sustainable food consumption behaviour. In meathybrids only a fraction of the meat product (e.g. 20% to 50%) is replaced with plant-based proteins. In this paper, the results of an online survey with 501 Belgium consumers are presented with focus on preferences and attitudes relating to meathyrids. The results show that more than fifty percent of consumers substitute meat at least occasionally. Thus, about half of the respondents reveal an eligible consumption behaviour in respect to sustainability and healthiness to a certain degree. Concerning the determinants of choosing either meathybrid or meat it becomes evident that a strong effect is exerted by the health perception. The healthier meathybrids are perceived, the higher is the choice probability. Thus, this egoistic motive seems to outperform altruistic motives like animal welfare or environmental concerns when it comes to choice for this new product category.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0241.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: meat substitute; meathybrid; consumer preference, plant-based proteins
Online: 10 December 2020 (09:22:00 CET)
High levels of meat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein that, in comparison to meat, offer a number of social, environmental and health benefits and may play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on the role they can play in the policy agenda and how specific meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace partially replace meat in their diets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0677.v1
Online: 26 November 2020 (23:08:59 CET)
High levels ofmeat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, 2 and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein in 3 comparison to meat. This alternative offers several social, environmental and health benefits and may 4 play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on how specific 5 meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace or partially replace meat in their diets. 6 Research demonstrates that in many countries consumers are highly attached to meat.They consider 7 it as an essential and integral element of their daily diet. For these consumers which are not interested 8 in vegan or vegetarian alternatives to meat, so-called meathybrids could be a low-threshold option 9 for a more sustainable food consumption behaviour. In meathybrids only a fraction of the meat 10 product (e.g. 20% to 50%) is replaced with plant-based proteins. In this paper, the results of an online 11 survey with 500 German consumers are presented with focus on preferences and attitudes relating 12 to meathyrids. The results show that more than fifty percent of consumers substitute meat at least 13 occasionally. Thus, about half of the respondents reveal an eligible consumption behaviour in respect 14 to sustainability and healthiness to a certain degree. Concerning the determinants of choosing either 15 meathybrid or meat it becomes evident that the highest effect is exerted by the health perception. The 16 healthier meathybrids are perceived, the higher is the choice probability. Thus, this egoistic motive 17 seems to outperform altruistic motives like animal welfare or environmental concerns when it comes 18 to choice for this new product category.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0460.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: plant breeding; genomic selection; Bayes; BLUP; machine learning
Online: 18 November 2020 (11:21:50 CET)
Estimation of breeding values through Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) using pedigree-based kinship and Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS) are the two fundamental breeding methods used before and after the introduction of genetic markers, respectively. The emergence of high-density genome-wide markers has led to the development of two parallel series of approaches inspired by BLUP and MAS, which are collectively referred to as Genomic Selection (GS). The first series of GS methods alters pedigree-based BLUP by replacing pedigree-based kinship with marker-based kinship in a variety of ways, including weighting markers by their effects in genome-wide association study (GWAS), joining both pedigree and marker-based kinship together in a single-step BLUP, and substituting individuals with groups in a compressed BLUP. The second series of GS methods estimates the effects for all genetic markers simultaneously. For the second series methods, the marker effects are summed together regardless of their individual significance. Instead of fitting individuals as random effects like in the BLUP series, the second series fits markers as random effects. Differing assumptions regarding the underlying distribution of these marker effects have resulted in the development of many Bayesian-based GS methods. This review highlights critical concept developments for both of these series and explores ongoing GS developments in machine learning, multiple trait selection, and adaptation for hybrid breeding. Furthermore, considering the increasing use and variety of GS methods in plant breeding programs, this review addresses important concerns for future GS development and application, such as the use of GWAS-assisted GS, the long-term effectiveness of GS methods, and the valid assessment of prediction accuracy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0068.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Microbiome; Plant Immunity; Priming; Transgenerational Immune Priming (TGIP)
Online: 5 July 2020 (11:35:04 CEST)
One of the biggest demanding situations for food security in the 21st century is to enhance crop yield stability through the improvement of diseases-resistant crops. Managing plant health is a major challenge for modern food production and compounded by the lack of common ground among the many disease control disciplines involved. All plants simultaneously engage with billions of microbes which can be collectively referred to as the plant microbiome. Most microbes inside the plant microbiome are harmless or even beneficial to the plant as they promote plant growth or provide protection in opposition to diseases. However, some of these microbes also cause disease with devastating effects on crop yields. To prevent pathogen infection, plants have evolved an advanced innate immune system that recognizes conserved cell surface molecules that most pathogen possesses. Activation of the plant immune system stops the invading pathogen, however this comes with fitness cost that significantly reduces plant growth and leads to yield penalty. Apart from their innate immune system controlling pre-programmed defense reactions, plants can also increase the responsiveness of their immune system in response to selected environmental signals. This phenomenon is known as “defense priming”. Although defense priming rarely provides full protection, its broad-spectrum effectiveness, low-fitness cost, long‐lasting durability and inherited to future generations make it attractive for sustainable crop protection.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0306.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: ideal plant architecture; food-nutritional security; climate change
Online: 24 June 2020 (18:12:06 CEST)
Crop domestication and breeding considerably increased productivity over centuries, but simultaneously involved unconscious selection against ‘selfish plant behavior’. Paradoxically, modern-day crop breeding largely enhances individual plant-fitness. As agriculture relies on community performance, embracing an “Agroecological Genetics and Genomics” viewpoint might maximize communal yield by matching crop genotypes to target environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0226.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COVID-2019; Mpro; 6LU7; medicinal plant compounds; docking
Online: 13 March 2020 (03:19:02 CET)
COVID-19, a new strain of coronavirus (CoV), was identified in Wuhan, China, in 2019. No specific therapies are available and investigations regarding COVID-19 treatment are lacking. Liu et al. (2020) successfully crystallised the COVID-19 main protease (Mpro), which is a potential drug target. The present study aimed to assess bioactive compounds found in medicinal plants as potential COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors, using a molecular docking study. Molecular docking was performed using Autodock 4.2, with the Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm, to analyse the probability of docking. COVID-19 Mpro was docked with several compounds, and docking was analysed by Autodock 4.2, Pymol version 22.214.171.124 Edu, and Biovia Discovery Studio 4.5. Nelfinavir and lopinavir were used as standards for comparison. The binding energies obtained from the docking of 6LU7 with native ligand, nelfinavir, lopinavir, kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, demethoxycurcumin, naringenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, oleuropein, curcumin, catechin, epicatechin-gallate, zingerol, gingerol, and allicin were -8.37, -10.72, -9.41, -8.58, -8.47, -8.17, -7.99, -7.89, -7.83, -7.31, -7.05, -7.24, -6.67, -5.40, -5.38, and -4.03 kcal/mol, respectively. Therefore, nelfinavir and lopinavir may represent potential treatment options, and kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin-7-glucoside, demethoxycurcumin, naringenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, oleuropein, curcumin, catechin, and epicatechin-gallate appeared to have the best potential to act as COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors. However, further research is necessary to investigate their potential medicinal use.
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: host plant resistance; pest management; Planococcus ficus; vineyard
Online: 11 September 2019 (02:41:28 CEST)
Mealybugs cause economic loss to vineyards through physical damage, fouling fruit and leaves with honeydew, and the transmission of viruses. Planococcus ficus is one of several mealybug species in vineyards, and one that causes economic damage over a relatively large global range. To develop novel management tools, host resistance to P. ficus, which has not previously been identified for any grape cultivars, was studied. Ten grape lines (species, cultivars, and rootstocks) were evaluated for P. ficus resistance across two separate potted plant assays. Significant differences were detected among cultivars and rootstocks in the recorded number of P. ficus juveniles, adults and egg sacs. Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay were two of the most susceptible grape cultivars for mealybug population growth, whereas rootstocks IAC 572, 10-17A and RS-3 all demonstrated some level of resistance. Southern fire ant (Solenopsis xyloni) was positively associated with mealybug populations, but did not have a negative effect on the observed presence of other arthropod species including potential predators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: virtual power plant; distributed energy sources; smart grid
Online: 8 July 2019 (04:00:00 CEST)
This article presents an in-depth review of Virtual Power Plant (VPP), its organization in the energy system and its prospects in the face of the promising future of the increasing bidirectional complexity exposed in the current scenario. A new paradigm for the operations of modern power distribution and transmission systems requires greater grid flexibility that is accompanying an extensive change in the structure of electricity markets, the fruit of the development of the renewable industry and of the growing photovoltaic systems popularized, but in contrast due to the intermittent nature cause variable uncertainties in the power system. Innovative concepts like VPP are becoming a reality, establishing an efficient and effective mechanism. The objectives and components are described in a comprehensive way, and some of the most important are pointed out and presented in detail to contribute with a description of the energy systems and the implicit research needed for sustainability and resilience in the eminent energy scenario with this technology. In addition, the literature and studies of this technology already indicate a direction of this new tool as a promising solution to manage the uncertainties of the renewable energies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0111.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Multispectral; Radiometric calibration; Classification; Plant disease; Aerial imagery
Online: 13 February 2019 (10:40:40 CET)
In recent years, using multispectral cameras on UAVs has provided an opportunity to capture separate bands that offer the extraction of spectral features used for early detection of diseased plants. One of the main steps in disease detection is radiometric calibration that converts digital numbers to reflectance values commonly using white reference panels. This paper focused on the necessity of radiometric calibration to distinguish disease trees in orchards based on aerial multi-spectral images. For this purpose, two study sites with various climate conditions and tree species as well as different disease types were selected where multispectral images were taken using a multirotor UAV. The impact of radiometric correction on plant disease detection was assessed in two ways: 1) comparison of separability between the healthy and diseased classes using T-test and entropy distances; 2) radiometric calibration effect on the accuracy of classification. The experimental result showed the insignificant effect of radiometric calibration on separability criteria. Furthermore, based on T-test and entropy distances criteria, NIR and R spectral features made highest distances between healthy and Greening infected citrus trees, respectively, at the first study site while NDRE and BNDVI spectral features made highest distances between healthy and peach leaf curl infected trees, respectively, at the other study site. In the second strategy, the experimental result showed that radiometric calibration had no effect on the accuracy of classification. As a result, the overall accuracy and kappa values for both un-calibrated and calibrated orthomosaic classifications of the citrus orchard were 96.6% and 0.94%, respectively, using five spectral bands as well as DVI, NDRE, NDVI and GNDVI vegetation indices using a random forest classifier. The experimental results were also similar at the other study site. Therefore, the overall accuracy and kappa values for both the un-calibrated and calibrated orthomosaic classifications were 96.1%, 0.92, respectively, using five spectral bands as well as NDRE, BNDVI, GNDVI, DVI, and NDVI vegetation indices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0383.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: ADCC; glycosylation; kifunensine; plant made pharmaceuticals; monoclonal antibody
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:24:35 CET)
N-glycosylation has been shown to affect the pharmacokinetic properties of several classes of biologics including monoclonal antibodies, blood factors, and lysosomal enzymes. In the last two decades, N-glycan engineering has been employed to achieve a N-glycosylation profile that is either more consistent or aligned with a specific improved activity (i.e. effector function or serum half-life). In particular, attention has focused on engineering processes in vivo or in vitro to alter the structure of the N-glycosylation of the Fc region of anti-cancer monoclonal antibodies in order to increase antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here we applied the mannosidase I inhibitor kifunensine to the Nicotiana benthamiana transient expression platform to produce an afucosylated anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab). We determined the optimal concentration of kifunensine used in the infiltration solution, 0.375 µM, which was sufficient to produce exclusively oligomannose glycoforms, at a concentration 14 times lower than previously published levels. The resulting afucosylated rituximab revealed a 14-fold increase in ADCC activity targeting the lymphoma cell line Wil2-S when compared with rituximab produced in the absence of kifunensine. When applied to the cost-effective and scalable N. benthamiana transient expression platform, the use of kifunensine allows simple in-process glycan engineering without the need for transgenic hosts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0085.v1
Online: 5 November 2018 (05:28:33 CET)
In this article the methodology for the determination of the theoretical gamma spectrum originated by applying DGNAA (delayed gamma neutron analysis activation) techniques for the elemental analysis of ash from thermal power plants is exposed. This is a study must be prior to the experimentation in order to define the parameters of the test to obtain the optimal conditions for the detection of each element present in the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0089.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: agrobiodiversity; vegetables; plant genetic resources; Italy; safeguarding; landraces
Online: 4 May 2018 (09:34:09 CEST)
The study attempts, above all, to provide a summary, with a strictly scientific basis, about the strategies of conservation of autochthonous agrobiodiversity followed in Italy. A special focus is dedicated on vegetables and, therefore, could represent a contribution to improve the national strategy for the safeguarding of its agrobiodiversity in general. The paper offers also an outlook on the most critical factors of the ex situ conservation and some actions which need to be taken. Some examples of ‘novel’ recovered neglected crops are also given. Finally a case study is proposed: ‘Mugnolicchio’, a neglected race of Brassica oleracea L., cultivated in Altamura (Ba) in southern Italy. ‘Mugnolicchio’ might be considered as an early step in the evolution of broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica Plenck) like ‘Mugnoli’ another neglected race described from Salento (Apulia).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; combined cycle power plant; energy losses
Online: 2 May 2018 (10:12:31 CEST)
Natural gas combined cycle power plants (CCPPs) are widely used to meet peak loads in electric energy production. Continuous monitoring of the output electrical power of CCPPs is a requirement for power performance. In this study, the role of ambient temperature change having the greatest effect on electric production is investigated for a natural gas CCPP. The plant has generated electricity for fourteen years and setup at 240 MW in Aliağa, İzmir, Turkey. Depending on the seasonal temperature changes, the study data were obtained from each gas turbine (GT), steam turbine (ST) and combined cycle blocks (CCBs) in the ambient temperature range of 8-23°C. It has been found that decreases of the electric energy in the GTs because of the temperature increase and indirectly diminishes of the electricity production in the STs. As a result, the efficiency of each GT, ST and CCB reduced, although the quantity of fuel consumed by the controllers in the plant was decreased. As a result of this data, it has been recommended and applied that additional precautions have been taken for the power plant to bring the air entering the combustion chamber to ideal conditions and necessary air cooling systems have been installed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0232.v2
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: obesity; plant secondary compound; Clinacanthus nutans; gene expression
Online: 24 April 2018 (10:04:11 CEST)
Obesity is a universal health concern that can lead to serious diseases. The side effects of synthetic anti-obesity drugs necessitate the finding of suitable natural/herbal alternatives. Mother nature offers a wide range of plants with medicinal properties that include crude extracts and isolated compounds which are effective for controlling and reducing weight gain. Obesity was induced in 60, 3-week-old male ICR mice, using high-fat diet (60% dietary energy from fat) for 16-week. The mice were divided at random into six groups with 10 mice: mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) only, mice fed normal diet only (NC), and orlistat at 15.9 mg/kg (HFD+Orlistat), and mice in three other high-fat diet groups treated with methanolic leaf extract of Clinacanthus nutans (MECN) at 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg. After 21-day of the treatment, MECN significantly reduced (P<0.05) the body weight, visceral fat and muscle saturated fatty acid compositions. There was also significant downregulation of HSL, PPAR α and PPAR γ and SCD genes expressions in the obese mice treated with 1500 mg/kg MECN compared to the HFD group. Therefore, MECN is a potentially useful natural supplement for alleviating obesity and obesity-mediated metabolic diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal; power plant; utilization factor; plant load factor; PLF; generation mix; renewable; future; declared capacity; NTPC; energy; peak; deficit; environment; India
Online: 19 August 2020 (11:38:11 CEST)
As on 31.03.2020, 55.4 % (205135 MW) of total installed capacity (370106 MW) in India is through coal and lignite based power plants. These plants, set up by central, state and private utilities with substantial capital investment are facing consistently reducing Plant Utilization Factor (known as Plant Load Factor, PLF, in India). In the year 2019-20 the national average thermal power PLF stood at 55.4%, down from 78.6 % in 2007-08. On the other hand, the electricity demand is consistently rising in the country and there exists a peak and energy shortage at national level. In 2019-20 energy shortage was 0.7 % and peak shortage was 0.5 %. A disturbing paradox therefore exists here. On one hand, the country is power deficit, and on the other hand, a large amount of coal based affordable power, ready to be generated by thermal power generators, remains grossly unused. Looking into the fact that considerable investment has gone into developing these thermal power generation assets in the country, the falling PLF is a matter of concern for all the key stakeholders including the power producers, lenders, regulators and consumers. This paper identifies seven major factors that are affecting PLF of thermal power plants and then makes an attempt to project future scenario of PLF so that critical stakeholders can intervene through appropriate actions. Primary research with responses from power professionals has been used to find out the major factors. Future projection of PLF has been done using Partial Least Square (PLS) regression. Projection shows that in the Business As Usual case (Factors increasing at the current CAGR rate), the thermal power plants will face very low level of PLF (14.76 %) by 2024-25. This will mean that many plants will be shut down and many will run for only few hours in a day that too at very low loads. If the future generation mix is kept as indicated by Central Electricity Authority (CEA), a Govt. of India in its report (Draft report on optimal generation capacity mix for 2029-30- CEA- Govt of India) then the thermal power plant average PLF can sustain above 68 % until 2024-25. If followed, this path can be a breather for the thermal power plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0249.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Cervus nippon; mineral requirements; sodium; TRY Plant Traits Database
Online: 13 January 2023 (09:34:30 CET)
Deficient minerals in overabundant populations could act as an attractant to cull sika deer (Cervus nippon). Because selective culling of female deer is reported to be effective in reducing sika deer populations, it is particularly important to clarify the differences in mineral requirements between male and female. Here, using global plant trait data and a published list of sika deer food plants in Japan, we estimated whether food plants provide sika deer sufficient sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg), and compared the results between male and female. An analysis of 191 food plant species suggested that food plants can provide sufficient Mg, whereas sufficient Na and Ca is not always provided, especially when the intake is small or the deer large. Na deficiency was more intense for lactating females than males, suggesting that Na can be an effective attractant for selectively culling female deer. In summary, this study demonstrated that sika deer in Japan might require extra Na and Ca sources in addition to food plants, and therefore these minerals could be useful for developing effective culling methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0215.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum; virulence; FTF gene family; plant colonization; effector
Online: 12 January 2023 (07:31:36 CET)
The FTF (Fusarium Transcription Factor) gene family is composed of two members (FTF1 and FTF2) with high sequence homology. Both genes encode Zn(II)2Cys6 binuclear zinc finger transcription factors involved in the modulation of virulence in the F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC). While FTF1 is a multicopy gene exclusive of highly virulent strains of FOSC and is located in the accessory genome, FTF2 is a single copy gene, located in the core genome, and well conserved in all filamentous ascomycete fungi, except yeast. The involvement of FTF1 in the colonization of the vascular system and regulation of the expression of SIX effectors has been stablished. To address the role of FTF2 we generated and characterized null FTF2 mutants in a F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli weakly virulent strain and analyzed them together with the equivalent mutants formerly obtained in a highly virulent strain. The results obtained highlight a role for FTF2 as a negative regulator of the production of macroconidia and demonstrate that it is required for full virulence and positive regulation of SIX effectors. In addition, gene expression analyses provide compelling evidence that FTF2 is involved in the regulation of hydrophobins likely required for plant colonization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0177.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Plant disease; Machine vision; UAV; Smartphone; Convolutional Neural Network
Online: 19 April 2022 (07:44:29 CEST)
Stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat and causes large-scale epidemics and severe yield loss. Applying fungicides during early epidemic development is crucial to controlling the disease but is often challenged by resource-limited human visual scouting. Deep learning has the potential to process images and videos captured from affordable devices to empower high-throughput phenotyping for early detection of stripe rust for timely application of fungicides and improve control efficiency. Here, we developed RustNet, a neural network-based image classifier, for efficiently monitoring fields for stripe rust. RustNet was built on a ResNet-18 architecture pre-trained with ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) dataset using transfer learning. RGB images and videos of multiple wheat fields with different wheat types (winter and spring wheat), conditions (irrigated and non-irrigated), and locations were acquired using smartphones or unmanned aerial vehicles near the canopy. A semi-automated image labeling approach was conducted to improve labeling efficiency by combining automated machine labeling and human correction. Cross-validations across multiple categories (sensor platforms, wheat types, and locations) achieved Area Under Curve from 0.72 to 0.87. Independent validation on a published dataset from Germany achieved accuracies ranging from 0.79 to 0.86. The visualization of the last convolutional layer of RustNet demonstrated the identification of pixels with stripe rust. RustNet is freely available at https://zzlab.net/RustNet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0190.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: mites; insects; trophic relation; plant-arthropod interactions; SEKEM; fayoum
Online: 16 February 2022 (02:46:57 CET)
Due to a lack of knowledge about arthropod biodiversity in Egyptian organic agro-ecosystems; the study aimed to introduce information on the diversity, richness, and distribution of insect and mite species in two organic agro-ecosystems, also, to investigate the impact of plant-arthropod interactions. Samples collected from two organic farms, i) Shampoliah farm, Fayoum (GCS 29°21'07.4"N 30°44'17.8"E), and ii) SEKEM farm, Sharkia (GCS 18 30°22'56.1"N 31°39'17.4"E). Results shown 39 species recorded in Shampoliah farm, and 35 species in SEKEM of mite, insect, medicinal, and weed species. When 14 species shared among two sites. Study has measured the H', D and 1/D indices within each location, and the similarity/dissimilarity between locations. The study hypothesized the possible plant-arthropod interactions that explain why diversity differs from an ecosystem to another; due to; plant size, plant morphological characters, soil fertilization, plant nutritional content, and the prey-predator interactions. The added hypothesis; is to show that the importance of natural habitat is supporting natural enemies and distribution of arthropods, which could vary dramatically with the type of pest species, IPM, and landscape type considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0091.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Plant extracts; VEG’LYS; antimicrobial effects; curative and preventive treatment
Online: 6 January 2022 (14:06:53 CET)
The objective of this work was to determine the antimicrobial properties of an allium-based antimicrobial formulation named VEG’LYS (https://phytoauxilium.com/) on the growth of plant pathogenic microorganisms such as fungi, oomycetes, and bacteria. Two anthracnose-related species of the fungal genus Colletotrichum, C. gloeosporioides, and C. fragariae, the oomycete Phytophthora cactorum and the bacterium Xanthomonas fragariae associated with strawberry plants and two fungi Alternaria dauci and Botrytis cinerea, associated with carrot plants were tested in vitro. In in planta experiments, A. dauci and B. cinerea were used.. VEG’LYS inhibited the growth of all plant pathogens tested. We found that both curative and preventive in planta treatments with VEG’LYS inhibited the growth of A. dauci and B. cinerea in carrot. Furthermore, after spraying VEG’LYS on carrot plants the expression of the Pathogenesis-related (PR) 10 gene correlated with the magnitude of infection both in treated and untreated plants. Additionally, it has been shown, that the field application of VEG’LYS on strawberry plants results in a reduction of bacterial and fungal pathogens of strawberry fruits stored in refrigerator. In summary, VEG’LYS is a potential resistance inducer that seems to be suitable for use in both curative and preventive treatments to reduce the diseases and rotting of fruits and vegetables caused by different plant pathogens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0503.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Plant Pathogen; Biocontrol; Microbes; AMF; Bacteriophages; Microbiome; Sustainable strategies
Online: 31 December 2021 (10:45:32 CET)
Food security has become a major concern worldwide in recent years due to ever increasing population. Providing food for the growing billions without disturbing environmental balance is incessantly required in the current scenario. In view of this, sustainable modes of agricultural practices offer better promise and hence are gaining prominence recently. Moreover, these methods have taken precedence currently over chemical-based methods of pest restriction and pathogen control. Adoption of Biological Control is one such crucial technique that is currently in the forefront. Over a period of time, various biocontrol strategies have been experimented with and some have exhibited great success and promise. This review highlights the different methods of plant-pathogen control, types of plant pathogens, their modus operandi and various biocontrol approaches employing a range of microorganisms and their byproducts. The study lays emphasis on the use of upcoming methodologies like microbiome management and engineering, phage cocktails, genetically modified biocontrol agents and microbial volatilome as available strategies to sustainable agricultural practices. More importantly, a critical analysis of the various methods enumerated in the paper indicates the need to amalgamate these techniques in order to improve the degree of biocontrol offered by them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0355.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: dark treatment; hybrid poplar; plant hormone; rooting; shoot culture
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:46:18 CET)
Phenotypic plasticity in response to adverse conditions determines plant productivity and survival. The aim of this study was to test if two highly productive Populus genotypes, characterized by different in vitro etiolation patterns, differ also in their responses to hormones gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and to a GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PBZ). The experiments on shoot cultures of ‘Hybrida 275’ (abbr. H275; Populus maximowiczii × P. trichocarpa) and IBL 91/78 (Populus tremula × P. alba) were conducted either by modulating the physical in vitro environment or by adding specific chemicals to the nutrient medium. Our results show that there are significant differences between the studied genotypes in environmental and hormonal regulation of growth responses. The genotype H275, which responded to darkness with PBZ-inhibitable shoot elongation, was unable to recover its growth after treatment with ABA. In contrast, the genotype IBL 91/78, whose shoot elongation was not affected either by darkness or PBZ treatment, recovered so well after the ABA treatment that, when rooted subsequently, it developed longer shoots and roots than without ABA treatment. Our results indicate that GA catabolism and repressive signaling provide an important pathway to control growth and physiological adaptation in response to immediate or impending adverse conditions. These observations can help breeders define robust criteria for identifying genotypes with high resistance and productivity and highlight where genotypes exhibit susceptibility to stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0127.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: plant pathogenic bacterium; phage; bacterial wilt; biological control; lyophilization
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:12:11 CET)
Ralstonia solanacearum is a pathogen that causes bacterial wilt producing severe damage in staple solanaceous crops. Traditional control has low efficacy and/or environmental impact. Recently, the bases of a new biotechnological method by lytic bacteriophages vRsoP-WF2, vRsoP-WM2 and vRsoP-WR2 with specific activity against R. solanacearum were established. However, some aspects remain unknown, such as the survival and maintenance of the lytic activity after submission to a preservation method as the lyophilization. To this end, viability and stability of lyophilized vRsoP-WF2, vRsoP-WM2 and vRsoP-WR2 and their capacity for bacterial wilt biocontrol have been determined against one pathogenic Spanish reference strain of R. solanacearum in susceptible tomato plants in different conditions and making use of various cryoprotectants. The assays carried out have shown satisfactory results with respect to the viability and stability of the bacteriophages after the lyophilization process, maintaining high titres throughout the experimental period, also with respect to the capacity of the bacteriophages for the biological control of bacterial wilt, controlling this disease in more than 50% of the plants. The results offer good prospects for the use of lyophilization as a conservation method for the lytic bacteriophages of R. solanacearum in view of their commercialization as biocontrol agents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0335.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Packaging materials; Bioactive compounds; Nanotechnology; Nanoencapsulation; Sustainability; Plant-based.
Online: 22 October 2021 (15:45:23 CEST)
There is great interest in developing biodegradable biopolymer-based packaging materials whose functional performance is enhanced by incorporating active compounds into them, such as light blockers, plasticizers, crosslinkers, diffusion blockers, antimicrobials, antioxidants, and sensors. However, many of these compounds are volatile, chemically unstable, water-insoluble, matrix incompatible, or have adverse effects on film properties, which makes them difficult to directly incorporate into the packaging materials. These challenges are being overcome by incorporating the bioactive compounds into nanoparticles, which are then introducing into the packaging materials. The presence of these nanoencapsulated active compounds in biopolymer-based coatings or films can greatly improve their functional performance. This article reviews the different kinds of nanocarriers available for loading active compounds into these types of materials, and then discusses their impact on the optical, mechanical, thermal, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of the packaging materials. Furthermore, this article highlights the different kinds of bioactive compounds that can be incorporated into biopolymer-based packaging.
Online: 24 August 2021 (14:11:16 CEST)
This paper discusses the bioethics of intellectual property (IP) and intellectual property rights (IPR) applicable to biotechnology-based IP. It outlines some of the laws that are related to IPR in Zimbabwe and globally. The paper additionally highlights gaps, opportunities and concerns with the laws. Finally, the paper highlights some initiatives already underway in Zimbabwe targeted at promoting entrepreneurship, commercialization and industrialization while proposing strategies that can be used to further promote the generation and granting of biotechnology-related IP and IPR in Zimbabwe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0589.v1
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:30:30 CEST)
The wide use of cadmium (Cd) in industry causes great environmental health problems to humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Xylopia aethiopica fruit ethanol extract (XAFEE) on cadmium-induced inflammation and dyslipidemia in male albino rats. Thirty albino rats weighing 120–180 g were randomly selected into six groups (n = 5): control rats (administered distilled water only), Cd alone group (10 mg/ kg bw), Cd + 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE, Cd + 300 mg/kgbw XAFEE, 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE and 300 mg /kgbw XAFEE groups after 2-week acclimatization. The experiment lasted for 21 days, after which blood sample was collected by cardiac puncture. Changes in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipids and free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations in serum were determined. The results of the present study indicated that Cd exposure remarkably increased (p < 0.05) the TC, TAG, phospholipids, FFAs and TNF-α concentrations, and significantly decreased IL-10 concentration (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that inflammatory changes and alterations in lipid metabolism might be one of the mechanisms underlying the subtle effects of Cd toxicity, “dyslipidemia.” XAFEE expressed protective role against toxic influence of Cd on affected parameters in rats. The results raised the possibility of Xylopia aethiopica fruit being considered as a condiment in soup, local drinks, supplements or herbs preparations in areas where there are chances of Cd exposure, occupationally or environmentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0536.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Medicinal plant; spices; condiment; anti-dyslipidemic effect; Cd toxicity
Online: 23 July 2021 (10:43:35 CEST)
The wide use of cadmium (Cd) in industry causes great environmental health problems to humans and animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Xylopia aethiopica fruit ethanol extract (XAFEE) on cadmium-induced inflammation and dyslipidemia in male albino rats. Thirty albino rats weighing 120–180 g were randomly selected into six groups (n = 5): control rats (administered distilled water only), Cd alone group (10 mg/ kg bw), Cd + 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE, Cd + 300 mg/kgbw XAFEE, 150 mg/kgbw XAFEE and 300 mg /kgbw XAFEE groups after 2-week acclimatization. The experiment lasted for 21 days, after which blood sample was collected by cardiac puncture. Changes in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 10 (IL-10), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), phospholipids, free fatty acids (FFAs) and HDL-TAG concentrations in serum were determined. The results of the present study indicated that Cd exposure remarkably increased (p < 0.05) the TC, TAG, phospholipids, FFAs, HDL-TAG, TNF-α concentrations, and significantly decreased IL-10 concentration (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that inflammatory changes and alterations n lipid metabolism might be one of the mechanisms underlying the subtle effects of Cd toxicity, “dyslipidemia.” XAFEE expressed protective role against toxic influence of Cd on affected parameters in rats. The results raised the possibility of Xylopia aethiopica fruit being considered as a condiment in soup, local drinks, supplements or herbs preparations in areas where there are chances ofCd exposure, occupationally or environmentally.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0526.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: virome; microbiome; next generation sequencing; mycoviruses; plant pathogenic viruses
Online: 21 June 2021 (16:23:44 CEST)
Forest health is dependent on the variability of microorganisms interacting with the host tree/holobiont. Symbiotic microbiota and pathogens engage in a permanent interplay, which influences the host. Thanks to the development of NGS technologies, a vast amount of genetic information on the virosphere of temperate forests has been gained the last seven years. To estimate the qualitative/quantitative impact of NGS in forest virology, we have summarized viruses affecting major tree/shrub species and their fungal associates, including fungal plant pathogens, mutualists and saprotrophs. The contribution of NGS methods is extremely significant for forest virology. Reviewed data about viral presence in holobionts, allowed us to address the role of the virome in the holobionts. Genetic variation is a crucial aspect in hologenome, significantly reinforced by horizontal gene transfer among all interacting actors. Through virus-virus interplays synergistic or antagonistic relations may evolve, which may drastically affect the health of the holobiont. Novel insights of these interplays may allow practical applications for forest plant protection based on endophytes and mycovirus biocontrol agents. The current analysis is conceived in light of the prospect that novel viruses may initiate an emergent infectious disease and that measures for avoidance of future outbreaks in forests should be considered.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Zinc nanoparticles; Plant extract; Green Synthesis; Characterization; Mechanism; Applications
Online: 28 May 2021 (09:58:44 CEST)
Background:Boom in nanotechnology in current era has sketched unforeseen transformations in number of fields, such as medicine, health care, food, space, agriculture, etc. The synthesis of nanoparticles with different chemical compositions, sizes, shapes and controlled disparities is an important area of research in this field. Over the last decade, the biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles has received considerable attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties, with various applications, over their bulk counterparts.Hypothesis: The nanoparticle can have huge application in the field of food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries and thus become a major area of research. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using plant extracts offers an eco-friendly and promising substitute to the conventional methods of chemical synthesis. Conclusion: In the arena of nanoparticle phytosynthesis, novel materials have been produced that are eco-friendly, cost-effective and stable. In the current situation, nanotechnology inspires progress in all spheres of life, and therefore the phytosynthetic path of nanoparticle synthesis has emerged as a safe and best alternative to conventional methods. This review summarizes the recent work in the field of zinc nanoparticle phytosynthesis and critically discusses the mechanism proposed behind it.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: wheat; plant height; grain traits; Wheat50K; genetic map; QTL
Online: 22 April 2021 (10:20:48 CEST)
Plant height is significantly correlated with grain traits, which is a component of wheat yield. The purpose of this study is to investigate the main QTLs that control plant height and grain-related traits in multiple environments. In this study, we constructed a high-density genetic linkage map using the Wheat50K SNP Array to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for these traits in 198 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The two ends of the chromosome were identified as re-combination-rich areas in all chromosomes except chromosome 1B. The middle area of the chro-mosomes was identified as the recombination-barren area. Both the genetic map and the physical map showed a significant correlation when p=0.001, with a correlation coefficient between 0.63 and 0.99. However, there was almost no recombination between 1RS and 1BS. In terms of plant height, 1RS contributed to the reduction of plant height by 3.43cm. In terms of grain length, 1RS contributed to the elongation of grain by 0.11mm. A total of 43 QTLs were identified, including 8 QTLs for Plant height(PH), 11 QTLs thousand grain weight(TGW), 15 QTLs for grain length(GL),and 9 QTLs for grain width(GW), which explained 1.36%–33.08% of the phenotypic variation. Seven were environment-stable QTLs, including two loci Qph.nwafu-4B and Qph.nwafu-4D that determined plant height. The explanation rates of phenotypic variation were 7.39%-12.26% and 20.11%-27.08%, respectively. One QTL, Qtgw.nwafu-4B, which influenced TGW, showed an explanation rate of 3.43%-6.85% for phenotypic variation, two co-segregating KASP markers were developed, the physical locations corresponding to KASP_AX-109316968 and KASP_AX-109519968 were 25.888344 MB and 25.847691 MB. Another QTL, Qgw.nwafu-4D, which determined grain width, had an explanation rate of 3.43%-6.85%. Three loci that affected the grain length were Qgl.nwafu-5A, Qgl.nwafu-5D.2 and Qgl.nwafu-6B, illustrating the explana-tion rates of phenotypic variation as 6.72%-9.59%, 5.62%-7.75%, and 6.68%-10.73%, respectively. Two QTL clusters were identified on chromosomes 4B and 4D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0223.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Abiotic Stress; Forestry; Tree Physiology; Plant Selection; Urban Forestry
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:42:34 CET)
Responses to water stress were measured for sugar maple (Acer saccharum subsp. saccharum Marshall) sources from Oklahoma (Caddo sugar maple), Missouri, Tennessee, Ontario and a black maple (Acer saccharum subsp. nigrum F. Michx.) source from Iowa. Seedling sources were selected for differences in temperature and precipitation of their geographic origins. Seedlings were preconditioned through moist (watered daily) or dry (watered every 4-7 days) cycles and then exposed to prolonged water stress. Dry preconditioned sugar maple seedlings from Oklahoma, Missouri, and Tennessee, sources from warmer and/or drier climates with greater relative evapotranspiration potentials, declined less rapidly in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency (WUE) as water stress increased than dry preconditioned seedlings from Ontario and Iowa having origins in cooler, moister climates. Under imposed water stress the Ontario and Iowa sourced seedlings increased their root to shoot ratios and decreased their specific leaf area, mechanisms for drought avoidance. However, no corresponding changes in these values occurred for Oklahoma, Missouri, and Tennessee sources. Results from this study suggest greater tolerance of water stress in the Oklahoma, Missouri and Tennessee ecotypes from the western and southern range of sugar maple resulted primarily with WUE rather than other water stress coping mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0532.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: geothermal power plant; environment issues; rural Tompaso; competitive intelligence
Online: 23 February 2021 (19:01:29 CET)
The vision of the community around Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) is the development of GPP should be based on sustainable development principles, without jeopardizing the quality of life and justice for communities surrounding the power plant. This research aims to: (i) identifying issues that arise as an impact of the development of GPP in the rural Tompaso, and (ii) finding solutions to the issues to minimize the conflict that arises from further GPP development in rural Tompaso and its surroundings. This study is based on the competitive intelligence (CI) research method. The results show that the development of GPP in Tompaso has a negative impact on the natural environment and social environment. The technical solutions offered include: (i) bioremediation by cultivating plants that absorb arsenic; (ii) biosulfurization and desulfurization for reducing air pollution, especially sulfur; (iii ) floods and extreme drought are managed by improving infrastructure and reforestation; (iv) social conflicts (land acquisition, working days, labor recruitment and settlement security) are solved by intensifying program dissemination to the community and involving local communities in decision making. The recommended policy is providing incentives to the local community through strategic programs for the development of human and natural resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0513.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Aleppo pine; conifers; phytosulfokine; plant growth regulators; somatic embryogenesis
Online: 26 January 2021 (14:21:31 CET)
Organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis have been widely applied as the two main regeneration pathways in plant tissue culture. However, recalcitrance is still a main restriction in the clonal propagation of many woody species, especially in conifers. They undergo a “phase change” that leads to significant loss of organogenic and embryogenic capacity, thus reducing the responsive tissues or organs to juvenile material, and narrowing the competence window. In this sense, in vitro regeneration of mature conifer trees has been a long-cherished goal in many laboratories worldwide. In this work, apical shoot buds were used as explants for both organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis in order to cloning mature trees of Aleppo pine. Reinvigorated axillary shoots were submitted to somatic embryogenesis induction through the manipulation of culture media, including the use of auxins such as 2,4-D and NAA, cytokinins (BA and kinetin) and phytosulfokine (50, 100 and 200 nM). Although somatic embryos could not be obtained, embryogenic-like tissue was produced followed by the appearance of actively proliferating non-embryogenic calli and differences between treatments were found, especially when phytosulfokine was added to the induction media. Organogenic system produced reinvigorated shoots from both BA treatments tested (22 and 44 µM), from juvenile somatic trees and adult trees, and ex-vitro acclimatized plants were developed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0650.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: biofertilizers; sustainable agriculture; plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; microbial formulations
Online: 26 September 2020 (16:48:22 CEST)
The world’s population is increasing and so are agricultural activities to match the growing demand for food. Conventional agricultural practices generally employ artificial fertilizers to increase crop yields, but these have multiple environmental and human health effects. For decades, environmentalists and sustainability researchers have focused on alternative crop fertilization mechanisms to address these challenges, and biofertilizers have constantly been researched, recommended, and even successfully-adopted for several crops. Biofertilizers are microbial formulations made of indigenous plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can naturally improve plant growth either directly or indirectly, through the production of phytohormones, solubilization of soil nutrients, and production of iron-binding metabolites; siderophores. Biofertilizers, therefore, hold immense potential as tools for sustainable crop production especially in the wake of climate change and global warming. Despite the mounting interest in this technology, their full potential has not yet been realized. This review updates our understanding of the PGPR biofertilizers and sustainable crop production. It evaluates the history of these microbial products, assesses their present state of utilization, and also critically propounds on their future prospects for sustainable crop production. Such information is desirable to fully evaluate their potential and can ultimately pave the way for their increased adoption for crop production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0563.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: plant development rate; temperature-dependent; landscape; multi-location trials
Online: 24 September 2020 (04:33:34 CEST)
Understanding the detailed timing of crop phenology and their variability enhances grain yield and quality by providing precise scheduling of irrigation, fertilization, and crop protection mechanisms. Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) provide a unique opportunity to develop agriculture-related tools that enhance wall-to-wall upscaling of data outputs from point-location data to wide-area spatial scales. Because of the heterogeneity of the worldwide agro-ecological zones where crops are cultivated, it is unproductive to perform plant phenology research without providing means to upscale results to landscape-level while safeguarding field-scale relevance. This paper presents an advanced, reproducible, and open-source software for plant phenology prediction and mapping (PPMaP) that inputs data obtained from multi-location field experiments to derive models for any crop variety. This information can then be applied consecutively at a localized grid within a spatial framework to produce plant phenology predictions at the landscape level. This software supports the development of process-oriented and temperature-driven plant phenology models by intuitively and interactively leading the user through a step-by-step progression to the production of spatial maps for any region of interest. Maize (Zea mays L.) was used to demonstrate the robustness, versatility, and high computing efficiency of the resulting modeling outputs of the PPMaP. The framework is implemented in R, providing a flexible and easy‐to‐use GUI interface. Since this allows appropriate scaling to the larger spatial domain, the software can effectively be used to determine the spatially explicit length of growing period (LGP) of any variety.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0321.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: 2019 Novel Coronavirus; plants; antiviral compounds; plant recombinant vaccines
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:15:18 CEST)
The proposal of novel drugs and approaches for effective treatment of the novel coronavirus is a necessity after the quick outbreak of the disease. Since the commencement of the coronavirus spread, enormous efforts have been made to protect, alleviate and cure the disease, though no specific treatment has been approved. While there have been convincing results in the use of chemical drugs and interferon therapy, such therapeutic approaches have various drawbacks and lack the required performance for the treatment of the new coronavirus. Medicinal plant species can provide a solution as a source of natural antiviral compounds by the accumulation of secondary metabolites and lectins as well as acting as a platform to express the viral immunogenic proteins. This study reviews the advantages and the results of previous research for the treatment of the novel coronavirus disease and previous generations of similar coronaviruses. Several plant-derived anti coronavirus compounds have been nominated that could be targeted for further research due to the similarity of the coronavirus disease in 2003 and the current coronavirus. This review regards plant species such as Scutellaria baicalensis (Baikal skullcap), and Utrica dioica (Stinging nettle) as suitable candidates for the new coronavirus antiviral research. Furthermore, the use of plants such as Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco) for the expression of the coronavirus viral antigens can be a target for the future vaccinal research of the new coronavirus due to the efficiency of expression and intrinsic antiviral properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0428.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: small hydropower plant; river flow; seasonal forecast; energy production
Online: 28 February 2020 (12:15:43 CET)
The operation feasibility of small hydropower plants in mountainous sites is subjected to the run-of-river flow which is also depending on a high variability in precipitation and snow cover. Moreover, the management of this kind of systems has to be performed with some particular operation conditions of the plant (e.g. turbine minimum and maximum discharge) but also some environmental flow requirements. In this context, a technological climate service is conceived in tight connection with end users, perfectly answering the needs of the management of small hydropower systems in a pilot area, and providing forecast of river streamflow together with other operation data. This paper presents an overview of the service but also a set of lessons learnt related to features, requirements and considerations to bear in mind from the point of view of climate services developers. In addition, the outcomes give insight into how this kind of services could change the traditional management (normally based on the past experience), providing a probability range of future river flow based on future weather scenarios according to the range of future weather possibilities. This highlights the utility of the co-generation process to implement climate services for water and energy fields but also that seasonal climate forecast could improve the business as usual of this kind of facilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0409.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Agronomic traits; Hybrid performance; Nitrogen response; Plant density; Variability
Online: 27 February 2020 (15:59:14 CET)
Maize (Zea mays L.) production in West and Central Africa is constrained by drought, low soil-N and Striga infestation. Breeders in the region have developed and commercialized extra-early and early-maturing hybrids (E-EH and EH), which combine high yield potentials with tolerance/resistance to the three stresses. Hybrids of both maturity groups are new to the farmers; thus, the urgent need to recommend appropriate agronomic practices for these hybrids. We investigated the responses of four hybrids belonging to extra-early and early-maturity groups to plant density (PD) and nitrogen (N) application in five agroecologies. The EHs consistently out-yielded the E-EHs in all the five agroecologies. The hybrids showed no response to N-fertilizer application above 90 kg ha-1. All interactions involving N had no significant effect on all traits except in few cases. The E-EHs and EHs had similar response to PD; their grain yield decreased as PD increased. Contrarily, flowering was delayed and expression of some other agronomic traits such as plant and ear aspects became poorer with increased PD. Optimal yield was obtained at approximately 90 kg N ha-1 and 66,666 plants ha-1. Most of the measured traits indicated high repeatability estimates (i.e. ≥ 60) across the N levels, PDs and environments. Evidently, the hybrids were intolerant of high PD.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0182.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: sustainable development; plant sciences; ecology; conservation; urbanism; synthetic biology
Online: 14 February 2020 (02:57:11 CET)
Increasingly, architects are looking towards nature to design more sustainable, efficient cities to reduce the environmental impact of urban life. At the moment, plants are incorporated into urban design for conservation or aesthetic reasons. Here, I argue plants can be rationally designed into synthetic systems based on chemical and other functional traits to increase the stability of urban infrastructure, protect native biodiversity, and promote human health while meeting key UN Sustainable Development Goals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0187.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Diabetes, eating patterns, DASH, Mediterranean, plant-based, low-carbohydrate
Online: 5 March 2019 (11:07:03 CET)
Over half of adult Americans now have diabetes or prediabetes and worse, this epidemic is now world-wide and shows no signs of slowing, with rates of both diabetes and diabetes-related health complications still rising. When advising patients with diabetes on food choices, many providers rely on nutrition guidelines provided by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and these guidelines influence other recommendations across the globe. Given the alarming trends in diabetes, it is paramount to review the treatment guidelines to ensure they are based on rigorous and accepted scientific methods. Our review included the evidence cited by the ADA in support of its claims and recommendations for eating patterns to combat diabetes (see Description of Eating Patterns, Supplemental Appendix), as presented in the most current edition of the annual ADA’s Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes (2018 Standards). Our review also includes sources cited in the latest edition of the ADA’s Nutrition Therapy Recommendations for Adults with Diabetes (2014 Recommendations), which also informed the 2018 Standards. In October 2018 low carbohydrate was named as a recommended eating pattern by the ADA and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD)5but only citations from the 2014 and early 2018 ADA documents were reviewed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0408.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Salvia pachyphylla; plant extracts; antioxidant; antimicrobial; antiproliferative; enzyme inhibitory
Online: 18 October 2018 (09:56:26 CEST)
The antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and enzyme inhibitory properties of five extracts from aerial parts of Salvia pachyphylla were examined to assess the prospective of this plant as a source of natural products with therapeutic potential. Those properties were analyzed performing a set of standard assays. The extract obtained with dichloromethane showed the most variety of components, as yielded promising results in all completed assays. Furthermore, the extract obtained with ethyl acetate exhibited that greatest antioxidant activity as well as the best xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Remarkably, both extracts obtained with n-hexane or dichloromethane revealed significant antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria; also, they showed greater antiproliferative activity against three representative cell lines of the most common types of cancers in women worldwide, and against a cell line that exemplifies cancers that typically develop drug resistance. Despite that other extracts were less active, such as the methanolic or aqueous, their results are promising for the isolation and identification of novel bioactive molecules.