ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0012.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: traffic-rules; traffic-regulations; crowdsourcing; GPS-trace; trajectories; classification; movement patterns; clustering; collective-behaviour; smart city
Online: 1 July 2022 (10:00:55 CEST)
In this paper, a new method is proposed to detect traffic regulations at intersections using GPS traces. The knowledge of traffic rules of regulated locations can help various location-based applications in the context of Smart Cities, such as the accurate estimation of travel time and fuel consumption from a starting point to a destination. Traffic regulations as map features, however, are surprisingly still largely absent from maps, although they do affect traffic flow which in turn affects vehicle idling time at intersections, fuel consumption, CO_2 emissions and arrival time. In addition, mapping them using surveying equipment is costly and any update process has severe time constraints. This fact is precisely the motivation for this study. Therefore, its objective is to propose an automatic, fast, scalable and inexpensive way to identify the type of intersection control (e.g. traffic lights, stop signs). A new method based on summarizing the collective behavior of vehicles crossing intersections is proposed. A modification of a well-known clustering algorithm for detecting stopping and decelerating events is presented. These detected events are then used to categorize vehicle crossing of intersections into four possible traffic categories (p1: free flow, p2: deceleration without stopping events, p3: only one stopping event, p4: more than one stopping event). The percentages of crossings of each class per junction arm, together with other speed/stop/deceleration features, extracted from trajectories, are then used as features to classify the junction arms according to their traffic control type dynamic model). The classification results of the dynamic model are compared with those of the static model, where the classification features are extracted from OpenStreetMap. Finally, a hybrid model is also tested, where a combination of dynamic and static features is used, which outperforms the other two models. For each of the three models, two variants of the feature vector are tested: one where only features associated with a single junction arm are used (one-arm model) and another where features also from neighbouring junction arms of the same junction are used to classify an arm (all-arm model). The methodology was tested on three datasets and the results show that all-arm models perform better than single-arm models with an accuracy of 94\% to 97\%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0451.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Bilateral Line Local Binary Patterns; Facial matrix; Statistical subspace; Face recognition; Calibrated SVM model; Ensemble learning
Online: 27 May 2020 (12:07:19 CEST)
Local binary pattern is one of the visual descriptors and can be used as a powerful feature extractor for texture classification. In this paper, a novel representation for face recognition is proposed, called it Bilateral Line Local Binary Patterns (BL-LBP). This scheme is an extension of Line Local Binary Patterns descriptors in the statistical learning subspace. The present bilateral descriptors are fused with an ensemble learning of calibrated SVM models. The performance of this scheme is evaluated using 5 standard face databases. It is found that it is robust against illumination variation, diverse facial expressions and head pose variations and its recognition accuracy reaches 98 percent, running on a mobile device with a processing speed of 63 ms per face. Results suggest that our proposed method can be very useful for the vision systems that have limited resources where the computational cost is critical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0651.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Abstraction; Complexity Management; Patterns; Generative Patterns
Online: 25 March 2021 (17:29:09 CET)
According to many researchers, Abstraction is the basis of mathematics, computing, counting devices, and computer science and engineering. What is more, all of the above deal with complexity management in some way, and abstraction is the most basic mechanism of complexity management.Generative software development - whether in the sense of empowering humans by machine to create software or in the sense of reusing products - has been and is one of the serious concerns and goals of software engineering. The interesting thing is that in both views of generativity, the main issue is still, in a way, complexity management: whether this complexity management is to achieve diversity and reuse management (Czarnecki’s approach) or to Structuring from existing structures (the approach of Alexander and his followers in an object-oriented society).In this article, we will first look at complexity and its various definitions. The definitions that show, despite the different perspectives on complexity in different disciplines and domains, all point in one direction. We will conclude that complexity is rooted in multiplicity. In the following, we will formally define complexity. In the following discussion, we will look at the generative patterns of software development, and then we will look at the complexity management patterns at seven levels.In this article, the author has tried to maintain a comprehensive approach to complexity and to consider the approaches of different domains to complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0054.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Patterns recognition; Machine learning; Hereditary Ataxia diseases; K-Nearest Neighbors; Multi Layer Perceptron; Ensemble Classification Trees; SVM.
Online: 2 December 2020 (09:33:15 CET)
The progressive impairment analysis in gait from neurological diseases patients such as Hereditary Ataxias (HA) has been carried out using gait data collected with movement sensors. This research is focused on finding the minimum amount required of gait features to recognize efficiently and less intrusive way, HA patients based on data collected with iPhone movement sensors placed on the ankles from 14 HA patients and 14 healthy people. A twofold proposal is made , first a local minimum prominent peak criterion to find out the starting point of each stride, to get 10-stride window about which 56 spatial-temporal features are derived; second a search strategy based on Hill Climbing algorithm to reduce the number of gait features and sensors. The main results were the findings that with two gait patterns a 96% of classification accuracy was achieved by using K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) algorithms, but in addition, MLP only right ankle sensor patterns were required which also allows to reduce the intrusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0418.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Security patterns; Software patterns; Systematic literature review (SLR)
Online: 16 November 2020 (12:13:53 CET)
Security patterns encompass security-related issues in secure software system development and operations that often appear in certain contexts. Since the late 1990s about 500 security patterns have been proposed. Although the technical components are well investigated, the direction, overall picture, and barriers to implementation are not. Here, a systematic literature review of 240 papers is used to devise a taxonomy for security pattern research. Our taxonomy and the survey results should improve communications among practitioners and researchers, standardize the terminology, and increase the effectiveness of security patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: cloud computing; security patterns; privacy patterns; software and system architecture
Online: 9 April 2019 (11:46:02 CEST)
Requirements for cloud services include security and privacy. Although many security patterns, privacy patterns, and non-pattern-based knowledge have been reported, knowing which pattern or combination of patterns to use in a specific scenario is challenging due to the sheer volume of options and the layered cloud stack. To deal with security and privacy in cloud services, this study proposes the Cloud Security and Privacy Metamodel (CSPM). CSPM uses a consistent approach to classify and support existing security and privacy patterns. In addition, CSPM is used to develop a security and privacy awareness process to develop cloud systems. The effectiveness and practicality of CSPM is demonstrated via several case studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0197.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: precipitation; seasonal; airmass; spatial patterns
Online: 9 October 2019 (04:38:32 CEST)
This paper characterizes the influence of synoptic-scale air mass conditions on spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation in North Carolina over a 16-year period (2003-2018). National Center for Environmental Prediction Stage IV multi-sensor precipitation estimates were used to describe seasonal variations in precipitation in the context of prevailing air mass conditions classified using the spatial synoptic classification system. Spatial analyses identified significant clustering of high daily precipitation amounts distributed along the east side of the Appalachian Mountains and along the coastal plains. Significant and heterogeneous clustering was prevalent in summer months and tended to coincide with land cover boundaries and complex terrain. The summer months were dominated by maritime tropical air mass conditions whereas dry moderate air mass conditions prevailed in the winter, spring, and fall. Between the three geographic regions of North Carolina, highest precipitation amounts were received in western North Carolina during the winter and spring, and in eastern North Carolina in the summer and fall. Central North Carolina received the least amount of precipitation; however, there was substantial variability between regions due to prevailing air mass conditions. There was an observed shift toward warmer and more humid air mass conditions in the winter, spring, and fall months throughout the study period (2003-2018), indicating a shift toward air mass conditions conducive to higher daily average rain rates in North Carolina.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0060.v1
Subject: Keywords: mobile app, software quality anti-patterns
Online: 5 December 2019 (04:16:35 CET)
As the time passes the modification in technology world lead to the evaluation in mobile application as well. With evaluation in mobile industry it is an open challenge for software quality researcher that how to enhance software quality to meet the needs of changes? Quality assurance play a key role in differentiating good application from bed application. With the continuous evaluation of mobile application developing process should be quick and efficient to comply with user requirements and satisfaction. While the listed requirement leads to bad design choices known as antipatterns, which in turn affect the reliability of the code. A tool based method PAPRIKA is used in the proposed re-search to identify and monitor these antipatterns together with a two-step assessment model for software quality assurance and object oriented software quality matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0117.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Body sensor network; Smart home, knowledge discovery in BSN data; frequent patterns; periodic patterns and productive pattern.
Online: 18 April 2017 (18:15:50 CEST)
The understanding of various health-oriented vital sign data generated from body sensor networks (BSN) and discovery of the association between the generated parameters is an important task that may assist and promote important decision making in healthcare. For example, in a smart home scenario where the occupants’ health status is continuously monitored remotely, it is essential to provide required assistance when an unusual or critical situation is detected in their vital sign data. In this paper, we present an efficient approach to mine the incomplete (partial) periodic patterns obtained from BSN data. In addition, we employ a correlation test on the generated patterns and introduce the productive-associated partial periodic frequent patterns as the set of correlated partial periodical frequent items. The combination of these measures has the advantage of empowering healthcare providers and patients for quality of diagnosis, and also for better treatment and smart care, especially for the elderly people at smart home. We developed an efficient algorithm named PPFP-Growth (Productive Periodic Frequent Pattern growth) to discover all productive associated partial periodic patterns using these measures. PPFP-Growth is efficient, and the productiveness measure removes uncorrelated periodic items. An experimental evaluation on synthetic and real datasets shows the efficiency of the proposed PPFP-Growth algorithm, and can filter a huge number of partial periodic patterns to reveal only the correlated ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0071.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: ordinal patterns; Permutation entropy; Approximate entropy; Sample entropy; Conditional entropy of ordinal patterns; Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy; classification
Online: 17 February 2017 (16:41:32 CET)
During the last years some new variants of Permutation entropy have been introduced and applied to EEG analysis, among them a conditional variant and variants using some additional metric information or being based on entropies different from the Shannon entropy. In some situations it is not completely clear what kind of information the new measures and their algorithmic implementations provide. We discuss the new developments and illustrate them for EEG data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0320.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: re-usability; patterns; interoperability; geographic information systems
Online: 18 August 2018 (05:38:06 CEST)
Reuse of patterns is a self-evident approach for managing interoperability concerns. Although patterns for resolving interoperability barriers exist in the literature, no study exists on adoption of interoperability patterns by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) practitioners in industry. Thus there is limited understanding of pattern re-usability, yet the advantages offered by interoperability patterns provide a reasonably sound justification for their usage. This paper examines the adoption of proven interoperability best practices in the GIS industry. An empirical study that involved the use of semi-structured interviews was employed to gather data from GIS developers on domain interoperability best practices. Results indicated that industry and communities of practice have been converging on the technical level to ensure interoperability of GIS concerns. Semantic interoperability and related patterns are least understood, yet semantic barriers still exist. This is partly due to the complexity associated with the top-down approach used to develop semantic interoperability solutions. Therefore, this study proposes research into resolving barriers in the adoption of interoperability patterns that reduce complexity while solving semantic interoperability barriers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0099.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Moiré patterns; MoS2; Graphene; WS2; WSe2; HRTEM
Online: 24 October 2016 (05:03:50 CEST)
We present a series of computer-assisted high resolution transmission electron (HRTEM) simulations to determine Moiré patters by induced twisting effects between slabs at rotational angles of 3°, 5°, 8°, and 16°, for molybdenum disulfide, graphene, tungsten disulfide, and tungsten selenide layered materials. In order to investigate the electronic structure, a series of numerical simulations using DFT methods was completed using CASTEP with a generalized gradient approximation to determine both band structure and density of states on honeycomb like new superlattices. Our results indicate metallic transitions when rotation approaches 8° with respect to each other for most of the two-dimensional systems that were analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: household food waste; diets; food choices; dietary patterns
Online: 28 October 2022 (08:53:01 CEST)
Starting from an original survey conducted in eight countries in 2021 (Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, UK, and USA), this research explores the relationship between household food waste and dietary habits in a cross-country comparative perspective. 8,000 questionnaires were recorded from samples representative of adult population of each country through an online survey conducted between the 13th and the 24th of August. The questionnaires were built on the work of Waste Watcher International Observatory on Food and Sustainability, an international observatory of social, behavioral and lifestyles dynamics behind household food waste. Relationship between per capita self-reported amount of food waste (expressed in kilocalories) and self-declared dietary habits (Traditional, Healthy and Sustainable, Vegetarian, Smart, Confused) was estimated using multiple linear regression models. Results show that Smart diets are associated with higher values of food waste in Canada, Spain, UK and USA. Vegetarian diets are associated to lower food waste values in China, Germany, UK and USA but not in Italy, Russia and Spain. Since the share of population adopting a Smart diet is on average 2.7% of the sample, interventions for food waste reduction should focus on this specific type of consumers, often associated to larger amounts of food waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases; Sex differences; Pakistani; Dietary intake patterns
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:30:30 CEST)
Objective: To explore sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) related risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and nutritional differences among 40-60 years old Pakistani CVD patients.Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study.Setting: The present study was conducted at the Mayo/King Edward Medical University (K.E.M.U) Hospital Cardiology Department (CCU-I & CCU-II), Lahore, from February 2020 to June 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.Participants: A random sample of 300 cardiac patients was included in the study. Patient records, food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall was used to solicit information about demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical measurements; dietary intake parameters; and CVD risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking. Results: Men CVD patients had higher BMI (33.43 kg/m2 vs. 28.69 kg/m2) and higher prevalence of hypertension (81.1% vs. 59%), hypercholesterolemia (82.4% vs. 54.5%) and smoked more cigarettes (72.6% vs. 9%) as compared to women while there was higher prevalence of diabetes among women as compared to men (59% vs. 29.4%). There were 85% women vs. 80% men consuming white bread, while half of the men reported using meat daily, as compared to only 16.6% women. There were 51.5% women and 17% men who reported consuming fruits and vegetables daily. There were 40% men and 16% women who reported consuming soft drinks. Conclusion: The study showed significant sex differences in the nutritional status and risk factors of patients with CVD.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: HMW adiponectin; leptin; dietary patterns; breast cancer survivors
Online: 20 August 2021 (15:30:06 CEST)
Dietary pattern (DP) and its relationship with disease biomarkers has received recognition in nutritional epidemiology investigations. However, DP relationships with adipokines (i.e., adiponectin and leptin) among breast cancer survivors remain unclear. Therefore, we assessed relationships between DP with high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and leptin concentration among breast cancer survivors. This cross-sectional study involved 128 breast cancer survivors who attended the oncology outpatient clinic at two main government hospitals in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The serum concentration of HMW adiponectin and leptin were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Reduced rank regression method was used to analyze DP. Relationships between DP with HMW adiponectin and leptin were examined using regression models. Findings showed that a one-unit increase in the ‘energy-dense, high-saturated fat and low-fiber’ DP z-score was associated with a 0.41 µg/mL lower HMW adiponectin (95% CI: -0.806, -0.014) which was independent of age, BMI, cancer stage, duration since diagnosis, education level and occupation status. A similar relationship with leptin concentration was not observed. In conclusion, ‘energy-dense, high-saturated fat and low-fiber’ DP, which is characterized by high sugar-sweetened drink and fat-based spread but low intake of fruits and vegetables, is an unhealthy dietary pattern and unfavorable for HMW adiponectin concentration but not for leptin. These findings could serve as a basis in developing specific preventive strategies that are tailored to the growing population of breast cancer survivors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0517.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: agricultural productivity; cropping patterns; Kenya; multi-data analysis
Online: 26 October 2020 (11:44:04 CET)
The proportion of area under various crops at a given point in time, known as a cropping pattern, plays an essential role in determining the level of agricultural production. In this study, cropping patterns of three sub-counties in Murang’a County, a typical African smallholder farming area in Kenya, were mapped. Specifically, we compared the performance of eight classification scenarios for mapping cropping patterns; namely using (i) only Sentinel-2 reflectance bands (S2), (ii) S2 and S2 derived vegetation indices (VIs); (iii) S2 and S2 vegetation phenology (VP); (iv) S2 and Sentinel-1 radar backscatter data (S1); (v) S2, VIs, and S1; (vi) S2, VP, and S1; (vii) S2, VIs and VP, and (viii) S2, VIs, VP and S1. Reference data of the dominant cropping patterns and non-croplands were collected. The guided regularized random forest (GRRF) algorithm was used to select the optimum variables and to perform the respective classification for each scenario. The most accurate result of the overall accuracy of 93.16% was attained from the scenario (viii) S2, VIs, VP, and S1. The McNemar’s test of significance did not show significant differences (p≤0.05) among the tested scenarios. Our study demonstrated the strength of GRRF and the synergetic advantage of S2 and S1 derivatives to map cropping patterns in a heterogeneous landscape where high resolution imagery are inaccessible. Our cropping pattern mapping approach can be used in other sites of relatively similar agro-ecological conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0010.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: forecasting; complex dynamics; fiber laser; chaos; ordinal patterns
Online: 2 November 2018 (04:21:25 CET)
Being able to forecast events is of great importance in many fields, from brain behavior to earthquakes or stock markets. Because each dynamical system has intrinsic features, different statistical tools have to be used for each system. Here we study the time series of the output intensity of a fiber laser with an ordinal patterns analysis, and we look for temporal correlations in order to statistically forecast the most intense events. We set two thresholds, a low one and a high one, to distinguish between low intensity versus high intensity events. We find that when the time series is performing events below the low threshold it shows some preferred temporal patterns before performing events above a high threshold.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0495.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Global Innovation Index; Nanochemistry; Development; GII; and Technology patterns
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:48:39 CET)
Trends focused on the Global Innovation Index (GII) as a measure for progress of nanochemistry. This paper provides projections of recent developments in the word in nanochemistry based on the Global Innovation Index as a predictor for certain Arab countries. The GII is an annual ranking of countries by its ability and performance in innovation and is calculated on a basic average from five and two pillars in two sub-indexes, the Innovation Input Index and the Innovation Output Index. Each pillar represents a trait of creativity and consists of up to five measures, with a weighted average formula for measuring their ranking. In 2008, the GII rose to 36.3 in 2016 from 0.5. The GII is smaller than the GII in Arabic countries worldwide. During the years 2013-2016, the worldwide GII was increasing while for the same period, for Arabic countries, this decline could be explained by economic and industrial wars in the Arab region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0377.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diet; living environment; dietary patterns; characteristics of regions; Russia
Online: 21 December 2022 (02:50:22 CET)
The goal of our study was to examine the effect of regional characteristics of living environment on individual a priori and a posteriori dietary patterns of the Russian population. For the analysis, we used cross-sectional data from the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Regions of the Russian Federation study of 2013-2014. The sample included 18,054 men and women 25-64 years of age from 12 regions. Based on the frequency of consumption of basic foods, four a posteriori empirical dietary patterns (EDPs), along with an a priori cardioprotective dietary pattern (CPDP) were identified. To describe the regional living environment, 5 regional indices were used. The adherence to the meat-based EDP was directly associated with deterioration of social living conditions and the more northerly location of the region of residence. The probability of CPDP increased with deterioration of social living conditions, an aggravation of demographic crisis, higher industrial development of the region, as well as with a decline in the economic development of the region, income and economic inequality of the population. We detected some gender-dependent differences in associations. The revealed patterns reflect the national dietary preferences of Russians, and regional indices characterize the effect of living environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Citation patterns; Age groups of researchers; Types of publications.
Online: 17 August 2021 (15:09:37 CEST)
The evaluation of research proposals and academic careers is subject to indicators of scientific productivity. Citations are critical signs of impact for researchers, and many indicators are based on these data. The literature shows that there are differences in citation patterns between areas. The scope and depth that these differences may have to motivate the extension of these studies considering types of articles and age groups of researchers. In this work, we conducted an exploratory study to elucidate what evidence there is about the existence of these differences in citation patterns. To perform this study, we collected historical data from Scopus. Analyzing these data, we evaluate if there are measurable differences in citation patterns. This study shows that there are evident differences in citation patterns between areas, types of publications, and age groups of researchers that may be relevant when carrying out researchers’ academic evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0089.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Pasteurella multocida; antimicrobial resistance genes; antimicrobial susceptibility patterns; swine
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:47:26 CEST)
Forty-eight Pasteurella multocida isolates were recovered from porcine pneumonic lungs collected in Norwestern Spain (2017- 2019). These isolates were characterized for their minimal inhibition concentrations to twelve antimicrobial agents and for the appearance of eight resistance genes: tetA, tetB, blaROB1, blaTEM, ermA, ermC, mphE and msrE. Relevant resistance percentages were shown to teracyclines, sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim and tiamulin, thus suggesting that P. multocida isolates were mostly susceptible to amoxicillin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, marbofloxacin and macrolides. 29.2% of isolates were resistant to more than two antimicrobials. The tetracycline resistance genes (tetA and tetB) were detected in 22.9% of the isolates, but none was positive to both simultaneously; blaROB1 and blaTEM genes were found in one third of isolates but both genes were detected simultaneously in only one isolate. ermC gene was observed in 41.7% of isolates, a percentage that decreased until 22.9% for msrE; finally, ermA was harboured by 16.7% and mphE was not found in any of them. Six clusters were established based on hierarchical clustering analysis on antimicrobial susceptibility for the twelve antimicrobials. Generally, it was unable to foresee the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for each family and the association of each particular isolate inside the clusters established from the presence or absence of the resistance genes analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0083.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Cardiorespiratory Fitness; Muscle Strength; Feeding Patterns; Life Style; Children
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:27:07 CET)
Background: The relationship between adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and both physical fitness (PF) and physical activity (PA) level has been analysed in several studies. The aim of this research was to describe, compare and analyse the level of PF and PA in schoolchildren aged 6-13 in the Region of Murcia, according to adherence to the MD. Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 370 schoolchildren (44.9% girls) aged 6-13 (8.7±1.8) from six primary schools in the Region of Murcia (Spain). Results: Only 25.9% of the schoolchildren had optimal adherence to the MD. Regarding the scores of the different PF tests in MD groups, only statistically significant differences were found for CRF (p=0.048) in boys. PA level, showed statistically significant differences in both boys (p=0.040) and girls (p=0.016). A positive relationship was found between the KIDMED index and CRF (ρ=.127), standing broad jump (ρ=.133) and PA level (ρ=.235). A higher probability of having a greater CRF (OR=1.17; CI95%=1.02–1.34) and PA level (OR=7.84; CI95%=2.84–21.60) was found in High MD group. Conclusion: These results suggest that an optimal adherence to the MD is associated with higher CRF and PA level in the selected schoolchildren.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0012.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: debris flow initiation; critical discharge; rainfall patterns; distributed hydrological
Online: 2 January 2020 (04:47:49 CET)
A debris flows generation related to a poorly sorted mixture of soil, catchment topography and rainfall characteristic. Runoff of some depth on valley resulting from intensive rainfall can incur the sediments movement of beds or adjacent banks. The fluid flow in channel affected by rainfall parameters combinations, such as duration, intensity, cumulative rainfall, etc., is the key factor for debris movement. In this paper, the rainfall characteristics and occurrence conditions of debris flow in Xiongmao gully on July, 26th, 2016, have been explored, combined with field survey and indoor simulation experiment on the collected critical discharge parameters of debris movement. Further, debris distribution and the critical discharge characteristics have been analysed, by means of investigation on the catchment topography and occurrence cause of the debris flow, analysis of the critical discharge parameters on which the channel debris began to move, and K value clustering analysis method to characterize the rainfall pattern of the studied area, the discharge calculation of debris flow occurring in different rainfall patterns. The results have shown that, for the debris flow occurrence in Xiongmao gully, the debris initiation on the middle reaches of the gully provide the majority of solid particles for the disaster on July, 26th, 2016, and the upstream confluent provided catchment. Based on the relationship obtained from laboratory test, in which the calculated critical discharge was 43.8m3/s, less than the peak discharge (Qc =66.7m3/s), calculated by morphological method. In addition, it has been indicated that the dominated rainfall patterns of the studied area are first-quartile and second-quartile, that is, the rainfall is primarily at earlier or middle to preliminary stage of this time rainfall event. The critical discharge for the occurrence of debris flow on July, 26th was achieved 20a rainfall frequency, the larger runoff volume generated on shorten heavily rainfall. Based on individuality characteristics, such as distributed hydrological analysis, critical discharge and rainfall pattern of debris flow, the forewarning could be more efficient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0187.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Diabetes, eating patterns, DASH, Mediterranean, plant-based, low-carbohydrate
Online: 5 March 2019 (11:07:03 CET)
Over half of adult Americans now have diabetes or prediabetes and worse, this epidemic is now world-wide and shows no signs of slowing, with rates of both diabetes and diabetes-related health complications still rising. When advising patients with diabetes on food choices, many providers rely on nutrition guidelines provided by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and these guidelines influence other recommendations across the globe. Given the alarming trends in diabetes, it is paramount to review the treatment guidelines to ensure they are based on rigorous and accepted scientific methods. Our review included the evidence cited by the ADA in support of its claims and recommendations for eating patterns to combat diabetes (see Description of Eating Patterns, Supplemental Appendix), as presented in the most current edition of the annual ADA’s Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes (2018 Standards). Our review also includes sources cited in the latest edition of the ADA’s Nutrition Therapy Recommendations for Adults with Diabetes (2014 Recommendations), which also informed the 2018 Standards. In October 2018 low carbohydrate was named as a recommended eating pattern by the ADA and European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD)5but only citations from the 2014 and early 2018 ADA documents were reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary patterns, food-frequency questionnaire, dietary, lifestyle practices, adolescents
Online: 5 September 2016 (14:46:56 CEST)
Abstract: Objective: The aim of the study was to identify dietary patterns and its association with socio-economic, dietary and lifestyle practices among adolescents in Malaysia. Methods: A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary patterns. Results: Multivariate analyses show that age and physical activity (PA) levels were emerged as positive determinants of healthy-based food pattern in Malay (All, p<0.001), whereas higher consumption of eating-out from home (EatOut) and fast food (All, p<0.05) were negative determinants. High weekly breakfast skipping (p<0.001) and EatOut (p<0.01) were positively associated with a western-based pattern, whereas age (p<0.001) and household income (p<0.05) were negative determinants. Higher frequency of daily snacking (p<0.05) was emerged as positive determinant of local-based food pattern. For Chinese adolescents, age (p<0.001), PA levels (p<0.001) and maternal education level (p<0.05) emerged as positive determinants for the healthy-based pattern, whereas high EatOut and fast food intakes (All, p<0.01) were negative determinants. Higher weekly consumption of EatOut (p<0.01), fast food (p<0.05) and carbonated beverages (p<0.05), and daily snacking practice (p<0.01) were positively associated with higher western-based food pattern, whereas age (p<0.01) was inversely associated. Conclusion: These findings suggest that unhealthy dietary and lifestyle practices could increase the risk of adherence to unhealthy western-based food pattern that is high in fat, sugar and salt contents, and consequently increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic-related disorders during these critical years of growth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0078.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Extracellular vesicles; neurodegenerative disorders; mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns; inflammation
Online: 6 July 2022 (09:16:21 CEST)
Neuroinflammation is a common hallmark in different neurodegenerative conditions that share neuronal dysfunction and a progressive loss of a selectively vulnerable brain cell population. Alongside ageing and genetics, inflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction are considered key risk factors. Microglia are considered immune sentinels of the central nervous system capable of initiating an innate and adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the pathological mechanisms underlying the initiation and spread of inflammation in the brain are still poorly described. Recently, a new mechanism of intercellular signalling mediated by small extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been identified. EVs are nanosized particles (30-150 nm) with a bilipid membrane that carries cell-specific bioactive cargos that participate in physiological or pathological processes. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are cellular components recognized by the immune receptors of microglia, inducing or aggravating neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders. Diverse evidence links mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation mediated by mitochondrial-DAMPs (mtDAMPs) such as mitochondrial DNA, TFAM and cardiolipin, among others. Mitochondrial-derived vesicles (MDVs) are a subtype of EVs produced after mild damage to mitochondria and, upon fusion with multivesicular bodies (MVBs), are released as EVs to the extracellular space. MDVs are particularly enriched in mtDAMPs which can induce an immune response and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, growing evidence supports the association between mitochondrial dysfunction, EVs release and inflammation. Here, we describe the role of extracellular vesicles-associated mtDAMPS in physiological conditions and as neuroinflammation activators contributing to neurodegenerative disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0284.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Watershed; biogeographic patterns; microbial biogeography; biodiversity; spatial distribution; research unit
Online: 20 October 2021 (09:34:27 CEST)
Biogeography research is flawed by the poor understanding of microbial distributions due to the lack of a systematic research framework, especially regarding appropriate study units. By combining pure culture and molecular methods, we studied the biogeographic patterns of nematode-trapping fungi by collecting and analysing 2,250 specimens from 228 sites in Yunnan Province, China. We found typical watershed patterns at the species and genetic levels of nematode-trapping fungi. The results showed that microbial biogeography could be better understood by 1) using watersheds as research units, 2) removing the coverup of widespread species, and 3) applying good sampling efforts and strategies. We suggest that watersheds could help unify the understanding of the biogeographic patterns of animals, plants, and microbes and may also help account for the historical and contemporary factors driving species distributions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0692.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Lyme disease; Quebec; Spatiotemporal patterns; front wave velocity; clusters; emergence
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:38:26 CEST)
Lyme disease is a growing public health problem in Québec. Its emergence over the last decade is caused by environmental and anthropological factors that favour the survival of Ixodes scapularis, the vector of Lyme disease transmission. The objective of this study was to estimate the speed and direction of Lyme disease emergence in Québec and to identify spatiotemporal risk patterns. A surface trend analysis was conducted to estimate the speed and direction of its emergence based upon the first detected case of Lyme disease in each municipality in Québec since 2004. A cluster analysis was also conducted to identify at-risk regions across space and time. These analyses were reproduced for the date of disease onset and date of notification for each case of Lyme disease. It was estimated that Lyme disease is spreading northward in Québec at a speed varying between 18 and 32 km/year according to the date of notification and the date of disease onset, respectively. A high rate of disease risk was found in seven clusters identified in the south-west of Québec in the sociosanitary regions of Montérégie and Estrie. The results obtained in this study improve our understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns of Lyme disease in Québec, which can be used for proactive, targeted interventions by public and clinical health authorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0689.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; mobility patterns; Rt; changepoint; modeling; Portugal; Longitudinal Study
Online: 29 March 2021 (12:31:54 CEST)
This study analyzes the relationship between the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19) and the mobility patterns of the Portuguese population. By reducing mobility, the idea is that contacts are reduced, countering the spread of the virus in the community. As an indicator of the spread of the virus, the reproduction number (Rt) was used. Data from Google's Community Mobility Reports was used to evaluate changes in mobility patterns. This report uses location data from Android mobile phone users. The locations are divided into retail and recreation, grocery and pharmacy, parks, transit stations, workplaces and residential. In this year of the COVID-19 crisis in Portugal, population mobility patterns have changed over the various phases of the pandemic. At first, all mobility was affected uniformly, with the population avoiding much of the activity outside the home. In a second phase, there was some adaptation, and the areas considered to be of lower risk had less impact, emphasizing the changes in the relationship between daily life and the workplace.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: soybean; strigolactones; biosynthesis and signaling genes; expression patterns; salt stress
Online: 3 October 2019 (14:01:36 CEST)
Strigolactones (SLs) are a novel emerging plant hormones, which play important roles in regulating plant organ development and environmental stress tolerance. Even though the SL related genes have been identified and well characterized in some plants. The information of SL related genes in soybean is not fully established yet, especially in response to salt stress. In this study, we identified nine SL biosynthesis genes: two D27, two CCD7, two CCD8, and three MAX1, and seven SL signaling genes: two D14, two MAX2 and three D53 in soybean genome. We found that SL biosynthesis and signaling genes are conserved during evolution in different species. Syntenic analysis of these genes revealed their location on nine chromosomes as well as existence of ten pairs of duplication genes. Moreover, plant hormone and stress-responsive elements were identified in the promoter regions of SL biosynthesis and signaling genes. By using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we confirmed that SL genes have different tissue expression in roots, stems and leaves. Further, we also explored the expression profiles of SL biosynthesis and signaling genes under salt stress. These results suggested that SL signaling genes may play important regulatory roles in response to salt stress. In conclusion, we identified and provided valuable information on the soybean SL biosynthesis and signaling genes, and established a foundation for further functional analysis of soybean SL related genes in response to salt stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: childhood trauma; stressful life events; sleep patterns; anxiety; depression; adolescence
Online: 27 May 2019 (12:36:54 CEST)
Adolescence is a critical developmental period associated with an increase in stress, the appearance of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and changes in sleep patterns. Even though the disruption of sleep patterns in stress and anxiety and depressive disorders is well known, the independent effects of childhood trauma and stressful life events on sleep patterns are less understood. We tested the independent effects of stress (childhood trauma and stressful life events) while controlling for anxiety and depression on adolescent sleep patterns. Seven hundred fifty-two adolescents completed self-report questionnaires about childhood trauma, stressful life events, anxiety, and depression. Four sleep factors identifying movement during sleep, sleep regularity, sleep disturbances and sleep pressure were extracted in the principal component analysis of sleep questions. Both childhood trauma and recent stressful life events were significantly associated with sleep disturbances before and after controlling for anxiety and depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0387.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: regulated asbestos amphiboles; FTIR spectroscopy, FEG-FESEM, TEM, SAED patterns
Online: 21 August 2018 (16:30:50 CEST)
Vibrational spectroscopies (FTIR, Raman) are exceptionally valuable tools for the identification and crystal-chemical study of fibrous minerals, and asbestos amphiboles in particular. Raman spectroscopy has been widely applied in toxicological studies and thus a large corpus of reference data on regulated species is found in the literature. However, FTIR spectroscopy has been mostly used in crystal-chemical studies and very few data are found on asbestos amphiboles. This paper is intended to fill this gap; we report new FTIR data collected on a suite of well-characterized samples of the five regulated amphibole species: anthophyllite, amosite and crocidolite, provided by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) Organization, and tremolite and actinolite, from two well-known occurrences. The data from these reference samples have been augmented by results from additional specimens to clarify some aspects of their spectroscopic features. We show that the FTIR spectra in both the OH-stretching region and in the lattice modes region can be effective for rapid identification of the asbestos type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0068.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Harmonie model; radar data assimilation; pre-processing; mesoscale precipitation patterns
Online: 3 August 2018 (12:56:15 CEST)
This study presents a pre-processing approach adopted for the radar reflectivity data assimilation and results of simulations with the Harmonie numerical weather prediction model. The method shows an improvement of precipitation prediction within the radar location area in both the rain rates and spatial pattern presentation. With the assimilation of radar data, the model simulates larger water content in the middle troposphere within the layer from 1 to 6 km, with major variations at 2.5–3 km; it also reproduces better the mesoscale belt and cell patterns of precipitation fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Real-world evidence; treatment patterns; chemotherapy-ineligible; outcomes
Online: 29 August 2022 (12:27:14 CEST)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy that predominantly affects the elderly. Prognosis declines with age. For those who cannot tolerate intensive chemotherapy, historically established treatment options have been hypomethylating agents (HMAs), low dose cytarabine (LDAC), and best supportive care (BSC). As the standard of care evolves for those unfit for intensive chemotherapy, there is a need to understand established treatment pathways, clinical outcomes and healthcare resource utilization in Canada. The CURRENT study was a retrospective chart review of AML patients not eligible for intensive chemotherapy who initiated first-line treatment between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2018. Data were collected from 170 Canadian patients treated at six hematology centers, of whom 118 received systemic therapy and 52 received BSC as first-line treatment. Median overall survival was 8.58 months and varied from 2.96 months for BSC to 13.31 months for HMAs. Over 80% of patients had at least one outpatient visit, and 67% of patients receiving systemic therapy and 71% of those receiving BSC had at least one admission to hospital, during their first line of therapy. A total of 96 (81.4%) patients receiving first line systemic therapy and 39 (75.0%) of those receiving first line BSC had at least one red blood cell or platelet transfusion. These findings highlight the unmet need for novel therapies for patients ineligible for intensive chemotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0225.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: evapotranspiration; spatial patterns; model evaluation; remote sensing; hydrological modeling; climate normalization
Online: 12 November 2021 (14:49:18 CET)
Spatial pattern-oriented evaluations of distributed hydrological models have contributed towards an improved realism of hydrological simulations. This advancement was supported by the broad range of readily available satellite-based datasets of key hydrological variables, such as evapotranspiration (ET). At larger scale, spatial patterns of ET are often characterized by an underlying climate gradient, and with this study, we argue that gradient dominated patterns may hamper the potential of spatial pattern-oriented evaluation frameworks. We hypothesize that the climate control of spatial patterns of ET overshadows the effect model parameters have on the simulated variability. To solve this limitation, we propose a climate normalization strategy. This is demonstrated for the Senegal River basin as modeling case study, where the dominant north-south precipitation gradient is the main driver of the observed hydrological variability. Two multi-objective calibration experiments investigate the effect of climate normalization. Both calibrations utilize observed discharge (Q) in combination with remote sensing ET data, where one is based on the original ET pattern and the other utilizes the normalized ET pattern. We identify parameter sets that balance the tradeoffs between the two independent observations and find that the calibration using the normalized ET pattern does not compromise the spatial patern performance of the original pattern. However, vice versa, this is not necessarily the case, since the calibration using the original ET pattern showed a poorer performance for the normalized pattern. Both calibrations reached comparable performance of Q. With this study, we identified a general shortcoming of spatial pattern-oriented model evaluations using ET in basins dominated by a climate gradient, but we argue that this also applies to other variables such as, soil moisture or land surface temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0288.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Nutrient patterns; Obesity; Sex differences; Total and regional adiposity; South Africa
Online: 20 October 2021 (10:17:40 CEST)
The study evaluated the association between nutrient patterns and body fat and regional adiposity in middle-aged black South African (SA) men and women and determined if this differed by sex. Body fat and regional adiposity (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and dietary intake (7-day quantified food frequency questionnaire) were measured in black SA men (n=414) and women (n=346). Using principal component analysis, nutrient patterns were computed from 25 nutrients in the combined sample. Four nutrient patterns were extracted, explaining 67% of the variance in nutrient intake. Animal and fat, as well as the vitamin C, sugar and potassium driven patterns, were positively associated with total adiposity. In contrast, the retinol and vitamin B12 pattern was associated with the centralisation of fat. Notably, the strength of the association between the animal-driven nutrient pattern and BMI was greater in men (1.14 kg/m2, 95%CI (0.63-1.66)) than women (0.81 kg/m2, 95%CI (0.25-1.36)) (Pint=0.017). In contrast, the plant driven pattern was associated with higher abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in women (44 cm2, 95%CI (22-67)) but not men (Pint =1.54 x 10-4). These interactions suggest that although men and women have similar nutrient patterns, the associations with the whole body and regional body fat are different.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0763.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: human population dynamics; wealth distribution; nonlocal consumption of resources; spatial patterns
Online: 30 December 2020 (16:35:43 CET)
Dynamics of human populations can be affected by various socio-economic factors through their influence on the natality and mortality rates, and on the migration intensity and directions. In this work we study an economic-demographic model which takes into account the dependence of the wealth production rate on the available resources. In the case of nonlocal consumption of resources the homogeneous in space wealth-population distribution is replaced by a periodic in space distribution for which the total wealth increases. For the global consumption of resources, if the wealth redistribution is small enough, then the homogeneous distribution is replaced by a heterogeneous one with a single wealth accumulation center. Thus, economic and demographic characteristics of nonlocal and global economies can be quite different in comparison with the local economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0296.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: design patterns; urban design; problem-solving; creativity; urban design education; teamwork
Online: 17 September 2018 (10:01:27 CEST)
Urban design is a complex problem-solving activity that commonly requires the aid of a variety of methods to support the process and enhance the quality of the outcomes. How to help designers with adequate methods to deal with ill-defined urban problems constitutes a major challenge in the urban design domain. In this regard, the use of urban design patterns is considered as a method that can contribute to urban design problem-solving. However, this tool was never investigated to understand its role in the task-related activities that take place during the design process by designers working in team, and its effect on the creativity of the final design outcome as perceived by urban designers and students. Therefore, an empirical research based on a controlled experiment was carried out to explore the aid provided by design patterns during the conceptual stages of the process. The study contributed to gain a better insight into the main design activities derived from the use of patterns as problem-solving tools, and to unveil their contribution to urban design. Implications for design practice and design education are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0294.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep Learning; Embedding models; Semantic Relationships; Lexical Syntactic Patterns; Convolucional Neural Networks
Online: 20 October 2022 (03:25:22 CEST)
Embedding representation models characterize each word as a vector of numbers with a fixed length. These models have been used in tasks involving text classification, such as recommen- dation and question-answer systems. Semantic relationships are words with a relationship between them providing a complete idea to a text. Therefore, it is hypothesized that an embedding model involving semantic relationships will provide better performance for tasks that use them. This paper presents three embedding models based on semantic relations extracted fromWikipedia to classify texts. The synonym, hyponym, and hyperonym semantic relationships were the ones considered in this work since previous experiments have shown that they are the ones that provide the most semantic knowledge. Lexical-syntactic patterns present in the literature were implemented and subsequently applied to the Wikipedia corpus to obtain the semantic relationships present in it. Several semantic relationships are used in different models: synonymy, hyponym-hyperonym, and a combination of the first two. A convolutional neural network was trained for text classification to evaluate the performance of each model. The results obtained were evaluated with the metrics of precision, accuracy, recall, and F1-measure. The best values obtained with the second model were accuracy of 0.79 for the 20-Newsgroup corpus. F1-measure and recall of 0.87 respectively for the Reuters corpus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0412.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Aboriginal; Indigenous; contact patterns; household structure; disease transmission; household model, human mobility.
Online: 24 August 2022 (05:21:00 CEST)
Cultural practices and development level can influence a population’s household structures and mixing patterns. Within some populations households can be organized across multiple dwellings. This likely affects the spread of infectious disease spreads through these communities, however, current demographic data collection tools do not record these data. Methods: Between June–October 2018, the Contact And Mobility Patterns in remote Aboriginal Australian communities (CAMP-remote) pilot study recruited Aboriginal mothers with infants in a remote northern Australian community to complete a monthly iPad-based contact survey. Results: Thirteen mother-infant pairs (participants) completed 69 study visits between recruitment and the end of May 2019. Participants reported they and their other children slept in 28 dwellings during the study. The median dwelling occupancy, defined as people sleeping in the same dwelling on the previous night, was nine (range: 3.5–25). Participants who completed at least three responses (n=8) slept in a median of three dwellings (range: 2–9). Each month a median of 28% (range: 0%–63%) of the participants travelled out of the community. Including these data in disease transmission models amplified estimates of infectious disease spread in the study community, compared to models parameterized using census data. Conclusions: The lack of data on mixing patterns in populations where households can be organized across dwellings may negatively impact the accuracy of infectious disease models for these communities and the efficacy of public health actions they inform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0443.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Complex network; flood safety patterns; Water Network; Built-up area of Bangkok
Online: 28 January 2022 (15:15:09 CET)
With the development of the city, a large number of water networks in the built-up areas of Bangkok have been filled and hardened, resulting in poor urban flooding and aggravating flooding, causing loss of life and property of citizens. In this paper, on the basis of combing the current water networks and open space potential flood storage points in the built-up areas of Bangkok, the complex network diagram of the water system in the built-up areas of Bangkok is constructed by combining the theory of complex networks and analyzing the attribute parameters of the network and the characteristic parameters of the open space storage nodes and water system paths, and finding that the water system network in the built-up area of Bangkok has complex network characteristics such as robustness, clustering and hierarchy. By exploring the key storage points and water system connection paths, the researchers initially constructed a flood safety pattern in the built-up area of Bangkok with 145 key nodes and 127 river paths as the backbone, and conceptualized the development study of the flood safety pattern in both horizontal and vertical directions. The urban flood safety pattern based on complex network theory proposed in this paper provides a case reference and methodological ideas to scientifically solve the game conflict between the demand for construction land for urban development and the construction area of urban open space storage points and water storage network under the increasingly severe flooding situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0485.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: game design, design patterns; pattern language; design pattern application; design pattern creation
Online: 21 July 2021 (11:11:15 CEST)
Existing implementations of game design patterns have largely been confined to theoretical or research settings. Weaknesses in these implementations have prevented game design patterns from being properly evaluated as an educational and practical development tool. This paper examines these weaknesses, describes a method of developing and applying patterns that overcome the weaknesses, and evaluates use of the method for game design education and practice. Weaknesses in existing pattern implementations are: omission of design problems, presumption of functional completeness at the level of pattern languages, narrow topical focus, and lack of a concise, repeatable method for pattern production. Several features of the proposed method were specifically built to address these weaknesses, namely the pattern template, the process for connecting patterns into a language and assessing the language’s scope, a rubric for assessing pattern confidence and interconnectivity confidence, and pattern-building exercises. This method was applied in a classroom setting. Results, as assessed by the evaluation of student work, suggest that creating patterns/pattern languages is an effective pedagogical approach. De-signs produced using designer-created patterns closely align with existing design theory and are clearly understood by students. The above results may indicate that the path to gaining wider acceptance of pattern theory as a design framework within game design is not to produce a universal pattern language but to facilitate the creation of case-specific languages, by students and professional designers, that use a shared ontology and thus can be combined easily to solve the diverse sets of problems faced by these groups.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0438.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: history of science; study of invertebrates; research patterns; study of velvet worms
Online: 30 March 2020 (04:46:22 CEST)
Velvet worms, or onychophorans, include placental species and, as a phylum, have survived all mass extinctions since the Cambrian. They capture prey with an extraordinary adhesive net that appears in an instant. The first naturalist to formally mention them was Lansdown Guilding (1797-1831), a British priest from the Caribbean island of Saint Vincent. His life is as little known as the history of the field he initiated, onychophorology. This is the first general history of onychophorology, and I have divided it into half century periods. The beginning, 1826-1879, was defined by former students of great names in the history of biology, like Cuvier and von Baer. This generation included Milne-Edwars and Blanchard, and the greatest advances came from France, with smaller but still important contributions from England and Germany. In the 1880-1929 period, work concentrated in anatomy, behavior, biogeography and ecology, but of course the most important work was Bouvier’s mammoth monograph. The next half century, 1930-1979, was important for the discovery of Cambrian species; Vachon’s explanation of how ancient distribution defined the existence of two families; Pioneer DNA and electron microscopy from Brazil; and primitive attempts at systematics using embryology or isolated anatomical characteristics. Finally, the 1980-2020 period, with research centered in Australia, Brazil, Costa Rica and Germany, is marked by an evolutionary approach to everything, from body and behavior to distribution; for the solution of the old problem of how they form their adhesive net and how the glue works; the reconstruction of Cambrian onychophoran communities, the first experimental taphonomy; the first country-wide map of conservation status (from Costa Rica); the first model of why they survive in cities; the discovery of new phenomena like food hiding, parental feeding investment and ontogenetic diet shift; and for the birth of a new research branch, Onychophoran Ethnobiology, founded in 2015. While a few names appear often in the literature, most knowledge was produced by a mass of researchers who entered the field only briefly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0292.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: cultural differences; spatial interaction patterns; emotion analysis; Zhihu topic data; cultural geography
Online: 22 December 2019 (10:05:48 CET)
As an important research content in cultural geography, the exploration and analysis of the laws of regional cultural differences has great significance for the discovery of distinctive cultures, protection of regional cultures and in-depth understanding of cultural differences. In recent years, with the "spatial turn" of sociology, scholars are paying more and more attention to the implicit spatial information in social media data and the various social phenomena and laws they reflect. One important aspect is to grasp the social cultural phenomena and its spatial distribution characteristics through the text. Using machine learning methods such as the popular natural language processing (NLP), this paper can not only extract hotspot cultural elements from text data but also accurately detect the spatial interaction pattern of some specific cultures and the characteristics of emotions towards non-native cultures. Taking the 6,128 answers to the question “what are the differences between South and North China that you never know” on the Zhihu Q&A Platform as an example, with the help of NLP, this paper has explored the cultural differences between South and North China in people’s mind. This paper probes into people’s feeling and cognition of the cultural differences between South and North China from three aspects, including spatial interaction patterns of hotspot cultural elements, components of hotspot culture and emotional characteristics under the influence of cultural differences between North and South. The study reveals that 1) people from North and South China have great differences in recognizing each other’s culture. 2) Food culture is the most popular among many cultural differences. 3) People tend to show negative attitude towards the food cultures different from their own. All these findings shed light upon the understanding of regional cultural differences and addressing cultural conflicts. In addition, this paper also provides an effective solution to the study from a macro perspective, which have been difficult for new cultural geography.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0267.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: functional region; place; patterns; topic modeling; urban planning; Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI)
Online: 24 July 2019 (08:42:26 CEST)
The problem of identifying functional regions in an urban setting has been approached in literature using two general methodologies: top-down, encoding expert knowledge on urban planning and design (e.g. into patterns) and using that knowledge for identification, and bottom-up, relying on crowdsourcing and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) to train learning models, using techniques such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling. Both approaches have their advantages but also face important limitations, with knowledge-based approaches being criticized for scalability and transferability issues and data-driven approaches for lacking interpretability and depending heavily on data quality. To mitigate these disadvantages, we propose a novel framework that fuses data and knowledge in three different ways: functional regions identified from individual approaches are evaluated against each other, knowledge from patterns is used to adjust learning model results and topic models are used to adjust pattern-based results. The proposed methodologies are demonstrated through the use case of identifying shopping-related functional regions in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Results show that the combination of results from knowledge-based and data-driven techniques can help uncover discrepancies between the two different approaches and smoothen inaccuracies caused by the limitations of each approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: gas chromatography assay; cardiovascular diseases; feeding patterns; lipids; nutritional status; vegan diet
Online: 19 June 2019 (15:47:29 CEST)
The vegan diet excludes animal-derived products consumption. The objective of the present study is to analyze dietary lipid intake, nine plasmatic fatty acids concentrations (from C14:0 [lauric acid] to C20:4 [arachidonic acid]), and conventional clinical lipid profile among vegan individuals with omnivore controls. A case-control and cross-sectional study was performed between 2016 and 2017. Vegans were paired in a 1:1 ratio with omnivores from Merida, Mexico. A 150-item Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was conducted to evaluate eating patterns. Serum fatty acids were determined from total blood with a gas chromatography assay. Lower cholesterol, stearic, arachidonic and trans fatty acids intake, but higher consumption of lauric acid were observed in the vegan group (p= <0.001, 0.014, <0.001, 0.005, respectively). Decreased plasma concentrations of stearic, arachidonic and linoleic acids were found (p= 0.017, <0.001 and 0.026, respectively). Following a vegan diet for more than three years generate modifications in serum concentrations of saturated and polyunsaturated ω-6 fatty acids, which could lower inflammatory markers’ biosynthesis. Potential benefits regarding cardiovascular risk may be assumed in favor of vegan individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0535.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Voronoi entropy; surface patterns; Lewis law; Aboav law; droplet cluster; self-assembly
Online: 22 November 2018 (04:49:13 CET)
The Voronoi entropy is a mathematical tool for quantitative characterization of the orderliness of points distributed on a surface. The tool is useful to study various surface self-assembly processes. We provide the historical background, from Kepler and Descartes to our days, and discuss topological properties of the Voronoi tessellation, upon which the entropy concept is based, and its scaling properties, known as the Lewis and Aboav-Weaire laws. The Voronoi entropy has been successfully applied to recently discovered self-assembled structures, such as patterned micro-porous polymer surfaces obtained by the breath figure method and levitating ordered water micro-droplet clusters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0404.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: self-organizing maps; weather patterns; synoptic circulation; multi-model ensemble; wind power
Online: 20 September 2018 (08:17:46 CEST)
This study shows the application of self-organizing maps (SOMs) to probabilistic forecasts of wind power generation and ramps in Japan. SOMs are applied to atmospheric variables obtained from atmospheric reanalysis over the region, thus deriving classified weather patterns (WPs). Probabilistic relationships are established between the synoptic-scale atmospheric variables over East Japan and the generation of regionally integrated wind power in East Japan. Medium-range probabilistic wind power predictions are derived by SOM, as analog ensembles based on the WPs of the multi-center ensemble forecasts. As this analog approach handles stochastic uncertainties effectively, probabilistic wind power forecasts are rapidly generated from a very large number of forecast ensembles. The use of a multi-model ensemble provides better results than a one-forecast model. The hybrid ensemble forecasts further improve the probabilistic predictability skill of wind power generation, as compared with non-hybrid methods. It is expected that long-term wind forecasts will provide better guidance to transmission grid operators. The advantage of this method is that it can include an interpretative analysis of meteorological factors for variations in renewable energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0092.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary patterns; tracking; stability; longitudinal change; generalized estimating equations; childhood; adolescence; adulthood
Online: 20 June 2017 (09:00:37 CEST)
Dietary patterns established during adolescence might play a role in adulthood disease. We examined the stability of dietary patterns (DPs) from childhood through adolescence and into young adulthood (from age 8 to 34 years). Data from 130 participants (53 females) of Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (aged 8-15 years, at baseline) were included. Multiple 24-hour recalls were collected annually from 1991 to 1997, 2002 to 2005 and 2010 and 2011. Using principal component analysis, “Vegetarian-style”, “Western-like”, “High-fat, high-protein”, “Mixed” and “Snack” DPs were derived at baseline. Applied DP scores for all annual measurements were calculated using factor loading of baseline DPs and energy-adjusted food group intakes. We analyzed data using generalized estimating equations. The tracking coefficient represents correlation between baseline dietary pattern scores and all other follow-up dietary pattern scores. We found a moderate tracking for the “Vegetarian-style” (ß=0.44, P<0.001) and “High-fat, high-protein” (ß=0.39, P<0.001) DPs in females and “Vegetarian-style” DP (ß=0.30, P<0.001) in males. Remaining DPs showed a poor-to-fair tracking in both sexes. No tracking for “Western-like” DP in females was observed. Assessing overall change in DP scores from childhood to young adulthood showed an increasing trend in adherence to “Vegetarian-style” DP and decreasing trend in adherence to “High-fat, high-protein” DP by age in both sexes (P<0.001). While “Western-like” and “Mixed” DP scores increased only in males (P<0.001). These findings suggest that healthy dietary habits established during childhood and adolescence moderately continue into adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0307.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General Mathematics Keywords: Archimedes Spiral; Voronoi tessellation; Voronoi entropy; surface patterns; aesthetic attraction; phyllotaxis; golden ratio.
Online: 17 January 2023 (10:07:18 CET)
Voronoi mosaics inspired by the seed points placed on the Archimedes Spirals are reported. Voronoi entropy was calculated for these patterns. Equidistant and non-equidistant patterns are treated. Voronoi mosaics built from a sells of equal size which are of a primary importance for decorative arts are reported. The pronounced prevalence of hexagons is inherent for the patterns with an equidistant and non-equidistant distribution of points, when the distance between the seed points is of the same order of magnitude as the distance between the turns of the spiral. Penta- and heptagonal “defected” cells appeared in the Voronoi diagrams due to the finite nature of the pattern. The ordered Voronoi tessellations demonstrating the Voronoi entropy larger than 1.71, reported for the random 2D distribution of points, were revealed. The dependence of the Voronoi entropy on the total number of the seed points located on the Archimedes Spirals is reported. Voronoi tessellations generated by the phyllotaxis-inspired patterns are addressed. The aesthetic attraction of the Voronoi mosaics arising from seed points placed on the Archimedes Spirals is discussed.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: active inference; digital affordances; patterns of attention; prediction error minimization; prediction error dynamics
Online: 19 September 2022 (04:49:39 CEST)
Culture exploits the acquisition of meaningful content by crafting regimes of shared attention, determining what is relevant, valuable, and salient. Culture changes the field of relevant social affordances worthy of being acted upon in a context-sensitive manner. When relevant affordances are highly weighted, their attentional capture and their salience increase the probability of them being enacted due to the associated expectation for minimizing prediction error. This process is known as active inference. In the digital era, individuals need to infer the action-related attributes of digital cues, here characterized as digital affordances. The digital affordances of digital social platforms are of particular interest here. Digital social affordances are defined as online possibilities of social interactions. By their own nature, these are salient because they are related to social interactions and relevant social cues. However, the problem of digital social platforms is that they are not equivalent to situated social interactions because their structure is built, mediated, and defined by third-parties with diverse interests. The third-parties behind the digital social platforms are using the same mechanism exploited by culture to manipulate the shared patterns of attention. Moreover, digital social platforms are deliberately designed to be hyper-stimulating, making digital social affordances highly rewarding and increasingly salient. This appropriation, for economic purposes, is an issue of great importance, especially as the COVID-19 pandemic brought deep global changes, pushing societies to an online digital way of life. Here, we examined different types of digital social affordances under an active inference view, placing them into two categories, those for self-identity formation, and those for belief-updating. This paper aims to analyze digital social affordances in light of the prediction error dynamics they might elicit to their users. Although each of the analyzed digital social affordances allows different epistemic and instrumental digital actions, they all share the characteristic of having an "easy" and a fast expected rate of error reduction. Here, we aim to provide a new hypothesis about how the design behind digital social affordances is built on our natural attractiveness to minimize prediction error and the resulting positive embodied feelings when doing so. Finally, it is suggested that because digital social affordances are becoming highly weighted in the field of affordances, this might be putting at risk our context-sensitive grip on a rich, dynamic and varied field of relevant affordances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0298.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: digital image correlation; semantic filter; structural health monitoring; unique salient patterns; wind turbine
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:38:16 CEST)
Large structures such as wind turbines are subject to environmental factors and varying operational loads which may result in structural damage, making components of these large structures prone to performance and mechanical degradation. The use of high-definition optical vision sensors in digital image correlation (DIC) allow for the application of a non-destructive image registration technique in which it measures finite three-dimensional deformations on surfaces through correlations of a unique pattern or set of unique localized patterns. However, the physical placement of an artificial marker such as a unique speckled pattern on the surface of the structure is time-consuming and often impractical for large structures. Therefore, we propose a novel auto-mated methodology that searches and segments salient and unique regions of an image as well as for all subsequent images to assist in performing efficient displacement measurements for vibrational study and structural health monitoring purposes. Our algorithm is validated on a con-trolled set of images, as well as on a small structure and large real-world wind turbine, which suggests the algorithm’s efficacy without the use of artificial markers for large structural health monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0265.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Tobacco and nicotine products; tobacco heating products; cigarettes; switching; consumer behaviour; usage patterns.
Online: 10 December 2020 (14:01:14 CET)
Providing data on usage patterns is key to assessing the reduced-risk potential of novel tobacco and nicotine products at a population level. We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey of the general population in Japan to assess usage patterns after the introduction of tobacco heating products (THPs). Eligible participants were Japanese residents, aged 20 years or older who consented to complete the survey. Individuals living in institutions were excluded. A three-stage probability sampling method was applied that was geographically stratified by street blocks proportionate to population density. Respondents self-reported patterns of product use and reasons for THP use. Complete responses were available from 5,306 individuals, of whom 933.5 (17.6%) were current users, 984.2 (18.5%) were former users and 3388.4 (63.9%) were never users of tobacco products. Cigarettes were used by 14.6% of current tobacco product users and THPs by 5.3%. Cigarettes and THPs were used exclusively by 64.5% and 12.2%, respectively, and both were used by 12.7%. The most common reasons reported for THP use were perceived reduction in harm to self and others compared to cigarettes. While the prevalence of cigarette use in Japan is decreasing, THPs seem to be increasingly used as long-term alternatives to cigarette smoking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0687.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: FMSTM; functional movement screen; pubescence; maturation; fundamental movement patterns; functional movement; gender difference
Online: 27 November 2020 (12:46:43 CET)
This study aimed to investigate sex differences in the functional movement in the adolescent period. Seven hundred and thirty adolescents (365 boys) aged 16–17 years participated in the study. The participants performed standardized Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) protocol and a t-test was used to examine sex differences in the total functional movement screen score while the chi-square test was used to determine sex differences in the proportion of dysfunctional movement and movement asymmetries within the individual FMS tests. Girls demonstrated a higher total FMS™ score compared to boys (12.7 ± 2.3 and 12.2 ± 2.4, respectively; F=8.26, p=0.0054). Also, sex differences were present in several individual functional movement patterns where boys demonstrated a higher prevalence of dysfunctional movement compared to girls in patterns that challenge mobility and flexibility of the body, while girls underperformed in tests that have higher demands for upper-body strength and abdominal stabilization. Findings of this study suggest that sex dimorphism exists in functional movement patterns in the period of mid-adolescence. The results of this research need to be considered while using FMS™ as a screening tool as well as the reference standard for exercise intervention among the secondary school-aged population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0347.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: informational measure of symmetry; 1D shapes; 2D shapes; fractal patterns; time evolution; symmetry; pattern
Online: 20 September 2021 (16:39:57 CEST)
Informational (Shannon) measures of symmetry are introduced and analyzed for the patterns built of 1D and 2D shapes. The informational measure of symmetry Hsym (G) characterizes the an averaged uncertainty in the presence of symmetry elements from the group G in a given pattern; whereas the Shannon-like measure of symmetry Ωsym (G) quantifies averaged uncertainty of appearance of shapes possessing in total n elements of symmetry belonging to group G in a given pattern. Hsym(G1)=Ωsym(G1)=0 for the patterns built of irregular, non-symmetric shapes. Both of informational measures of symmetry are intensive parameters of the pattern and do not depend on the number of shapes, their size and area of the pattern. They are also insensitive to the long-range order inherent for the pattern. Informational measures of symmetry of fractal patterns are addressed. The mixed patterns including curves and shapes are considered. Time evolution of the Shannon measures of symmetry is treated. The close-packed and dispersed 2D patterns are analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0320.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: music; blood-brain barrier; lymphatic system; amyloid-β protein; detrended fluctuation analysis; electroencephalographic patterns.
Online: 20 September 2021 (09:02:40 CEST)
The lymphatic system of the brain meninges and head plays a crucial role in the clearance of amyloid-β protein (Aβ), a peptide thought to be pathogenic in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), from the brain. The development of methods to modulate lymphatic clearance of Aβ from the brain coild be a revolutionary step in the therapy of AD. The opening of the blood-brain barrier (OBBB) by focused ultrasound is considered as a possible tool for stimulation of clearance of Aβ from the brain of humans and animals. Here, we propose an alternative method of non-invasive music-induced OBBB that is accompanied by the activation of clearance of fluorescent Aβ (Fαβ) from the mouse brain. Using confocal imaging, fluorescence microscopy and magnetic resonance tomography, we clearly demonstrate that OBBB by music stimulates the movement of Fαβ and Omniscan in the cerebrospinal fluid and lymphatic clearance of Fαβ from the brain. We propose the extended detrended fluctuation analysis (EDFA) as a promising method for the identification of OBBB markers in the electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns. These pilot results suggest that music-induced OBBB and the EDFA analysis of EEG can be a non-invasive, low cost, labelling free, clinical perspective and completely new approach for the treatment and monitoring of AD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0520.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Biotic interactions; Community ecology; Ecological modelling; Ecological patterns and processes; Spatial ecology; Theoretical ecology
Online: 22 September 2020 (10:39:16 CEST)
Community ecologists value the phenomenological observation of plant biotic interactions because they provide assumptions to make predictions of other ecosystem features, such as species diversity, community structure, or plant atmospheric carbon uptake. However, a rising number of scientists claim for the need of a mechanistic understanding of plant interactions, due to the limitations that a phenomenological approach raises both in empirical and modeling studies. Scattered studies take a mechanistic approach to plant interactions, but we still lack an integrated theoretical framework to start approaching holistically. In this Review and Synthesis, we present a comprehensive foundation for the study of the mechanisms underpinning the net interaction between two plants. First, we recapitulate the elementary units of plant interactions, i.e. all the known biophysical processes affected by the presence of an influencing plant and the possible phenotypic responses of influenced plants to these processes. Following, we discuss how a net interaction between two plants may emerge from the simultaneous effect of these elementary units. We then touch upon the spatial and temporal variability of this net interaction, and scrutinize how that variability may be linked to the underlying biophysical processes. We conclude by arguing how these processes can be integrated in a mechanistic framework for plant interactions, and why it must necessarily focus on the individual scale, incorporate the spatial structure of the community, and explicitly account for environmental factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0295.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: cut-off lows; circulation patterns; heavy precipitation; floods; forecast skill; unified model; GPM precipitation
Online: 13 August 2020 (08:10:27 CEST)
Mid-tropospheric cut-off low (COL) pressure systems are linked to severe weather, heavy rainfall and extreme cold conditions over South Africa. They often result in floods and snowfalls in winter disrupting economic activities. This paper examines the evolution and circulation patterns associated with severe COLs over South Africa. We evaluate the performance of the 4.4 km Unified Model (UM) which is currently used operationally by the South African Weather Service to simulate daily rainfall. Circulation variables and precipitation simulated by the UM were compared against ECMWF’s ERA Interim reanalyses and GPM precipitation at 24-hour timesteps. We present five recent (2016-2019) severe COLs that had high impact and found higher model skill when simulating heavy precipitation during the initial stages than the dissipating stages of the systems. A key finding was that the UM underestimated precipitation mainly due to inaccurate placing of COL centers and areas of heavy rainfall by up to 5° of latitude away from the actual location, due to the poor formulating of cumulus and microphysics schemes in the model. Understanding the performance and limitations of the UM model in simulating COL characteristics can benefit severe weather forecasting and contribute to disaster risk reduction in South Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban-rural gradient; spatiotemporal patterns; landscape metrics; a roadscape transect approach; rapid urbanization; Shanghai
Online: 29 July 2016 (08:06:50 CEST)
Quantifying the landscape pattern change can effectively demonstrate the ecological progresses and the consequences of urbanization. Based on remotely sensed land cover data in 1994, 2000, 2006 and a gradient analysis with landscape metrics at landscape- and class- level, we attempted to characterize the individual and entire landscape patterns of Shanghai metropolitan during the rapid urbanization. We highlighted that a roadscape transect approach that combined the buffer zone method and the transect-based approach was introduced to describe the urban-rural patterns of agricultural, residential, green, industrial, and public facilities land along the railway route. Our results of landscape metrics showed significant spatiotemporal patterns and gradient variations along the transect. The urban growth pattern in two time spans conform to the hypothesis for diffusion–coalescence processes, implying that the railway is adaptive as a gradient element to analyze the landscape patterns with urbanization. As the natural landscape was replaced by urban landscape gradually, the urban fringe expanded radically. The results also showed that the desakota region expanded its extent widely. Satellite towns witnessed the continual transformation from the predominantly rural landscape to peri-urban landscape. Furthermore, the gap between urban and rural areas remained large especially in public service. More reasonable urban plans and land use policies should push to make more of an effort to transition from the urban-rural separation to coordinated urban-rural development. This study is a meaningful trial in demonstrating a new form of urban–rural transects to study the landscape change of large cities from a strategic viewpoint. By combining gradient analysis with landscape metrics, we addressed the process of urbanization both spatially and temporally, and provided a more quantitative approach to urban studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0393.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Parkinson's disease; Huntington's disease; Integration; Shared patterns; Neurodegeneration; Multi-Omics; Alzheimer's Disease; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Online: 19 October 2020 (15:44:47 CEST)
Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are heterogeneous, progressive diseases with frequently overlapping symptoms characterized by a loss of neurons. Studies suggested relations between neurodegenerative diseases for many years, e.g., regarding the aggregation of toxic proteins or triggering endogenous cell death pathways. Within this study, publicly available genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic data were gathered from 188 studies and more than one million patients to detect shared genetic patterns between the neurodegenerative diseases and the analyzed omics-layers within conditions. The results show a remarkably high number of shared genes between the transcriptomic and proteomic levels for all diseases while showing a significant relation between genomic and proteomic data only in some cases. A set of 139 genes was found to be differentially expressed in several transcriptomic experiments of all four diseases. These 139 genes showed overrepresented GO-Terms and pathways mainly involved in stress response, cell development, cell adhesion, and the cytoskeleton. Furthermore, the overlap of two and three omics-layers per disease were used to search for overrepresented pathways and GO-Terms. Taken together, we could confirm the existence of many relations between Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis on the transcriptomic and proteomic level by analyzing the pathways and GO-Terms arising in these intersections. The significance of the connection between the transcriptomic and proteomic data for all four analyzed neurodegenerative diseases showed that exploring these omics-layers simultaneously holds new insights that do not emerge from analyzing these omics-layers separately. Our data therefore suggests addressing human patients with neurodegenerative diseases as complex biological systems by integrating multiple underlying data sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0063.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: regional group interaction; similar hotspot flow patterns; spatial interaction; visual analytics; Geo-Information-Tupo; GIS
Online: 4 July 2018 (09:26:18 CEST)
The interaction between different regions normally is reflected by the form of the stream. For example, the interaction of the flow of people and flow of information between different regions can reflect the structure of cities’ network, and also can reflect how the cities function and connect to each other. Since big data has become increasingly popular, it is much easier to acquire flow data for various types of individuals. Currently, it is a hot research topic to apply the regional interaction model, which is based on the summary level of individual flow data mining. So far, previous research on spatial interaction methods focused on point-to-point and area-to-area interaction patterns. However, there are a few scholars who study the hotspot interaction pattern between two regional groups with some predefined neighborhood relationship by starting with two regions. In this paper, a method for identifying a similar hotspot interaction pattern between two regional groups has been proposed, and the Geo-Information-Tupu methods are applied to visualize the interaction patterns. For an example of an empirical analysis, we discuss China’s air traffic flow data, so this method can be used to find and analyze any hotspot interaction patterns between regional groups with adjoining relationships across China. Our research results indicate that this method is efficient in identifying hotspot interaction flow patterns between regional groups. Moreover, it can be applied to any analysis of flow space that is used to excavate regional group hotspot interaction patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: rapid palatal expander; midpalatal suture; bone density; cone-beam computed tomography, facial patterns, skeletal growth pattern.
Online: 12 January 2022 (13:42:31 CET)
The aim of this paper was to evaluate the changes in the mean bone density values of the midpalatal suture in 392 young patients treated with the Rapid Palatal Expander appliance according to sex, gender, vertical and sagittal skeletal patterns. Materials and Methods. The evaluations were performed using the low-dose protocol cone-beam computed tomography scans at t0 (preoperatively) and t1 (1 year after the beginning of the therapy). The region of interest was used to calculate bone density in Hounsfield units (HU) in the area between the maxillary incisors. Results. CBCT scan data of 196 females and 196 males (mean age of 11,7 years) showed homogeneous and similar density values of the MPS at T0 (547.59 HU - 565.85 HU) and T1 (542.31 - 554.20 HU). Class III skeletal individuals showed a significant higher BD than the II class group at T0, but not at T1. Females showed significantly higher BD than males at t0 and t1. No significant differences were found between the other groups and between two-time points in terms of bone density values of the MPS. Conclusions. Females and III class groups showed significantly higher bone density values than males and II class, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found from T0 to T1 in any groups, suggesting that a similar rate of suture reorganization occurs after the use of the RPE, following reorganization and bone deposition along with the MPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0011.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Spatial Landscape Patterns; Spatial Composite Indicators; Landscape Functions; Landscape Resilience; ANP method; Geographic Information System (GIS
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:18:46 CET)
The concept of transformative resilience emerges from complex recent literature and represents a way to interpret the potential opportunities to change in vulnerable territories, where a socio-economic change is required. This article extends the perspective of transformative resilience to assessing of the landscape multi-functionality of inland areas, exploring the potentials to identify a network of synergies among the different municipalities able to trigger a process of territorial resilience. A Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) for multi-functionality landscape assessment aims to support the local actors to understand local resources and multi-functional values of the Partenio Regional Park (PRP) and surrounding municipalities, in the South of Italy, stimulating their cooperation to the management of environmental and cultural sites and the co-design of new strategies of enhancement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0187.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: medical image classification; local binary patterns; characteristic curves; whole slide image pro-cessing; automated HER2 scoring
Online: 31 October 2017 (03:10:22 CET)
This paper presents novel feature descriptors and classification algorithms for automated scoring of HER2 in Whole Slide Images (WSI) of breast cancer histology slides. Since a large amount of processing is involved in analyzing WSI images, the primary design goal has been to keep the computational complexity to the minimum possible level and to use simple, yet robust feature descriptors that can provide accurate classification of the slides. We propose two types of feature descriptors that encode important information about staining patterns and the percentage of staining present in ImmunoHistoChemistry (IHC) stained slides. The first descriptor is called a characteristic curve which is a smooth non-increasing curve that represents the variation of percentage of staining with saturation levels. The second new descriptor introduced in this paper is an LBP feature curve which is also a non-increasing smooth curve that represents the local texture of the staining patterns. Both descriptors show excellent interclass variance and intraclass correlation, and are suitable for the design of automatic HER2 classification algorithms. This paper gives the detailed theoretical aspects of the feature descriptors and also provides experimental results and comparative analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0181.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: ultrasound image analysis; speckle noise; synthetic ultrasound images; texture features; local binary patterns; image quality assessment
Online: 30 October 2017 (09:37:59 CET)
Speckle noise reduction is an important area of research in the field of ultrasound image processing. Several algorithms for speckle noise characterization and analysis have been recently proposed in the area. Synthetic ultrasound images can play a key role in noise evaluation methods as they can be used to generate a variety of speckle noise models under different interpolation and sampling schemes, and can also provide valuable ground truth data for estimating the accuracy of the chosen methods. However, not much work has been done in the area of modelling synthetic ultrasound images, and in simulating speckle noise generation to get images that are as close as possible to real ultrasound images. An important aspect of simulated synthetic ultrasound images is the requirement for extensive quality assessment for ensuring that they have the texture characteristics and gray-tone features of real images. This paper presents texture feature analysis of synthetic ultrasound images using local binary patterns (LBP) and demonstrates the usefulness of a set of LBP features for image quality assessment. Experimental results presented in the paper clearly show how these features could provide an accurate quality metric that correlates very well with subjective evaluations performed by clinical experts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0185.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: summer-mean Arctic circulation patterns; extra-tropical synoptic cyclones; self-organizing maps (SOMs); cyclone detection and tracking
Online: 15 July 2019 (15:24:28 CEST)
The contribution of extra-tropical synoptic cyclones to the formation of summer-mean atmospheric circulation patterns in the Arctic is investigated by clustering the dominant Arctic circulation patterns by the self-organizing maps (SOMs) using the daily mean sea level pressure (MSLP) in the Arctic domain (≥ 60°N). Three SOM patterns are identified: one with prevalent low pressure anomalies in the Arctic Circle (SOM1) and two opposite dipoles with primary high pressure anomalies covering the Arctic Ocean (SOM2 and SOM3). The time series of summertime occurrence frequencies demonstrate the largest inter-annual variation in the SOM1, the slight decreasing trend in the SOM2, and the abrupt upswing after 2007 in the SOM3. The relevant analyses with produced cyclone track data confirm that the vital contribution. The Arctic cyclone activity is enhanced in the SOM1 because the meridional temperature gradient increases over the land–Arctic Ocean boundaries co-located with major extra-tropical cyclone pathways. The composite daily synoptic evolutions for each SOM reveal that the persistence of all the three SOMs is less than 5 days on average. These evolutionary short-term weather patterns have substantial variability at inter-annual and longer timescales. Therefore, the synoptic-scale activity is central to forming the seasonal-mean climate of the Arctic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: glaucoma surgery; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; minimally invasive glaucoma surgery; glaucoma surgery patterns; COVID-19; trabeculectomy; canaloplasty; iStent
Online: 30 December 2021 (17:09:06 CET)
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. Surgical and pharmacological treatment of glaucoma aims to lower the intraocular pressure (IOP) and preserve visual function. The severe acute res-piratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has placed a strain on the healthcare system. We aimed to compare the quantity, type of anti-glaucoma surgeries, and the disease stage before and during the coronavirus disease pandemic. We analyzed 362 eyes of 306 patients and 172 eyes of 149 patients from the pre-pandemic and pandemic groups, respectively. The number of an-ti-glaucoma surgeries was halved during the pandemic compared to a similar pre-pandemic pe-riod, with a significant difference in the procedural structures between the two groups (p<0.001). The most common procedures in the pre-pandemic group were Ex-Press implantation (33.7%) and trabeculectomy (31.5%). Within the pandemic group, half of the eyes underwent tra-beculectomy (50.0%), followed by Preserflo microshunt (11.6%). A significant difference in the average IOPs was revealed among patients who qualified for surgery 22.21 ± 7.83 mmHg in the pre-pandemic group and 25.16 ± 9.48 mmHg in the pandemic group; p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the best corrected visual acuity between the groups (p=0.263). Glaucoma treatment remained relatively accessible during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 Pandemic; Dietary patterns; BMI; Nutrition; Vitamins; Healthy Food; Dietary Supplements; Factor analyses; Internal Consistency; weight gain
Online: 17 November 2021 (12:09:58 CET)
Since its inception in 2019, COVID-19 has been associated with significant changes in lifestyle-related behavior, including physical activity, diet, and sleep, which are vital to maintaining our well-being. This study measures lifestyle-related behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown using a 21-item questionnaire. The responses were collected from March 2021 to September 2021. Four hundred sixty-seven participants were engaged in assessing the changes caused by the pandemic and their effect on BMI. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested for 71 participants. Cronbach's alpha values for the questionnaire all exceeded 0.7, demonstrating good validity and internal consistency for it. The effect of each question regarding physical activity and dietary habits over the BMI difference was studied using ANOVA. The study shows that more than half of the participants reported snacking more between meals and increased their sitting and screen time, while 74% felt more stressed and anxious. These indications were the cause of the increase in the BMI rate for individuals in the lockdown. In contrast, 62% of the participants showed more awareness about their health by increasing the intake of immunity-boosting foods, and 56% of the participants showed an increase in the consumption of nutrition supplements. Females and married individuals tended to be healthier, so their BMI showed stability compared to others based on their gender and marital status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: nasal function; validation; software; nasal resistance; rhinomanometry; acoustic rhinometry; peak nasal inspiratory flow meter; practice patterns; objective measurement outcomes; parameters
Online: 9 September 2022 (09:41:14 CEST)
Background: The Davidson Airway Function & Nasal Evaluation (DAFNE) Scoring System was developed as an intuitive and research-based scoring system that could be validated through beta testing and easily introduced to healthcare providers of several subspecialties who treat nasal obstruction and breathing disorders (MDs, PAs, PTs, APRNs, DDSs, and DCs). This scoring system was shown to increase the knowledge of airway function, nasal measurement parameters, and identification of proper treatment options for sleep and breathing disorders. The basis for the DAFNE score was developed from a systematic review of nasal measurement data. Methods: Electronic searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE Cochrane Library, and Scopus of publications between 1988-2022 were used to identify studies validating nasal function measurement parameters to create the algorithm for the DAFNE Score™. The systematic review was accomplished using the 2020 ‘Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews’ (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for systematic review. Primary outcomes measurements demonstrated reliability, repeatability and validity of the DAFNE measurement technologies, data and output. Conclusions: The data analysis and systematic review uncovered a need and framework to develop and validate a web-based software algorithm for global access to improve the understanding of data interpretation of nasal measurements from three nasal measurement technologies. DAFNE Scoring should be used as an adjunct tool in routine clinical practice and research to further understand the technology data output and how to collaborate with other healthcare providers to improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0046.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: urbanization; long-term settlement patterns; built-up land data; global human settlement layer; historical maps; topographic map processing; data integration.
Online: 2 July 2021 (10:03:54 CEST)
Abstract: Spatially explicit, fine-grained datasets describing historical urban extents are rarely available prior to the era of operational remote sensing. However, such data are necessary to better understand long-term urbanization and land development processes and for the assessment of coupled nature-human systems, e.g., the dynamics of the wildland-urban interface. Herein, we propose a framework that jointly uses remote sensing derived human settlement data (i.e., the Global Human Settlement Layer, GHSL) and scanned, georeferenced historical maps to automatically generate historical urban extents for the early 20th century. By applying unsupervised color segmentation to the historical maps, spatially constrained to the urban extents derived from the GHSL, our approach generates historical settlement extents for seamless integration with the multi-temporal GHSL. We apply our method to study areas in countries across four continents, and evaluate our approach for two U.S. study sites against historical settlement extents derived from the Historical Settlement Data Compilation for the US, HISDAC-US, achieving Area-under-the-Curve values >0.9. Our results are largely in agreement with model-based urban areas from the HYDE database, and demonstrate that the integration of remote sensing derived observations and historical cartographic data sources opens up new, promising avenues for assessing urbanization, and long-term land cover change in countries where historical maps are available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0463.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: nonlinear refractive index; noncolinear degenerate phase modulation; femtosecond pulses; quantum dots; inline digital holograms; pump-probe digital holography; diffraction patterns; digital holography; phase shift
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:23:58 CET)
We report on the application of time-resolved inline digital holography to study the nonlinear optical properties of quantum dots deposited onto the sample glass. Fresnel diffraction patterns of the probe pulse due to noncollinear degenerate phase modulation induced by the femtosecond pump pulse were extracted from the set of inline digital holograms and analyzed. Absolute values of the nonlinear refractive index of both sample glass substrate and the deposited layer of quantum dots were evaluated using the proposed technique. To characterize the inhomogeneous distribution of samples’ nonlinear optical properties we proposed to plot an optical nonlinearity map calculated as a local standard deviation of diffraction patterns intensity induced by noncollinear degenerate phase modulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0161.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: High Performance Computing (HPC); big data; High Performance Data Analytics (HPDS); con-vergence; data locality; spark; Hadoop; design patterns; process mapping; in-situ data analysis
Online: 9 November 2022 (01:38:34 CET)
Big data has revolutionised science and technology leading to the transformation of our societies. High Performance Computing (HPC) provides the necessary computational power for big data analysis using artificial intelligence and methods. Traditionally HPC and big data had focused on different problem domains and had grown into two different ecosystems. Efforts have been underway for the last few years on bringing the best of both paradigms into HPC and big converged architectures. Designing HPC and big data converged systems is a hard task requiring careful placement of data, analytics, and other computational tasks such that the desired performance is achieved with the least amount of resources. Energy efficiency has become the biggest hurdle in the realisation of HPC, big data, and converged systems capable of delivering exascale and beyond performance. Data locality is a key parameter of HPDA system design as moving even a byte costs heavily both in time and energy with an increase in the size of the system. Performance in terms of time and energy are the most important factors for users, particularly energy, due to it being the major hurdle in high performance system design and the increasing focus on green energy systems due to environmental sustainability. Data locality is a broad term that encapsulates different aspects including bringing computations to data, minimizing data movement by efficient exploitation of cache hierarchies, reducing intra- and inter-node communications, locality-aware process and thread mapping, and in-situ and in-transit data analysis. This paper provides an extensive review of the cutting-edge on data locality in HPC, big data, and converged systems. We review the literature on data locality in HPC, big data, and converged environments and discuss challenges, opportunities, and future directions. Subsequently, using the knowledge gained from this extensive review, we propose a system architecture for future HPC and big data converged systems. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such review on data locality in converged HPC and big data systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: model-based system engineering (MBSE); model-based systems architecting (MBSA); model-based pattern language (MBPL); system architecture; logical architecture; SysML patterns; pattern library; systems engineering (SE); pattern language; logical decomposition
Online: 9 August 2022 (09:26:54 CEST)
This paper presents an approach to the application of the Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Model-Based Systems Architecting (MBSA) principles to develop a Model-Based Pattern Language (MBPL). It takes too long for systems engineers and architects to develop a new system from scratch, particularly new space-based systems derived from the existing space systems architectures. A pattern language is a holistic view of reusable logical model artifacts; many are interdisciplinary and introductory, if at all. The results are mostly a combination of the application-specific logical solution, which further results in the best possible overall solution. The main benefit of the pattern language is reducing the time and validation required to generate a new space-based system architecture; this approach will develop top-level requirements in the initial phase of the system development. The rationale of the methodology proposed by the paper is as follows, collect, and decompose published literature and other open-source information available on space system architectures and system models; develop SysML models for systems, subsystems, products, assembly, subassembly level, and mission-specific requirements using CAMEO SysML software. Arrange these patterns to develop a functional ontology and construct a logical architecture pattern library. This approach created, updated, and managed SysML pattern language, which evaluated the expedited new model construction. Again, our objective is to develop a logical pattern language using public domain information and evaluate patterns by constructing a new space mission concept—for example, planetary surface habitat.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0350.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials; sp1-hybridized bonds; carbon atomic wires; ion-assisted pulsed-plasma deposition; nanocavities; cluster-assembling; vibration-assisted growing; acoustic activation; vibrational patterns; electromagnetic activation; self-organizing of the nanostructures; nano-cymatics; controlled patterning; synergistic effect
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:07:52 CET)
Structural self-organizing and pattern formation are universal and key phenomena observed during growth and cluster-assembling of the carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials at the ion-assisted pulse-plasma deposition. Fine tuning these universal phenomena opens access to designing the properties of the growing carbyne-enriched nano-matrix. The structure of bonds in the grown carbyne-enriched nano-matrices can be programmed by the processes of self-organization and auto-synchronization of nanostructures. We propose the innovative concept, connected with application of the universal Cymatics phenomena during the predictive growth of the carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials. We also propose the self-organization approach for increase stability of the long linear carbon chains. The main idea of suggested concept is manipulating by the self-organized wave patterns excitation phenomenon and their distribution by the spatial structure and properties of the nanostructured metamaterial grows region through the new synergistic effect. Mentioned effect will be provided through the vibration-assisted self-organized wave patterns excitation along with simultaneous manipulating by their properties through the electric field. We propose to use acoustic activation of the plasma zone of nano-matrix growing. Interaction between the inhomogeneous electric field distribution generated on the vibrating layer and the plasma ions will serve as the additional energizing factor controlling the local pattern formation and self-organizing of the nano-structures. Suggested concept makes it possible to provide precise predictive designing the spatial structure and properties of the advanced carbyne-enriched nanostructured metamaterials.