ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0181.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 detection; Immunofluorescence; Paper-based diagnostic device
Online: 7 July 2021 (13:18:33 CEST)
We report on an immunofluorescent paper-based assay for the detection of severe acute respiratory symptom coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) humanized antibody. The paper-based device was fabricated by using lamination technique for easy and optimized handling. Our approach utilises a two-step strategy that involves (i) initial coating of the paper-electrode with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen to capture the target SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, and (ii) subsequent detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using fluorophore-conjugated IgG antibody. The fluorescence readout was observed with fluorescence microscopy. The images were processed and quantified using a MATLAB program. The assay can selectively detect SARS-CoV-2 humanized antibodies spiked in PBS and healthy human serum samples with the relative standard deviation of approximately 6.4% (for n = 3). It has broad dynamic ranges (1 ng to 50 ng/µL in PBS and 5 to 100 ng/µL in human serum samples) for SARS-CoV-2 humanized antibodies with the detection limits of 2 ng/µL (0.025 IU/mL) and 10 ng/µL (0.125 IU/mL) in PBS and human serum samples, respectively. We believe that our assay has the potential to be used as a simple, rapid, and inexpensive paper-based diagnostic device with a portable fluorescent reader to provide point-of-care diagnosis. This assay can be used for rapid examination of a large batch of samples toward clinical screening of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies as a confirmed infected active case or to evaluate the immune response to a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0506.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Paper-based microfluidic device; colorimetric; multiple detection; smartphone application
Online: 26 October 2020 (08:56:58 CET)
Paper-based microfluidic analysis devices (μPADs) have attracted attention as a cost-effective platform for point-of-care testing (POCT), food safety, and environmental monitoring. Recently, three-dimensional (3D)-μPADs have been developed to improve the performance of μPADs. For accurate diagnosis of diseases, however, 3D-μPADs need to be developed to simultaneously detect multiple biomarkers. Here, we report a 3D-μPADs platform for the detection of multiple biomarkers that can be analyzed and diagnosed with a smartphone. The 3D-μPADs were fabricated using a 3D digital light processing printer and consisted of a sample reservoir (300 µL) connected to 24 detection zones (of 4 mm in diameter) through 8 microchannels (of 2 mm in width). With the smartphone application, eight different biomarkers related to various diseases were detectable in concentrations ranging from normal to abnormal conditions: glucose (0–20 mmol/L), cholesterol (0–10 mmol/L), albumin (0–7 g/dL), alkaline phosphatase (0–800 U/L), creatinine (0–500 µmol/L), aspartate aminotransferase (0–800 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (0–1000 U/L), and urea nitrogen (0–7.2 mmol/L). These results suggest that 3D-µPADs can be used as a POCT platform for simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0046.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Paperfluidics; Parafilm; Paper-based Analytical Devices
Online: 3 December 2021 (09:58:36 CET)
Paper-based analytical devices have been substantially developed in recent decades. Many fabrication techniques for paper-based analytical devices have been demonstrated and reported. Herein we report a relatively rapid, simple, and inexpensive method for fabricating paper-based analytical devices using parafilm hot pressing. We studied and optimized the effect of the key fabrication parameters, namely pressure, temperature, and pressing time. We discerned the optimal conditions, including pressure of 3.8 MPa (3 tons), temperature of 80oC, and 3 minutes of pressing time, with the smallest hydrophobic barrier size (821 µm) being governed by laminate mask and parafilm dispersal from pressure and heat. Physical and biochemical properties were evaluated to substantiate the paper functionality for analytical devices. Wicking speed in the fabricated paper strips was slightly slower than that of non-processed paper, resulting from reducing paper pore size. A colorimetric immunological assay was performed to demonstrate the protein binding capacity of the paper-based device after exposure to pressure and heat from the fabrication. Moreover, mixing in two-dimensional paper-based device and flowing in a three-dimensional counterpart were thoroughly investigated, demonstrating that the paper device from this fabrication process is potentially applicable as analytical devices for biomolecule detection. Fast, easy, and inexpensive parafilm hot press fabrication presents an opportunity for researchers to develop paper-based analytical devices in resource-limited environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Paper based sensor; whole virus; Zika; Aptamer
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:30:18 CET)
Paper-based sensors, microfluidic platforms and electronic devices have attracted attention in the past couple of decades because they are flexible, can be recycled easily, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive. Here we report a paper aptamer-based potentiometric sensor to detect the whole Zika virus for the first time with a minimum sensitivity of 2.6 nV/Zika and the minimum detectable signal (MDS) of 0.8x1e6 Zika. Our paper sensor works very similar to a P-N junction where a junction is formed between two different wet regions with different electrochemical potentials near each other on the paper. These two regions with slightly different ionic contents, ionic species and concentrations, produce a potential difference given by the Nernst equation. Our paper sensor consisted of a 2-3 mm x 10 mm segments of a paper with a conducting silver paint contact patches on its two ends. The paper is soaked in a buffer solution containing aptamers designed to bind to the capsid proteins on Zika. Atomic force microscopy studies were carried out to show both the aptamer and Zika become immobilized in the paper. We then added the Zika (in its own buffer or simulant Urine) to the region close to one of the silver-paint contacts. The Zika virus (40 nm diameter with 43 kDa or 7.1x10-20 gm weight), became immobilized in the paper’s pores and bonded with the resident aptamers creating a concentration gradient. The potential measured between the two silver paint contacts reproducibly became more negative as upon adding the Zika. We also showed that an LCD powered by the sensor, can be used to detect the sensor output.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: paper based sensor; whole virus; Zika; aptamer
Online: 20 February 2020 (07:24:39 CET)
Paper-based sensors, microfluidic platforms and electronic devices have attracted attention in the past couple of decades because they are flexible, can be recycled easily, environmentally friendly, and inexpensive. Here we report a paper aptamer-based potentiometric sensor to detect the whole Zika virus for the first time with a minimum sensitivity of 2.6 nV/Zika and the minimum detectable signal (MDS) of 1.2x106 Zika. Our paper sensor works very similar to a P-N junction where a junction is formed between two different wet regions with different electrochemical potentials near each other on the paper. These two regions with slightly different ionic contents, ionic species and concentrations, produce a potential difference given by the Nernst equation. Our paper sensor consisted of a 2-3 mm x 10 mm segments of a paper with a conducting silver paint contact patches on its two ends. The paper is soaked in a buffer solution containing aptamers designed to bind to the capsid proteins on Zika. Atomic force microscopy studies were carried out to show both the aptamer and Zika become immobilized in the paper. We then added the Zika (in its own buffer) to the region close to one of the silver-paint contacts. The Zika virus (40 nm diameter with 43 kDa or 7.1x10-20 gm weight), became immobilized in the paper’s pores and bonded with the resident aptamers creating a concentration gradient. The potential measured between the two silver paint contacts reproducibly became more negative as upon adding the Zika. We also showed that an LCD powered by the sensor, can be used to detect the sensor output.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0403.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: lead biosensors; FRET; portable Pb sensor; smartphone-based device; Met-lead; tap water lead; groundwater lead
Online: 23 February 2022 (10:53:14 CET)
Most methods for measuring environmental lead (Pb) content are time consuming, expensive, hazardous, and restricted to specific analytical systems. To provide a facile, safe tool to detect Pb, we created pMet-lead, a portable fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based Pb biosensor. pMet-lead comprises a 3D-printed frame housing a 405-nm laser diode — an excitation source for fluorescence emission images (YFP and CFP) — accompanied by optical filters, a customized sample holder with a Met-lead 1.44 M1 (the most recent version)-embedded biochip, and an optical lens aligned for smartphone compatibility. Measuring the emission ratios (Y/C) of the FRET component enables Pb detection with a dynamic range of nearly 2 (1.96), pMet-lead/Pb dissociation constant (Kd) 45.62 nM, and limit of detection 40 nM (0.832 μg/dL, 8.32 ppb). To mitigate earlier problems with lack of selectivity for Pb vs. zinc, we preincubated samples with tricine, a low-affinity zinc chelator. We validated pMet-lead measurements of characterized laboratory samples and unknown samples from six regions in Taiwan by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Notably, two unknowns had Y/C ratios significantly higher than that of the control (3.48 ± 0.08 and 3.74 ± 0.12 vs. 2.79 ± 0.02), along with Pb concentrations (10.6 ppb and 15.24 ppb) above the WHO-permitted level of 10 ppb in tap water, while the rest four unknowns showing no detectable Pb upon ICP-MS. These results demonstrate that pMet-lead provides a rapid, sensitive means for on-site Pb detection in water from the environment and in living/drinking supply systems to prevent potential Pb poisoning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0051.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: industrial informatics; automation; machine learning; paper grammage classification; paper mills
Online: 4 December 2019 (12:26:15 CET)
Automation is at the core of modern industry. It aims to increase production rates, decrease production costs, and reduce human intervention in order to avoid human mistakes and time delays during manufacturing. On the other hand, human assistance is usually required to customize products and reconfigure control systems through a special process interface called Human Machine Interface (HMI). Machine Learning (ML) algorithms can effectively be used to resolve this tradeoff between full automation and human assistance. This paper provides an example of the industrial application of ML algorithms to help human operators save their mental effort and avoid time delays and unintended mistakes for the sake of high production rates. Based on real-time sensor measurements, several ML algorithms have been tried to classify paper rolls according to paper grammage in a white paper mill. The performance evaluation shows that the AdaBoost algorithm is the best ML algorithm for this application with classification accuracy (CA), precision, and recall of 97.1%. The generalization of the proposed approach for achieving a cost-effective mill construction by reducing the total number of the required physical sensors will be the subject of our future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0574.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: self-report; device-based measured; physical activity; reliability; validity; stability
Online: 25 February 2021 (10:27:24 CET)
Quantification of physical activity (PA) depends on the type of measurement and analysis method making it difficult to compare adherence to PA guidelines. Therefore, test-retest reliability, criterion validity, and stability for self-reported (i.e. questionnaire and diary) and device-based measured (i.e. accelerometry with 10/60 second epochs) PA was compared in 32 adults and 32 children from the SMARTFAMILY study to examine if differences in these measurement tools are systematic. PA was collected during two separate measurement weeks and the relationship for each quality criteria was analyzed using Spearman correlation. Results showed the highest PA values for questionnaires followed by 10-second and 60-second epochs measured by accelerometers. Levels of PA were lowest when measured by diary. Only accelerometry demonstrated reliable, valid, and stable results for the two measurement weeks, the questionnaire yielded mixed results and the diary showed only few significant correlations. Overall, higher correlations for the quality criteria were found for moderate than for vigorous PA and the results differed between children and adults. Since the differences were not found to be systematic, the choice of measurement tools should be carefully considered by anyone working with PA outcomes, especially if vigorous PA is the parameter of interest.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0168.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: autoantibodies; type I interferon; interferon-ω; interferon-α2; multiplex assay; protein microarray; cell-based autoantibody assay; ELISA
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:20:41 CET)
Autoantibodies against type 1 interferons (IFN-I) are highly specific marker for type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS-1). Moreover, determination of antibodies to IFN-ω and IFN-α2 allows a short-term diagnosis in patients with isolated and atypical forms of APS-1. In this study, a comparison of three different methods, namely, multiplex microarray-based, cell-based and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies against omega-interferon and alpha2-interferon was carried out. A total of 206 serum samples from adult patients with APS-1, APS-2, isolated autoimmune endocrine pathologies, non-autoimmune endocrine disorders and healthy individuals were analyzed. In the APS-1 patient cohort (n=18), there was good agreement between the results of anti- IFN-I antibody tests performed by three methods, with 100% specificity and sensitivity for microarray-based assay. Although only the cell-based assay can determine the neutralizing activity of autoantibodies, the microarray-based assay can serve as a highly specific and sensitive screening test to identify anti- IFN-I antibody positive patients.
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: PCM-based heat sink; Operation time; Optimal; Horizontal Fin; Aspect ratio
Online: 11 July 2020 (15:56:19 CEST)
In this study, the thermal behavior of a PCM-based heat sink in the presence of horizontal fins was numerically investigated. These types of heat sink can be effective in electronic cooling applications. Independent variables included aspect ratio (AR), number of horizontal fins (n) and their length (LR), while the objective function was defined to maximize the safe operation time (tmax). The incorporation of horizontal fins has a positive effect (thermal conductivity enhancement) as well as a negative effect (latent heat reduction). Based on the results, the optimal number of horizontal fins was five. As the number of fins rises up to five, the incremental effect of thermal conductivity improvement (positive effect) was superior to the decremental effect of the latent heat reduction (negative effect), hence the objective function (tmax) improved. However, with a further increase in the number of fins upon five, the negative effect prevailed over the positive effect and therefore the safe operation time diminished.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0553.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; oral cancer; Brd4; c-Myc; p53; cytology; liquid-based cytology; immunocytochemistry; 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide
Online: 26 July 2021 (08:19:05 CEST)
Most oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) arise from oral epithelial dysplasia; however, there is no useful marker for early OSCC detection, likely owing to the inability to continuously observe the carcinoma sequence. We aimed to establish an experimental model to observe changes in the sequential expression pattern of mRNA and protein in the same rat using liquid-based cytology techniques. Cytology specimens were collected from a 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced rat tongue cancer model at 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 21 weeks. We examined candidate biomarker expression using immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. The percentage of positively stained nuclei was calculated as the labeling index (LI). All rats had OSCC of the tongue at 21 weeks. Brd4 (Brd4), Myc (c-Myc), and Tp53 (p53) mRNA levels were upregulated during progression from negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy to SCC. Brd4- and c-Myc-LI were increased in low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and SCC specimens. p53-LI was significantly increased in SCC specimens. Our experimental model allowed the observation of sequential morphological changes and mRNA and protein expression patterns in the same rat during carcinogenesis. By reducing the false negative rate, BRD4 and c-Myc can be useful markers for the early detection of OSCC.
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: MoS2; paper electronics; optoelectronics; photodetector
Online: 25 June 2020 (16:16:19 CEST)
We fabricate paper-supported semiconducting devices by rubbing a layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) crystal onto a piece of paper, similarly to the action of drawing/writing with a pencil on paper. We show that the abrasion between the MoS2 crystal and the paper substrate efficiently exfoliates the crystals, breaking the weak van der Waals interlayer bonds and leading to the deposition of a film of interconnected MoS2 platelets. Employing this simple method, that can be easily extended to other 2D materials, we fabricate MoS2-on-paper broadband photodectectors with spectral sensitivity from the ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR). We also used these paper-based photodetectors to acquire pictures of objects by mounting the photodetectors in a homebuilt single-pixel camera setup.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0288.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: diaminostilbene disulfonic acid; paper and paper mill; textile wastewater; fluorescent whitening agents; ozone oxidation
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:36:50 CEST)
In this study, ozone oxidation experiment was carried out for the removal of fluorescent whitening agent which is widely used in textile dyeing and paper industry. The stilbene fluorescent whitening agent has been industrialized since the earliest, and the amount of current production is the highest. Due to the characteristics of the fluorescent whitening agent that cannot be removed by conventional wastewater treatment methods, the fluorescent whitening agent in wastewater treatment has difficulty in using as recycled water in the process. Pre-treatment ozone oxidation experiment was conducted prior to the introduction of Membrane Bio Reactor (MBR) treatment process by converting biodegradable materials into biodegradable materials. The removal efficiencies of fluorescent whitening agents, a diaminostilbene disulfonic acid derivative by ozone oxidation were evaluated by UV254 Scan, COD, T-N and color using a synthetic wastewater sample (COD=433.0 mg/ℓ) and paper and paper mill wastewater (COD=157.2 mg/ℓ).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0478.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: biopolymers; paper packaging; antimicrobial activity; nanoparticles
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:30:46 CEST)
Here, we designed the composition of the coating of the paper sheets composed of chitosan, bacterial cellulose (nanofibres), and ZnO with boosted antibacterial and mechanical activity. We investigated the compositions with ZnO exhibiting two different sizes/shapes: (1) rods and (2) irregular sphere-like particles. The proposed processing of bacterial cellulose resulted in the formation of nanofibers. Antimicrobial behavior was tested using E. coli ATCC® 25922™ following ASTM E2149-13a standard. Mechanical properties of the paper sheets were measured by comparison of tearing resistance, tensile strength, and bursting strength according to ISO 5270 standard. The increased antibacterial response is assigned to the combination of chitosan and ZnO (independently of its shape and size), while the boosted mechanical behavior is due to bacterial cellulose nanofibers. Therefore, the proposed composition is an interesting multifunctional mixture for coatings in food packaging applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0307.v1
Online: 11 March 2021 (10:51:18 CET)
Usually in the manufacture of beer by fermentation of barley, in both industrialized and developing countries significant amounts of organic solid waste are produced from barley straw. These possibly have an impact on the carbon footprint with an effect on global warming. According to this, it is important to reduce environmental impact of these solid residues, and an adequate way is the recycling using them as raw material for the elaboration of handmade paper. Therefore, it is required to manage this type of waste by analyzing the environmental impact, and thus be able to identify sustainable practices for the treatment of this food waste, evaluating its life cycle, which is a useful methodology to estimate said environmental impacts. It is because of this work shows the main results obtained using the life cycle analysis (LCA) methodology, to evaluate the possible environmental impacts during the waste treatment of a brewery located in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. The residues evaluated were barley straw, malt residues and spent grain, and at the end, barley straw was selected to determine in detail its environmental impact and its reuse, the sheets analyzed presented a grammage that varies from 66 g/m2 and 143 g/m2, resistance to burst was 117 to 145 kpa, with a crystallinity of 34.4% to 37.1%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0100.v1
Online: 10 November 2019 (09:24:22 CET)
Paper recycling has increased in recent years. A principal consequence of this process is the problem of addressing polymeric components known as stickies. A deep characterization of stickies sampled over one year in a recycled paper industry in México was performed. Based on their chemical structure, an enzymatic assay was performed using lipases. Compounds found in stickies by Fourier-Transform Infrared spectrometry were poly (butyl-acrylate), dioctyl phthalate, poly (vinyl-acetate), and poly (vinyl-acrylate). Pulp with 4% consistency and pH=6.2 was sampled directly from the mill once macro stickies were removed. Stickies were quantified by counting the tacky macrostructures in the liquid fraction of the pulp using a Neubauer chamber before the paper was made, and they were analyzed with rhodamine dye and a UV lamp. Of the two enzymes evaluated, the best treatment condition used Lipase 30G at a concentration of 0.44 g/L, which produced a 35.59% decrease in stickies. SebOil DG showed a smaller stickies reduction of 21.5% when used at a concentration of 0.33 g/L. Stickies in kraft paper processes were actively controlled by the action of lipases, and future research should focus on how this enzyme recognizes its substrate and should apply synthetic biology to improve lipase specificity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0038.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polyhydroxybutyrate; nanofibrillated cellulose; paper coating; hydrophobicity
Online: 7 November 2016 (06:59:27 CET)
This study reports on the development of bio-based hydrophobic coatings for packaging papers through deposition of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) particles in combination with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and plant wax. In a first approach, PHB particles in micrometer range (PHB-MP) were prepared through a phase-separation technique providing internally nanosized structures. The particles were transferred as a coating by dip-coating filter papers in the particle suspension, followed by sizing with a carnauba wax solution. This approach allowed partial to almost full surface coverage of PHB-MP over the paper surface resulting in static water contact angles of 105° to 122° and 129° to 144° after additional wax coating. In a second approach, PHB particles with submicron sizes (PHB-SP) were synthesized by an oil-in-emulsion (o/w) solvent evaporation method, and mixed in aqueous suspensions with 0 to 7 wt% NFC. After dip-coating filter papers in PHB-SP/NFC suspensions and sizing with a carnauba wax solution, static water contact angles of 112° to 152° were obtained. The intrinsic properties of the particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy, indicating higher crystallinity for PHB-SP than PHB-MP. The chemical interactions between the more amorphous PHB-MP particles and paper fibers were identified as an esterification reaction, while the morphology of the NFC fibrillar network was playing a key role as binding agent in the retention of more crystalline PHB-SP at the paper surface, hence contributing to higher hydrophobicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040061
Subject: Keywords: industry4.0; fault detection; fault diagnosis; random forest; diagnostic graph; distributed diagnosis; model-based; data-driven; hybrid approach; hydraulic test rig
Online: 24 September 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
In this work, a hybrid component Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) approach for industrial sensor systems is established and analyzed, to provide a hybrid schema that combines the advantages and eliminates the drawbacks of both model-based and data-driven methods of diagnosis. Moreover, it shines the light on a new utilization of Random Forest (RF) together with model-based diagnosis, beyond its ordinary data-driven application. RF is trained and hyperparameter tuned using three-fold cross validation over a random grid of parameters using random search, to finally generate diagnostic graphs as the dynamic, data-driven part of this system. This is followed by translating those graphs into model-based rules in the form of if-else statements, SQL queries or semantic queries such as SPARQL, in order to feed the dynamic rules into a structured model essential for further diagnosis. The RF hyperparameters are consistently updated online using the newly generated sensor data to maintain the dynamicity and accuracy of the generated graphs and rules thereafter. The architecture of the proposed method is demonstrated in a comprehensive manner, and the dynamic rules extraction phase is applied using a case study on condition monitoring of a hydraulic test rig using time-series multivariate sensor readings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0548.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: industry4.0; fault detection; fault diagnosis; random forest; diagnostic graph; distributed diagnosis; model-based; data-driven; hybrid approach; hydraulic test rig
Online: 23 July 2020 (11:26:41 CEST)
In this work, A hybrid component Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) approach for industrial sensor systems is established and analyzed, to provide a hybrid schema that combines the advantages and eliminates the drawbacks of both model-based and data-driven methods of diagnosis. Moreover, spotting the light on a new utilization of Random Forest (RF) together with model-based diagnosis, beyond its ordinary data-driven application. RF is trained and hyperparameter tuned using 3-fold cross-validation over a random grid of parameters using random search, to finally generate diagnostic graphs as the dynamic, data-driven part of this system. Followed by translating those graphs into model-based rules in the form of if-else statements, SQL queries or semantic queries such as SPARQL, in order to feed the dynamic rules into a structured model essential for further diagnosis. The RF hyperparameters are consistently updated online using the newly generated sensor data, in order to maintain the dynamicity and accuracy of the generated graphs and rules thereafter. The architecture of the proposed method is demonstrated in a comprehensive manner, as well as the dynamic rules extraction phase is applied using a case study on condition monitoring of a hydraulic test rig using time series multivariate sensor readings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0185.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: paper core; impregnation; elastic properties; experiment; FEM
Online: 12 April 2020 (08:28:02 CEST)
The research hypothesis states that the impregnation of the honeycomb paper core of lightweight sandwich panels with modified starch, sodium silicate and LiquidWood® resin has a significant effect on the elastic properties of it. In the study, a recycled paper was used in three thicknesses, seven types of cell shapes, including two after numerical optimization and three types of impregnating agents. The method of digital image analysis determined the elastic constants of manufactured paper cores, which were subjected to axial compression in two directions. Based on the experimental results, elastic constants of the cores were calculated and compared with the results of numerical calculations. It has been shown that each of the impregnating solutions used improves the stiffness of the paper core. The best results were obtained for LiquidWood® epoxy resin and modified starch. An important parameter of cell geometry affecting their rigidity is the angle of the cell wall φ, as well as the arrangement of the common cell wall in relation to the direction of load. The numerical models developed were positively verified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0299.v1
Online: 26 September 2019 (11:53:23 CEST)
This letter solves an open question of paper spring risen by Yoneda (2019). Universal scaling laws of a paper spring are proposed by using both dimensional analysis and data fitting. It is found that spring force obeys power square law of spring extension, however strong nonlinear to the total twist angle. Without doing any additional works, we have successfully generalize the scaling laws for Poisson ratio 0.3 to the materials with an arbitrary Poisson's ratio with the help of dimensional analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0283.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: TEM; thermal degradation; wall paper; blowing agent; foam
Online: 27 June 2019 (06:29:11 CEST)
This study was conducted to improve the white index (WI) by preparing thermally expandable microspheres (TEMs) for wallpaper. The thermal properties, foam expansion ratio and WI were studied depending on the particle size of colloidal silica in the preparation of TEMs. As a result, the TEMs with small particles of colloidal silica showed the best results for whiteness and yellowing. Additionally, TGA results indicated that it was highly possible that colloidal silica with small particle sizes was physically or chemically attached to the surface of the TEMs that led to an improvement in whiteness at high temperatures.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: oil-paper insulation; drying of the transformer; synthetic ester
Online: 22 February 2021 (11:17:04 CET)
The research results presented in the article were carried out during the realization of the project, the aim of which is to develop a method of drying cellulose insulation in power transformers with the use of synthetic ester. This method uses a very high water absorption of the ester. During the drying of transformers, the ester is systematically contaminated with mineral oil, which gradually loses its ability to absorb water. Information on the oil concentration in the mixture is needed in two cases: at the stage of making a decision on the treatment of the mixture and during its treatment. The article presents the results of investigations of two methods: 1) based on the measurement of the mixture density, and 2) based on the measurement of the capacitance of the capacitor immersed in the mixture. The conducted research shows that the method of measuring the density of the mixture gives an uncertainty of 2.6 p. %, while the method of measuring the capacitance of a capacitor gives an uncertainty of 2.2 p. %. A significant advantage of the method of measuring the capacitance is the possibility of using it online to control the ester treatment process.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0357.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: data; data paper; omics; metadata; workflow; standards; FAIR principles, MIxS, MINSEQE
Online: 16 September 2020 (11:04:34 CEST)
Data papers have emerged as a powerful instrument for open data publishing, obtaining credit, and establishing priority for datasets generated in scientific experiments. Academic publishing improves data and metadata quality through peer-review and increases the impact of datasets by enhancing their visibility, accessibility, and re-usability. We aimed to establish a new type of article structure and template for omics studies: the omics data paper. To improve data interoperability and further incentivise researchers to publish high-quality data sets, we created a workflow for streamlined import of omics metadata directly into a data paper manuscript. An omics data paper template was designed by defining key article sections which encourage the description of omics datasets and methodologies. The workflow was based on REpresentational State Transfer services and Xpath to extract information from the European Nucleotide Archive, ArrayExpress and BioSamples databases, which follow community-agreed standards. The workflow for automatic import of standard-compliant metadata into an omics data paper manuscript facilitates the authoring process. It demonstrates the importance and potential of creating machine-readable and standard-compliant metadata. The omics data paper structure and workflow to import omics metadata improves the data publishing landscape by providing a novel mechanism for creating high-quality, enhanced metadata records, peer reviewing and publishing of these. It constitutes a powerful addition for distribution, visibility, reproducibility and re-usability of scientific data. We hope that streamlined metadata re-use for scholarly publishing encourages authors to improve the quality of their metadata to achieve a truly FAIR data world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0335.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: polymer hybrid latex; styrene butadiene; emulsion polymerization; printing properties; paper coating
Online: 30 September 2019 (03:17:14 CEST)
Synthesis of styrene butadiene hybrid latex was performed via emulsion polymerization technique using various amount of laponite clay as filler. Laponite clay was modified with cationic surfactant methyl triphenylphosphonium bromide (MTPB) with ion exchange technique prior to polymerization process. The main objective of the modification is to render the surface of the clay layers to more organophilic. Emulsion polymerization was performed under semi batch process using 2 L laboratory stainless steel reactor with temperature 85°C to 90°C for 8 hours. Polymer hybrid styrene butadiene latex was characterized for its physical and chemical properties with standard ASTM Methods. Characterization of its binding and printing properties were carried out with standard testing method (TAPPI Methods) using single coating formulation on 80 gsm woodfree paper. Polymer hybrid latex based on styrene and butadiene monomers with laponite clay enhanced binding and printing properties of coated paper, addition of laponite clay to 6.0 wt % increased the binding resistance of the coated paper two times higher than pure latex. Reducing binder level become possible for cost saving.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0062.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: h-index; citations; published version; Scopus database; highly cited paper; bibliometrics
Online: 14 June 2017 (06:07:12 CEST)
The number of citations that a paper has received is the most commonly used indicator to measure the quality of research. Researchers, journals, and universities want to receive more citations for their scholarly publications to increase their h-index, impact factor, and ranking respectively. In this paper, we tried to analyses the effect of the number of available Google Scholar versions of a paper on citations count. We analyzed 10,162 papers which are published in Scopus database in year 2010 by Malaysian top five universities. Then we developed a software to collect the number of citations and versions of each paper from Google Scholar automatically. The result of spearman correlation coefficient revealed that there is positive significant association between the number of Google Scholar versions of a paper and the number of times a paper has been cited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0323.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Hydrogel; Blended paper; Slow-release fertilizer; Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose; polyvinyl alcohol
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:48:48 CEST)
In this study, a slow-release urea fertilizer hydrogel was synthesized from hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol and glycerol blends with paper (blended paper) as second layer. The fertilizer hydrogel was characterized by SEM, XRD and FTIR. Its retention in sandy soil, swelling behavior in distilled and tap water as well as slow-release behavior to urea were investigated. The results indicated that the fertilizer had good slow-release properties and ability to retain water in soil. However, the addition of blended paper as a second layer matrix was found to help improve the release properties of the fertilizer. The swelling kinetic of the hydrogel followed the Schott’s Second order model. The release kinetics of urea in water was best described by the Zero order model signifying that the release behavior was independent of fertilizer concentration
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0794.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Ketogenic Diets; Ketosis; Ketones; Consensus Statement; Position Paper; Headache; Migraine; Cluster Headache
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:38:37 CEST)
Headaches are among the most prevalent and disabling disorders and there are several patients’ unmet needs in current pharmacological options, while a growing interest is focusing on nutritional approaches as non-pharmacological treatments. Among these, the most promising seems to be the ketogenic diet (KD). Exactly 100 years ago, KD was used to treat pediatric forms of drug-resistant epilepsy, but progressively applications of this diet also involved adults and other neurological disorders. Evidence of KD effectiveness in migraine comes from 1928, but in the last years different groups of research and clinicians paid attention to this therapeutic option to treat patients with drug resistant migraine and cluster headache, and/or comorbid with metabolic syndrome. Here we describe all the existing evidence on the potential benefits of KDs in headaches, explore in deep all the potential mechanisms of action involved in the efficacy, and synthesize results of working meetings of an Italian panel of experts on this topic. Aim of the working group is the creation of a consensus on indications and clinical practice to treat with KDs patients with headache. The results here we present are the base for further improvement in the knowledge and application of KDs in the treatment of headaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0402.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: classification; computational intelligence methods; discrimination power; LIBS; machine learning; paper-ink analysis
Online: 23 August 2018 (04:54:18 CEST)
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an important analysis technique with applications in many industrial branches and fields of scientific research. Nowadays, the advantages of LIBS are impaired by the main drawback in the analysis of collected data. This procedure is essentially based on the comparison of lines present in the spectrum with a literature database. This paper proposes the use of various computational intelligence methods to develop a reliable and fast classification of non-destructively acquired LIBS spectra into a set of predefined classes. We focus on a specific problem of classification of paper-ink samples into 30 separate, predefined classes. For each of 30 classes (10 pens of each of 5 ink types combined with 10 sheets of 5 paper types plus empty pages) 100 LIBS spectra are collected. Four variants of preprocessing, seven classifiers (Decision trees, Random forest, k-Nearest Neighbour, Support Vector Machine, Probabilistic Neural Network, Multi-Layer Perceptron, and Generalized Regression Neural Network), 5-fold stratified cross-validation and test on an independent set (for methods evaluation) scenarios are employed. Our developed system yielded an accuracy of 99.08% with average classification time of about 0.12 s is obtained using the random forest classifier. Our results clearly demonstrates that machine learning methods can be used to identify the paper-ink samples based on LIBS reliably at a faster rate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0012.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: role-based access control; attribute-based access control; attribute-based encryption
Online: 8 July 2016 (10:12:21 CEST)
Cloud Computing is a promising and emerging technology that is rapidly being adopted by many IT companies due to a number of benefits that it provides, such as large storage space, low investment cost, virtualization, resource sharing, etc. Users are able to store a vast amount of data and information in the cloud and access it from anywhere, anytime on a pay-per-use basis. Since many users are able to share the data and the resources stored in the cloud, there arises a need to provide access to the data to only those users who are authorized to access it. This can be done through access control schemes which allow the authenticated and authorized users to access the data and deny access to unauthorized users. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all the existing access control schemes has been discussed along with analysis. Keywords: role-based access control, attribute-based access control, attribute-based encryption
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Debye model; dielectric properties; power transformers; spectroscopy; recovery voltage measurement (RVM); oil-paper insulation
Online: 15 December 2019 (16:09:57 CET)
The aim of this document is to present how the interpretation of the RVM (Recovery Voltage Measurement) test can be improved through the use of a Debye equivalent circuit. As it is described in the literature the interpretation of the RVM test requires expertise and if the transformer presents a high interfacial polarization it is not possible to diagnose it in detail. Debye model is proposed in this work for enhancing RVM interpretation. This model is based on an electrical circuit that includes basic R-L-C components, that allows two interesting features: on one hand, isolation physical effects can be separately represented and, on the other, the values of the R-C components can be calculated from the RVM response (L components are not used in this work as long as no magnetic field effects are taken into account). Thus, the different isolation effects that are indistinguishable merged in the RVM transient response can be split into different R-C branches, each one corresponding with a single (not merged) isolation effect. Finally, several case studies are presented, in which it is correlated a dielectric oil treatment carried out and the equivalent circuit changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0372.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: antimicrobial additive agent; cationic-xylan; Escherichia coli; mechanical properties; paper products; PHGH; thermal stability
Online: 31 October 2019 (10:22:43 CET)
In this work, a xylan-based antimicrobial additive agent was prepared and aimed for uses in paper products against Escherichia coli bacteria. The derived Cationic-Xylan-grafted-PHGH (CX-g-PHGH) was successfully synthesized by graft copolymerization of cationic-xylan with guanidine polymer (PHGH) using ceric ammonium nitrate as initiator. The obtained CX-g-PHGH had maximum PHGH grafting ratio of 18.45% and efficiency of 58.45%, and showed good viscosity and thermal stability. Furthermore, the paper samples prepared in this work were reinforced obviously with the addition of CX-g-PHGH by improved mechanical properties. Compared to the reference paper without any of the xylan-derivatives, the index of tensile, tear, burst and folding endurance of the paper had increases up to 20.07%, 25.31%, 30.20% and 77.78%, respectively. Moreover, the prepared CX-g-PHGH paper exhibited an efficient antimicrobial activity against E. coli bacterial, by which a lot of applications based on the new xylan-derived additive agent obtained in this work could be found, especially in field of antimicrobial paper products against E. Coli bacteria from contaminated food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0287.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: membrane bio-reactor (mbr); ozone oxidation; paper and papermill; fluorescent whitening agents; water reuse
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:34:11 CEST)
In this study, effluent water was produced through Submerged Membrane Bio-Reactor (SMBR) process, which is a simple system and decomposes organic matter contained in wastewater with biological treatment process and performs solid-liquid separation, Especially, ozone oxidation treatment process is applied to effluent water containing fluorescent whitening agent, which is a trace pollutant which is not removed by biological treatment, and influences the quality of reused water. The concentration of COD in the SMBR was 449.3 mg/ℓ-COD, and the concentration of permeate water was 100.3 mg/ℓ-COD. The removal efficiency was about 70.1%. The amount of ozone re- quired for the removal of the fluorescent whitening agent in the permeated water in SMBR was 6.67 g-O3/min, and the amount of ozone required to remove COD relative to the permeate water was calculated to remove 0.997 mg-COD for 1 mg of O3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0021.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: paper electronics; strain gauge; sensor; low-cost electronics; van der Waals materials; tungsten disulfide WS2
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:27:41 CEST)
Environmentally friendly and low-cost sensors are needed for the next generation disposable electronics applications. Given its low-cost, availability and biodegradability, paper-based devices are a very promising. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of a tungsten disulphide (WS2) strain sensor on standard copy paper. The WS2 is deposited through direct abrasion of WS2 powder against the paper surface making the fabrication of the device low-tech and cost effective. The fabricated strain gauge devices present gauge factors up to ~70 for strains in the ± 0.5 % range. These values are ~ 9 times larger than that obtained on devices with the same geometry but using a graphite film instead a WS2 as a sensitive material. We demonstrate the potential of these WS2-on-paper strain gauges by integrating them directly on a paper cantilever to sense mass and forces. We show how this very simple device can detect sub-milligram masses. Moreover, we also demonstrate the capability of transducing motion in mechanical resonators by gluing a WS2-on-paper strain gauge on their surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0358.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: parametric design, paper in architecture, temporary architecture, pop-up structures, membrane structures, isogeometric analysis, fabrication
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:17:11 CEST)
Temporary pavilions play an important role as experimental fields for architects, designers and engineers, apart from providing exhibition spaces. Novel structural and formal solutions applied in pavilions also can give them unusual appearance that attracts eyesight of spectators. In this article authors explore the possibility of combination of structural novelty, visual attractiveness and low-cost by a design and construction of a temporary pavilion. For that purpose, an innovative structural system and design approach was applied, i.e. membrane structure designed in Rhino and Grasshopper environments with the use of Kiwi!3D IsoGeometric analysis tool. The designed pavilion, named Obverse/Reverse, was built in Opole, Poland, for the occasion of World Architecture Day in July 2019. Design and construction was performed by the authors in cooperation with students’ organisation Humanisation of Urban Environment from the Faculty of Architecture Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. The Rresultant pavilion proved the possibility of obtaining a low-budgets but visually attractive architectural solution with the adaption of parametrical design tools and some scientific background with innovative structural systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: normalized indicators; correlation analysis; Source Normalized Impact per Paper; SNIP; Field-Weighted Citation Impact; FWCI
Online: 1 August 2018 (05:57:55 CEST)
Recently, more and more countries are entering the global race for university competitiveness. On the one hand, global rankings are a convenient tool for quantitative analysis. On the other hand, their indicators are often difficult to quickly calculate, they often contradict each other. We thought about using widely available indicators for a quick analysis of the University's publication strategy. We opted for the normalized citation indicators available in SciVal analytical tool, i.e. Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) and Field-Weighted Citation Impact (FWCI). We have demonstrated the possibility of applying the correlation analysis to the impact indicators of a document and a journal on the sample of the social and humanitarian fields at Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. Particular attention was paid to the application of the results in practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0544.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: pillar-based lake management; object-based lake management; Lake Rawapening
Online: 29 November 2022 (08:49:57 CET)
Lake Rawapening, Semarang Regency, Indonesia, has incorporated a holistic plan in its management practices. However, despite successful target achievements, some limitations remain that a review of its management plan is needed. This paper identifies and analyzes existing lake management strategies as a standard specifically in Lake Rawapening by exploring various literature, both legal frameworks and scholarly articles indexed in Google Scholar and published in Water by MDPI about lake management in many countries. There are two major types of lake management, namely pillar-based and object-based. While the former is the foundation of a conceptual paradigm that does not comprehensively consider the roles of finance and technology in the lake management, the latter indicates the objects to manage so as to create standards or benchmarks for the implementation of various programs. Overall, Lake Rawapening management should include more programs on erosion-sedimentation control and monitoring of operational performance using information systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0336.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: nature-based solutions; climate change adaptation; biodiversity; ecosystem-based adaptation
Online: 23 October 2021 (14:19:30 CEST)
Nature-based solutions (NbS) are increasingly recognised for their potential to address both the climate and biodiversity crises. These outcomes are interdependent, and both rely on the capacity of NbS to support and enhance the health of an ecosystem: its biodiversity, the condition of its abiotic and biotic elements, and its capacity to function normally despite environmental change. However, while understanding of ecosystem health outcomes of nature-based interventions for climate change mitigation is growing, the outcomes of those implemented for adaptation remain poorly understood with evidence scattered across multiple disciplines. To address this, we conducted a systematic review of the outcomes of 109 nature-based interventions for climate change adaptation using 33 indicators of ecosystem health across eight broad categories (e.g. diversity, biomass, ecosystem functioning and population dynamics). We showed that 88% of interventions with positive outcomes for climate change adaptation also reported measurable benefits for ecosystem health. We also showed that interventions were associated with a 67% average increase in local species richness. All eight studies that reported benefits in terms of both climate change mitigation and adaptation also supported ecosystem health, leading to a triple win. However, there were also trade-offs, mainly for forest management and creation of novel ecosystems such as monoculture plantations of non-native species. Our review highlights two major limitations of research to date. First, only a limited selection of metrics are used to assess ecosystem health and these rarely include key aspects such as functional diversity and habitat connectivity. Second, taxonomic coverage is poor: 67% of outcomes assessed only plants and 57% did not distinguish between native and non-native species. Future research addressing these issues will allow the design and adaptive management of NbS to support healthy and resilient ecosystems, and thereby enhance their effectiveness for meeting both climate and biodiversity targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0212.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Knowledge Graphs; Link Prediction; Semantic-Based Models; Translation Based Embedded Models
Online: 17 February 2022 (11:49:24 CET)
For disciplines like biological science, security, and the medical field, link prediction is a popular research area. To demonstrate the link prediction many methods have been proposed. Some of them that have been demonstrated through this review paper are TransE, Complex, DistMult, and DensE models. Each model defines link prediction with different perceptions. We argue that the practical performance potential of these methods, having similar parameter values, using the fine-tuning technique to evaluate their reliability and reproducibility of results. We describe those methods and experiments; provide theoretical proofs and experimental examples, demonstrating how current link prediction methods work in such settings. We use the standard evaluation metrics for testing the model's ability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0027.v2
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Zoo animal welfare; Five Domains; Validity; Animal-based; Resource-based; Scoring
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:59:32 CET)
Zoos are increasingly putting in place formalized animal welfare assessment programs to allow monitoring of welfare over time, as well as to aid in resource prioritization. These programs tend to rely on assessment tools that incorporate resource-based and observational animal- focused measures since it is rarely feasible to obtain measures of physiology in zoo-housed animals. A range of assessment tools are available which commonly have a basis in the Five Domains framework. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to bring together recent studies examining welfare assessment methods in zoo animals. A summary of these methods is provided with advantages and limitations of the approach es presented. We then highlight practical considerations with respect to implementation of these tools into practice, for example scoring schemes, weighting of criteria, and innate animal factors for consideration. It is concluded that would be value in standardizing guidelines for development of welfare assessment tools since zoo accreditation bodies rarely prescribe these. There is also a need to develop taxon or species- specific assessment tools to inform welfare management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: support vector machine; classification analysis; power transformer condition assessment; oil immersed paper insulation; dga; dielectric characteristics, furanic compounds
Online: 1 June 2018 (05:58:18 CEST)
Oil immersed paper insulation condition is a crucial aspect of power transformer’s life condition diagnostic. The measurement testing database collected over the years made it possible for researchers to implement classification analysis to in-service power transformer. This article presents classification analysis of transformer oil-immersed paper insulation condition. The measurements data (dielectric characteristics, dissolved gas analysis, and furanic compounds) of 149 transformers with primary voltage of 150 kV had been gathered and analyzed. The algorithm used for developing classification model is Support Vector Machine (SVM). The model has been trained and tested using different datasets. Different models have been created and the best chosen, resulting in 90.63% accuracy in predicting the oil-immersed paper insulation condition. Further implementation was executed to classify oil-paper condition of 19 Transformers which Furan data is not available. The classification results combined, reviewed, and compared to conventional assessment methods and standards, confirming that the model developed has the ability to do classification of current oil-paper condition based on Dissolved Gasses and Dielectric Characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: hot spot temperature; transformer oil-paper insulating system; reliability assessment; dynamic correction; dissolved gas analysis; grey target theory
Online: 15 January 2018 (09:09:34 CET)
This paper develops a novel dynamic correction method for the reliability assessment of large oil-immersed power transformers. First, with the transformer oil-paper insulation system (TOPIS) as the target of evaluation and the winding hot spot temperature (HST) as the core point, an HST-based static ageing failure model is built according to the Weibull distribution and Arrhenius reaction law, in order to describe the transformer ageing process and calculate the winding HST for obtaining the failure rate and life expectancy of TOPIS. A grey target theory based dynamic correction model is then developed, combined with the data of Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) in power transformer oil, in order to dynamically modify the life expectancy calculated by the built static model, such that the corresponding relationship between the state grade and life expectancy correction coefficient of TOPIS can be built. Furthermore, the life expectancy loss recovery factor is introduced to correct the life expectancy of TOPIS again. Lastly, a practical case study of an operating transformer has been undertaken, in which the failure rate curve after introducing dynamic corrections can be obtained for the reliability assessment of this transformer. The curve shows a better ability of tracking the actual reliability level of transformer, thus verifying the validity of the proposed method and providing a new way for transformer reliability assessment. This contribution presents a novel model for the reliability assessment of TOPIS, in which the DGA data, as a source of information for the dynamic correction, is processed based on the grey target theory, thus the internal faults of power transformer can be diagnosed accurately as well as its life expectancy updated in time, ensuring that the dynamic assessment values can commendably track and reflect the actual operation state of the power transformers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0148.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Sustainable Teaching; multidisciplinary; multicultural; teams; Case-based Learning; Problem-based Learning; teamwork
Online: 26 April 2021 (15:38:20 CEST)
This article investigates the prospect of implementing multidisciplinary and multicultural student teamwork (MMT) involving Case-based Learning (CBL) and Problem-based Learning (PBL) as a sustainable teaching practice. Based on a mixed methods approach, which includes direct observation (both physical and virtual), questionnaire distribution and focus-group interviews the study reveals that MMT through CBL and PBL can both facilitate and hinder sustainable learning. Our findings show that while MMT enhances knowledge sharing, it also poses a wide range of challenges, raising questions about its social significance as a sustainable teaching practice. The study suggests the implementation of certain mechanisms, such as ‘Teamwork Training’ and ‘Pedagogical Mentors’, aiming to strengthen the sustainable orientation of MMT through CBL and PBL.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Model-based systems engineering (MBSE); Model informatics and analytics; Model-based collaboration
Online: 12 March 2021 (16:52:34 CET)
In MBSE there is yet no converged terminology. The term ’system model’ is used in different contexts in literature. In this study we elaborated the definitions and usages of the term ’system model’, to find a common definition. 104 publications have been analyzed in depth for their usage and definition as well as their meta-data e.g., the publication year and publication background to find some common patterns. While the term is gaining more interest in recent years it is used in a broad range of contexts for both analytical and synthetic use cases. Based on this three categories of system models have been defined and integrated into a more precise definition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0523.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: game-based learning; game design; project-based teaching; informatics and society, cybersecurity
Online: 26 July 2018 (16:38:48 CEST)
This article discusses the use of game design as a method for interdisciplinary project-based teaching in secondary school education to convey informatics and society topics. There is a lot of knowledge about learning games but little background on project-based teaching using game design as a method. We present the results of an analysis of student-created games and an evaluation of a student-authored database on learning contents found in commercial off-the-shelf games. We further contextualise these findings using a group discussion with teachers. Results underline the effectiveness of project-based teaching to raise awareness for informatics and society topics. We further outline informatics and society topics that are particularly interesting to students, genre preferences and potentially engaging game mechanics stemming from our analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: recommendation system; context awareness; location based services; mobile computing, cloud-based computing
Online: 18 September 2017 (08:54:04 CEST)
The ubiquity of mobile sensors (such as GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope) together with increasing computational power have enabled an easier access to contextual information, which proved its value in next generation of the recommender applications. The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers in many disciplines, such as ubiquitous and mobile computing, to filter the query results and provide recommendations based on different user status. A context-aware recommendation system (CoARS) provides a personalized service to each individual user, driven by his or her particular needs and interests at any location and anytime. Therefore, a contextual recommendation system changes in real time as a user’s circumstances changes. CoARS is one of the major applications that has been refined over the years due to the evolving geospatial techniques and big data management practices. In this paper, a CoARS is designed and implemented to combine the context information from smartphones’ sensors and user preferences to improve efficiency and usability of the recommendation. The proposed approach combines user’s context information (such as location, time, and transportation mode), personalized preferences (using individuals past behavior), and item-based recommendations (such as item’s ranking and type) to personally filter the item list. The context-aware methodology is based on preprocessing and filtering of raw data, context extraction and context reasoning. This study examined the application of such a system in recommending a suitable restaurant using both web-based and android platforms. The implemented system uses CoARS techniques to provide beneficial and accurate recommendations to the users. The capabilities of the system is evaluated successfully with recommendation experiment and usability test.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Messenger RNA • Hospital-based mRNA therapeutics • circular mRNA • self-amplifying mRNA • RNA-based CAR T-cell • RNA-based gene-editing tools
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:20:59 CET)
Hospital-based programs democratize mRNA therapeutics by facilitating the processes to translate a novel RNA idea from the bench to the clinic. Because mRNA is essentially biological software, therapeutic RNA constructs can be rapidly developed. The generation of small batches of clinical grade mRNA to support IND applications and first-in-man clinical trials, as well as personalized mRNA therapeutics delivered at the point-of-care, is feasible at a modest scale of cGMP manufacturing. Advances in mRNA manufacturing science and innovations in mRNA biology, are increasing the scope of mRNA clinical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0523.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: angle-based outlier detection: percentile-based outlier detection; multiphilda, noise; irrelevant software requirements
Online: 30 August 2022 (11:25:24 CEST)
Noise in requirements has been known to be a defect in software requirements specifications (SRS). Detecting defects at an early stage is crucial in the process of software development. Noise can be in the form of irrelevant requirements that are included within a SRS. A previous study had attempted to detect noise in SRS, in which noise was considered as an outlier. However, the resulting method only demonstrated a moderate reliability due to the overshadowing of unique actor words by unique action words in the topic-word distribution. In this study, we propose a framework to identify irrelevant requirements based on the MultiPhiLDA method. The proposed framework distinguishes the topic-word distribution of actor words and action words as two separate topic-word distributions with two multinomial probability functions. Weights are used to maintain a proportional contribution of actor and action words. We also explore the use of two outlier detection methods, namely Percentile-based Outlier Detection (PBOD) and Angle-based Outlier Detection (ABOD), to distinguish irrelevant requirements from relevant requirements. The experimental results show that the proposed framework was able to exhibit better performance than previous methods. Furthermore, the use of the combination of ABOD as the outlier detection method and topic coherence as the estimation approach to determine the optimal number of topics and iterations in the proposed framework outperformed the other combinations and obtained sensitivity, specificity, F1-score, and G-mean values of 0.59, 0.65, 0.62, and 0.62, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0196.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: crocodilian; animal welfare; animal-based measure; animal-based indicator; welfare assessment; welfare measure
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:46:54 CET)
Animal-based measures are the measure of choice in animal welfare assessment protocols as they can often be applied completely independently to the housing or production system employed. Although there has been a small body of work on potential animal-based measures for farmed crocodilians [1-3], they have not been studied in the context of an animal welfare assessment protocol. Potential animal-based measures, that could be used to reflect the welfare state of farmed crocodilians, were identified and aligned with the Welfare Quality® principles of good housing, good health, good feeding and appropriate behaviour. A consultation process with a panel of experts was used to evaluate and score the potential measures in terms of validity and feasibility. This resulted in a toolbox of measures being identified for further development and integration into animal welfare assessment on the farm. Animal-based measures related to ‘good feeding’ and ‘good health’ received the highest scores for validity and feasibility by the experts. There was less agreement on the animal-based measures that could be used to reflect ‘appropriate behaviour’. Where no animal-based measures were deemed to reliably reflect a welfare criterion nor be useful as a measure on the farm, additional measures of resources or management were suggested as alternatives. Future work in this area should focus on the reliability of the proposed measures and involve further evaluation of their validity and feasibility as they relate to different species of crocodilian and farming system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0175.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: biosensors; enzyme-based systems; receptor-based systems; toxins; food analysis; environmental monitoring; nanotechnology
Online: 9 October 2018 (05:59:30 CEST)
The exploitation of lipid membranes in biosensors has provided the ability to reconstitute a considerable part of their functionality to detect trace of food toxicants and environmental pollutants. Nanotechnology enabled sensor miniaturization and extended the range of biological moieties that could be immobilized within a lipid bilayer device. This chapter reviews recent progress in biosensor technologies based on lipid membranes suitable for environmental applications and food quality monitoring. Numerous biosensing applications are presented, putting emphasis on novel systems, new sensing techniques and nanotechnology-based transduction schemes. The range of analytes that can be currently detected include, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, metals, toxins, antibiotics, microorganisms, hormones, dioxins, etc. Technology limitations and future prospects are discussed, focused on the evaluation/ validation and eventually commercialization of the proposed sensors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0069.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: biosensors, enzyme-based systems, receptor-based systems, toxins, food analysis, environmental monitoring, nanotechnology
Online: 3 August 2018 (14:20:04 CEST)
The exploitation of lipid membranes in biosensors has provided the ability to reconstitute a considerable part of their functionality to detect trace of food toxicants and environmental pollutants. Nanotechnology enabled sensor miniaturization and extended the range of biological moieties that could be immobilized within a lipid bilayer device. This chapter reviews recent progress in biosensor technologies based on lipid membranes suitable for environmental applications and food quality monitoring. Numerous biosensing applications are presented, putting emphasis on novel systems, new sensing techniques and nanotechnology-based transduction schemes. The range of analytes that can be currently detected include, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, metals, toxins, antibiotics, microorganisms, hormones, dioxins, etc. Technology limitations and future prospects are discussed, focused on the evaluation/ validation and eventually commercialization of the proposed sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0307.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: sustainable outcomes; dedication-based mechanism; constraint-based mechanism; perceived switching costs; loyalty program
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:55:47 CEST)
Given the increase in consumers’ preferences for coffee, it is becoming important to understand their decision-making processes in the coffee chain context. To deepen the understanding of sustainable outcomes in this context, this study investigates the role of dedication- and constraint-based mechanisms in forming consumers’ repurchase and positive word-of-mouth (WOM) intentions, two critical sustainable outcomes. We examined the effects of coffee quality, the quality of the physical environment, and service quality in accelerating the formation of dedication-based factors. Moreover, this study offers an in-depth understanding of the enablers of perceived switching costs. Data collected from 238 university students that frequently visit coffee chains are empirically tested against the proposed theoretical framework by using structural equation modeling. The results confirm that both dedication- and constraint-based factors substantially predict consumers’ sustainable outcomes in the coffee chain context. Brand image and perceived switching costs play an important role in enhancing consumers’ repurchase and positive WOM intentions compared with customer satisfaction. Coffee quality is significantly associated with both customer satisfaction and brand image, whereas the quality of the physical environment and service quality are only significantly associated with brand image. Habit is found to be the key enabler of perceived switching costs, while loyalty programs have no significant impact on perceived switching costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0069.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation; phenology; Xishuangbanna; Landsat; object-based approach; pixel-based approach
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:54:28 CEST)
Effectively mapping and monitoring rubber plantation is still changing. Previous studies have explored the potential of phenology features for rubber plantation mapping through a pixel-based approach (pixel-based phenology approach). However, in fragmented mountainous Xishuangbanna, it could lead to noises and low accuracy of resultant maps. In this study, we investigated the capability of an integrated approach by combining phenology information with an object-based approach (object-based phenology approach) to map rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were firstly used to acquire the temporal profile and phenological features of rubber plantations and natural forests, which delineates the time windows of defoliation and foliation phases. Landsat images were then used to extract a phenology algorithm comparing three different approaches: pixel-based phenology, object-based phenology, and extended object-based phenology to separate rubber plantations and natural forests. The results showed that the two object-based approaches achieved higher accuracy than the pixel-based approach, having overall accuracies of 96.4%, 97.4%, and 95.5%, respectively. This study proved the reliability of a phenology-based rubber mapping in fragmented landscapes with a distinct dry/cool season using Landsat images. This study indicated that the object-based phenology approaches can effectively improve the accuracy of the resultant maps in fragmented landscapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0131.v1
Online: 9 July 2019 (14:15:17 CEST)
Saudi Arabia is an oil-reliant nation as a large percentage of its GDP comes from oil resources. Oil dependency leaves a county at the mercy of the international crude market, and a decrease in the price of crude can seriously destabilize the economy of such nations. An example is the case of Venezuela whose dependence on oil caused a national disaster (McCarthy, 2017). As such, the nation’s exports, GDP, and government revenue are primarily dependent on oil revenue, and the recent decrease in the oil prices has decreased Venezuela’s national revenue resulting in economic collapse as well as inflation. A shift from a resource based economy to a knowledge based economy will help Saudi Arabia become less reliant on its oil revenues for its economic stability and growth (Nurunnabi, 2017).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0331.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: IoT-based payment protocols; identity-based signature; server-aided verification; pairing-free security protocols
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:20:05 CEST)
After the great success of Mobile wallet, the Internet of Things (IoT) leaves the door wide open for consumers to use their connected devices to access their bank accounts and perform routine banking activities from anywhere, anytime and with any device. However, consumers need to feel safe when interacting with IoT-based payment systems, and their personal information should be protected as much as possible. Unlike as usually done in the literature, in this paper, we introduce two lightweight and secure IoT-based payment protocols based on an identity-based signature scheme. We adopt a server-aided verification technique to construct the first scheme. This technique allows to outsource the heavy computation overhead on the sensor node to a cloud server while maintaining the user's privacy. The second scheme is built upon a pairing-free ECC-based security protocol to avoid the heavy computational complexity of bilinear pairing operations. The security reduction results of both schemes are held in the Random Oracle Model (ROM) under the discrete logarithm and computational Diffie-Hellman assumptions. Finally, we experimentally compare the proposed schemes against each other and against the original scheme on the most commonly used IoT devices: a smartphone, a smartwatch and the embedded device Raspberry Pi. Compared with existing schemes, our proposed schemes achieve significant efficiency in the term of communication and computational overheads
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0490.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Hydroxyapatite; Ca-based catalyst; stability; polyglycerol.
Online: 29 September 2021 (11:26:01 CEST)
Abstract: Calcium-based catalysts are of a high interest for glycerol polymerization due to their high catalytic activity and large availability. However, their poor stability under reaction conditions is an issue. In the present study, we investigated the stability and catalytic activity of Ca-hydroxyapatites (HAps) as one of the most abundant Ca-source in nature. A stochiometric, a Ca-deficient and a Ca-rich HAps have been synthetized and tested as catalysts in the glycerol polymerization reaction. Deficient and stochiometric HAps exhibited a remarkable 100% selectivity to triglycerol at 15 % of glycerol conversion at 245 °C after 8 h of reaction in the presence 0.5 mol.% of catalyst. Moreover, under the same reaction conditions, Ca-rich HAp showed a high selectivity (88 %) to di- and triglycerol at a glycerol conversion of 27 %. Most importantly, these catalysts were unexpectedly stable towards leaching under the reaction conditions based on the ICP-OES results. However, based on the catalytic tests and characterization analysis performed by XRD, XPS, IR, TGA-DSC and ICP-OES, we found that HAps can be deactivated by the presence of the reaction products themselves, i.e., water and polymers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0050.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: SDG; Gender Equality; project-based methodology
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:45:06 CEST)
A project-based module on Sustainable Development Goal number 5, Gender Equality, was im-plemented on 5 different groups of Business English students consisting of a total number of 62 students in higher education. The main purpose of this project was to raise awareness of this goal by means of a flipped method in which students were required to carry out some research on specific areas of the aforementioned goal and work in teams to elaborate oral presentations. Once their findings were shared in class, students were expected to answer a written questionnaire of open-ended questions which were part of a qualitative analysis. Results of this survey showed that not only 90% of the students gained in depth knowledge of this goal, but also 85% had built a positive attitude to take initiative and 80% were optimistic about future gender equality. Finally, 70% of students suggested further social action to curb the problem of gender discrimination. On the whole, the flipped classroom method of learning combined with project-based group work have proven to be an effective way to raise awareness of this goal, create a more positive attitude, in-crease their willingness to take action as well as widening their English lexical resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0139.v1
Online: 27 September 2017 (16:45:25 CEST)
Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) has been successfully used to map slums. In general, the occurrence of uncertainties in producing geographic data is inevitable. However, most studies concentrated solely on assessing the classification accuracy and neglecting the inherent uncertainties. Our research analyses the impact of uncertainties in measuring the accuracy of OBIA-based slum detection. We selected Jakarta as our case study area, because of a national policy of slum eradication, which is causing rapid changes in slum areas. Our research comprises of four parts: slum conceptualization, ruleset development, implementation, and accuracy and uncertainty measurements. Existential and extensional uncertainty arise when producing reference data. The comparison of a manual expert delineations of slums with OBIA slum classification results into four combinations: True Positive, False Positive, True Negative and False Negative. However, the higher the True Positive (which lead to a better accuracy), the lower the certainty of the results. This demonstrates the impact of extensional uncertainties. Our study also demonstrates the role of non-observable indicators (i.e., land tenure), to assist slum detection, particularly in areas where uncertainties exist. In conclusion, uncertainties are increasing when aiming to achieve a higher classification accuracy by matching manual delineation and OBIA classification.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0173.v1
Online: 18 August 2016 (06:07:05 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0426.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: event-based vision; object detection and tracking; high-temporal resolution tracking; frame-based vision; hybrid approach
Online: 30 June 2022 (09:54:14 CEST)
Event-based vision is an emerging field of computer vision that offers unique properties such as asynchronous visual output, high temporal resolutions, and dependence on brightness changes to generate data. These properties can enable robust high-temporal-resolution object detection and tracking when combined with frame-based vision. In this paper, we present a hybrid, high-temporal-resolution, object detection and tracking approach, that combines learned and classical methods using synchronized images and event data. Off-the-shelf frame-based object detectors are used for initial object detection and classification. Then, event masks, generated per each detection, are used to enable inter-frame tracking at varying temporal resolutions using the event data. Detections are associated across time using a simple low-cost association metric. Moreover, we collect and label a traffic dataset using the hybrid sensor DAVIS 240c. This dataset is utilized for quantitative evaluation using state-of-the-art detection and tracking metrics. We provide ground truth bounding boxes and object IDs for each vehicle annotation. Further, we generate high-temporal-resolution ground truth data to analyze the tracking performance at different temporal rates. Our approach shows promising results with minimal performance deterioration at higher temporal resolutions (48 – 384 Hz) when compared with the baseline frame-based performance at 24 Hz.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; drug design; covid-19; structure-based drug design; ligand-based drug design
Online: 2 March 2022 (03:00:37 CET)
The recent covid crisis has proven important lessons for academia and industry regarding digital reorganization. Among fascinating lessons from these times is the huge potential of data analytics and artificial intelligence. The crisis exponentially accelerated the adoption of analytics and artificial intelligence, and this momentum is predicted to continue into the 2020s and over. Moreover, drug development is a costly and time-consuming business, and only a minority of approved drugs return the revenue that exceeds the research and development costs. As a result, there is a huge drive to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. With modern algorithms and hardware, it is not too surprising that the new technologies of artificial intelligence and other computational simulation tools can help drug developers. In only two years of covid research, many novel molecules have been designed/identified using artificial intelligence methods with astonishing results in terms of time and effectiveness. This paper will review the most significant research on artificial intelligence in the de novo drug design for COVID-19 pharmaceutical research.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0351.v1
Subject: Keywords: lecture based instruction; actual community-based instruction; maternal and child care; social competency skills; community awareness
Online: 13 April 2021 (12:47:52 CEST)
Maternal-child care is one of the foundations of primary health care. Nurses’ competency skills they have been taught. Community awareness is an important part of preventive healthcare, and nurses must be aware of the factors that impact the health of the community. This study examines the effectiveness of lecture-based instructions in maternal and child care and its implications to students' social competency skills and community awareness in Nursing Colleges in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. The researcher uses survey questionnaire and employed the descriptive design where fifteen (15) nursing students and five (5) teachers were purposively selected. The findings revealed that the weighted mean for the effectiveness of lecture based instruction in maternal and child care is 3.91 with verbal description of “Effective”, the effects of lecture based instruction in maternal and childcare to students’ social competency skills and community awareness got the weighted mean of 3.87 and interpreted as “very satisfactory” and the effectiveness of actual community-based instruction is very effective with weighted mean of 4.25 and is higher compare to lecture based instruction. The results also revealed that students and teachers were challenged in lecture-based instruction in maternal and chi8ldcare during distance learning. Recommendations for the enhancement of lecture-based instruction in maternal and childcare in social competency skills and community awareness were also made.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Fused Deposition Modelling; Robot-based additive manufacturing; Polylactic acid (PLA) and PLA-based composite.
Online: 7 April 2021 (12:24:16 CEST)
Over the last decade, a significant literature has emerged that advocates the potential of different Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and printable polymeric materials. Nevertheless, large scale printing and complex geometric shapes, with curvatures and non-planar layer deposition, are a challenging process for the traditional gantry-based machine. The 3 degrees of freedom cartesian configuration restricted their capability to planar layered printing and restricted part dimensions. To date, many researchers have used industrial robots to overcomes this limitation. This review gives the reader a good overview of the FDM technique due to its scalability, cost efficiency and a wide range of material printability. A strong emphasis is laid on the PLA and PLA-based composites as promising materials for the FDM process applications. The second part of this paper links the successful use of these materials in the traditional printing process to large scale printing using the robot-based FDM process. This survey presents representative setups for robot-based AM and works that have been used these setups for non-planar material deposition. Finally, we conclude this paper by identifying opportunities for realizing new functional capabilities by exploiting robot-based AM, and we also present the future trends in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0249.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Fungal diversity; Saccharomyces; genetic diversity; glyphosate-based herbicides; copper-based fungicides; RoundUp Ready™ corn; phylogenetics
Online: 17 February 2020 (15:37:11 CET)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae are a phenotypically diverse species that adapt to a wide variety of environments by exploiting standing genetic diversity and selecting for advantageous mutations. Glyphosate and copper-based herbicides/ fungicides affect non-target organisms, these incidental exposures can impact microbial populations. In this study, glyphosate resistance was found in the historical collection of yeast which was collected over the last century, but only in yeast isolated after the introduction of glyphosate. The highest glyphosate-resistant yeasts were isolated from agricultural sites. However, herbicide application at these sites was not recorded. In an effort to assess glyphosate resistance and impact on non-target microorganisms, yeast were harvested from 15 areas with known herbicidal histories, including an organic farm, conventional farm, remediated coal mine, suburban locations, state park, and a national forest. Yeast representing 23 genera were isolated from 237 samples of plant, soil, spontaneous fermentation, nut, flower, fruit, feces, and tree material samples. Saccharomyces, Candida, Metschnikowia, Klyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia were other genera commonly found across our sampled environments. Managed areas had less species diversity and at the brewery, only Saccharomyces and Pichia were isolated. A conventional farm growing RoundUp Ready™ corn had the lowest phylogenetic diversity and the highest glyphosate resistance. The mine was sprayed with multiple herbicides including a commercial formulation of glyphosate; however, the yeast did not have elevated glyphosate resistance. In contrast to the conventional farm, the mine was exposed to glyphosate only one year prior to sample isolation. Glyphosate resistance is an example of the anthropogenic selection of nontarget organisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0129.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: food safety; gel-based proteomics; LC-based proteomics; post-translational modifications; proteomics; seed ageing; seed quality
Online: 11 December 2018 (11:00:26 CET)
For centuries, crop plants have represented the basis of the daily human diet. Among them, cereals and legumes, accumulating oils, proteins and carbohydrates in their seeds, distinctly dominate modern agronomic practice. Indeed, these plants play an essential role in the food industry and fuel production. Therefore, the seeds of crop plants are intensively studied by food chemists, biologists, biochemists, and nutritional physiologists. Accordingly, not only seed development and germination, but also age- and stress-related alterations in seed vigor, longevity, nutritional value and safety can be addressed by a broad panel of analytical, biochemical and physiological methods. Currently, functional genomics is one of the most powerful tools, giving direct access to characteristic metabolic changes, accompanying plant development, senescence and response to biotic or environmental stress. Among individual methodological platforms, proteomics represents one of the most effective ones, giving access to cellular metabolism at the level of proteins. Here we discuss the main methodological approaches employed by seed proteomics in the context of physiological changes related to seed development, ageing and response to environmental stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0232.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: mHealth; ODK scan; mobile health application; digitizing data collection; data management processes; paper-to-digital system; technology-assisted data management; treatment adherence
Online: 2 September 2016 (03:17:38 CEST)
The present grievous situation of the tuberculosis disease can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology this can be achieved by quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of the ODK Scan paper-to-digital system during testing period of three months. A sequential, explanatory mixed-method research approach was employed to elucidate technology use. Training, smartphones, application and 3G enabled SIMs were provided to the four field workers. At the beginning, baseline measures of the data management aspects were recorded and compared with endline measures to see the impact of ODK Scan. Additionally, at the end, users’ feedback was collected regarding app usability, user interface design and workflow changes. 122 patients’ records were retrieved from the server and analysed for quality. It was found that ODK Scan recognized 99.2% of multiple choice bubble responses and 79.4% of numerical digit responses correctly. However, the overall quality of the digital data was decreased in comparison to manually entered data. Using ODK Scan, a significant time reduction is observed in data aggregation and data transfer activities, however, data verification and form filling activities took more time. Interviews revealed that field workers saw value in using ODK Scan, however, they were more concerned about the time consuming aspects of the use of ODK Scan. Therefore, it is concluded that minimal disturbance in the existing workflow, continuous feedback and value additions are the important considerations for the implementing organization to ensure technology adoption and workflow improvements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0201.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: ligand-based pharmacophores; structure-based pharmacophores; virtual screening; drug design; machine learning; molecular dynamics; de novo design
Online: 14 September 2022 (09:10:58 CEST)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are amongst the most pharmaceutically relevant and well-studied protein targets, yet unanswered questions in the field leave significant gaps in our understanding of their nuanced structure and function. 3D pharmacophore models are powerful computational tools in silico drug discovery, presenting myriad opportunities for the integration of GPCR structural biology and cheminformatics. This review highlights success stories in the application of 3D pharmacophore modeling to de novo drug design, discovery of biased and allosteric ligands, scaffold hopping, QSAR analysis, hit-to-lead optimization, GPCR de-orphanization, mechanistic understanding of GPCR pharmacology and elucidation of ligand-receptor interactions. Furthermore, advances in the incorporation of dynamics and machine learning will be highlighted. The review will analyze challenges in the field of GPCR drug discovery, detailing how 3D pharmacophore modeling can be used to address them. Finally, we will present opportunities afforded by 3D pharmacophore modeling in the advancement of our understanding and targeting of GPCRs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0739.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep neural network; survey; document images; review paper; deep learning; performance evaluation; page object detection, graphical page objects; document image analysis; page segmentation
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:17:49 CEST)
In any document, graphical elements like tables, figures, and formulas contain essential information. The processing and interpretation of such information require specialized algorithms. Off-the-shelf OCR components cannot process this information reliably. Therefore, an essential step in document analysis pipelines is to detect these graphical components. It leads to a high-level conceptual understanding of the documents that makes digitization of documents viable. Since the advent of deep learning, the performance of deep learning-based object detection has improved many folds. In this work, we outline and summarize the deep learning approaches for detecting graphical page objects in the document images. Therefore, we discuss the most relevant deep learning-based approaches and state-of-the-art graphical page object detection in document images. This work provides a comprehensive understanding of the current state-of-the-art and related challenges. Furthermore, we discuss leading datasets along with the quantitative evaluation. Moreover, it discusses briefly the promising directions that can be utilized for further improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0729.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: silver nanoparticles; laser ablation in liquids; laser synthesis of colloidal nanoparticle solution, nanoparticle impregnated paper; antimicrobial activity; fiber fines; sheet forming; vacuum filtration
Online: 30 October 2018 (16:14:31 CET)
A paper impregnated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been prepared. For the preparation of the substrates, aqueous suspensions of pulp fines, a side product from the paper production, have been mixed with Ag nanoparticles (AgNP) suspensions. The nanoparticle synthesis thereof was carried out via laser ablation of pure Ag in water. After the sheet formation process, the leaching of the AgNPs was determined to be low while the sheets exhibited antimicrobial activity towards E. Coli.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0556.v2
Online: 1 December 2022 (02:09:32 CET)
Agent-based models (ABMs) are computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents in time and space. These models allow users to simulate the complex interactions between individual agents and the landscapes they inhabit and are increasingly used in epidemiology to understand complex phenomena and make predictions. However, as the complexity of the simulated systems increases, notably when disease control interventions are considered, model flexibility and processing speed can become limiting. Here we introduce SamPy, an open-source Python library for stochastic agent-based modeling of epidemics. SamPy is a modular toolkit for model development, providing adaptable modules that capture host movement, disease dynamics, and disease control interventions. Memory optimization and design provide high computational efficiency allowing modelling of large, spatially-explicit populations of agents over extensive geographical areas. In this article, we demonstrate the high flexibility and processing speed of this new library. The version of SamPy considered in this paper is available at https://github.com/sampy-project/sampy-paper .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0464.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Kabirian-based optinalysis; estimators; properties; computing codes
Online: 31 October 2022 (04:53:43 CET)
Good estimators are characterized as robust, unbiased, efficient, and consistent. However, the commonly used estimators are weak or lack one or more of these properties. In this article, eight (8) estimators for statistical and geometrical estimations of symmetry/asymmetry, similarity/dissimilarity, identity/unidentity, and feature transformation were proposed following Kabirian-based optinalysis and other operations. The proposed estimators are characterized as invariant (robust) under scaling, location shift, and rotation or reflection. A computing code was written in python language for each of the proposed estimators so that peers can have working codes for application and performance evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0192.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Knowledge-based Systems; Ontology; Knowledge Engineering; MCDA.
Online: 13 October 2022 (09:54:49 CEST)
Decision making as a result of system dynamics analysis requires, in practice, a straightforward and systematic modelling capability as well as a high-level of customisation and flexibility to adapt to situations and environments that may vary very much from each other. While in general terms a completely generic approach could be not as effective as ad-hoc solutions, the proper application of modern technology may facilitate agile strategies as a result of a smart combination of qualitative and quantitative aspects. In order to address such a complexity, we propose a knowledge-based approach that integrates the systematic computation of heterogeneous criteria with open semantics. The holistic understanding of the framework is described by a reference architecture and the proof-of-concept prototype developed can support high-level system analysis, as well as it suitable within a number of applications contexts - i.e. as a research/educational tool, communication framework, gamification and participatory modelling. Additionally, the knowledge-based philosophy, developed upon Semantic Web technology, increases the capability in terms of holistic knowledge building and re-use via interoperability. Last but not least, the framework is designed to constantly evolve in the next future, for instance by incorporating more advanced AI-powered features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ATO; Performance Evaluation; Scenario-based Testing; Simulation
Online: 17 March 2022 (02:42:05 CET)
There is increasing interest in automating train operations of mainline services, e.g. to increase network capacity. Automatic train operation (ATO) is already achieved by several pilot projects, but not implemented on a large scale. Before the general introduction of new or adapted technologies can have a transformative effect on the operation of such a complex system as train operation on mainlines, they have to pass functional, interoperability and performance tests. A virtual preliminary analysis is one way to ensure a smooth as well as safe introduction and implementation. This paper aims to present an approach that applies to the performance testing of ATO systems. Therefore, methods and test standards for technologies enabling automatic operation in other transport sectors are reviewed. The main findings have been adapted, transformed and combined to be used as a general strategy for virtual performance testing in the railway sector. Specifically, universal performance indicators, namely punctuality, accuracy, energy consumption, safety and comfort, are presented. A layer model for scenario description is adapted from the automotive sector, as well as the definition of different scenario types. Lastly, factors that can influence the performance of an ATO algorithm are identified. To demonstrate the developed approach, a straightforward investigation of a case study is conducted using a microscopic train simulator in combination with an ATO algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0698.v1
Online: 30 July 2021 (11:43:12 CEST)
Background: In an age where information is generally accessible, most of the interest these days has focused on how accessible and convenient technology can be. So small and personal, mobile devices can transform our perception of learning by combining both mobility and convenience. Mobile learning is part of the digital learning landscape alongside e-learning and serious games. However, knowledge about effective design of mobile learning experiences remains of interest with a focus on appropriate design models and the embodiments that can be implemented to achieve the intended educational outcomes. Exploring the instructor's perspective on mobile learning is essential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the Moroccan instructors' perception and practice of mobile learning to inform the development of an ecologically valid mobile learning integration model. Methods: Higher education Instructors (n=41) were recruited to the study. The Moroccan instructors' perception and their experiences regarding their adoption of mobile learning were collected using an online survey. The analysis focused on their mobile use, perceived IT competency, and opinions on mobile learning. Results: We described most of the instructors' considerations regarding integrating mobile technologies into their teaching activities. We found that most of the mobile learning activities defined by the respondents corresponded to relatively advanced use of mobile devices. More promising, instructors have found innovative ways to use the educational potential of mobile devices. However, the prospect of mobile devices was still to challenge. No or poor Wi-Fi connection, number of devices or limited access, sometimes fees or applications incompatibility were identified as reasons and obstacles to mobile learning usage. Conclusion: Mobile learning is mostly perceived positively among Moroccan instructors allowing many applications and usage to enhance teaching and learning. In this study, a better understanding of aspects and factors influencing the integration of mobile learning in the Moroccan educational context is exposed, helping further the development of an ecologically valid mobile learning integration model. Future work on mobile learning should consider the highly paced evolution of mobile technologies, emphasizing the flexibility of integration frameworks to support instructors and learners.
Subject: Keywords: gender-based violence, coping, abuse, survival, resilient
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:00:57 CEST)
Gender-based violence is considered a serious social and public health problem. Overcoming this situation implies a process that results in the favorable biopsychosocial rehabilitation, the resilient of women. The objective of this study was to analyze the tools, resources and personal and psychosocial mechanisms used by women survivors of gender-based violence. The design was an interpretative phenomenology. It carried out with 22 women who have overcome gender-based violence. Data was collected through personal interviews and narration. The results were grouped into four themes: "Process of violence", "Social resources for coping and overcoming GBV", "Personal tools for coping and overcoming GBV", and "Feelings identified, from the abuse stage to the survival stage". Several studies concluded that overcoming abuse is influenced by the women social network, and it can be the action of these people determining their survival to gender violence. Despite the recognized usefulness of these available resources, it would be desirable to strengthen them in order to be able to drive more women toward survival, assuming a strengthening of coping and overcoming, without forgetting the importance of other support mechanisms such as their family and group therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0437.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: malnutrition; translation; physiologically based pharmacokinetics; PBPK; pediatrics
Online: 17 December 2020 (16:03:40 CET)
Malnutrition in children is a global health problem, particularly in developing countries. The effects of an insufficient supply of nutrients on body composition and physiological functions may have implications for drug disposition and ultimately affect the clinical outcome in this vulnerable population. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can be used to predict the effect of malnutrition as it links physiological changes to pharmacokinetic (PK) consequences. However, the absence of detailed information on body composition and the limited availability of controlled clinical trials in malnourished children complicates the establishment and evaluation of a generic PBPK model in this population. In this manuscript we describe the creation of physiologically-based bridge to a malnourished pediatric population, by combining information on a) the differences in body composition between healthy and malnourished adults and b) the differences in physiology between healthy adults and children. Model performance was confirmed using clinical reference data. This study presents a physiologically-based translational framework for prediction of drug disposition in malnourished children. The model is readily applicable for dose recommendation strategies to address the urgent medicinal needs of this vulnerable population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0326.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: mobile robot; vision-based navigation; cascade classifiers
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:16:44 CEST)
This work presents the development and implementation of a distributed navigation system based on computer vision. The autonomous system consists of a wheeled mobile robot with an integrated colour camera. The robot navigates through a laboratory scenario where the track and several traffic signals must be detected and recognized by using the images acquired with its on-board camera. The images are sent to a computer server that processes them and calculates the corresponding speeds of the robot using a cascade of trained classifiers. These speeds are sent back to the robot, which acts to carry out the corresponding manoeuvre. The classifier cascade should be trained before experimentation with two sets of positive and negative images. The number of images in these sets should be considered to limit the training stage time and avoid overtraining the system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0150.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General Mathematics Keywords: Gregorian Calendar; weekly-based calendar; original calendar
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:25:27 CEST)
Has anyone ever missed an event because he was confused in days and dates? Do we remember the date of any day without looking at a calendar? Is the current Gregorian Calendar efficient enough for use, and does it facilitate our life or make it more complicated? Have you ever thought about a much simpler way to calculate days and dates in a year? All these questions are answered in this paper, in which the author proposes original optimization algorithm that creates optimal perennial calendars. Results show that there is more than one way to create a perennial calendar, in which the number of days in each month does not change, neither the dates. Hence, all months have the same sequence of days and dates. In other meaning, Monday becomes the first day of every month, and Sunday becomes the last day. Consequently, the calendars become much easier to memorize and very simple to predict the days and dates in any year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0032.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: model based diagnosis; applications; diagnosis; physiotherapy; education
Online: 4 January 2020 (06:34:25 CET)
Many physiotherapy treatments begin with a diagnosis process. The patient describes symptoms, upon which the physiotherapist decides which tests to perform until a final diagnosis is reached. The relationships between the anatomical components are too complex to keep in mind and the possible actions are abundant. A trainee physiotherapist with little experience naively applies multiple tests to reach the root cause of the symptoms, which is a highly inefficient process. This work proposes to assist students in this challenge by presenting three main contributions: (1) A compilation of the neuromuscular system as components of a system in a Model-Based Diagnosis problem; (2) The PhysIt is an AI-based tool that enables an interactive visualization and diagnosis to assist trainee physiotherapists; and (3) An empirical evaluation that comprehends performance analysis and a user study. The performance analysis is based on evaluation of simulated cases and common scenarios taken from anatomy exams. The user study evaluates the efficacy of the system to assist students in the beginning of the clinical studies. The results show that our system significantly decreases the number of candidate diagnoses, without discarding the correct diagnosis, and that students in their clinical studies find PhysIt helpful in the diagnosis process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0011.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: rain cell; tracking; PIV; feature-based verification
Online: 1 August 2019 (10:16:12 CEST)
This study proposes a new algorithm termed rain cell identification and tracking (RCIT) to identify and track rain cells from high resolution weather radar data. Previous algorithms have limitations when tracking non-consequent rain cells owing to their use of maximum correlation coefficient methods and their lack of an alternative way to handle the variation stages of rain cells during their life cycles. To address these deficiencies, various methods are implemented in the new algorithm. These include the particle image velocimetry (PIV) method for motion estimation and the rain cell matching rule to obtain the stage changes of rain cells. High resolution (5-min and 1-km) radar reflectivity data from three rainy days over the German federal state North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) are used to evaluate the proposed algorithm. The performance of the new algorithm is compared with a radar reflectivity map and verified by two object-oriented methods: structure–amplitude–location (SAL) and geometric index. The verification results suggest that the performance of the new algorithm is good. Application of the RCIT algorithm to the selected cases shows that the inner structure of rainfall events in the experimental region present extreme value distributions, with most rainfall events having a short duration with less intensity. The new algorithm can effectively capture the stage changes of rain cells during their life cycles. The proposed algorithm can serve as the basis for further hydro-meteorological applications such as spatial and temporal analysis of rainfall events and short-term flood forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0156.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Health care risk waste, home-based caregivers
Online: 8 October 2018 (16:02:59 CEST)
The quadruple burden of diseases, early discharge from hospital and hospital at home have resulted in home-based care services becoming a requirement in South Africa. The home-based care services generate a significant amount of health care risk waste that is mismanaged. However, more attention is given to the health care risk waste generated in hospitals and clinics than to health care risk waste generated by home-based caregivers. Therefore, this study investigates the health care risk waste management practices by home-based caregivers. The study adopted a mixed research approach, qualitative and quantitative methods, using a literature review, interviews, and questionnaires as means of data collection. Results show that there are different types of health care risk waste generated as a result of different activities performed by home-based caregivers, but that the waste was found to be managed in an unsafe manner. The majority of households receiving home-based care did not have basic sanitation facilities such as toilets, running water and waste removal services, aggravating the issue of health care risk waste mismanagement. The study recommends a new policy framework that will lead to safe management practices of generated health care risk waste to be adopted by home-based caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0066.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: molecular graph; degree-based index; silicon-carbon
Online: 5 June 2018 (12:44:44 CEST)
The application of graph theory in chemical and molecular structure research far exceeds people's expectations, and it has recently grown exponentially. In the molecular graph, atoms are represented by vertices and bonded by edges. Closed forms of multiplicative degree-based topological indices which are numerical parameters of the structure and determine physico-chemical properties of the concerned molecular compound. In this article, we compute and analyze many multiplicative degree-based topological indices of silicon-carbon Si2C3-I[p,q] and Si2C3-II[p,q].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0041.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: M-polynomial; degree-based index; boron nanotubes
Online: 7 November 2016 (07:41:36 CET)
Recent discovery of triangular boron Nanotubes makes it a competitor of carbon in many respects. Closed forms of M-polynomial of nanotubes produce closed forms of many degree-based topological indices which are numerical parameters of the structure and, in combination, determine properties of the concerned nanotubes. In this report, we give M-polynomials of triangular boron nanotubes and recover many important topological degree-based indices of these nanotubes. We also plot surfaces associated to these nanotubes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: model-based system engineering (MBSE); model-based systems architecting (MBSA); model-based pattern language (MBPL); system architecture; logical architecture; SysML patterns; pattern library; systems engineering (SE); pattern language; logical decomposition
Online: 9 August 2022 (09:26:54 CEST)
This paper presents an approach to the application of the Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) and Model-Based Systems Architecting (MBSA) principles to develop a Model-Based Pattern Language (MBPL). It takes too long for systems engineers and architects to develop a new system from scratch, particularly new space-based systems derived from the existing space systems architectures. A pattern language is a holistic view of reusable logical model artifacts; many are interdisciplinary and introductory, if at all. The results are mostly a combination of the application-specific logical solution, which further results in the best possible overall solution. The main benefit of the pattern language is reducing the time and validation required to generate a new space-based system architecture; this approach will develop top-level requirements in the initial phase of the system development. The rationale of the methodology proposed by the paper is as follows, collect, and decompose published literature and other open-source information available on space system architectures and system models; develop SysML models for systems, subsystems, products, assembly, subassembly level, and mission-specific requirements using CAMEO SysML software. Arrange these patterns to develop a functional ontology and construct a logical architecture pattern library. This approach created, updated, and managed SysML pattern language, which evaluated the expedited new model construction. Again, our objective is to develop a logical pattern language using public domain information and evaluate patterns by constructing a new space mission concept—for example, planetary surface habitat.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0058.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: synthetic biology; multi-agent modelling; individual-based modelling; agent-based modelling; systems biology; emergence; multi-scale; bioengineering; consortia; collectives
Online: 5 May 2020 (03:45:16 CEST)
Many complex behaviours in biological systems emerge from large populations of interacting molecules or cells, generating functions that go beyond the capabilities of the individual parts. Such collective phenomena are of great interest to bioengineers due to their robustness and scalability. However, engineering emergent collective functions is difficult because they arise as a consequence of complex multi-level feedback, which often spans multiple length-scales. Here, we present a perspective on how some of these challenges could be overcome by using multi-agent modelling as a design framework within synthetic biology. Using case studies covering the construction of synthetic ecologies to biological computation and synthetic cellularity, we show how multi-agent modelling can capture the core features of complex multi-scale systems and provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms which guide emergent functionalities across scales. The ability to unravel design rules underpinning these behaviours offers a means to take synthetic biology beyond single molecules or cells and towards the creation of systems with functions that can only emerge from collectives at multiple scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0323.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Intrusion Detection System (IDS); HNADAM-SDG(Hybrid Nestrov-Accelerated Adaptive Moment Estimation –Stochastic Gradient Descent); Network-based Intrusion Detection System (NIDS); Host-based Intrusion Detection System (HIDS); Signature-based Intrusion Detection System (SIDS); Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System (AIDS); Algorithms; Machine Learning.
Online: 21 December 2021 (11:45:39 CET)
A single Information security is of pivotal concern for consistently streaming information over the widespread internetwork. The bottleneck flow of incoming and outgoing data traffic introduces the issue of malicious activities taken place by intruders, hackers and attackers in the form of authenticity desecration, gridlocking data traffic, vandalizing data and crashing the established network. The issue of emerging suspicious activities is managed by the domain of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). The IDS consistently monitors the network for identifica-tion of suspicious activities and generates alarm and indication in presence of malicious threats and worms. The performance of IDS is improved by using different signature based machine learning algorithms. In this paper, the performance of IDS model is determined using hybridization of nestrov-accelerated adaptive moment estimation –stochastic gradient descent (HNADAM-SDG) algorithm. The performance of the algorithm is compared with other classi-fication algorithms as logistic regression, ridge classifier and ensemble algorithm by adapting feature selection and optimization techniques
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: asian breast cancers; mammography screening; risk-based screening
Online: 4 August 2022 (06:20:25 CEST)
Close to half (45.4%) of 2.3 million breast cancers (BC) diagnosed in 2020 were from Asia. While the burden of breast cancer has been examined on the level of broad geographic regions, literature on more in-depth coverage of the individual countries and subregions of the Asian continent is lacking. This review examines the breast cancer burden in 47 Asian countries. Breast cancer screening guidelines and risk-based screening initiatives are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0069.v1
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:37:39 CEST)
ASEAN SME has a role as the regional socioeconomic stabilizer. This particular role is inseparable from endogenous multi-sector collaboration. Although, Indonesian SMEs were struggled in adopting Industry 4.0 correspond to digital infrastructure and digital literacy problems. This study evaluates Indonesian SME collaboration dynamics with government and technology startup (TS). The integration of agent-based model and causal loop simulation were employed to assess the TS collaboration impact on SME Industry 4.0 adoption and SME competition with larger competitors. The simulation results imply the SME collaboration with TS can lead to early adoption of Industry 4.0 which balances the business competition environment. The model also shows rising the government aid exponentially can help the SME to late adoption of Industry 4.0 which unable to sustain the SME in business competition. Thus, the developed integrative simulation model is a state-action planning model with each state result bounded to the previous state result that determined by initial input parameters. Conclusively, the model can be used as a resiliency planner for SME Industry 4.0 adoption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0225.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: RNA targeting; RNA-based interactions; bis-3-chloropiperidines
Online: 14 December 2021 (11:13:29 CET)
After a long limbo, RNA has gained its credibility as a druggable target, fully earning its de-served role in the next-generation area of pharmaceutical R&D. We have recently probed the Trans-Activation Response element (TAR), a RNA stem–bulge–loop domain of the HIV-1 genome with bis-3-chloropiperidines (B-CePs), and revealed the compounds unique behavior in stabiliz-ing TAR structure, thus impairing in vitro the chaperone activity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid (NC) protein. Seeking to elucidate the determinants of B-CePs inhibition, we have further characterized here their effects on the target TAR and its NC recognition, while developing quantitative analyti-cal approaches for the study of multicomponent RNA-based interactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0186.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Adsorption; DFT; Starch-based Activated Carbon; Kinetics; Thermodynamics
Online: 12 October 2021 (14:58:07 CEST)
Cadmium (II) contamination in the environment is an emerging problem due to its acute toxicity and mobility, so it is very urgent to remove this species from industrial wastewater before it is discharged into the environment. Thus, a starch-based activated carbon (AC) with a specific surface area of 1600 m2g-1 is used as an adsorbent for the capturing of toxic Cadmium (II) ions from synthetic solution. The sorbent is characterized by BET, SEM, TEM, XRD, FT-IR, TGA, and zeta potential. The maximum uptake (284 mg g-1) of Cadmium (II) ion is obtained at pH 6. The thermodynamics parameters like ∆G, ∆H, ΔS are found to be -17.42 kJmol-1, 6.49 kJ mol-1, and 55.66 Jmol-1K-1 respectively, revealing that the adsorption mechanism is endothermic, spontaneous, and feasible. The experimental data follows the D-R and Langmuir models well. The mass transfer is controlled by pseudo 2nd order kinetics. Furthermore, the density functional theory simulations demonstrate that the activated carbon strongly interacted with the Cd (II) ion through its various active sites. The adsorption energy noted for all interactive sites is highly negative (-0.45 eV to -10.03 eV), which shows that the adsorption process is spontaneous and stable which is in agreement with the experimental thermodynamics analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0632.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: suicide; men; help-seeking; engagement; community-based intervention
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:12:38 CEST)
Due to the continuing high suicide rates among young men, there is a need to understand help-seeking behaviour and engagement with tailored suicide prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to compare help-seeking among younger and older men who attended a therapeutic centre for men in a suicidal crisis. In this case series study, data were collected from 546 men who were referred into a community-based therapeutic service in North West England. Of the 546 men, 337 (52%) received therapy; 161 (48%) were aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age 24 years, SD=3.4). Analyses included baseline differences, symptom trajectories for the CORE-34 Clinical Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and engagement with the therapy. For the CORE-OM there was a clinically significant reduction in mean scores between assessment and discharge (p<0.001) for both younger and older men. At initial assessment, younger men were less affected by entrapment (46% v 62%; p=.02), defeat (33% v 52%; p=.01), not engaging in new goals (38% v 47%; p=.02), and positive attitudes towards suicide (14% v 18%; p=.001) than older men. At discharge assessment, older men were significantly more likely to have an absence of positive future thinking (15% v 8%; p=0.03), have less social support (45% v 33%; p=.02) and feelings of entrapment (17% v 14%; p=.02) than younger men. Future research needs to assess the long-term effects of help-seeking using a brief psychological intervention for young men in order to understand whether the effects of the therapy are sustainable over a period of time following discharge from the service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Micro-mobility; Ride-sharing; Agent-based modelling; Crowdsourcing
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:48:39 CEST)
Substantial research is required to ensure that micro-mobility ride sharing provides a better fulfillment of user needs. This study proposes a novel crowdsourcing model for the ride-sharing system where light vehicles such as scooters and bikes are crowdsourced. The proposed model consists of three entities: suppliers, customers, and a management party responsible for receiving, renting, booking, and demand matching with offered resources. It can allow suppliers to define the location of their private e-scooters/e-bikes and the period of time they are available for rent. Using a dataset of over 9 million e-scooter trips in Austin, Texas, we ran an agent-based simulation six times using three maximum battery ranges (i.e., 35, 45, and 60 km) and different numbers of e-scooters (e.g., 50 and 100) at each origin. Computational results show that the proposed model is promising and might be advantageous to shift the charging and maintenance efforts to a crowd of suppliers.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0116.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: DAPT; workflow; agent-based modeling; model exploration; crowdsourcing
Online: 10 May 2021 (09:47:54 CEST)
Modern agent-based models (ABM) and other simulation models require evaluation and testing of many different parameters. Managing that testing for large scale parameter sweeps (grid searches) as well as storing simulation data requires multiple, potentially customizable steps that may vary across simulations. Furthermore, parameter testing, processing, and analysis are slowed if simulation and processing jobs cannot be shared across teammates or computational resources. While high-performance computing (HPC) has become increasingly available, models can often be tested faster through the use of multiple computers and HPC resources. To address these issues, we created the Distributed Automated Parameter Testing (DAPT) Python package. By hosting parameters in an online (and often free) "database", multiple individuals can run parameter sets simultaneously in a distributed fashion, enabling ad hoc crowdsourcing of computational power. Combining this with a flexible, scriptable tool set, teams can evaluate models and assess their underlying hypotheses quickly. Here we describe DAPT and provide an example demonstrating its use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: suicide, men, help-seeking, engagement, community-based intervention
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:04:18 CET)
Due to the continuing high suicide rates among young men, there is a need to understand help-seeking behaviour and engagement with tailored suicide prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to explore help-seeking behaviour and engagement for young men aged 18 to 30 years who attended a therapeutic centre for men in a suicidal crisis. In this prospective cohort study, data were collected from 546 men who were referred into a community-based therapeutic service in North West England. Of the 546 men, 337 (52%) received therapy; 161 (48%) were aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age 24 years, SD=3.4). One third (n=54; 34%) of the men were seen within 48 hours of their referral. Analyses included baseline differences, symptom trajectories for the CORE-34 Clinical Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and engagement with the therapy. For the CORE 34 there was a clinically significant reduction in mean scores between assessment and discharge (p<0.001), with all outcomes demonstrating a large effect size. Future research needs to assess the long-term effects of help-seeking using a brief psychological intervention for young men in order to understand whether the effects of the therapy are sustainable over a period of time following discharge from the service.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0125.v1
Online: 3 March 2021 (10:52:16 CET)
It’s always a challenge for a teacher to get their students to be more engaged or active in the classroom. Engagement happens when students are interested in the subject, have fun, and feel welcome in the classroom. But how do we make students more engaged? To make this happen, Educational escape rooms were introduced into studies. In this paper, we will discuss about the creation and evaluation of educational escape rooms within an engineering learning context. As part of our research project, four educational escape rooms were created for students and surveys were conducted among them to evaluate the success of our project. Our ﬁndings indicate that the escape room learning model is well accepted by the students. As a result of the activity, high levels of dedication and enthusiasm are recorded and students shows the eagerness to do more escape room activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0257.v1
Online: 10 February 2021 (12:44:24 CET)
In some parts of Nigeria, many girls do not attend school, and among those sent to school, many still drop out early. This and other socio-cultural factors affect girls psychologically. There is no doubt that girls need consistent love and tutoring to guide them through the turbulent teen years and beyond. They need a mentor who acts as a friend and a role model. The Mobile-based Mentoring Platform seeks to leverage on mobile technology's affordances to focus on the needs of the girl-child, such as improvement in academic achievement, guidance in career choice, development of self-concept, and esteem. The girl-mentees comments revealed that using the platform provided them frequent access to mentors and access to learning opportunities. The challenges they faced include epileptic internet network, intrusions by parents, and others. Therefore, this paper examined the challenges and benefits of mentoring girls via a mentoring platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0536.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE); repetition; iteration
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:37:54 CET)
Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide students with opportunities for the same gains that apprenticed research with faculty members offer. As their popularity increases, it is important that critical elements of CUREs are supported by thoughtful design. Student experiences in CUREs can provide important insights into why CUREs are so effective. We present evidence from students who participated in CUREs at the introductory, intermediate, and advanced levels, as well as from graduate teaching assistants for an introductory lab course that included a CURE. Students and teaching assistants describe repetition as a valuable element in CUREs and other laboratory experiences. We used student work and open-ended interviews to identify which of five previously described elements of CUREs students found important. Because repetition was particularly salient, we characterized how students described repetition as they experienced it in courses that contained full-length or “micro”-CUREs. In prompted interviews, students described how repetition in CUREs provided cognitive (learning concepts) and practical (learning technical skills) value. Recent graduates who had participated in CUREs at each level of their Biology education were particularly aware that they placed value in repetition and acknowledged it as motivational in their own learning. Many students described repetition in metacognitive terms, which also suggests that as students advance through laboratory and CURE curricula, their understanding of how repetition supports their learning becomes more sophisticated. Finally, we integrated student descriptions to suggest ways in which repetition can be designed into CUREs or other laboratory courses to support scientific learning and enhance students’ sense of scientific identity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0539.v1
Online: 21 December 2020 (16:01:59 CET)
Starting from the importance of risk perception for taking certain preventive measures to protect people and their property from disasters, the subject of the research is to examine the factors influencing public perception of mythically-based human behavior in disaster conditions. Using the random sampling method, 250 adult respondents were surveyed in the city of Belgrade, using a specially created and adapted survey questionnaire. The results of the research show that there is no statistically significant influence of gender, age, educational and economic factors on the public perception of human behavior in disaster conditions. The results of the research can be used to improve strategies and campaigns based on risk assessment, aimed at improving the safety of people in disasters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0325.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: meat substitute; meathybrid; consumer preference, plant-based proteins
Online: 14 December 2020 (11:44:14 CET)
High levels of meat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein in comparison to meat. This alternative offers several social, environmental and health benefits and may play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on how specific meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace or partially replace meat in their diets. Research demonstrates that in many countries consumers are highly attached to meat. They consider it as an essential and integral element of their daily diet. For these consumers which are not interested in vegan or vegetarian alternatives to meat, so-called meathybrids could be a low-threshold option for a more sustainable food consumption behaviour. In meathybrids only a fraction of the meat product (e.g. 20% to 50%) is replaced with plant-based proteins. In this paper, the results of an online survey with 501 Belgium consumers are presented with focus on preferences and attitudes relating to meathyrids. The results show that more than fifty percent of consumers substitute meat at least occasionally. Thus, about half of the respondents reveal an eligible consumption behaviour in respect to sustainability and healthiness to a certain degree. Concerning the determinants of choosing either meathybrid or meat it becomes evident that a strong effect is exerted by the health perception. The healthier meathybrids are perceived, the higher is the choice probability. Thus, this egoistic motive seems to outperform altruistic motives like animal welfare or environmental concerns when it comes to choice for this new product category.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0241.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: meat substitute; meathybrid; consumer preference, plant-based proteins
Online: 10 December 2020 (09:22:00 CET)
High levels of meat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein that, in comparison to meat, offer a number of social, environmental and health benefits and may play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on the role they can play in the policy agenda and how specific meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace partially replace meat in their diets.