ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0258.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Intraventricular Hemorrhage; Very preterm infants; Epiclatino registry; Obstetric trauma; Minimal manipulation protocol.
Online: 13 September 2022 (13:28:31 CEST)
Introduction: Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH) is a devastating condition mostly in preterm infants at < 30 weeks GA with large morbidities and mortality usually in the first 72 hours after birth. Prevention seems to be the only way to completely deal with this problem. The IVH prevention in this age group has been studied and includes some strategies such as prenatal corticosteroids, cesarean delivery, careful extraction among others, but still, it has an unacceptably high incidence in this population. A protocol with the name Drive to Zero IVH Prevention Project that was presented in one of EpicLatino conferences some years ago. As with any quality improvement in practices, we adapted this project to our unit. Objective: To compare the IVH incidence in our unit after the protocol implementation with and historic cohort from the same unit and with all other units un the epilactino network. Material and method: In October 2017 we begun to implement a neuro protection protocol. For this analysis we include every patient born <30 weeks of GA, inborn or outborn but less than 2 days old, that survived at least three days and had a neuroimaging preformed. We include cases until July 2022, and we use the EpicLatino, a Latin-American database, from 2018 to 2020 excluding our own unit for comparison as well as an historical cohort from our unit from 2010-2017. The protocol consists of: Minimal manipulation, low volume ventilation, one routine fiscal exam a day, neutral head position, one blood pressure measured per shift, no keel stick measurements, continuous dim light and low noise level, minimal touch, no vasoactive therapy except in extreme cases, temperature and humidity at 80%, catheters, when possible, fluid restriction followed with diuresis, no PDA therapy or Echo if possible and routine therapy with hydrocortisone, erythropoietin, caffeine, parenteral nutrition, and trophic feeding. e performed a univariate analysis for IVH and groups and a logistic regression model with variables that had statistical significance in the univariate analysis. Results: The study group included 64 cases, the historic cohort 123 and the EpicLatino 1029. Demographic characteristics were similar with few statistically significant differences. We found four grade 1-2 and six grade 3-4 IVH in the study group (some caused by very traumatic delivery with multiples hematomas in head, body, and extremities), all significantly lower that the other two groups. The logistic regression model confirmed the independent statistically significant result in the study group. Conclusion: The hemorrhage during delivery must be prevented by the obstetric team. Afterwards, a set of interventions like very gentle handling with minimal manipulation and unnecessary strict lab managing seams to decrease the incidence of IVH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0407.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Parenteral fluids in premature infants; late premature infants; infections associated with the use of lines; early oral feeds
Online: 5 September 2022 (13:05:52 CEST)
Introduction: Some of the practices in medicine are carried out of habit without proven benefits. This is the case of premature babies from 30 to 34 weeks of gestation who are always given parenteral fluids, even though this practice has been associated with an increase incidence of infection. At the end of 2017, we started a protocol of rationalization in the use of parenteral fluid. To administer nutrition/fluids, we used oral fluids by suction if this was possible or otherwise by oral/nasogastric tube at volumes of 70-80 mL/Kg/day divided every 3 hours, with 5 mL increments every 12-24 hours until 200 mL/K/day was achieved, always using breast milk when possible. Material and methods: The present study sought to compare results before and after this new policy. For this work, we review all premature babies between 30-34 weeks of gestation in two time periods, the first from 01/01/2010 to 12/31/2017 and the second from 01/01/2018 to 08/15/2022. The number of cases with and without parenteral fluids (PF), the incidence of infection, the weight at admission and discharge, and the change in the weight Z score between birth and discharge were compared. Both the anthropometric and outcome variables were compared using the different statistical methods according to each variable. Results: were found 920 cases with the described characteristics. The groups before and after the intervention did not show significant differences in their general demographic characteristics. We observed a decrease use of PF in the second period, from 425 cases (82.0%) before to 297 (26.2%) after implementation, p <0.0001 and fewer days of use (4.1 days/average before vs 1.3 after, p <0.0001) of PF. The weight at discharge and the change in weight Z-score were the same in both groups. Infections went from nine cases before to two cases after but it was not statistically significant. There were no complications due to less use of PF. Discussion: This study showed that the use of PF is not associated with significant changes in outcomes of interest, which reinforces that its use does not generate any benefit for the patient. Larger number of cases is required to detect differences in low incidence events such as infections.