ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0104.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: quantitative metagenomics; microbiome; obesity; gut microbiota; microbial DNA extraction; sequencing; Simulation; Oxford Nanopore Technologies; MinION
Online: 4 August 2021 (09:44:24 CEST)
Background: The gut microbiome plays a major role in chronic diseases, of which several are characterized by an altered composition and diversity of bacterial communities. Large-scale sequencing projects allowed characterizing the perturbations of these communities. However, translating these discoveries into clinical applications remains a challenges. To facilitate routine implementation of microbiome profiling in clinical settings, portable, real-time, and low-cost sequencing technologies are needed. Results: Here, we propose a computational and experimental protocol for whole genome quantitative metagenomics studies of human gut microbiome with Oxford Nanopore sequencing technology (ONT) that could be applied to other microbial ecosystems. We developed a bioinformatic protocol to analyse ONT sequences taxonomically and functionally and optimized pre-analytic protocols including stool collection and DNA extraction methods to maximize read length. This is a critical parameter for the sequence alignment and classification. Our protocol was evaluated using simulations of metagenomic communities which reflect naturally occuring compositional variations. Next, we validated both protocols using stool samples from a bariatric surgery cohort, sequenced with ONT, Illumina and SOLiD technologies. Results revealed similar diversity and microbial composition profiles. Conclusion: This protocol can be implemented in the clinical or research setting, bringing rapid personalized whole genome profiling of target microbiome species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0687.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: gross chromosomal rearrangements; non-homologous end joining; translocation; Illumina MiSeq; Oxford Nanopore; kluyveromyces marxianus; saccharomyces cerevisiae; URA3 gene
Online: 31 August 2020 (02:54:09 CEST)
Kluyveromyces marxianus (K. marxianus) is a newly emerging industrially relevant yeast. It is known to possess a highly efficient Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) pathway that promotes random integration of non-homologous DNA fragments into its genome. The nature of the integration events was traditionally analyzed by Southern blot hybridization. However, the precise DNA sequence at the insertion sites were not fully explored. We transformed a PCR product of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae URA3 gene (ScURA3) into an uracil auxotroph K. marxianus wildtype strain and picked 24 stable Ura+ transformants for sequencing analysis. We took advantage of rapid advances in DNA sequencing technologies and developed a method using a combination of Illumina MiSeq and Oxford Nanopore sequencing. This approach enables us to uncover the Gross Chromosomal Rearrangements (GCRs) that are associated with the ScURA3 random integration. Moreover, it will shine a light on understanding DNA repair mechanisms in Eukaryotes, which could potentially provide insights for cancer research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0191.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: bacterial genomics; de novo assembly; Oxford Nanopore Technologies; Snakemake
Online: 10 August 2022 (04:37:01 CEST)
With the advancement of long-read sequencing technologies and their more widespread use for bacterial genomics, several methods for generating genome assemblies from error-prone long reads have been developed. These are complemented by various tools for assembly polishing using either long reads, short reads, or reference genomes. End users are therefore left with a plethora of possible combinations of programs for obtaining a final trusted assembly. Hence, there is also the need for measuring completeness and accuracy of such assemblies, for which, again, several evaluation methods implemented in various programs are available. In order to automatically run all these programs, I developed two workflows for the workflow management system Snakemake for bacterial genome assembly and evaluation of assemblies, which provide end users with an easy-to-run method for both tasks. The workflows are available as open source software under the MIT license at https://github.com/pmenzel/ont-assembly-snake and https://github.com/pmenzel/score-assemblies.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0300.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: DNA adducts; nanopore; Oxford Nanopore Technology; mass spectrometry; adductomics; exposome
Online: 20 December 2021 (09:53:53 CET)
Abstract: Formation of DNA adducts is a key event for a genotoxic mode of action and its formation is often use as surrogate for mutation and cancer. Interest in DNA adducts are twofold, first, to demonstrate exposure, and second, to link DNA adduct location to subsequent mutations or altered gene regulation. High chemically specific mass spectrometry methods have been established for DNA adduct quantitation and elegant bio-analytic methods utilizing enzymes, various chemistries, and molecular biology methods to visualize the location of DNA adducts. Traditionally, these highly specific methods cannot be combined, and the results are incomparable. Initially developed for single-molecule DNA sequencing, nanopore-type technologies are expected to enable simultaneous quantitation and location of DNA adducts across the genome. We will briefly summarize the current methodologies for state-of-the-art quantitation of DNA adduct levels and mapping of DNA adducts and describe novel single-molecule DNA sequencing technology that is expected to achieve both measures simultaneously. Emerging technologies are expected to soon provide a comprehensive picture of the exposome and identify gene regions susceptible to DNA adduct formation.