ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0542.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Passive drinking; perceived health status; mental health; family wellbeing; adolescents; Hong Kong Chinese
Online: 30 January 2023 (06:51:39 CET)
Background: Passive drinking is prevalent in adolescents worldwide, but its prevalence and harm are understudied. Methods: Secondary students (n=5840, grades 7-12) from 23 selected schools in Hong Kong participated in the survey from 2015-16. Students reported the harm of passive drinking, perceived health status, Patient Health Questionnaire-2, Perceived Stress Scale-4, perceived happiness, family health, happiness, and harmony in the questionnaire. The associations were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio, OR) and linear regression (unstandardized coefficient, b), adjusted for confounders. Results: 29.1% (95% CI 27.8 to 30.5%) of students experienced passive drinking in the past 30-day. Past 30-day parental passive drinking was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms (AOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.10), stress (adjusted b 0.76, 0.42 to 1.10), and lower level of perceived happiness (adjusted b -0.52, -0.72 to -0.33). Past 30-day parental passive drinking was associated with a lower level of family health (adjusted b -1.39, 95% CI -1.66 to -1.11), family happiness (adjusted b -1.36, -1.64 to -1.08), and family harmony (adjusted b -1.40, -1.70 to -1.10). Conclusion: Passive drinking was associated with poorer mental health, family wellbeing, and lower level of happiness among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0429.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Adolescents; passive drinking; forced drinking; alcohol misuse; interactive video-based education; pre-post intervention study
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:50:37 CEST)
Passive and forced drinking harm was prevalent but less recognized in Chinese adolescents. We educated adolescents on such harm to reduce their intention to drink. Students (n=1244) from 7 secondary schools in Hong Kong participated in a video-based health talk on passive and forced drinking harm. Paired t-test was used to assess their change in knowledge of passive and forced drinking, health and social harm of drinking after the health talk. McNemar's chi-squared test and adjusted multivariable logistic regression (AOR) were used to assess their change in intention to drink and intention to quit. Students were less likely to drink (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.19-0.42) and more likely to quit drinking (OR 3.50, 1.10-14.6) after the health talk. Increased knowledge of passive drinking was associated with less intention to drink (AOR 0.93, 0.90-0.97), increased knowledge of health harm (adjusted b 0.06, 0.05-0.08), and social harm of drinking (adjusted b 0.12, 0.10-0.16). Similar associations were observed in forced drinking (intention to drink: AOR 0.87, 0.79-0.96; health harm: adjusted b 0.16, 0.12-0.19; social harm: adjusted b 0.36, 0.28-0.43). We showed preliminary evidence that the health talk on passive and forced drinking reduced the intention to drink in adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0551.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica; stable carbon isotope (δ13C); ecological stoichiometry; environmental factors
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:36:01 CEST)
The decline in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in the introduction area has had a high profile in recent years. For the ecological restoration, management and silvicultural design of Mongolian pines in the introduction area, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive and in-depth study on the ecological adaptation mechanism of Mongolian pines in provenances. The ecological process of water and nutrient accumulation as well as the influence of environmental factors on the photosynthetic physiology are the key to revealing the ecological adaptation mechanism of Mongolian pines. According to the differences of climate in the distribution area of Mongolian pines, sampling sites were set up, the effects of environmental factors on leaf δ13C and the relationship between leaf δ13C and nutrient content were analyzed. The results showed that leaf δ13C values were ranging from - 29.7 ‰ to - 23.76 ‰. The ecological stoichiometry, including LC (522.81 mg·g-1), LN (16.04 mg·g-1), LP (1.19 mg·g-1) and L-N:P (13.56), indicated that leaf photosynthesis and water use efficiency is greatly affected by environmental conditions, Mongolian pines had strong ability of carbon fixation, and its growth was obviously restricted by nitrogen. Although there was no significant correlation between δ13C with stoichiometric parameters in leaf, photosynthesis was the key link in the process of carbon fixation. It also showed that Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica was a stomatal limited plant. Leaf δ13C had significant correlation with climatic factors. VPD is the dynamic factor affecting the photosynthetic physiological process in leaves. Air and soil moisture are the dominate factors affecting the leaf stomatal conductance and determines leaf δ13C value, while other factors indirectly affect leaf δ13C by its impact on relative humidity or soil water content. Soil phosphorus content affected by clay is a key factor affecting soil water availability and soil nutrient cycling. Photosynthetic process in leaf is the dynamic process affecting the nutrient accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1292.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: polythiophene; ZnO; CO2 reduction; photocatalysis; CH4
Online: 19 June 2023 (05:03:57 CEST)
In today's society, mankind is confronted with two major problems: the energy crisis and the greenhouse effect. The artificial photosynthesis can use solar energy to convert greenhouse gas CO2 into high-value compounds, which is an ideal solution to alleviate the energy crisis and solve the problem of global warming. The combination of ZnO and polythiophenes (PTh) can make up for each other's drawbacks, thus improving the photoresponse behavior and separation efficiency of photogenerated carriers. PTh layer can transfer photogenerated electrons to ZnO, thereby extending the lifetime of photogenerated charges. The production rate of CH4 from photoreduction of CO2 with ZnO/PTh10 is 4.3 times that of pure ZnO, and the selectivity of CH4 is increased from 70.2% to 92.2%. The conductive PTh can absorb photons to induce π–π* transition, the photogenerated electrons can transfer from LUMO to the conduction band (CB) of ZnO, thus more electrons involve in the reduction of CO2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0625.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Ethanol biosynthesis; Material metabolism
Online: 9 May 2023 (09:32:11 CEST)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) ethanol fermentation has left an indelible trace in human history. It is regarded as the original beverage synthesis, and has developed into an essential energy supply for mankind today. However, the history of ethanol synthesis using S. cerevisiae, including the mechanism analysis process, has not been carefully and succinctly reported. In this paper, we review the history of ethanol synthesis using S. cerevisiae. In addition, we also review the substrates that drive S. cerevisiae ethanol synthesis, including the utilization of glucose, sucrose, starch and molasses, in order to summarize the current development status and to contribute to the further improvement of this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1939.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: plastic biodegradation; marine PET hydrolase; enzymatic degradation; indole-based polyesters; PETase; PET.
Online: 27 June 2023 (16:24:19 CEST)
Enzymatic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) recycling processes are gaining interest for their low environmental impact, use of mild conditions, and specificity. Furthermore, PET hydrolase enzymes are continuously being discovered and engineered. In this work, we studied a PET hydrolase (PET2), initially characterized as an alkaline thermostable lipase. PET2 was produced in a fusion form with a 6-histidine tag in the N-terminal. The PET2 activity on aromatic terephthalate and new indole-based polyesters was evaluated using polymers in powder form. Compared with IsPETase, an enzyme derived from Ideonella sakaiensis, PET2 showed a lower PET depolymerization yield. However, interestingly, PET2 gave significantly higher polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polyhexylene terephthalate (PHT) depolymerization yields. A clear preference was found for aromatic indole-derived polyesters over non-aromatic ones. No activity was detected on Akestra™, an amorphous copolyester with spiroacetal structures. Docking studies suggest that a narrower and more hydrophobic active site reduces its activity on PET but favours its interaction with PBT and PHT. Understanding the enzyme preferences of polymers will contribute to their effective use to depolymerize different types of polyesters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0407.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: public health; physical activity; rural resident; physical exercise; epidemiology
Online: 26 October 2022 (09:51:36 CEST)
Physical inactivity is a well-known risk factor for various non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Sufficient physical activity (PA) is essential for the prevention of NCDs and thus it is imperative to study the current status of PA and its influencing factors among rural residents in China. A population-based survey was conducted in rural areas of Shandong, Shanxi and Yunnan Provinces using a stratified random sampling method. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-S) was used to collect the data on PA. A total of 3780 rural residents participated in the survey. The result showed that 22.2% of rural residents were physical inactivity. The proportion of rural residents reporting practice of physical exercise was 54.4%. The most frequently performed physical exercise was walking/brisk walking(78.3%).Binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female, people at age between 15 to 34 years or 60 years old and above, employees of governmental departments/retirees, school students, the unemployed, people with NCDs were risk factors of PA and ethnic minority groups,smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors of physical exercise. Health promotion programme aiming at increasing people’s PA in rural China is needed and it should focus on the populations groups of the female, people at age 60 years and above ,school students, the unemployed, and people with NCDs.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; health literacy; information sharing; family well-being; preventive measures
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:40:50 CET)
Objective: We tested a model of individual health literacy information sharing with family members, personal preventive behaviours and family well-being during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Hong Kong. Methods: We analysed data of 1501 randomly selected Chinese adults from a cross-sectional survey in Hong Kong from 9 to 23 April, 2020. Individual health literacy about COVID-19 with the items extracted from the questionnaire in World Health Organization Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE) Action Plan Guidance for COVID-19 preparedness and response, COVID-19 information sharing with family members, preventive behaviours against COVID-19 and family well-being were measured. Structural equation modelling analysis tested the proposed model. Findings: COVID-19 information sharing with family members partially mediated the association between individual health literacy and personal preventive behaviours. The direct eﬀect of 0.24 was shown, and the indirect eﬀect through COVID-19 information sharing with family members was small at 0.03 (Z = 3.66, p < 0.001). Family well-being was associated with personal preventive behaviours against COVID-19. The model was adjusted for sex, age, and socioeconomic status factors and had good ﬁt with RMSEA = 0.04, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.96, and SRMR = 0.02. Conclusion: COVID-19 information sharing with family members was a partial mediator between individual health literacy and personal preventive behaviours against COVID-19. Strategies for enhancing health literacy and preventive measures against COVID-19 are needed to promote family well-being in the pandemic.