ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0126.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Omicron; SARS-CoV-2; piRNAs; coronavirus genome; translation; replication
Online: 7 February 2023 (08:54:49 CET)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused the COVID-19 pandemic still able to infect the population in many countries. The Omicron strain is the most mutated variant of SARS-CoV-2. The high transmissibility of the strain and the ability to evade immunity require a priority study of its properties in order to quickly create effective means of preventing it. The present work is devoted to the study of in silico interaction of piRNAs with the genome of the SARS-CoV-2 (gRNA) in order to identify endogenous piRNAs and propose synthetic piRNAs with high antiviral activity for drug development. The studies were carried out using proven bioinformatic methods of interaction of the entire SARS-CoV-2 genome with more than eight million piRNAs. Binding sites (BSs) of piRNAs in the 5'UTR were located with overlapping nucleotide sequences called clusters of BSs. Several clusters of BSs were found in the nsp3, nsp7, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, endoRNAse, S surface glycoprotein, ORF7a and nucleocapsid. 16 synthetic piRNAs have been proposed that interact with gRNA with free binding energy from -170 kJ/mol to -175 kJ/mol, which can be used to create drugs that suppress the reproduction of SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; gene; mRNA; piRNA; diagnosis
Online: 15 May 2023 (12:43:54 CEST)
Recently, a database of human piRNAs has been created, which allows studying the binding of many piRNAs to mRNAs of genes involved in many diseases, including cancer. In the present work, we investigated what piRNAs can interact with candidate esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) genes. The binding of 480 thousand piRNAs with mRNAs of 66 candidate ESCC genes was studied. Bioinformatic studies found that piRNAs bind only to the mRNAs of nine candidate genes: AURKA, BMP7, GCOM1, ERCC1, MTHFR, SASH1, SIX4, SULT1A1, and TP53. It has been shown that piRNAs can bind to mRNA by overlapping nucleotide sequences in limited 3'UTR and 5'UTR regions called clusters of binding sites (BSs). The existence of clusters of piRNA BSs significantly reduces the proportion of nucleotide sequences of these sites in the mRNA of target genes. Competition between piRNAs occurs for binding to the mRNA of target genes. Individual piRNAs and groups of piRNAs that have separate BSs and clusters of BSs in the mRNAs of two or more candidate genes have been identified in the mRNAs of these genes. This organization of piRNAs BSs indicates the interdependence of the expression of candidate genes through piRNAs. Significant differences in the ability of genes to interact with piRNAs avoid the side effects of piRNAs on genes with the lack of binding of such piRNAs. Individual piRNAs and sets of piRNAs are proposed and recommended for the diagnosis and therapy of ESCC.