ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0024.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Iranian traditional medicine; Persian medicine; ontology; knowledge-base; Mizaj; temperament; new drug discovery
Online: 3 November 2019 (17:07:50 CET)
Background: Iranian traditional medicine is a holistic school of medicine with a long prolific history. It describes numerous concepts and the relationships between them. However, no unified terminology has been proposed for the concepts of this medicine up to the present time. Considering the extensive use of concepts in the numerous textbooks written by the scholars over centuries, comprehending the totality of the terminology is obviously a very challenging task. To resolve this issue and overcome the obstacles, and code the concepts in a reusable manner, constructing an ontology of the concepts of Iranian traditional medicine seems a necessity.Methods: Makhzan al-Advieh, an encyclopedia of materia medica compiled by Mohammad Hossein Aghili Khorasani, was selected as the resource to create an ontology of Mizaj. The steps followed to accomplish this task included (1) compiling the list of classes for Mizaj; (2) arranging the classes in taxonomy; (3) determining object properties and their cardinalities; (4) specifying annotation properties including codes, labels, synonyms, and definitions for each concept; (5) reviewing the fields pertaining to Mizaj of all monographs in Makhzan al-Advieh. The ontology was created using Protégé with adherence to the principles of ontology development provided by the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) foundry. Results: Mizaj ontology was constructed with a final inclusion of 105 classes, three object properties, and 1078 axioms in the Iranian Traditional Medicine General Ontology database, IrGO, freely available at http://jafarilab.com/irgo/. An indented tree view and an interactive graph view using WebVOWL were used to visualize the ontology. All classes were linked to their instances in the UNaProd database to create a knowledge-base of Mizaj. Conclusion: We constructed an ontology-based knowledge base of ITM concepts of Mizaj in the domain of materia medica to help offer a shared and common understanding of this concept, enable reuse of the knowledge, and make the assumptions explicit. Extending IrGO will bridge the gap between traditional and conventional schools of medicine and help guide future research on new treatment options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0428.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: caring thinking; Persian; curriculum; first secondary education
Online: 28 July 2022 (06:21:09 CEST)
Caregiving thinking is the ability to make connections between thought and emotion and encourages man to build a system of reflective value to judge matters compassionately and lovingly. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the components of caring thinking in Persian books in the first year of secondary education. This research is a descriptive and content analysis using the Shannon Entropy method. The sources analyzed are three volumes of the textbook of the first year of high school in 2021-2022. The research tool is a content analysis checklist according to the components of caring thinking, the validity of which was verified by Five experts in education. According to the analysis of the content of the book under study, it can be stated that in the Persian textbooks of the first year of high school, the critical factor of the component of normative thinking (0.2051), the component of appreciative thinking (0.2043), the component of active thinking (0.2020), Was the component of empathetic thinking (0.1957) and the component of affective thinking (0.1929). Therefore, the coefficient of the importance of the components of caring thinking in the Persian books of the first year of high school is not the same, and balance is not observed in regulating the content of these books. Considering the vital role of caring thinking in students' lives, it is suggested that the authors of textbooks pay attention to this crucial issue while reviewing the content of Persian books in the first year of high school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0298.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Arabian/Persian Gulf; Lagrangian model; pollutant transport; tide; baroclinic circulation
Online: 17 September 2021 (08:07:30 CEST)
A rapid-response Lagrangian model for simulating the transport of a chemical pollutant in the Arabian/Persian Guls is described. The model is well suited to provide a fast response after an emergency due to an accident or a deliberate spill. Baroclinic circulation was obtained from HYCOM ocean model and tides were calculated using a barotropic model. The interactions of pollutants with sediments (uptake/release processes) were described using a dynamic approach based on kinetic transfer coefficients and a stochastic numerical method. Some examples of model applications are shown.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0220.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Almond; Persian walnut; Pistachio; Hazelnut; Pecan; Chestnut; grafting; graft compatibility
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:52:06 CEST)
The production and consumption of nuts are increasing in the world due to strong economic returns and the nutritional value of their products. With the increasing role and importance given to nuts (i.e., walnuts, hazelnut, pistachio, pecan, almond) in a balanced and healthy diet and in the prevention of various diseases, breeding of the nuts species has also been stepped up. Most recent fruit breeding programs have focused on scion genetic improvement. However, the use of locally adapted grafted rootstocks also enhanced the productivity and quality of tree fruit crops. Grafting is an ancient horticultural practice use in nut crops to manipulate scion phenotype and productivity and overcome biotic and abiotic stresses. There are complex rootstock breeding objectives and physiological and molecular aspects of rootstock–scion interactions in nut crops. In this review, we provide an overview of these, considering the mechanisms involved in nutrient and water uptake, regulation of phytohormones, and rootstock influences on the scion molecular processes, including long-distance gene silencing and trans-grafting. Understanding the mechanisms resulting from rootstock × scion × environmental interactions will contribute to developing new rootstocks with resilience in the face of climate change, but also of the multitude of diseases and pests and of the possible increase of their aggressiveness. They will also have to offer the premises of economic production, respectively yield and the quality, according to multiple destinations of nuts in the current consumption and food industry, but also the increasing exigencies of the consumer market and the profile industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0058.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Aeolian geomorphology; Arabian Peninsula; Arabian/Persian Gulf; remote sensing; Holocene landscape change
Online: 3 May 2018 (08:51:13 CEST)
Barchan dune fields are a dominant landscape feature in SE Qatar and a key element of the peninsula’s geodiversity. The migration of barchan dunes is mainly controlled by dune size, wind pattern, vegetation cover and human impact. We investigate the variability of dune migration in Qatar over a time period of 50 years using high-resolution satellite and aerial imagery and explore its relation to the regional Shamal wind system, teleconnection patterns, and limitations in sand supply associated with the transgression of the Arabian Gulf. We detect strong size-dependent differences in migration rates of individual dunes as well as significant decadal variability on a dune-field scale, which was found to be correlating with the intensity of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM). High uncertainties associated with the extrapolation of migration rates back into the Holocene, however, do not permit to further specify the timing of the loss of sand supply and the onset of the mid-Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) highstand. For the youngest phase considered in this study (2006–2015), human impact is anticipated to have accelerated dune migration under a weakening Shamal regime through sand mining and excessive vehicle frequentation upwind of the core study area.