ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0895.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Event Related Potentials; Epilepsy; P300; Anti-Seizure Medication
Online: 13 July 2023 (07:40:09 CEST)
Background: Epileptic patients frequently encounter cognitive impairment. Functions that are mostly affected involve memory, attention and executive function; however this is mainly dependant on the location of the epileptic activity. The aim of the study is to assess cognitive functions in MRI-negative epilepsy patients by means of neurophysiological and neuropsychological measures. Methods: The patients were enrolled from the outpatient Epilepsy/Clinical Neurophysiology clinic over a time period of 6 months. The study sample comprised 20 MRI negative epilepsy patients [mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 30.3 ± 12.56 years; age range 16-60 years; average disease duration, 13.95 years) and 10 age-matched controls (mean age ± SD, 24.22 ± 15.39 years), that were also education-matched (p>0.05) Patients with epileptogenic lesions were excluded from the study. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects involved in the study. Auditory ERPs and the cognitive screening tool EpiTrack, were administered to all subjects. Results: Latencies of P300 and slow waves were prolonged in patients compared to controls (p<0.05). ASM load and the patients’ performance in the EpiTrack maze subtest were the most significant predictors of P300 latency. A decline in memory, attention, and speed of information processing has been observed in patients with cryptogenic epilepsy compared to age-matched controls, as reflected by P300 latency and EpiTrack scores.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1911.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: competitive video game; aggression; event-related potential; P300
Online: 26 May 2023 (10:04:06 CEST)
Previous research on video game player aggression has focused on violent content, while recent studies have examined competitive factors. Few research has examined the solely impacts of competitive factors in video games without violent content on aggression, and it is still unknown what neurological processes of these effects. The present study is the first to examine the the electrophysiological characteristics of short-term competitive video game exposure and aggression. Thirty-five participants played a video game in either competitive or solo mode for 15 minutes, followed by an ERP experiment based on the Oddball paradigm and the hot sauce paradigm to measure aggressive behavior. Results showed that playing competitive game mode was associated with faster judgment to aggressive words, larger P300 amplitudes, and selection of more chili powder. The P300 amplitude partially mediated the relationship between competitive game exposure and aggressive behavior. These findings support the general aggression model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0473.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: inhibitory control; executive function; event-related potentials; electroencephalography; N200; P300; cognitive aging; neural recruitment
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:18:16 CEST)
Aging is accompanied by frontal lobe and non-dominant hemisphere recruitment that supports executive functioning, such as inhibitory control, which is crucial to all cognitive functions. Yet, the spatio-temporal sequence of processing underlying successful inhibition and how it changes with age is understudied. Thus, we assessed N200 (conflict monitoring) and P300 (response inhibition, performance evaluation) event-related potentials (ERPs) in young and healthy older adults during comparably performed successful stop-signal inhibition. We additionally interrogated the continuous spatio-temporal dynamics of N200- and P300-related activation within each group. Young adults had left hemisphere dominant N200, while older adults had overall larger amplitudes and right hemisphere dominance. N200 activation was biphasic in both groups but differed in scalp topography. P300 also differed, with larger right amplitudes in young, but bilateral amplitudes in old, with old larger than young in the left hemisphere. P300 was characterized by an early parieto-occipital peak in both groups, followed by a parietal slow wave only in older adults. A temporally similar but topographically different final wave followed in both groups that showed anterior recruitment in older adults. These findings illuminate differential age-related spatio-temporal recruitment patterns for conflict monitoring and response inhibition that are critically important for understanding age-related compensatory activation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0222.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: event-related potentials; visual evoked potentials; component P300; brain-computer interface; speller; oddball paradigm; categorization of images.
Online: 9 December 2020 (11:56:41 CET)
The objective of this study was aimed to study the sensory processes of the “human-computer interaction” model when classifying visual images with an incomplete set of signs based on the analysis of early, middle, late and slow components of event-related potentials (ERPs). 26 healthy subjects (men) aged 20-22 years were investigated. ERPs in 19 monopolar sites according to the 10/20 system were recorded. Discriminant and factor analysis were applied. The component N450 is the most specialized indicator of the perception of unrecognizable (oddball) visual images. The amplitude of the ultra-late components N750 and N900 is also higher under conditions of presentation of the oddball image, regardless of the location of the registration points. The results of the study are discussed in the light of the paradigm of the P300 wave application in brain-computer interface systems, as well as with the peculiarities in brain pathology. Promising directions for the development of studies of the “Brain Computer Interface” (BCI) P300 systems are to increase the throughput of information flows. To extend the application of the P300 ERPs to multiple modalities, the underlying physiological mechanisms and responses of the brain for a particular sensory system and mental function must be carefully examined.