ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Smartphone Addiction; Middle School Students; Smartphone Usage Types; Depression; Parenting Attitude
Online: 6 September 2020 (16:27:01 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smartphone addiction of middle school students and smartphone usage types, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude. This study was also performed with the aim of verifying the relationships among depression, ADHD, perceived stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude, which are predictors of smartphone addiction. The subjects of this study were 487 local middle school students (234 males and 253 females). The measurement instruments used were the smartphone addiction scale, depression scale (PHQ-9), ADHD scale (K-ARS), perceived stress scale (PSS), interpersonal problem scale (KIIP-SC), and the parenting attitude scale. This study identified the relationships between the variables with correlation analysis and examined the predictors of smartphone addiction with hierarchical multiple regression analysis. According to the study results, the factors that influenced smartphone addiction were gender, stress, and interpersonal problems. In addition, when the confounding variables of smartphone addiction were controlled to examine the effects of smartphone usage types on smartphone addiction, social media use and music/videos were found to have a positively significant effect on smartphone addiction while study had a negatively significant effect. The order of the usage types with the highest influence on smartphone addiction was enjoying music/videos, social media use, and study. This suggests that selective intervention depending on the main smartphone usage type can be effective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0311.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Parenting; brain; development; fmri; child development
Online: 14 October 2020 (15:22:41 CEST)
Parenting has been robustly associated with offspring psychosocial development, and these effects are likely reflected in brain development. However, the claim that parenting influences offspring brain development in humans, as measured by structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), is subject to numerous methodological limitations. To interpret the state of the parenting and brain development literature, we review these limitations. Four limitations are common. First, most literature has been cross-sectional. Where longitudinal, studies rarely included multiple assessments of brain structure or function, precluding measurement of actual brain development. Second, parenting has largely been measured via selfor parent-report, as opposed to observational assessment. Third, there has been a focus on extreme forms of developmental adversity which do not necessarily lie on a continuum with normative parenting. Fourth, although not a limitation per se, studies have generally focused on negative as opposed to positive parenting behaviours. While not all studies are subject to all these limitations, the study of parenting in relation to offspring brain development is in its infancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: digitalisation; digital learning; mental health; parenting; China
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:50:28 CET)
While a raft of existing Chinese literature examines the associations between the outbreak of the pandemic and students’ mental health, rarely do Chinese studies assess the nuanced relationships between digital learning, parenting, and students’ mental health since the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Such a rarely discussed topic has substantial scholarly value as mismanagement of digital learning and parenting, such as the exposure to cyberbullying and negative parenting during the public health crisis, could add substantial, unforeseeable psychological burdens for Chinese students. In this article, the author applied a systematic review to find all relevant Chinese literature that contains the words “digital learning”, “children/adolescents”, “mental health”, and “parenting” published since January 2020. As such a complex topic has rarely been addressed in Chinese contexts, the author was only able to find four related scholarly articles. The author summarises the arguments and empirical findings to explore the nuanced relationships between a) digitalisation, isolation, parenting, and children’s mental health, b) parenting, teacher-student relationships, and students’ mental health, and c) maternal and paternal parenting styles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0732.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Grit; Perceived Parenting Style of Mother; rural adolescents
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:31:48 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between grit and parenting style of mother among Indian rural adolescents. Parental Authority Questionnaire  and Short Grit Scale  was used to meet objectives of the paper. A sample of 60 adolescents was chosen from private institution located at Bathinda (Punjab) by using convenience sampling technique. Results of correlation analysis revealed that significant (negative) relationship exists between mother’s authoritarian parenting style (only) and grit. This is true for both genders and for adolescents who comes from joint families. Educational implication of the study signifies that the suitable informative and counseling sessions should be organised for the parents to make them conscious of the appropriate parenting style for the development of gritty adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0104.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: children; leukaemia; in treatment; parenting; adaptation; moderation effect
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:55:13 CEST)
Parents’ attitudes and practices may support the children’s reactions to treatments for leukemia and their general adjustment. This study has two aims: to explore parenting depending on child's age and to develop and test a model on how family processes influence the psycho-social development of children with leukemia. Patients were 118 leukemic children and their parents recruited at the Haematology-Oncologic Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics, University of Padua. All parents were Caucasian with a mean age of 37.39 years (SD = 6.03). Children’s mean age was 5.89 years (SD = 4.21). After the signature of the informed consent, the parents were interviewed using the EFI-C from which we derived Parenting dimension and 3 parental perceptions on child’s factors. One year later, the clinical psychologist interviewed again parents using the VABS scales. The analyses revealed the presence of a significant difference in parenting by child’s age: Infants required a higher and more intensive parenting. Child’s coping to medical procedures at the second week after the diagnosis, controlled for parenting effect, impacted upon child’s adaptation one-year post diagnosis. Specific intervention programmes are proposed in order to help children more at risk just after the diagnosis for developmental delays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: smartphone dependency; aggression; ego-resilience; parenting behavior; peer attachment
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:45:15 CEST)
This study was conducted to examine the moderating and mediating effect of ego - resilience, parenting attitude, and peer attachment in the relation between smartphone dependency and aggression. Participants were 1,863 youths using a smartphone among the first middle school students responded in the 7th Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute in Korea. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, a correlation, and a hierarchical regression analysis. First, ego-resilience showed a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency, aggression and significant moderating effects were revealed. Second, parenting behavior showed a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency and aggression, with no moderating effects seen. Third, peer attachment had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency and aggression, with no moderating effects seen. The research suggested the mental health and growth of students could be improved by applying various nursing and health care programs to improve ego-resilience, parenting behavior and peer attachment as they grow into adulthood.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0394.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: parenting; 5HTTLPR; serotonin transporter; maternal sensitivity; polymorphism; gene X environment
Online: 26 January 2022 (12:19:45 CET)
The current systematic review examines whether there is an association between the genetic 5-HTTPLR pol-ymorphism and parenting and the mechanisms by which this association operates. The literature was searched in various databases such as PubMed, Scopus and ScienceDirect. In line with our inclusion criteria, nine articles were eligible out of 22. Most of the studies, analysed in this review, found an association between 5HTTLPR and parenting. Four studies found a direct association between 5-HTTLPR and parenting with conflicting findings: two studies found that mothers carrying the short variant were more sensitive to their infants, while two studies found that parents carrying the S allele were less sensitive. In addition, several studies found strong interaction between genetic and environmental factors, such as childhood stress and disruptive child behaviour, quality of early care experiences, poor parenting environment, and quality of environment. Only one study found an association between children’s 5HTTLPR and parenting. Parenting can be described as a highly complex construct influenced by multiple factors, including environmental, parenting and child charac-teristics. According to the studies, maternal 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is most likely associated with sensitive parenting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0228.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: attachment; parent-child relationship; parenting; contextual (context-specific); sport; academic; hierarchical model
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:19:06 CET)
Bowlby’s (1969/1982) attachment theory has been employed as a broad and integrative framework to explore human wellness across a range of disciplines. Attachment theory has even been labelled one of the last surviving “grand theories” not to have been completely dismissed, replaced, or extensively reworked (e.g., Carr, 2012; Mercer, 2011). However, despite the ubiquitous nature of some of the theory’s fundamental tenets, there are always possibilities for new conceptual development, extension, and revision. In this paper, we critically explore the idea of “context-specific” attachment within parent-child relationships. We briefly outline critical assumptions and key areas of attachment and articulate potential rationale, conceptualisation, and relevance of contextual attachment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0307.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: social cognition; social information processing; mother-child relationships; parenting style; kindergarten; social functioning
Online: 26 November 2019 (04:11:54 CET)
Children's ability to adjust to the social rules and expectations in the educational environment is of major concern to researchers and practitioners alike. Accordingly, the main purpose of the present study was to examine predictors of children's social functioning in kindergarten with a specific focus on (a) maternal factors; and, (b) children's social cognition. Using a multi-method (self-reports and direct assessments), multi-informant (child, mother, teacher) design, we collected data from 306 kindergarten children and their mothers tapping the mother's social cognitions (general and child-related) and parenting style, and children's social cognition (social information processing) and functioning in kindergarten. We found direct associations between the mother and child's social cognitions, between the mother's authoritarian parenting style and her child's less competent social cognition and behavior, and between the child's social cognition and social functioning. Finally, as hypothesized, we found a number of interesting mediated effects. Most notably, we found that the association between the mother's social cognition (her tendency to attribute hostile intent to unknown others) and the child's social cognition (his/her tendency to generate less competent responses) is fully mediated by the mother's higher levels of authoritarian parenting style. The important theoretical and clinical implications of our findings are discussed.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: early childhood development; stimulating parenting practices; effective early childhood reading practices; rural China; mixed methodology
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:26:49 CET)
Studies have shown that nearly half of rural toddlers in China have cognitive delays due to an absence of stimulating parenting practices, such as early childhood reading, during the critical first three years of life. However, few studies have examined the reasons behind these low levels of stimulating parenting, and no studies have sought to identify the factors that limit caregivers from providing effective early childhood reading practices (EECRP). This mixed-methods study investigates the perceptions, prevalence and correlates of EECRP in rural China, as well as associations with child cognitive development. We use quantitative survey results from 1,720 caregiver-child dyads across 100 rural villages/townships in northwestern China and field observation and interview data with 60 caregivers from these same sites. The quantitative results show significantly low rates of EECRP despite positive perceptions of early reading and positive associations between EECRP and cognitive development. Qualitative results suggest that low rates of EECRP in rural China are not due to the inability to access books, financial or time constraints, or the absence of aspirations. Rather, the low rate of book ownership and absence of reading to young children is driven by the insufficient and inaccurate knowledge of EECRP among caregivers, which leads to their delayed, misinformed reading decisions with their young children, ultimately contributing to developmental delays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0230.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: perceiving campus non-physical bullying; Refusal parenting style; negative affect experiences; negative coping style; mediating effect
Online: 17 January 2022 (14:09:27 CET)
To explore the impact of parenting styles on the perception of campus non-physical bullying, 492 students in upper elementary school grades were surveyed by using the Delaware Bullying Victimization Scale, the Negative Coping Style Scale, the Negative Affect Scale, and the Egna Minnen Beträffende Uppfostran Questionnaire. The questionnaire survey was conducted in the fifth and sixth grades of eight primary schools in Zhejiang province. The results showed that cyberbullying was not significantly related to an anxious parenting style, but negative affect experiences, negative coping styles, negative family parenting styles, and the perception of campus non-physical bullying were all positively correlated with each other (p < 0.05). The refusal parenting style was shown to be an important factor that affected students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying; it was observed to directly affect students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying and indirectly affect students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying by influencing negative affect experiences and negative coping styles. In conclusion, negative affect experiences and negative coping styles had a chain-like mediating effect between the refusal parenting style and students’ perception of campus verbal bullying. Moreover, negative affect experiences had a partial mediating effect between the refusal parenting style and students’ perceptions of campus cyberbullying, relationship bullying, and non-physical bullying total scores. Implications and suggestions based on these results are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0465.v2
Subject: Keywords: beliefs about the aetiology of sexual orientation; sexual prejudice; same-sex couples; same-sex parenting; gay fathers; lesbian mothers
Online: 12 January 2021 (12:34:39 CET)
Research found that those who believe sexual orientation is inborn have generally positive attitudes towards gay men and lesbians. However, other studies have also found that these beliefs could include negative eugenic ideas. This study aims to investigate the role of people’s beliefs about the aetiology of sexual orientation on attitudes towards adoption for both gay and lesbian couples. We hypothesized that this relationship would be mediated by sexual prejudice. To test the predictions, 256 Italian heterosexual participants were asked to answer to a scale about their beliefs regarding the aetiology of sexual orientation, sexual prejudice, and attitudes towards adoption by same-sex couples. Results confirmed that the relationship between aetiology beliefs and adoption support was fully mediated by sexual prejudice. These investigation results suggest that the belief that sexual orientation is controllable may serve to justify one’s prejudice and, in turn, result in a lower support for same-sex couples’ adoption.