ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0095.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Anxiety; cysteamine HCl; histamine,; ranitidine,; elevated plus maze; microglia
Online: 5 January 2023 (03:26:50 CET)
Elevated levels of histamine cause the secretion of gastric hydrochloric acid (HCl), leading to gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and anxiety. While aberrant levels of histamine mediate neuroinflammation, pathogenic alterations in the hippocampus of the brain have been linked to anxiety. Eventually, antihistamine drugs that are used against GI disorders appear to be anxiolytic agents. Ranitidine is a widely used antihistamine drug to manage GI disorders as it works by blocking the histamine (H)-2 receptors in oxyntic cells thereby, reducing the HCl production in the stomach. Though some reports indicate the neuroprotective effects of ranitidine, its role against GI disorders related to anxiety remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of ranitidine against anxiety-related behaviors, neuronal density, and signs of microglia activation in the hippocampal CA3 region of cysteamine HCl-induced mouse model of GI disorder. Results obtained from the open field test (OFT), light and dark box test (LDBT), and elevated plus maze (EPM) revealed that ranitidine treatment reduces anxiety-like behaviors in experimental animals. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical assessment of Iba-1 positive microglia in the cryosectioned brains revealed that the ranitidine treatment enhances the density of pyramidal neurons in association with reduced activation of microglia in the CA3 region of the hippocampus of experimental mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0134.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: optical coherence tomography; imaging; C-plus-plus; QHYCCD; webcam; spectral domain OCT; SD-OCT
Online: 12 January 2020 (17:28:57 CET)
ABC-OCT, Affordable B-scan Camera-based Optical Coherence Tomography, implements Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography with real-time display using cross-platform C++ and the OpenCV framework. The software can be compiled using current versions of GCC for *nix/Mac and Microsoft® Visual Studio for Windows. Full functionality of ABC-OCT needs the camera SDK from QHYCCD and a QHYCCD camera to be connected; but the code can be easily modified to support other camera drivers, as is shown by an included demo version which can use any installed webcam. The code is made available under the MIT license. The software is available from GitHub (https://github.com/hn-88/FDOCT).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0836.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; unresectable; atezolizumab plus bevacizumab; lenvatinib
Online: 12 October 2023 (15:36:58 CEST)
A total of 137 HCC patients treated with atezolizumab plus bevacizumab from October 2020 to September 2022 were enrolled. The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) from the beginning of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab was 21.1 months (range, 18.8 months-not reached) and 10.5 months (range, 8.2‒12.1 months), respectively. Fifty patients were diagnosed with progressive disease after atezolizumab plus bevacizumab. Of this group, 24 patients were administered lenvatinib, and the median OS and PFS from the beginning of lenvatinib were 15.3 months (range, 10.3 months-not reached) and 4.0 months (range, 2.5‒6.4 months), respectively. The objective response rates based on response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST) criteria version 1.1 and modified RECIST were 33.3% and 54.2%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, Child-Pugh class A (hazard ratio 0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02‒0.76, p = 0.02) and intrahepatic tumor occupancy rate <50% (hazard ratio <0.01, 95% CI 0.003‒0.35, p <0.01) were the significant factors for OS. There were some frequent adverse events (AEs) in patients treated with lenvatinib such as hypertension, fatigue, anorexia, proteinuria, and so on, but none directly caused death. In conclusion, lenvatinib after atezolizumab plus bevacizumab for unresectable HCC should be considered an effective treatment option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: SARS-COV-2; respiratory tests; Xpert® Xpress COV-2 plus; Xpert(2) Xpress COV-2/Flu/RSV plus; diagnostic evaluation; novel target
Online: 5 December 2022 (10:17:58 CET)
The Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 and Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2/Flu/RSV tests were rapidly developed and widely used during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. In response to emerging genetic variability, a new SARS-CoV-2 target (RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase) has been added to both tests: Xpert® Xpress CoV-2 plus and Xpert® Xpress CoV-2/Flu/RSV plus test. A rapid evaluation of both tests was performed in South Africa, using residual respiratory specimens. Residual respiratory specimens (n=125) were used to evaluate the Xpert® Xpress CoV-2 plus test and included 50 genotyped specimens. The Xpert® Xpress CoV-2/Flu/RSV plus test was assessed using 45 genotyped SARS-CoV-2 specimens, ten influenza A, ten Influenza B and twenty respiratory syncytial virus specimens. Results were com-pared to in-country standard of care tests. Genotyped specimens tested the performance of the test under pressure from circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Reference material was included to assess the test limits and linearity. The Xpert® Xpress CoV-2 plus test performance compared to reference results across residual respiratory specimens was good (positive per-centage agreement (PPA)=95.2%, negative percentage agreement (NPA)=95.0%) The Xpert® Xpress CoV-2/Flu/RSV plus test showed good performance across all residual respiratory specimens (PPA=100%, NPA=98.3%). All genotyped variants of concern were detected by both tests. The Xpert® Xpress CoV-2 plus and Xpert® Xpress CoV-2/Flu/RSV plus tests can be used to diagnose SARS-CoV-2, and to diagnose and differentiate SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, influenza B and respiratory syncytial virus respectively. The NPA was lower than the recommended 99%, but was influenced by the low number of negative specimens tested. The variants of concern assessed did not affect test performance. It is recommended that sites perform their own assessments compared to in-country standard of care tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1714.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; mortality; modifiable risk factors; sociodemographic index; BRICS-Plus
Online: 25 July 2023 (11:32:10 CEST)
BRICS-Plus (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa, and 30 other countries) is a group of 35 countries with emerging economies making up more than half of the world’s population. We explored epidemiological trends of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality attributable to modifiable risk factors and its association with period and birth cohort effects and sociodemographic index (SDI) across BRICS-Plus by using joinpoint regression and age-period-cohort (APC) modeling from 1990 to 2019. Between 1990 and 2019, the all-ages CVD deaths increased by 85.2% (6.1 million to 11.3 million) across BRICS-Plus. The CVD ASMR attributable to dietary risks and smoking significantly decreased across BRIC-Plus countries, with some exceptions. However, four-fifth of BRIC-Plus countries observed a remarkable increasing trend of high body mass-index (BMI)-related CVD deaths in particular among younger adults (25-49 years). Early birth cohorts and individuals aged greater than 50 years showed a higher risk of CVD mortality. Both China-ASEAN FTA and Mercosur regions stand out for their successful sociodemographic transition, with a significant reduction in CVD mortality over the study period. Singapore and Brazil achieved great progress in CVD mortality reduction and the other BRICS-Plus countries should follow their lead in adopting public health policies and initiatives into practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1767.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; tumor marker; atezolizumab plus bevacizumab; prognosis; predictive model
Online: 26 June 2023 (09:42:06 CEST)
Aim: This study was to evaluate the predictive value of tumor marker (TM) score in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with Atezolizumab plus Bevacizumab (Atez/Bev) as a first-line chemotherapy. Materials/Methods: From September 2020 to December 2022, 371 HCC patients treated with Atez/Bev, in whom alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), fucosylated AFP (AFP-L3) and des gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) were measured at introducing Atez/Bev. Elevations of AFP (≥100 ng/ml), AFP-L3 (≥10%), and DCP (≥100 mAU/ml) were treated as positive, and the number of positive tumor marker was summed up and used as the previously proposed TM score. Hepatic reserve function was assessed with modified albumin-bilirubin grade (mALBI). Predictive values for prognosis were evaluated, retrospectively. Results: TM score 0 was in 81 (21.8%), score 1 in 110 (29.6%), score 2 in 112 (29.9%), and score 3 in 68 (18.3%), respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was not applicable [NA] (95% CI NA-NA), 24.0 months (95% CI 17.8-NA), 16.7 months (95% CI 17.8-NA) and NA (95%CI 8.3-NA) for TM scores 0, 1, 2 and 3, respectively (p<0.001). Median progression free survival (PFS) was also 16.5 months (95% CI 8.0-not applicable [NA]), 13.8 months (95% CI 10.6-21.3) and 7.7 months (95% CI 5.3-8.9), 5.8 months (95%CI 3.0-7.6), respectively (p<0.001). OS was stratified well in mALBI 1/2a as well as in mALBI 2a/2b. Whereas, PFS was well stratified in mALBI 2a/2b, while not in mALBI 1/2a. Conclusion: The TM score was a simple and useful prognostic marker in HCC patients treated with Atez/Bev.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Dietary diversity; nutrient adequacy; metabolic syndrome; aging; PREDIMED-Plus study
Online: 18 March 2019 (09:25:48 CET)
Dietary guidelines emphasizes the importance of a varied diet to provide an adequate nutrient intake. However, the aging is often associated with consumption of monotonous diets that can be nutritionally inadequate, increasing the risk for the development or progression of diet-related chronic diseases such as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). To assess the relationship between dietary diversity (DD) and nutrient adequacy and to identify associated demographic variables related with DD. We analysed cross-sectional baseline data from the PREDIMED-Plus study: 6587 Spanish adults, aged 55–75 years, with overweight/obesity and MetS. Using a 143-item validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), we calculated an energy-adjusted score of DD (DDS). Nutrient inadequacy was defined as an intake below 2/3 of the recommended dietary intake at least of ≥4 of 17 nutrients. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between nutritional inadequate intakes and DDS. In the higher DDS quartile there were more women and less current smokers. Compared with subjects in the highest DDS quartile, those in the lowest DDS quartile had a higher risk of inadequate nutrient intake OR=28.56 (95% C.I. 20.80-39.21). When we estimated diversity for each one of the food groups, participants in the first quartile of diversity had a higher risk of nutrient deficiency: for vegetables, OR= 14.03 (IC 95% 10.55-18.65), fruits OR=11.62 (IC 95% 6.81-19.81), dairy products OR= 6.54 (IC 95% 4.64-9.22) and protein foods OR=6.60 (IC 95% 1.96-22.24). As DDS decreases, the risk of inadequate nutrients intake rises. Given the impact of nutrient intake adequacy on the prevention of non-communicable diseases, health policies should focus on the promotion of a healthy varied diet, specifically promoting the intake of vegetables and fruit among population groups with lower DDS such as men, smokers or widow people.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0971.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic dermatitis; emollient plus cream; topical corticosteroids; topical calcineurin inhibitors; case report
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:18:55 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease marked by inflammation, erythema, dryness and pruritic lesions. Due to the intermittent nature of the disease, management strategies for AD focus on flare prevention following remission. A 24-year-old patient with mild-to-moderate AD lesions, previously non-responsive to topical corticosteroids (TCS), was treated with pimecrolimus for 12 days and emollient plus cream (EC) every day. After the initial 12-day treatment course, the patient was advised to use pimecrolimus if his symptoms reoccured. AD symptoms improved substantially between Weeks 0 and 12 with daily use of EC. However, by Week 12, his symptoms had relapsed, necessitating retreatment with pimecrolimus. Overall, the patient experienced flare-free periods between Weeks 3 and 12 and between Weeks 13 and 16. No tolerability issues were reported. This case report demonstrates the use of a complementary approach of daily administration of maintenance EC and intermittent application of pimecrolimus for flare management, which was effective for treating a patient with mild-to-moderate AD resistant to TCS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1939.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Coal-biomass co-pyrolysis; Optimum pyrolysis conditions; Aspen plus; Technical and economic analysis
Online: 28 July 2023 (02:39:37 CEST)
In the end, this paper analyzed the economy from the investment in plant construction, raw material collection, product production and product sales. The resulting products include pyrolytic carbon, pyrolytic oil, pyrolysis gas. The results showed that when the treatment scale was 1 ton h−1, the pyrolysis plants with three loading modes will always be in a state of loss during the 20-year running time. When the processing scale was 9 ton h−1, the pyrolysis plant can be profitable in the first year. In the sensitivity analysis, the influence of three pyrolysis products on the total return on investment was explored. The results showed that the price change of pyrolysis oil has the greatest influence on the total return on investment (Total ROI) under the three loading methods, The price change of pyrolysis gas has minimal impact on the Total ROI. This study provides basic data and basis for the commercialization of coal-biomass co-pyrolysis technology and investment in plant construction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: concrete setting time; Coca-cola; silica fume; fly ash; Plastocrete® RT6 Plus
Online: 10 January 2020 (06:55:02 CET)
During the casting in a warmer tropical temperature, a setting time delay is required to maintain the workability of the concrete, commonly achieved by the addition of admixtures i.e. silica fume (SF), fly ash (FA), and Plastrocrete®. However, high sugar content Coca-Cola in niche conditions is proposed as an ingredient for delaying concrete setting time in combination with conventional admixtures. This research aims to compare the setting time of admixtures from Coca-Cola and Plastocrete® RT6 plus in concrete mixing with control data of concrete mixed with SF or FA. The second aim is to measure the compression strengths between combinations of Coca-Cola and Plastocrete® RT6 plus. Concretes were produced with admixtures of SF, FA, Plastocrete® RT6plus, or Coca-Cola. The concrete used to control was f'c20 and f'c 25, while other concrete mixes were produced with the addition of Coca-Cola at 0.15% from the weight of cement at variation of moisture treatments. The first method to produce concrete (f'c20+Plas0.23%+Cola0.15% and f'c25+Plas0.23%+Cola0.15%) did not employ water reduction. The second concrete productions (f'c25+Plas0.46%+Cola0.15% and f'c25+Plas0.46%+Cola0.15%) reduced the addition of water at 8.8% (v/w). The first concrete production method had a setting time 44% longer than control. The reduced water concrete in the second productions had a setting time 34% longer than control. Meanwhile, the Plastocrete® RT6 Plus admixture with the reduced water delayed the concrete setting time by 26% longer than control. The delayed setting time of Plastocrete® RT6 Plus admixture with reduction of water was shorter than in the treatment with Coca-Cola. The combination of the addition of Coca-Cola with Plastocrete® RT6 plus by reducing the amount of adding Coca-Cola to 0.10% with Plastocrete® RT6 plus can delay concrete setting time by 51% longer than normal concrete and increase concrete compressive strength by 13% higher than normal concrete. Mixing Coca-Cola with Plastocrete® RT6 plus not only provided an optimal delay effect on setting time but also significantly increase the compressive strength that was desired during the casting in warm tropical weather applied in building construction of Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0199.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: digital forensic tool, mobile application forensics, geolocation, Upsight, Pokémon GO, Pokémon GO Plus
Online: 29 May 2017 (11:21:56 CEST)
As the geolocation capabilities of smartphones continue to improve, developers have continued to create more innovative applications that rely on this location information for their primary function. This can be seen with Niantic's release of Pokémon GO, which is a massively multiplayer online role playing and augmented reality game. This game became immensely popular within just a few days of its release. However, it also had the propensity to be a distraction to drivers resulting in numerous accidents, and was used to as a tool by armed robbers to lure unsuspecting users into secluded areas. This facilitates a need for forensic investigators to be able to analyze the data within the application in order to determine if it may have been involved in these incidents. Because this application is new, limited research has been conducted regarding the artifacts that can be recovered from the application. In this paper, we aim to fill the gaps within the current research by assessing what forensically relevant information may be recovered from the application, and understanding the circumstances behind the creation of this information. Our research focuses primarily on the artifacts generated by the Upsight analytics platform, those contained within the bundles directory, and the Pokémon Go Plus accessory. Moreover, we present our new application specific analysis tool that is capable of extracting forensic artifacts from a backup of the Android application, and presenting them to an investigator in an easily readable format. This analysis tool exceeds the capabilities of UFED Physical Analyzer in processing Pokémon GO application data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Influenza vaccine; Grippol® Plus; asthma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; vaccine efficacy; cytokines; CRP
Online: 30 September 2023 (08:27:03 CEST)
Background: Influenza vaccine is a tool for preventing infection and reducing exacerbations in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Purpose of this study is to investigate dynamics of CRP and serum cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17) in patients with asthma and COPD, as well as to perform a correlation analysis with the clinical parameters of the disease manifestation. Methods: The study included 34 patients with asthma, 20 patients with COPD vaccinated against influenza during a period of remission from 2 to 4 weeks, both groups being under a basic maintenance therapy, and 26 healthy individuals vaccinated with the trivalent polymer-subunit vaccine Grippol® Plus, containing 5 µg of influenza virus strains and 500 µg of azoximer bromide. Results: Observing patients with asthma and COPD, during a year after the vaccination, has revealed a significant reduction in exacerbations frequency (p < 0.05) and duration (p < 0.05) of the bronchial obstructive syndrome (BF). Before the vaccination the IL-6 level in patients with asthma had a direct moderate correlation with duration of exacerbations of the underlying disease (p < 0.05), along with the number of systemic corticosteroids courses during exacerbations (p < 0.05). In 12 months after the vaccination, while assessing cytokine profile of all study groups, a significant reduction in the level of IL-6 was observed, compared to the baseline values (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Conducted analysis of immunological, clinical, and functional parameters of patients with asthma and COPD has proven for influenza vaccine to be effective in BF patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0029.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: PLUS model; InVEST model; Land use; Habitat quality; Temperate desert subzone of Ordos Plateau
Online: 1 June 2023 (05:33:45 CEST)
Habitat quality has great significance for regional ecological conservation and human welfare. In this study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal characteristics of land use and habitat quality in the temperate desert sub-region of Ordos Plateau using patch-generating land use simulation (PLUS) and integrated valuation of ecosystem services and trade-offs (InVEST) models. From 2000 to 2020, the areas of grassland, cropland, and unused land in the study area increased significantly; the areas of water bodies and woodland increased slightly; and the area of wasteland decreased significantly. Moreover, the habitat quality in the temperate desert subzone of the Ordos Plateau showed a trend of increasing and then decreasing from 2000 to 2020. The areas of lower and low habitat quality first decreased and then increased, and the overall area decreased over time. Conversely, the areas of high and higher habitat quality initially increased and then decreased, and the overall area increased over time. The area of medium habitat quality first decreased and then increased, although the overall change was minimal. Based on the PLUS model, the habitat quality of the study area in 2025 predicted under the natural development scenario was compared with that predicted under the ecological conservation scenario, showing higher habitat quality and lower habitat degradation under the ecological conservation development scenario. These results can be used to provide a scientific basis and decision reference for the sustainable use of land resources and high-quality socio-economic development in the temperate desert sub-region of the Ordos Plateau.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0399.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: scots pine; plus-trees; xylem; lignification; physiological condition; hereditary conditionality; factor analysis; cluster analysis
Online: 20 September 2018 (05:34:23 CEST)
An important moment in the establishment of forestry seed orchards is the formation of their optimal composition, avoiding inbreeding depression in the outgoing seed material which occurs due to crossbreeding between closely related plus trees, the clones of which comprise the orchards. It is possible to minimize the negative effect of inbreeding by considering the hereditary aspect of the heterogeneous seed orchard material. The purpose of our work is to provide a comparative assessment of the formation and lignification of xylem in annual shoots of the plus trees of Scots pine. We investigated the formation and lignification of xylem in the annual shoots of the plus trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), found in natural forests in the Nizhny Novgorod region of the Russian Federation. Their vegetative progeny were cultivated in the clone archive stationed in the same region. Analyzing the one-type of the 1-year shoots, the time that the shoots were cut from the branches corresponded to the presence of plants in the characteristic phenological phases of seasonal development. A histochemical study of xylem was conducted, using the qualitative reactions of phloroglucinol to lignin. The power of xylem development was estimated by counting, in the radial direction, the cell rows from the core to the cambium in the microscope’s field of view. A significant differentiation of plus trees was revealed in a complex of signs characterizing the level of xylem development and the degree of xylem cell lignification in the tissues of annual shoots. Phenotypic differences in the physiological state of plus trees appeared given a leveled ecological background, indicating their genotypic determinism. This was confirmed by an analysis of variance. The share of the influence of differences between the proper plus trees was between 25.16% ± 8.91% and 53.98% ± 5.48% of the total phenotypic variance of the signs of the seasonal state of xylem. Factor analysis was used to reduce the number of considered indicators of xylem physiological state. The results allowed a cluster analysis to be carried out on the basis of the normalized values of the initial xylem features as well as the principal components derived from them. The association of plus trees was done on the basis of the similarity of the multidimensional estimates of xylem seasonal condition. The objects that were the most remote from the others were identified. This information provides a reasonable approach to the formation of an assortment of Scots pine seed orchards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0984.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Thyroid papillary carcinoma; Bilateral total lobectomy; Unilateral total lobectomy plus isthmectomy; Thyroid function; Treatment efficacy
Online: 14 August 2023 (07:14:36 CEST)
Objective: To examine the effect of bilateral total lobectomy and unilateral total lobectomy on improving thyroid function in patients with thyroid micropapillary carcinoma treated with euthyrox. Methods: The study was conducted on 68 patients with thyroid micro papillary carcinoma treated with euthyroxwho had been surgically treated with euthyrox in our hospital between January 2018 and December 2019. On the basis of random number grouping, they were divided into control groups (n = 34, bilateral total lobectomy) and observation groups (n = 34, unilateral total lobectomy plus isthmectomy). Thyroid function, free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid hormone (TSH), and voice function (VHI score) of the two groups were compared.Results: In comparison to the control group, the observation group had shorter incision lengths, shorter operation times, and shorter hospital stays, as well as less intraoperative bleeding and drainage volume, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05); As compared with the control group, the observation group had higher FT4 and FT3 levels as well as lower TSH levels, a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05).VHI scores of emotions, function, physiology, and other voice functions were significantly lower among the observation group than those of the control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion: A unilateral total lobectomy with adjacent isthmus resection in patients with thyroid micro papillary carcinoma can yield ideal results, accelerate the time taken for surgical rehabilitation, improve thyroid function, thereby improving voice quality, as well as improve the overall prognosis of the patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0934.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: land use change; land use conflict; PLUS model; SSPs-RCP scenario; habitat quality; Qin-Ba Mountains
Online: 13 July 2023 (13:32:02 CEST)
In the future, the pursuit of high-quality economic development and a focus on ecological environmental protection in China will inevitably result in significant conflicts between land use and ecological land use. The challenge lies in achieving sustainable high-quality development while simultaneously protecting the ecological environment, optimizing the land use structure, and promoting a harmonious relationship between humans and the land. These challenges are faced by all regions. Land use conflicts primarily occur in peri-urban areas characterized by prominent economic development and urban agglomeration. Previous studies have mainly focused on analyzing the effects of land use on habitat quality during intense urbanization. However, it is important to recognize that land pressure encompasses economic, ecological, and social aspects. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the spatial conflict of land use and the impact on habitat quality in Ankang, a city that has been advocating ecological protection for the past two decades, this study aims to objectively analyze the spatial trends in land use changes in such cities. Additionally, it aims to provide insights for the harmonious development of land use in eco-region-oriented cities. Using the SSP-RCP scenarios provided by CMIP6, this paper employs a system analysis method, PLUS model, InVEST model, and land use conflict measurement model to dynamically simulate the future habitat quality and spatial conflict patterns of land use in Ankang City. The study explores the spatial coupling effect of both factors under different scenarios. The results indicate the following:(1) Under different future shared socio-economic path scenarios, land use intensity and land conflict levels follow the order of SSP585 (high forcing scenario), SSP370 (medium to high forcing scenario), SSP245 (medium forcing scenario), and SSP126 (low forcing scenario), with intensity and conflict decreasing accordingly. (2) The overall development trend in Ankang City reveals an intensification of land use conflicts and a decrease in habitat quality. The expansion rate of construction land is increasing and exhibiting aggregation, while agricultural land area is expanding and forest land area is continuously decreasing. (3) Land use intensity exhibits a significant positive correlation with land conflict levels, while land conflict levels demonstrate a significant negative correlation with habitat quality. These findings suggest that land use has had some impact on the ecological environment, with indications of habitat degradation. Even in Ankang, where ecological development is highly valued, the city will gradually face conflicts between ecological protection and economic development in future scenarios. The study highlights that Ankang's future development space will be constrained within the context of environmental protection, leading to greater land use conflicts in urban and surrounding areas. Consequently, the quality of habitats will inevitably decline. Therefore, it is crucial to allocate sufficient space for economic development while simultaneously prioritizing ecological protection. This approach will ensure a healthy economic development trajectory and foster a harmonious relationship between humans and the land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Sustainability, Environmental Evaluation of Land use, Soil sealing soil take, land plus value recapture, transition matrix
Online: 4 November 2016 (17:24:32 CET)
Our work is regarding the analysis of land use changes, in the light of “saving soil” against the expansion due to unearned plus value of land: The loss of natural and agricultural surface in front of the expanding urban environment is a critical aspect of unsustainability of urban development, especially in the way it was carried out in the past decades. The measure of the physical transition of land use and characters from a more natural condition of land surface to a new artificial one, joint with a parallel analysis of the increase of land value due to such change is nowadays a major land-policy tool. The interplay of urban economics regulation with planning, reveals new key issues in urban governance and environmental preservation. In this paper it will be shown some experiment about the impact assessment of soil take, related with the seek of valorization of property inside the planning process. Our paper reports as well about the experimental activity carried out inside the MITO Lab of the Polytechnic of Bari, where reports about property values and environmental values have been produced, specially looking at the reality of the Apulia, a southern Italian Region, that is rich of farmlands and coastlines, often invaded by constructions with a severe loss of nature, landscape and ecosystems services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0194.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; urease; neuroinflammation; tau hyperphosphorylation; pro-inflammatory cytokines; object recognition test; elevated plus maze; SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells; BV-2 microglia
Online: 13 January 2022 (15:37:01 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes dementia and memory loss in the elderly. Deposits of beta-amyloid peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein are present in AD’s brain. A filtrate of Helicobacter pylori’s culture was previously found to induce hyperphosphorylation of tau in vivo, suggesting that bacterial exotoxins could permeate the blood brain barrier and directly induce tau’s phosphorylation. H. pylori, which infects ~60% of the world population and causes gastritis and gastric cancer, produces a pro-inflammatory urease (HPU). Here the neurotoxic potential of HPU was investigated in cultured cells and in rats. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed HPU (50-300 nM) produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and had an increased [Ca2+]i. HPU-treated BV-2 microglial cells produced ROS, cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, expressed Iba1 and showed reduced viability, consistent with a neurotoxic effect of HPU. Rats received daily i.p. HPU (5 µg) for 7 days. Hyperphosphorylation of tau at Thr205, Ser199 and Ser396 sites was seen in hippocampal homogenates of treated rats, with no alterations in total tau or GSK-3b levels. HPU was not detected in the brain homogenates. Behavioral tests were performed to assess cognitive impairments. Our findings support previous data suggesting an association between infection by H. pylori and tauopathies such as AD, possibly mediated by its urease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0349.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: decision support; multi-criteria decision analysis; multiple criteria pareto frontier methods; criterium decision plus; net weaver developer; SADfLOR; ecosystem management decision support system
Online: 24 May 2018 (10:35:18 CEST)
This study examines the potential of combining decision support approaches to identify optimal bundles of ecosystem services. A forested landscape, Zona de Intervenção Florestal of Paiva and Entre-Douro and Sousa (Portugal), is used to test and demonstrate this potential. The landscape extends over 14,000 ha, representing 1,976 stands. The property is fragmented into 376 holdings. The overall analysis was performed in three steps. First, we selected six alternative solutions (A to F) in a Pareto frontier generated by a multiple criteria method within a decision support system (SADfLOR) for subsequent analysis. Next, an aspatial strategic multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) analysis was performed with the Criterium DecisionPlus (CDP) component of another decision support system (EMDS) to assess the aggregate performance of solutions A to F for the entire forested landscape with respect to their utility for delivery of ecosystem services. For the CDP analysis, SADfLOR data inputs were grouped into two sets of primary criteria: Wood Harvested and Other Ecosystem Services. Finally, a spatial logic-based assessment of solutions A to F for individual stands of the study area was performed with the NetWeaver component of EMDS. The NetWeaver model was structurally and computationally equivalent to the CDP model, but the key NetWeaver metric is a measure of the strength of evidence that solutions for specific land stands were optimal for the unit. Solutions D and B performed best in the aspatial strategic MCDA analysis, and a composite of the maps generated by NetWeaver demonstrated the spatial basis for the performance of solutions D and B in individual land stands. We conclude with a discussion of how the combination of decision support approaches encapsulated in the two systems could be further automated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: autonomy; optimal; spacecraft; navigation guidance; attitude control; inertial sensors; star trackers; linear quadratic regulator; time-optimal control; optimal open loop; proportional plus derivative control; real-time optimal control; switched real-time optimal control
Online: 31 January 2022 (13:40:49 CET)
Autonomous navigation of spacecraft necessitates innovative technologies, methods, and algorithms, particularly when orbiting in proximity of other space objects. Optimization methods are useful for autonomous spacecraft navigation, guidance, and control, but their performance is hampered by noisy multi-sensor technologies and poorly modeled system equations, and real-time on-board utilization is generally computationally burdensome. Some proposed methods use noisy sensor data to learn the optimal guidance and control solutions real-time (online), where non-iterative instantiations are preferred to reduce computational burdens. This study aims to highlight efficacy and limitations of several common methods for optimizing guidance and control while proposing a few more, where all methods are applied to the full, nonlinear, coupled equations of motion including cross-products of motion from the transport theorem. Five disparate types of optimum guidance and control algorithms are presented and compared to a classical benchmark. Comparative analysis is based on tracking errors (both states and rates), fuel usage, and computational burden. Real-time optimalization with singular switching plus nonlinear transport theorem decoupling proves superior by matching open-loop solutions to the constrained optimization problem (in terms of state and rate errors and fuel usage), while robustness is validated in the utilization of mixed, noisy state and rate sensors and uniformly varying mass and mass moments of inertia. State tracking errors are reduced one-hundred ten percent. Rate tracking errors are reduced one-hundred thirteen percent. Control utilization (e.g., fuel) is reduced eighty four percent, while computational burden in reduced ten percent simultaneously.