ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0473.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: inhibitory control; executive function; event-related potentials; electroencephalography; N200; P300; cognitive aging; neural recruitment
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:18:16 CEST)
Aging is accompanied by frontal lobe and non-dominant hemisphere recruitment that supports executive functioning, such as inhibitory control, which is crucial to all cognitive functions. Yet, the spatio-temporal sequence of processing underlying successful inhibition and how it changes with age is understudied. Thus, we assessed N200 (conflict monitoring) and P300 (response inhibition, performance evaluation) event-related potentials (ERPs) in young and healthy older adults during comparably performed successful stop-signal inhibition. We additionally interrogated the continuous spatio-temporal dynamics of N200- and P300-related activation within each group. Young adults had left hemisphere dominant N200, while older adults had overall larger amplitudes and right hemisphere dominance. N200 activation was biphasic in both groups but differed in scalp topography. P300 also differed, with larger right amplitudes in young, but bilateral amplitudes in old, with old larger than young in the left hemisphere. P300 was characterized by an early parieto-occipital peak in both groups, followed by a parietal slow wave only in older adults. A temporally similar but topographically different final wave followed in both groups that showed anterior recruitment in older adults. These findings illuminate differential age-related spatio-temporal recruitment patterns for conflict monitoring and response inhibition that are critically important for understanding age-related compensatory activation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0222.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: event-related potentials; visual evoked potentials; component P300; brain-computer interface; speller; oddball paradigm; categorization of images.
Online: 9 December 2020 (11:56:41 CET)
The objective of this study was aimed to study the sensory processes of the “human-computer interaction” model when classifying visual images with an incomplete set of signs based on the analysis of early, middle, late and slow components of event-related potentials (ERPs). 26 healthy subjects (men) aged 20-22 years were investigated. ERPs in 19 monopolar sites according to the 10/20 system were recorded. Discriminant and factor analysis were applied. The component N450 is the most specialized indicator of the perception of unrecognizable (oddball) visual images. The amplitude of the ultra-late components N750 and N900 is also higher under conditions of presentation of the oddball image, regardless of the location of the registration points. The results of the study are discussed in the light of the paradigm of the P300 wave application in brain-computer interface systems, as well as with the peculiarities in brain pathology. Promising directions for the development of studies of the “Brain Computer Interface” (BCI) P300 systems are to increase the throughput of information flows. To extend the application of the P300 ERPs to multiple modalities, the underlying physiological mechanisms and responses of the brain for a particular sensory system and mental function must be carefully examined.