ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0344.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: PAMP-triggered immunity; priming; transcriptomical analysis
Online: 21 December 2021 (14:06:42 CET)
The effects of ELICE16INDURES, a well-known plant conditioner developed by the Research Institute for Medicinal Plants and Herbs Ltd. Budakalasz, Hungary, were studied in a soybean population. The active ingredients of the compound have been selected to help elicit general immunity in plants without pathogenic damage, thereby roborizing the healthy plant population and preparing it for possible future biotic stressors. Here we have analyzed changes in the expression levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in the catalysis of metabolic pathways that induce and regulate PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) at two different time points and treatments. Twenty-three different enzymes were analyzed that catalyze different metabolic pathways, such as the biosyntheses of jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and phytoalexin biosynthesis and cellular detoxification processes. Bioinformatical softwares werw used to analyze the results. It has been found that some of the primary defense mechanisms (e.g., Mitogen-Activated-Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascade, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, flavonoid and phytoalexin biosynthesis, etc.) that intensify following the attack of pathogens can be activated without the intrusion of the actual pathogen by an immunochemical. Thus, we proved that plant resistance can be artificially conditioned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Real-Time Networks; Scheduling; Time-Triggered; SMT Solvers; Cyber-Physical Systems
Online: 8 May 2019 (11:53:33 CEST)
Future cyber-physical systems may extend over broad geographical areas, like cities or regions, thus requiring the deployment of large real-time networks. A strategy to guarantee predictable communication over such networks is to synthesize an offline time-triggered communication schedule. However, this synthesis problem is computationally hard (NP-complete), and existing approaches do not scale satisfactorily to the required network sizes. This article presents a segmented offline synthesis method which substantially reduces this limitation, being able to generate time-triggered schedules for large hybrid (wired and wireless) networks. We also present a series of algorithms and optimizations that increase the performance and compactness of the obtained schedules while solving some of the problems inherent to segmented approaches. We evaluate our approach on a set of realistic large-size multi-hop networks, significantly larger than those considered in the existing literature. The results show that our segmentation reduces the synthesis time up to two orders of magnitude.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0377.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: acute exacerbation; consolidation: GGO; HRCT; idiopathic; IPF; LDH; nintedanib; Pirfenidone; triggered
Online: 20 December 2018 (08:43:57 CET)
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. IPF is often seen in elderly men who smoke. Diagnosis of IPF requires integration of a detailed clinical history, specific physical examination, laboratory findings, pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest, and histopathology. IPF has a heterogeneous clinical course, from an asymptomatic stable state to progressive respiratory failure or acute exacerbation (AE). AE of IPF has several important differential diagnoses, such as heart failure and volume overload. The International working project proposed new criteria of AE of IPF in 2016 dividing it into triggered and idiopathic AE. On the basis of these criteria, physicians can detect AE of IPF more easily. The recent international IPF guideline emphasized the utility of chest HRCT. In addition, two anti-fibrotic agents have become available. We should attend not only to management of AE, but also to its prevention. The diagnostic process, laboratory findings, typical chest imaging, management and prognosis of AE are comprehensively reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: tumor blood vessel; Tumor Angiogenic Inhibition Triggered Necrosis (TAITN); CXCR4 antagonist; oral squamous cell carcinoma; hypoxia
Online: 28 June 2019 (15:18:43 CEST)
CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor crucial in tumor progression, although the angiogenic role of CXCR4 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been investigated. Here we show that CXCR4 is crucial for tumor angiogenesis thereby supports tumor survival in OSCC. Immunohistochemistry on human clinical specimens revealed that CXCR4 and a tumor vasculature marker CD34 were co-distributed in tumor vessels in human OSCC specimens. To ask the effects of CXCR4 inhibition, we treated the OSCC-xenografted mice with AMD3100, so-called plerixafor, an antagonist of CXCR4. Notably, we found a unique pathophysiological structure defined as Tumor Angiogenic Inhibition Triggered Necrosis (TAITN) induced by the CXCR4 antagonism. Treatment with AMD3100 increased necrotic area with the induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in the xenografted tumors, suggesting that AMD3100-induced TAITN was involved in hypoxia and ischemia. Taken together, we demonstrated that CXCR4 plays a crucial role in tumor angiogenesis required for OSCC progression, whereas TAITN induced by CXCR4 antagonism could be an effective anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategy in OSCC treatment.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: networked control systems; age-of-information; event-triggered sampling; scheduling architecture; resource constraint; asymptotic performance; estimation error
Online: 12 July 2020 (11:36:46 CEST)
In the design of multi-loop Networked Control Systems (NCSs) wherein each control system is characterized by heterogeneous dynamics and associated with certain set of timing specifications and constraints, appropriate metrics need to be employed for the synthesis of control and networking policies to efficiently respond to the requirements of each control loop. Majority of the design approaches for sampling, scheduling and control policies include either time-based or event-based metrics to perform pertinent actions in response to the changes of the parameters of interest. We specifically focus in this article on Age-of-Information (AoI) as a recently-developed time-based metric and threshold-based triggering function as a generic event-based metric. As the NCS model, we consider multiple heterogeneous stochastic linear control systems that close their feedback loops over a shared-resource communication network. We investigate the co-design across the NCS, and discuss the pros and cons with AoI and ET approaches in terms of asymptotic control performance measured by linear-quadratic Gaussian (LQG) cost functions. In particular, sampling and scheduling policies combining AoI and stochastic event-triggered metrics are proposed. It is argued that pure AoI functions that generate decision variables solely upon minimizing the average age irrespective of control systems dynamics may not be able to improve the overall NCS performance even compared with pure randomized policies. Our theoretical analyses are successfully validated through several simulation scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0188.v1
Subject: Keywords: reaction-diffusion Gilpin-Ayala competition model (RDGACM); Saddle Theorem; orthogonal decomposition of Sobolev space; the second eigenvalue of Laplacian operator; impulsive event-triggered mechanism
Online: 7 June 2021 (14:39:21 CEST)
In this paper, the author utilizes Saddle Theorem and variational methods to deduce existence of at least six stationary solutions for reaction-diffusion Gilpin-Ayala competition model (RDGACM). To obtain the global stabilization of the positive stationary solution of the RDGACM, the author designs a suitable impulsive event triggered mechanism (IETM) to derive the global exponential stability of the the positive stationary solution. It is worth mentioning that the new mechanism can exclude Zeno behavior and effectively reduce the cost of impulse control through event triggering mechanism. Besides, compared with existing literature, the restrictions on the parameters of the RDGACM are relaxed so that the methods used in existing literature can not be applied to the relaxed case of this paper, and so the author makes comprehensive use of Saddle Theorem, orthogonal decomposition of Sobolev space $H_0^1(\Omega)$ and variational methods to overcome the mathematical difficulty. Numerical examples show the effectiveness of the methods proposed in this paper.