ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0006.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: User Experience; Remote UX; Participatory design; Co-creation; Prototyping; Automotive user interfaces; Autonomous Vehicles; Automotive.
Online: 1 August 2018 (08:31:02 CEST)
This study reports on empirical findings of participatory design workshops for the development of a supportive user experience design system in the automotive. Identifying and addressing this area with traditional research methods is problematic due to the different UX design perspectives that might be conflicting and the related automotive domain limitations. To help resolve this problem, we conducted research with 12 User Experience (UX) designers through individual participatory prototyping activities to gain insights on their explicit, observable, tacit and latent needs. These activities allowed us to explore their motivation to use different technologies; the system's architecture; detailed features of interactivity and describe user needs including Efficiency, Effectiveness, Engagement, Naturalness, Ease of Use, Information retrieval, Self-Image awareness, Politeness, and Flexibility. Our analysis led us to design implications that translate participants' needs into UX design goals, informing practitioners on how to develop relevant systems further.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0874.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: online frailty check application; older adults; co-design; co-development; reliability; participatory action research
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:25:59 CEST)
Frailty, an age-related decline in homeostatic reserves, markedly proceeded during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To continuously assess frailty status, a remote system is urgently required. We aimed to co-design/co-develop an online frailty check (FC) application alongside FC supporters who were facilitators in a pre-existing onsite FC program. The online FC included a screening measurement for sarcopenia and an 11-item questionnaire covering dietary, physical, and social behaviors. Using prototype applications, 55 opinions obtained from 32 FC supporters (median 74.0 years) were categorized and reflected refinement. Regarding the self-efficacy of FC supporters, a significant increase in social positioning was seen after the mock test (P=.031). For FC supporters and participants, the average system usability scale (SUS) score was 70.2±10.3 points, which was “marginally high” for acceptability and “good” for the adjective range. Multiple regression analysis showed that the SUS score was significantly correlated with online-onsite reliability but not online communication, even after adjusting by age, sex, education level, and ICT proficiency (b=0.400, 95% CI: 0.243-1.951, P=.013). Additionally, a significant association between onsite and online FC scores was observed (R=0.670, P=.001). Our online FC application was evaluated to be a valuable tool to practically assess frailty status remotely.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0292.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: agroecology; participatory research; web application; traceability
Online: 17 December 2021 (15:07:16 CET)
Agroecology, defined as the ecological science of food production is also as practical approach to design food production systems based on local concerted solutions that aim to promote synergy among the diversity of human and non human food systems elements. These two facets makes agroecology a good candidate for participatory research. Information technology should help using this information for the production of structured scientific knowledge. In this respect, there is a need for information technology that is adaptive to encompass the diversity of within and between systems and that provide benefit to farmers that feed it with data. We present MiCampoApp, a webapp that aims to join participatory research and certification in agroecology, with two roles, the farmer and the administrator. The idea to join participatory research for decision support with certification for market differentiation in single system is that much of the certification data harbors information for scientific research, and this incentivize data collection for the interest of the farmer and the community. The administrator create a model for data collection in order to solve a research question of interest for a communities or to produce traceability information to feed participatory guarantee system in a community. The farmer collects information using simple icons and produces traceability pages for research or certification purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0218.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Participatory Action Research; FOSS; Change implementation
Online: 17 June 2020 (13:16:27 CEST)
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is an established method to implement change in organizations. However, it cannot be applied in the open source (FOSS) communities, without adaptation to their particularities, especially to the specific control mechanisms developed in FOSS. FOSS communities are self-managed, and rely on consensus to reach decisions. This study proposes a PAR framework specifically tailored to FOSS communities. We successfully applied the framework to implement a set of quality assurance interventions in the Robot Operating System community. The framework we proposed is composed of three components, interventions design, democratization, and execution. We believe that this process will work for other FOSS communities too. We have learned that changing a particular aspect of a FOSS community is arduous. To achieve success the change must rally the community around it for support and attract motivated volunteers to implement the interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0572.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: waterlogging; vulnerability; risk; participatory survey; GIS; Chattogram
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:48:08 CET)
In recent years, rainfall-induced waterlogging has become a common hazard in the highly urbanized coastal city of Chattogram, Bangladesh resulting in high magnitude of property damage and economic loss. Therefore, the primary objective of this research is to prepare a waterlogging inventory map and understand the spatial variation of the risk by means of hazard intensity, exposure, and vulnerability of waterlogging. In this research, the inventory map and factors influencing waterlogging hazard were determined from a participatory survey and other spatial data including land elevation, population, and structural data were collected from secondary sources. Analytical Hierarchy Process was applied to measure the hazard intensity and the exposure and vulnerability were estimated by overlaying the spatial data onto the hazard intensity map. A total of 58 locations in 22 wards have been identified as waterlogging affected, which covers ~8.42% of the city area. Obtained waterlogging vulnerability index map suggests that ward no. 5, 6, 16, 17, and 33 are greatly vulnerable to waterlogging in terms of their social, infrastructure, critical facilities, economic and environmental vulnerability. We show that ~2.71% of the study area is at very high risk, while the risk score is considerably higher for ward no. 5, 8, 17, 19, and 33.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0024.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Citizenship, Young People, Participatory Research, Political Participation
Online: 1 August 2018 (14:23:21 CEST)
This paper provides a synthesis of qualitative studies, examining youth empowerment projects and initiatives which have encouraged young people to have a voice in local, regional and national political debates. Specifically, the article examines the role of UK youth services in building the spirit of citizenship in young people against the challenging question of the changing behaviour pattern and profiles of young British electorates. To do this, the paper draws on four case studies to help rethink the critical moments for disadvantaged and vulnerable young people in their journeys towards citizenship. The article, presents the advantages and limitations of the youth sector to enrich and furnish the spirit of citizenship in today’s youth and argues for a more innovative role in the part played by the state in an era of austerity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0578.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Participatory science; Biodiversity conservation; Landscape science; Michoacán; Mexico
Online: 8 September 2023 (13:02:26 CEST)
Participatory landscape conservation is an innovative approach that weaves theory and practice to bridge the gap between theoretical models and practical applications. Intertropical regions as the case of Mexico face challenges to conciliate regional governability, social justice, and nature conservation. The State of Michoacan is one of these regions where the challenges exacerbate since nature conservation is last due to its ongoing territorial disputes. We implemented the participatory landscape conservation approach by creating a complementary form of protected areas with ongoing conflicts, drought conditions, and extreme poverty. We conducted participatory mapping and land cover/use analyses as main methodological tools to reach consensus among stakeholders. We integrated, macro, micro and social scales to provide sound arguments to integrate local, scholar and policy makers perceptions. The outcomes of the participatory mapping analyses were assessed. The present papers provide evidence of the positive outcome of using a Participatory Landscape Conservation to establish a Biosphere Reserve, safeguarding one of the most biologically diverse and delicate ecosystems consisting of seasonally dry tropical forests within a rather disputed region. We discussed the relevance of our findings and compared them to ongoing regional and global trends in the light of other forms of establishing protected areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1782.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: youth mental health; health policy; monitoring and evaluation; participatory systems modelling; system dynamics modelling; lived experience participation; participatory action research
Online: 26 June 2023 (10:09:36 CEST)
Australia’s mental health system is failing young people. Calls for accountability, strategic long-term policy planning, and regional leadership have been identified as solutions to guide mental health reform. Developing system dynamics models using a participatory approach (participatory systems modelling, PSM) is recognised as a useful method that can support decision-making for strategic reform. This paper reports evaluation findings of a youth mental health PSM process conducted in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Baseline and follow-up mixed-methods evaluation data were collected in 2022 across diverse stakeholder groups to investigate the feasibility, value, impact, and sustainability of PSM. Though youth mental health system reform was viewed as desirable and a necessity across all stakeholder groups, shared perceptions of disabling powerless was observed regarding their ability to influence current decision-making processes to improve the youth mental health system. This suggests greater accountability is required to support systemic reform in youth mental health. PSM offers promise in improving transparency and accountability of decision-making for youth mental health as exemplified in the ACT. However, more support and time are required to facilitate transformational change. Future research should investigate empowerment strategies to complement the implementation of findings from dynamic models developed through PSM, as well as the effectiveness of regional youth mental health policy decision-making supported by systems modelling.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Participatory Design, Co-operative Inquiry, Design partners, Co-design
Online: 7 August 2023 (12:10:41 CEST)
The framework proposed by Alison Druin about 20 years ago, which defined the roles children play in technology design, has been widely adopted by the Child-Computer Interaction (CCI) community. While some studies have adopted relevant roles as presented in the framework, others have argued for extending the framework to include newly identified roles. Still, other studies argue that Druin's framework failed to account for roles children may take up as they interact with peers or with tools. Consequently, this systematic literature review examines children’s emerging and changing roles in the codesign of new technologies. Specifically, we answered the research question: What new roles emerge in research as children co-design new technologies? Our effort aims at providing evidence of new roles children have adopted in literature, which may help researchers in the CCI community make more informed decisions about participatory design approaches with children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1012.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Sustainable,forest management,innovations,participatory,growing stock, ecosystem services; biodiversity
Online: 7 July 2023 (08:27:26 CEST)
Forest ecosystems provide diverse services and values that contribute to human well-being. Although high proportion of species is still undiscovered, tropical forests alone are thought to host more than 50% of the world’s biodiversity. Beyond supporting via direct use of products like timber, fiber and biomass energy, they play an important role in providing a wide range of ecosystem services such as regulating water flow and quality, water purification, improving infiltration, fresh water, erosion control, carbon sequestration and sedimentation control. They are one of the important parts of terrestrial and the largest carbon pool, occupying an integral position in the global carbon cycle. However, these days, deterioration of nature and forest biodiversity is a severe danger to the global environment. This will be accompanied by increased strains on food supply, causing increased pressure on already delicate ecological systems. Thus, better forest management strategies are necessary for managing forests sustainably. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the existing forest management approaches and their associated benefits and challenges. Multidisciplinary approaches are needed to achieve sustainable management of forests. These can be accomplished if suitable forest management innovations are put in place. Various technologies can also be adopted through applying different forest assessment tools like remote sensing using light detection and ranging technology (LiDAR) in forest management. Harnessing such technologies will definitely result in providing increased socio-economy as well as improved environmental sustainability. However, the speed of transformation depends much on level of commitment of stakeholders including policy makers. As a result, this review is intended to explore existing forest management innovations which are suitable both ecologically as well as socio-economically. This shows that while there is a lot to be improved, there are already developed forest management innovations that are already in use including PFM and MFM, which helps to achieve SFM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0337.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: participatory research; pre-intervention; community-based intervention; alcohol use; adolescents
Online: 14 July 2021 (14:04:01 CEST)
This study explores the impact of the ‘pre-intervention effects’ of a community-based interventions. This refers to participatory research processes and parallel publicity in the media on changes in alcohol use and relevant mechanisms (rules and norms about alcohol, accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting) among adolescents before any intervention is implemented. In a quasi-experimental study, adolescent data were collected twice by means of self-report among adolescents living in two municipalities (control and experimental condition). Regression analysis showed pre-intervention main effects on adolescents’ perceived accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting. Moreover, among adolescents aged 15 years and older, the normative decline in strictness of rules and norms was less steep in the experimental condition compared to the control condition. Also, adolescents aged 14 years and younger in the experimental condition reported more weekly drinking compared to their peers in the control condition. No differential effects across gender were found. To conclude, applying a co-creational approach in the development of an intervention, not only contributes to more effective interventions in the end, but involvement of and discussions in the community at the start of intervention planning are contributing to changes in targeted factors. This implies that public discussions about the development of intervention strategies should be considered as an essential feature of co-creation in community-based interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0058.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: participatory approach, WECC nexus, South Africa, integrated water resource management
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:14:46 CEST)
This paper discusses the use of a participatory approach to assess the level of understanding of the Water-Energy-Climate Change nexus in South Africa. The aim is to facilitate the development of well-coordinated, systematic, and holistic strategies for efficient management of the nexus and its implications in the country. The assessment was guided by the broader Integrated Water Resource Management framework, which promotes a participatory approach in the administration of water resources. The paper argues that despite the reasonable level of understanding of WECC, there is still a lack of integrated policy development and planning among key stakeholders. This is exacerbated by limited coordination and consultation among these stakeholders, particularly policymakers. This necessitates the urgent adoption of holistic and systems thinking approaches, and the promotion of collaboration among different stakeholders mandated to manage WECC sectors. Until such approaches are adopted, the WECC nexus will continue to impede the country’s socio-economic development and environmental wellbeing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: participatory methodologies; policy, advocacy; agronomy; information/ variability; agro-weather advisories.
Online: 1 February 2021 (18:45:15 CET)
There is consensus that climate variability and change is impacting food security in Eastern Africa, and that conventional extension approaches, based on top-down model of information dissemination and technology transfer, are too inadequate to help smallholder farmers tackle increasingly complex agro-climatic adversities. Innovative service delivery options exist but are mostly operated in silos with little effort to explore and blend them. There are efforts to develop a blended Climate-Resilient Farmers Field School methodology to address the gaps, with objective to improve participants’ knowledge, skills and attitude to apply the blended approach and to sensitize actors on what needs to be advocated at the policy level. Some 661 local trainers/facilitators (ToT/ToFs), 32% of them women and 54% youth, were trained across Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, with additional 76 Master Trainers (MToTs) trained to backstop the ToT/ToFs. Through the implementation, the process reached 36 agribusinesses covering some 237,250 smallholder farmers trained across Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda on CSA technologies, practices, and innovations by the end of 2020. The blended approach offers lessons to transform extension to help farmers improve food security and resilience. Preliminary findings indicate that the process is rapidly shaping individual adaptive behavior and group adaptive thinking. Lessons also show a strong need for agronomists to work more closely with agro-meteorologists to ensure that farmers are properly guided to participate appropriately in the co-generation and application of climate information and agro-weather advisories, which they can interpret easily and utilize for their agricultural production purposes. Experience from this initiative can be leveraged to develop scalable participatory extension and training models
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0568.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Participatory mapping; Ecosystem services; Forest degradation; Deforestation; Indigenous communities; Vulnerability.
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:11:07 CET)
Agricultural expansion is altering the provision of ecosystem services and seriously affecting the well-being of the indigenous communities still living in forests. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of forest loss and degradation on the indigenous forest dependent communities of Eastern Salta, Argentina, between 2001 and 2015. First, we identified the demand area of ten final ecosystem services for 202 indigenous communities using participatory mapping data. Second, we calculated the remaining usage area using a deforestation geodatabase based on Landsat images. Third, we analyzed the significance of trends in forest productivity processing vegetation spectral indices from MODIS products. By last, we detected changes in the growing season length by evaluating monthly trends in spectral indices. Our results show a reduction of 21% in the area used by indigenous communities for capturing final ecosystem services, and significant negative trends in forest productivity for the demand area of 64% of the communities, indicating that the area of use is not only being reduced, but also remnant forest area is being degraded and the growing season is being shortened. These aspects indicate an important loss in the provision of ecosystem services that deeply affects the wellbeing of indigenous communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0485.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: child prostitution, global inequality, gender inequality, participatory research, capability approach.
Online: 25 July 2018 (13:08:18 CEST)
This article draws on empirical research seeking to develop more nuanced understandings of child prostitution, previously theorised on the basis of children’s rights, feminist, and structure/agency debates, largely ignoring children’s own understandings of their involvement in prostitution. Conducted in Malawi, one of the economically poorest countries in the world, the study goes to the heart of questions of inequality and child protection. With careful attention to ethical considerations, a participatory approach was used to enable 19 girls and young women, whose involvement in prostitution began in childhood, to convey their own experiences and understandings of involvement. Data were collected using a range of methods, chosen by participants to match their abilities and interests. Data analysis and interpretation were aided by reference to the capability approach focussing on questions of human rights and social justice for women and girls. Generating rare insights into participants’ worlds, the research demonstrates how the persistence of deeply embedded cultural values in contexts of extreme poverty serves to sustain gender inequalities, constraining choices for girls and denying them opportunities to lead valued lives. The article ends by considering the theoretical and methodological implications of the study, policy and practice recommendations and opportunities for further research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: ecosystem services; agricultural systems; mapping; values; cross-scale; participatory; local
Online: 3 July 2018 (08:16:24 CEST)
Given the cross-scale interactions of agricultural ecosystems, it is important to collect ecosystem service data at the multiple spatial scales they operate at. Mapping of ecosystem services helps to assess their spatial and temporal distribution and is a popular communication tool of their availability and value. For example, maps can be used to quantify distance between areas of available ecosystem services and their beneficiaries and how services fluctuate with changes in land use patterns over time, allowing identification of synergies and trade-offs. However, a lack of local context and too large a resolution can reduce the utility of these maps, whilst masking heterogeneities in access due to equity dynamics. This review identifies and summarizes eight main methods of ESS mapping found in the literature—remote sensing, biophysical modelling, agent based modelling, economic valuation, expert opinion, user preference, participatory mapping, and photo-elicitation. We consider what spatial scales these methods are utilized at and the transferability of data created by each method. The analysis concludes with a methodological framework for mapping ecosystem services, intended to help researchers identify appropriate methods for a multi-scale research design. The framework is exemplified with an overview of a research project in Ethiopia.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0105.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Climate change; disaster risk reduction; participatory scenario planning; pastoralism; Ethiopia
Online: 10 August 2016 (10:14:00 CEST)
Climate change is a major development challenge to Ethiopia. Unless adaptation measures are widely implemented, climate change can set back development efforts and achievements by years. Recognizing this, the Government of Ethiopia (GoE) and civil society organizations have since recently been making considerable efforts to tackle the climate change problem. This paper documents the experience of CARE International in Ethiopia in facilitating bottom-up approaches to promote community-led disaster risk management and climate change adaptation planning through a participator scenario planning (PSP) methodology. PSP is a coordinated approach which leverages a variety of stakeholders' skills and mandates to explore potential climate change risks and their impacts, and then develop locally relevant and shared adaptation action plans that support livelihoods, social capital and ecosystem resilience. The approach has facilitated timely access to and communication of seasonal climate advisories which in turn is empowering communities to take advantage of opportunities that climate presents, which is a key part of adapting to climate change. The institutionalization of the approach by district and regional disaster prevention and food security coordination offices in the southern pastoral regions of Ethiopia encouraged integration of PSP into community livelihood adaptation and local government development planning, hence continuity of the process. Sustainability is expected to be fully achieved when local government planning processes recognize the importance of and provides resources for the participation of meteorological services and community forecasting experts to help refine plans on a seasonal basis, and for systems for dissemination of advisories. Key words: Climate Change, Disaster Risk Reduction, Adaptation, Pastoralism, Ethiopia,
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: SDGs; Democratic Index; democratic institutions; partnership; accountability; participatory democracy; economic growth
Online: 11 April 2022 (10:37:51 CEST)
This article aims to create the nexus between sustainable development and the quality of the political regime. The current social and political context is characterized by a series of crises generated by COVID-19 pandemic, economic imbalances and regional conflicts. In this context, sustainable development is affected by the economic dynamics and the “democratic recession”. The study aims to respond to the following research questions: “how could influence the quality of the democracy the dynamics of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs 17)?” and “what are the premises for sustainable development in the new political context, characterized by democratic recession?” The purpose of the study is to underline the fact that democratic regimes are inclined to create both participative and deliberative frames for achieving the SDGs in accordance with UN 2030 Agenda. The research methodology used in this study is based on descriptive and inferential statistics. The research data are collected from secondary sources in the years between 2015 and 2021, from 193 countries covering all the geographical areas. The empirical results suggest two models of development: the Asian model of sustainable development characterized by economic growth and the Western democratic model based on democratic institutions, fair justice and mechanisms for preserving peace. We noticed that the key-variables for explaining the dynamics of sustainability in correlation with democratic index are represented by the functioning of the governments and the political participation. Through civic engagement and political ac-countability, democracy could be seen as a pre-requisite for achieving an optimal level of the SDGs. All these empirical results could prove valuable for the scholars interested in the relation between democracy and sustainability and for the political decision makers involved in shaping strategies for social, economic and environmental development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0429.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Anguilla anguilla; complex model; participatory assessment; DISTATIS; Bayesian assessment model; GEREM
Online: 16 April 2021 (09:42:59 CEST)
Mistrust between scientists and non-scientist stakeholders is a key challenge in fishery management. This problem is exacerbated with the use of complex models to support management: these models suffer from difficulties in communicating their results and a lack of confidence from end users. The European eel is an illustrative example; its complex life cycle raises problems of coordination and discussion among the multiple actors involved in the management of the species. The GEREM model has been proposed as a tool for estimating recruitment, but its complexity, which is essential for addressing the characteristics of the species, makes it difficult to understand and accept by all stakeholders. In the context of the SUDOANG project, we proposed a co-parametrization of this assessment model to tackle this mistrust. Through the use of various questionnaires and appropriate statistical analyses, stakeholders were involved in two important choices for the model (zone definition and prior construction). Regular workshops and presentations were organised to explain the model rationales and to gather feedback and expectations. The results show that stakeholders have very similar perceptions of the potential definitions of sub-areas of recruitment in south-western Europe, and these perceptions are consistent with the underlying environmental conditions. On the other hand, the stakeholders have contrasting opinions about the exploitation rates of fisheries in different river basins, and the use of their knowledge currently has little effect on GEREM estimates. More importantly, the overall approach of this study is thought to have reconstructed the trust and confidence among participants.
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land degradation; participatory methods; photo elicitation; Sahel; local knowledge; remote sensing
Online: 15 April 2019 (12:45:49 CEST)
Land degradation monitoring and assessment in the Sahel zone has relied substantially on temporal trends of remote sensing-based vegetation indices, which are proxies for the bioproductivity of the land. However, prior studies have shown that negative or positive trends in bioproductivity are not necessarily associated with degradation or improvement of land condition. In this short communication, while acknowledging the contributions of remote sensing-based indices and global-scale datasets to dismantling an outdated desertification narrative, we argue that local land users have much to contribute to our understanding of land degradation, and particularly to ensuring that scientific assessments of degradation capture variables relevant to them. We used the participatory photo elicitation method in three sites in the Senegalese Ferlo in order to elicit local pastoralists’ perspectives on land degradation and identify the indicators that they use to characterize pasture quality, while empowering them to lead the discussion. The discussion revealed indicators far beyond bioproductivity, including livestock performance as well as composition and quality of the herbaceous and woody vegetative cover, invasive species, soil quality and water availability. We found that the pastoralists’ knowledge and interest in the issue could potentially be harnessed more systematically, and at larger scales, in order to build a spatially explicit field-based knowledge base of land degradation complementary to remote sensing-based maps of trends in bioproductivity. Such a dataset could serve as a standalone product or as a reference dataset for development and validation of remote sensing-based indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0407.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: participatory sensing; smart city; Internet of Things; distributed event-based systems
Online: 16 November 2018 (11:23:30 CET)
Since smart cities aim at becoming self-monitoring and self-response systems, their deployment relies on close resource monitoring through large-scale urban sensing. The subsequent gathering of massive amounts of data makes essential the development of event filtering mechanisms that enable the selection of what is relevant and trustworthy. Due to the rise of mobile event producers, location information has become a valuable filtering criterion as it not only offers extra information on the event described but also enhances trust on the producer. Implementing mechanisms that validate the quality of location information becomes then imperative. The lack of such strategies in cloud architectures compels the adoption of new communication schemes for IoT-based urban services. To serve the demand for location verification in urban event-based systems (DEBS), we have designed three different fog architectures that combine proximity and cloud communication. Moreover, we have successfully assessed their performance using network simulations with realistic urban traces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0975.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Museology Keywords: digital citizenship; digital culture; digital literacy; digital museums; global citizenship; participatory design
Online: 26 April 2023 (09:54:50 CEST)
In the paper, we explore the notion of global digital citizenship, particularly with respect to museums and cultural heritage organizations. In this perspectives study, we explore current examples of how museums can adapt to the tenets of global digital citizenship necessary to navigate and participate in increasingly interconnected digital worlds and culture, and to collectively address global challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0604.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: eHealth; end-user; chronic disease; participatory design; socio-technical; diversity in care
Online: 29 October 2020 (09:30:26 CET)
Critically the paper argues that a truly people-centered technology supported chronic care system can only be designed by understanding and responding to the needs, attributes and capabilities of the most vulnerable in society. The paper suggests innovative ways of supporting interactions with these ‘end-users’ and highlights how reflection on these approaches can contribute to emancipating both the health system to move towards more socially inclusive e-health solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental health science; community engagement; community based participatory research; community-university partnerships
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:07:29 CET)
Community-engaged research is understood as existing on a continuum from less to more community engagement, defined by participation and decision-making authority. It has been widely assumed that more is better than less engagement. However, we argue that what makes for good community engagement is not simply the extent but the fit or alignment between the intended approach and the various contexts shaping the research projects. This article draws on case studies from three Community Engagement Cores (CECs) of NIEHS-funded Environmental Health Science Core Centers (Harvard University, UC Davis and University of Arizona,) to illustrate the ways in which community engagement approaches have been fit to different contexts and the successes and challenges experienced in each case. We analyze the processes through which the CECs work with researchers and community leaders to develop place-based community engagement approaches and find that different strategies are called for to fit distinct contexts. We find that alignment of the scale and scope of the environmental health issue and related research project, the capacities and resources of the researchers and community leaders, and the influences of the socio-political environment are critical for understanding and designing effective and equitable engagement approaches. These cases demonstrate that the types and degrees of alignment in community-engaged research projects are dynamic and evolve over time. Based on this analysis, we recommend that CBPR scholars and practitioners select a range of project planning and management techniques for designing and implementing their collaborative research approaches and both expect and allow for the dynamic and changing nature of alignment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0058.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: rural development; multifunctionality; rural planning; participatory process; social multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE)
Online: 4 April 2018 (14:51:19 CEST)
The planning of rural land depends to a large extent on the agrarian and forestry development model agreed upon for it. Within the framework of agrarian multifunctionality, to evaluate different development alternatives and their effect on territorial planning, its multiple dimensions must be considered as well as the interests and needs of the stakeholders. This work thus addresses the comprehensive evaluation of development alternatives for the rural area of a municipality of the Basque Country (Spain) through the implementation of a multi-criteria evaluation method with social participation. The results show, firstly, the existence of trade-offs between the functions to be promoted in the various development models evaluated. Secondly, the results indicate the need to reverse recent trends in the sector and the convenience of moving towards an agro-livestock model of greater ecological and local character, independently of the followed forest model. In fact, the evaluation carried out also reveals, thirdly, the existence of more or less latent conflicts, in particular with regards to forest policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0422.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: collective intelligence; policymaking; public policy; e-participation; participatory budgeting; cognitive systems; group cognition.
Online: 15 April 2021 (15:10:12 CEST)
In open, sustainable policymaking, we are expecting to develop the valuable results that will bring us closer to a fairer and more balanced society. One way to involve the public in these processes is to engage them in online e-participation projects. Despite the hopes, empirical analyses show that many e-participation initiatives have failed to deliver expected benefits. Revealing what actually works in examined projects and what requires improvement would allow for better policy planning in the future. In this article, I made an attempt to identify and assess the cognitive processes enabling emergence of collective intelligence (CI) in a singular e-participation project. For this reason, I worked out and tested an evaluation technique, combining the MILCS framework for group cognition and the results of empirical research on CI. A case study method based on semi-structured interviews was selected to evaluate a sample participatory budgeting initiative, Civic Budget of the City of Kraków. Results reveal that most cognitive processes are working satisfactorily, but the real problem is using collective memory, which works only to a very limited extent. A guideline for future policymakers should be to develop a shared memory system, to which all community members should have access.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0277.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: socioecological systems; water ecosystem services; participatory mapping; stakeholder values; spatial analysis; river basin
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:43:38 CEST)
Reductions in water availability and increasing rainfall variability are generating a narrative of growing competition for water in the Mediterranean basin. In this article, we explore the distribution and importance of water resources in the Muga River Basin (Catalonia, Spain) based on key stakeholders’ perceptions. We performed a sociocultural evaluation of the main water ecosystem services in the region through stakeholder interviews and participatory mapping. The basin was generally perceived as a hotspot of ecosystem services, but we detected varying opinions and considerable differences in the perceptions of importance and spatial distribution of water ecosystem services. These discrepancies were linked to the varying levels of stakeholders’ dependence on water. Our findings are important for contributing to correct water planning and management in the river basin, which is a complex water social system marked by conflicts between different stakeholder groups vying for the same resource. This complex situation requires bottom-up strategies to create transparent, participatory decision-making models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0075.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: health promotion; ageing; workplace; occupational health; effectiveness; salutogenesis; holistic medicine; subsidiarity; participatory approach; setting
Online: 9 January 2018 (07:26:56 CET)
The ageing of workers is one of the most important issues for occupational health and safety in Europe. A number of intervention studies on health promotion for older workers were conducted in European workplaces between 2000 and 2015. This review gives an overview of these studies and considers perspectives for workplace health promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0131.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: adaptation; mental model refinement; food systems; knowledge management participatory modeling; system dynamics; systems thinking
Online: 27 November 2016 (04:12:49 CET)
Food systems will need to undergo considerable transformation. To be better prepared for and resilient to uncertainty and disturbances in the future, resource users and managers need to further develop knowledge about the food and farming system, with its dominating feedback structures and complexities, and to test robust and integrated system-based solutions. This paper investigates how participatory system dynamics modeling can be adapted to groups at the community level with low or no formal educational background. The paper also analyzes the refinement of workshop participants’ mental models as a consequence of a participatory system dynamics intervention. For this purpose, we ran two workshops with small-scale farmers in Zambia. Analysis of workshop data and post-workshop interviews shows that participatory system dynamics is well adaptable to support an audience-specific learning-by-doing approach. The use of pictures, objects and water glasses in combination with the basic aspects of causal loop diagramming makes for a well-balanced toolbox. Participants acquire understanding that is also relevant beyond systems thinking in that is offers a range of practical insights such as a critical evaluation of common food security strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: participatory modelling; causal loop diagram development; structural analysis; systems modelling; construction innovation; Russian Federation
Online: 15 August 2016 (08:56:30 CEST)
This research integrates systemic and participatory techniques to model the Russian Federation construction innovation system. Understanding this complex construction innovation system, and determining the best levers for enhancing it, requires the dynamic modelling of a number of factors such as flows of resources and activities, policies, uncertainty and time. To build the foundations for such a dynamic model, the employed study method utilised an integrated stakeholder-based participatory approach coupled with structural analysis (MICMAC - Matrice d'Impacts Croisés Multiplication Appliquée à un Classement Cross-Impact Matrix). This method identified the key factors of the Russian Federation construction innovation system, their causal relationship (i.e. influence/dependence map) and ultimately a causal loop diagram. The generated model reveals pathways to improving construction innovation in the Russian Federation, and underpins the future development of an operationalised systems dynamic model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: local participatory democracy; economic freedom; sustainable development; political culture; education; priority areas in smart cities
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:43:55 CEST)
This paper aims to stress the nexus between sustainable development, economic freedom and local participatory democracy in 21 European smart cities. The development of smart cities is strongly correlated with technological advancements and improved access to pub-lic services for all residents. Furthermore, smart cities are characterized by efficient man-agement of social, economic and environmental resources and a strong partnership be-tween the public and private sectors. The paper aims to map the dynamics of local partic-ipatory democracy in European smart cities and to identify several relevant predictors of local participatory democracy. The sample is represented by 21 European capitals (20 EU countries plus UK), which are included in the Smart City Index (SCI). Using the quantita-tive design based on both statistical regressions and structural equations modelling (SEM), the paper shows positive statistical correlation between economic factors, sustainable de-velopment, political culture, education and the level of local participatory democracy. Be-sides the exogenous variables, the study emphasized the main priority areas, which might be seen as urgent issues for local governments. The conclusion of the paper underlines the fact that economic freedom, sustainable development, upper secondary education, afford-able housing and an increased level of citizens’ engagement could predict further evolu-tions of the local participatory democracy in 21 European capitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0086.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: workplace; health promotion; work-related stress; anxiety; depression; participatory ergonomics; wellbeing; best practice; work organization
Online: 12 February 2018 (09:09:57 CET)
The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. The regular medical examination of workers enables us to screen for numerous diseases, spread good practices and correct lifestyles, and obtain a favourable risk/benefit ratio. The continuous monitoring of the level of workers' wellbeing using a holistic approach that goes beyond the simple prevention of occupational risks enables us to promptly identify problems in work organization and the company climate. Problems of this kind can be adequately managed by using a participatory approach. In this study participatory ergonomics groups were used to improve occupational life in a small company. After intervention we observed a reduction in levels of perceived occupational stress measured with the effort / reward imbalance model, and an improvement in psychological wellbeing assessed by means of the Goldberg anxiety / depression scale. Although the limited size of the sample calls for a cautious evaluation of this study, the GEP© strategy proved to be a useful tool due to its cost-effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0335.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Amah Mutsun Tribal Band; Indigenous archaeology; Collaborative archaeology; Community-based participatory research; California archaeology; Indigenous stewardship
Online: 12 November 2020 (09:43:15 CET)
This paper summarizes over a decade of collaborative eco-archaeological research along the central coast of California involving researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, tribal citizens from the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band, and California Department of Parks and Recreation archaeologists. Our research employs remote sensing methods to document and assess cultural resources threatened by coastal erosion and geophysical methods to identify archaeological deposits, minimize impacts on sensitive cultural resources, and provide tribal and state collaborators with a suite of data to consider before proceeding with any form of invasive archaeological excavation. Our case study of recent eco-archaeological research developed to define the historical biogeography of threatened and endangered anadromous salmonids demonstrates how remote sensing technologies help identify dense archaeological deposits, remove barriers, and create bridges through equitable and inclusive research practices between archaeologists and the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band. These experiences have resulted in the incorporation of remote sensing techniques as a central approach of the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band when conducting archaeology in their traditional territories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0164.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: funds of identity; funds of knowledge; digital media; contextualization; personalized learning; participatory culture; culturally sustaining pedagogy
Online: 15 October 2019 (07:56:20 CEST)
Within the framework of theoretical developments in so-called participatory culture and the context of funds of identity, incorporated within what is known as the funds of knowledge approach, an innovative teaching methodology is implemented that allows students to actively participate in knowledge construction. The project translates into a proposal for educational contextualization and personalization based on the students’ funds of identity, that is, those resources (people, artifacts, places, activities, institutions) they consider to be most relevant and significant to define themselves. Once these have been identified through identity artifacts, such as collages or self-drawings, students link some of these funds of identity to curricular content of the subject and produce a video that shows the results of this academic work. The final product is shared on a YouTube channel containing the videos of all of the students in the class. The phases of the project are described and illustrated. We argue that the proposed teaching and learning project, which is cross-disciplinary in nature, allows for principles such as educational contextualization, funds of identity, and participatory culture to be incorporated into what we call here the funds of identity 2.0 approach, putting it into educational practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0499.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: SDGs; urban inequality; urban governance; inclusive development; participatory geospatial methods; citizen-generated data; data practices; urban indicators
Online: 29 November 2018 (03:16:51 CET)
There is much discussion regarding the Sustainable Development Goals’ (SDGs) capacity to promote inclusive development. While some argue that they represent an opportunity for goal-led alignment of stakeholders and evidence-based decision-making, other voices express concerns as they perceive them as a techno-managerial framework that measures development according to quantitatively defined parameters and does not allow for local variation. We argue that the extent to which the positive or negative aspects of the SDGs prevail depends on the monitoring system’s ability to account for multiple and intersecting inequalities. The need for sub-nationally (urban) representative indicators poses an additional methodological challenge – especially in cities with intra-urban inequalities related to socio-spatial variations across neighbourhoods. This paper investigates the extent to which the SDG indicators’ representativeness could be affected by inequalities. It does so by proposing a conceptual framing for understanding the relation between inequalities and SDG monitoring, which is then applied to analyse the current methodological proposals for the indicator framework of the “urban SDG”, Goal 11. The outcome is a call for 1) a more explicit attention to intra-urban inequalities, 2) the development of a methodological approach to “recalibrate” the city-level indicators to account for the degree of intra-urban inequalities, and 3) an alignment between methodologies and data practices applied for monitoring SDG 11 and the extent of the underlying inequalities within the city. This would enable an informed decision regarding the trade-off in indicator representativeness between conventional data sources, such as censuses and household surveys, and emerging methods, such as participatory geospatial methods and citizen-generated data practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0032.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Environmental decision support systems; applications; outcome-based approach; adaptive management; user requirements; environmental management; participatory land planning
Online: 6 October 2017 (08:51:07 CEST)
There is increasing demand from stakeholders for tools to support outcome-based approaches in environmental management. For such tools to be useful, understanding user requirements is key. In Scotland, UK, stakeholders were engaged in the development of an Environmental Decision Support System (EDSS) to support the management of land and freshwater resources for multiple policy outcomes. A structured participatory engagement process was employed to determine stakeholder requirements, establish development principles to fulfil these requirements and road-test prototypes. The EDSS specification that emerged from this bottom-up process was spatially-explicit, free at the point of use, and touch and mobile device compatible. This application, which is under development, does not closely resemble most existing published EDSS. We suggest that there is a mismatch between the way scientists typically conceptualise EDSS and the kinds of applications that are likely to be useful to decision-makers on the ground. Interactive mobile and web-based geospatial information services have become ubiquitous in our daily lives, but their importance is not reflected in current literature on EDSS. The current focus in environmental management on adaptive, stakeholder-centred strategies based on outcomes offers an opportunity to make better use of these new technologies to aid decision-making processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0411.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: community participatory asset mapping; asset-based approaches to health; health inequalities; basic healthcare services; community-based healthcare; democratic republic of congo
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:32:40 CEST)
Populations with healthcare needs often reside in post-conflict settings where basic services needed to maintain good health may be non-existent or hard to access. Therefore, there is a need for better identification and reallocation of resources as part of the post-conflict health rehabilitation effort. This study applies an asset-based approach to explore the more optimal design of health services and to identify the resource constraints for basic health service delivery to the most vulnerable communities in eastern Congo. We implemented the asset mapping in two phases. Firstly, we combined a qualitative survey with community walks to identify the assets already present in the communities. Secondly, we conducted group discussions to map out assets that are the core of Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD) practice. We finally documented all assets in a Community Asset Spreadsheet. Overall, 209 assets were identified as available and potentially valuable resources for the communities in eastern Congo. Among them, 60 were local associations, 24 were land and physical environment, 43 were local institutions, 46 were individuals, 32 to economy and exchange, and only 6 were related to culture, history, and stories. Drawing upon the findings from the qualitative survey, community walks, and group discussions, we conclude that an important number of resources were in place for basic health service delivery. By activating the existing and potential resources, the most vulnerable populations in eastern Congo might have the required resources for basic health service delivery. Our findings support the use of an asset-mapping research method as appropriate to identify existing and potential resources for basic health services in a post-conflict setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0024.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: resource efficiency; zero waste; resource recovery from waste; low-carbon economy; circular economy infrastructure; clean growth; resource productivity; sustainable development goals; transdisciplinary research; participatory action research
Online: 5 February 2018 (03:27:02 CET)
The UK economy is overly reliant on unsustainable production and consumption practices, depleting finite resources at rates that will increase production costs, business risk and economic instability. This over-consumption produces emissions and waste that cause climate change and environmental degradation, impacting on the wellbeing of people in the UK and beyond. The Resource Recovery from Waste programme (RRfW) promotes a transition towards waste and resource management in a circular economy that restores the environment, creates societal benefits and promotes clean growth by engaging relevant actors in the transition process. RRfW collaborates with academia, government, and industry to co-produce a shared vision and approach to realise such a transition. Reflecting insights from RRfW’s government engagement, this article presents a positive outlook for changing the UK economy and society. It envisions a long-term future for waste and resource management that maximises the value of materials by circulating them in the economy for as long as possible. Four themes and an approach are proposed, including recommendations for regulatory instruments and a stable policy framework. It recommends further collaborative research to capitalise on opportunities for economic growth, innovation and resilient infrastructure whilst contributing to quality jobs and welfare in all four UK nations.