ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0368.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: semi-structured complex numbers; trigonometry; Euler formulas; quaternions; singularities; engineering; science
Online: 21 March 2023 (04:30:05 CET)
Recently, a paper was written to reformulate and strengthen the theory of semi-structured complex numbers H (a new number set invented to enable division by zero). Whilst the paper had profound results, the application of this number set in many areas of engineering and science has not been fully explored. Consequently, the aim of this paper was to establish the number set H as a useful mathematical tool by providing an amalgam of results arising from its application in several areas of engineering and science. In the process, this paper makes four major contributions: these are (1) determining the product of the gradients of a horizontal and vertical line; (2) developing new Euler formulas relating exponential, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions in the 3D semi-structured complex number Euclidean space; (3) establishing semi-structured complex numbers as a better extension of the complex number set than quaternions; (4) resolving singularities that may arise in engineering and science equations (because of division by zero) to develop reasonable conclusions in the absence of experimental data. These results and their applications provide a firm foundation to advance the number set H as a useful mathematical tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0007.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Semi-structured complex numbers; Division by zero; computer science; Calculator; Exception handling
Online: 3 April 2023 (04:26:06 CEST)
Semi-structured complex numbers H was a number set developed to enable division by zero in ordinary algebraic equations. Its utility has been shown in mathematics and engineering. However, very little has been done to show its usefulness in computer science. Consequently, the aim of this paper was to show the utility of semi-structured complex numbers in computer science by developing a division by zero calculator. First two computer programs were written, one for a standard (STD) calculator and the other for a division by zero (DBZ) calculator. The programs were fed 20000 randomly generated arithmetic equations of varying lengths and the space and time complexity associated with processing these equations were measured and compared to determine the efficiency of each calculator. In the process, three major contributions were made: (1) A representation for semi-structured complex numbers that enables it to be easily used by a computer was developed; (2) It was demonstrated that the DBZ calculator outperforms the STD calculator in terms of efficiency; and, (3) It was shown that the number set H reduced the amount of error handling required to run a computer program. These results provide a firm foundation to advance the number set as a useful tool in computer science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1253.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: semi-structured complex numbers; mass; schrödinger’s wave function; einstein’s field equations; wave-particle duality
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:36:13 CEST)
Recently, a paper was written to establish semi-structured complex numbers ℍ (a new number set invented to enable division by zero) as a useful mathematical tool providing novel results from its application in engineering and science. Whilst the paper was a milestone, the application of this number set to quantum and classical physics had not been fully explored. Consequently, the aim of this research was to use semi-structured complex numbers to develop a new mathematical model for the mass of an object and in course unite classical and quantum physics in a simple yet effective manner. As its major contributions this paper: (1) develops a new mathematical model for the mass of an object called the wave-mass function using De Broglie’s mass and frequency relation and semi-structured complex numbers; (2) uses the new wave-mass function to determine what happens to an object traveling at the speed of light; (3) derives a relation between Schrödinger’s wave function and the new wave-mass function; (4) derives a relation between Einstein’s Field Equation and the new wave-mass function; (5) uses the wave-mass function to combine Einstein’s Field Equation with Schrödinger’s wave function to form a new quantum gravity equation. These results and their applications provide a firm foundation to advance the number set ℍ as a useful mathematical tool.