REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0021.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ncRNAs; ovarian cancer; chemoresistance
Online: 4 October 2017 (11:59:09 CEST)
With the advancement of next generation sequencing in past several years, a rising number of non-coding RNAs have been found as new actors to regulate gene expression. Non-coding RNAs not only play important roles in carcinogenesis, but also affect the clinical treatment strategies. They have been proved to be deeply correlated with chemoresistance in several cancers. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in gynecological malignancy, with low 5-year survival rate. Most patients are identified when they have late-stage disease. This review mainly makes a compilation of the most relevant research literature in this field with the purpose of shedding light on the relation between ncRNAs and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: S100A10; annexin A2; plasmin; ovarian cancer; chemotherapy resistance
Online: 15 October 2018 (14:02:03 CEST)
S100A10, which is also known as p11 is located in the plasma membrane and forms a heterotetramer with annexin A2. The heterotetramer, comprising of 2 subunits of annexin A2 and S100A10, activates the plasminogen activation pathway which is involved in cellular repair of normal tissues. Increased expression of annexin A2 and S100A10 in cancer cells leads to increased levels of plasmin which promote degradation of the extracellular matrix, increased angiogenesis and invasion of the surrounding organs. Although many studies have investigated the functional role of annexin A2 in cancer cells including ovarian cancer, S100A10 has been less studied. We recently demonstrated that high stromal annexin A2 and high cytoplasmic S100A10 expression is associated with a 3.4 fold increased risk of progression and 7.9 fold risk of death in ovarian cancer patients. Other studies have linked S100A10 with multidrug resistance in ovarian cancer, however, no functional studies to date have been performed in ovarian cancer cells. This article reviews the current understanding on S100A10 function in cancer with a particular focus on ovarian cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0967.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Ovarian cancer; HE4; oncogenesis; target therapy
Online: 15 May 2023 (03:19:07 CEST)
Currently, ovarian cancer (OC) is a target of intense biomarkers research because of its frequent late diagnosis and poor prognosis. Serum determination of Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a very important early detection test. Most interestingly, HE4 plays a unique role in OC as it has been implicated not only in OC diagnosis but also in the prognosis and recurrence of this lethal neoplasm, actually acting as a clinical biomarker. There are several evidence about the predictive power of HE4 clinically, conversely less has been described concerning its role in OC oncogenesis. Based on these considerations, the main goal of this review is to clarify the role of HE4 in OC proliferation, angiogenesis, metastatization, immune response and also in the development of targeted therapy. Through a deeper understanding of its functions as a key molecule in the oncogenetic processes underlying OC, HE4 could be possibly considered as an essential resource not only for diagnosis but also for prognosis and therapy choice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0567.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: hyperthermia; ovarian cancer; immunity; chemotherapy; HIPEC
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:41:11 CET)
Epithelial ovarian cancer is an aggressive disease of the female reproductive system and a leading cause of cancer death in women. Standard of care includes surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy yet patients continue to experience a high rate of recurrence and metastasis. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) treatment in highly selective patients extends overall survival by nearly 12 months. The clinical studies are highly supportive of the use of HIPEC in the treatment of ovarian cancer though the therapeutic approach is limited to academic medical centers. The mechanism underlying HIPEC benefit remains unknown. The efficacy of HIPEC therapy is impacted by several procedural and patient/tumor factors including the timing of surgery, platinum sensitivity, and molecular profiling such as homologous recombination deficiency. The present review aims to provide insight into the mechanistic benefit of HIPEC treatment with a focus on how hyperthermia activates the immune response, induces DNA damage and impairs DNA damage repair pathways, and has a synergistic effect with chemotherapy, with the ultimate outcome of increasing chemosensitivity. Identifying the points of fragility unmasked by HIPEC may provide the key pathways that could be the basis of new therapeutic strategies for ovarian cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2054.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: CDK1; RO-3306; ovarian cancer; apoptosis; invasion; prognosis
Online: 28 June 2023 (16:02:31 CEST)
Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecological malignancy of the reproductive organs in the United States. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) is an important cell cycle regulatory protein that spe-cifically controls the G2/M phase transition of the cell cycle. RO-3306 is a selective, ATP-competitive, and cell-permeable CDK1 inhibitor that shows potent anti-tumor activity in multiple pre-clinical models. In this study, we investigated the effect of CDK1 expression on the prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer and the anti-tumorigenic effect of RO-3306 in both ovarian cancer cell lines and a genetically engineered mouse model of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (KpB model). In 147 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, overexpression of CDK1 was significantly associated with poor prognosis, compared with a low expression group. RO-3306 significantly inhibited cellular proliferation, induced apoptosis, caused cellular stress, and reduced cell migration. Treatment of KpB mice with RO-3306 for four weeks showed a significant decrease in tumor weight under obese and lean conditions without obvious side effects. Overall, our results demonstrate that inhibition of CDK1 activity by RO-3306 effectively reduces cell proliferation and tumor growth, providing biological evidence for future clinical trials of CDK1 inhibitors in ovarian cancer
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2103.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Ovarian; Molecular; Genetics; Pathways; Diagnosis; Screening; Panel
Online: 29 September 2023 (12:00:47 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to highlight the new advancements in molecular and diagnostic genetic testing as well as properly classify all ovarian cancers. In this article we address statistics, histopathological classification, molecular pathways implicated in ovarian cancer, genetic screening panels and details about the genes, and also candidate genes. We hope to bring new information in the medical field as to better prevent and diagnose ovarian cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer; diagnostic; prognostic; predictive biomarker; lipidomics
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:50:01 CEST)
Lipidomics provides comprehensive study of all lipid components in cells, serum, plasma or tissues of organisms, aiming to the discovery of diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers of diseases such as malignancies. This systematic review evaluates studies, where lipidomics applies to the diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of ovarian cancer (OC) and the discrimination between malignant and benign ovarian masses. Literature search was conducted in PubMed, Science Direct and SciFinder. Only publications written in English language after 2012 were included. From the reference lists of primary included studies, relevant citations were identified and were also added in our list. All studies included referred to the application of lipidomics in serum/plasma samples of human cases with OC, whereby few of them included also tumor tissue samples. In some of the included studies metabolomic analysis was also involved where other metabolites besides lipids were identified. Qualitative data were assessed and risk of bias was determined using the ROBINS-I tool. In total, 29 studies were included, 15 of which applied non-targeted, 7 targeted lipidomics and 7 were reviews relevant to our aim. Most studies concerned the possible application of lipidomics in OC diagnosis, exhibiting phospholipids and sphingolipids as the most significantly altered during development of the disease. In conclusion, this systematic review highlights the potential contribution of lipids as biomarkers in OC management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1471.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer; circulating tumor dna; biomarker
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:26:39 CET)
There is no routine approach to identify patients with gynecologic malignancies at high risk for chemotherapy-resistance. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) tumor fraction (TFx) represents a minimally-invasive approach to tumor profiling, with as yet limited data on utility in gynecologic malignancies. The objective was to investigate the use of ctDNA TFx in a cohort of patients with ovarian and endometrial cancer. Plasma samples from patients with biopsy-proven ovarian or endometrial cancer collected between 4/2018 and 4/2020 were subjected to shallow whole genome sequencing with determination of TFx via ichorCNA package. The association of TFx to continuous and categorical baseline clinicopathologic factors and progression-free survival was assessed. 210 plasma samples from 78 patients with gynecologic cancers were analyzed. Mean TFx for ovarian cancer was 5.5% and endometrial cancer 2.4% and there was no significant difference in TFx among histology either for endometrial or ovarian cancers. Grade was associated with significant difference in ‘sentinel’ TFx among ovarian cancers but not endometrial cancers. ctDNA TFx dynamics over time demonstrated rapid clearance of ctDNA in most patients with ovarian cancer, while endometrial cancer had consistently low TFx. ctDNA TFx is feasible in ovarian and endometrial cancers and may be a valuable important tool for prognostication.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0519.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer; machine learning; germ line; genetic risk scores
Online: 28 January 2023 (06:58:55 CET)
Ovarian cancers are curable by surgical resection when discovered early enough. Unfortunately, most ovarian cancers are diagnosed in the later stages. One strategy to identify early ovarian tumors is to screen women who have the highest risk scores. This mini review summarizes the accuracy of different methods used to assess the risk of developing ovarian cancer, including family history, BRCA genetic tests, and polygenic risk scores. The accuracy of these is compared to the maximum theoretical accuracy, revealing a substantial gap. We suggest that this gap, or missing heritability, could be caused by epistatic interactions between genes. An alternative approach to computing genetic risk scores, using chromosomal-scale length variation should incorporate epistatic interactions. Future research in this area should focus on this and other alternative methods of characterizing genomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0346.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: pyroptosis; ovarian cancer; prognosic; immune microenvironment; signature
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:19:53 CET)
Background: LncRNA and pyroptosis play important roles in cancer development and tumor immune microenviroment. However, pyroptosis-related lncRNAs (PRLs) in ovarian cancer have not been identified and its impact on prognosis and immune response are not fully understood. Methods: Using pearson correlation analysis, PRLs were screened. Subsequently, we constructed a prognosis signature by using LASSO cox regression. In addition, the association between risk score and cancer immune environment was analyzed. Results: In TCGA-RNA-seq cohort (n=377), 32 prognostic PRLs were selected and a 7-gene signature were developed and had high accuracy in predicting the OS of ovarian cancer patients. Stratification analysis suggested that it might serve as an independent prognostic indicator. Except to clinical outcome, the signature was significantly associated with tumor immune microenvironment. Patients with high risk score exhibited lower infiltration abundance of MHC class Ⅰ cells, Type Ⅰ IFN response and immunotherapy response. In ovarian cancer, TYMSOS was highly expressed and its high expression was associated with worse OS. TYMSOS deletion in ovarian cancer cell lines inhibited the cell proliferation, invasion and migration, indicating that it might serve as a novel biomarker in ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The prognostic PRLs signature constructed in this work is available for prognostic prediction and immune microenvironment infiltration in ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ovarian cancer; platinum resistance; prognostic factors
Online: 17 May 2021 (14:36:50 CEST)
Ovarian cancer (OC) represents the most common and lethal gynecologic malignancy, due to its increased incidence and mortality rate. It is usually diagnosed in advanced stages and, even though surgery and platinum-based treatment are initially efficient, recurrences emerge in over 70% of cases. Although there are multiple options of chemotherapy drugs from which to choose, little is known regarding the best strategy for prolonged survival. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect that most frequently used chemotherapeutic regimens have upon time-to-treatment-failure (TTF) from the first line and beyond, considering clinical and biological factors which influence the treatment outcome of platinum-resistant recurrent OC. We retrospectively analyzed data from 78 patients diagnosed with platinum-resistant OC, who underwent chemotherapy-based treatment with or without anti-angiogenic therapy at OncoHelp Oncology Center, Romania (January 2016 - February 2021). Our study identified positive predictive factors for TTF related to anthropometry (age over 60 for patients treated with topotecan with or without bevacizumab), renal function (creatinine levels between 0.65 and 1 mg/dl for patients treated with regimens containing bevacizumab and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin) and treatment choice (bevacizumab in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin or topotecan used from the first line and beyond).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0413.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: ovarian cancer; machine learning; SHAP; diagnostic biomarkers; platinum resistance
Online: 6 May 2023 (10:24:22 CEST)
The identification of biomarkers is crucial for cancer diagnosis, understanding the underlying biological mechanisms, and developing targeted therapies. In this study we propose a machine learning approach to predict the outcome and platinum resistance status of ovarian cancer patients using public available gene expression data. Six classical machine learning algorithms are compared on their predictive performance. Those with the highest score are analyzed by their feature importance using the SHAP algorithm. We were able to select multiple genes that were correlating with the outcome and platinum resistance status of the patients and validated those using Kaplan-Meier plots. In comparison to similar approaches the performance of the models were higher and different genes using feature importance analysis were identified. The most promising identified genes that could be used as biomarkers are: TMEFF2, ACSM3, SLC4A1 and ALDH4A1.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0262.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ovarian cancer; cancer stem cells; signaling, chemoresistance, metastasis
Online: 15 June 2018 (15:14:22 CEST)
Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Poor overall survival, particularly for patients with high grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer, are often attributed to late stage at diagnosis and relapse following chemotherapy. HGS ovarian cancer is a heterogenous disease in that few genes are consistently mutated between patients. Additionally, HGS ovarian cancer is characterized by high genomic instability. For these reasons personalized approaches may be necessary for effective treatment and cure. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that contribute to tumor metastasis and chemoresistance are essential to improve survival rates. One favored model for tumor metastasis and chemoresistance is the cancer stem cell (CSC) model. CSCs are cells with enhanced self-renewal properties that are enriched following chemotherapy. Elimination of this cell population is thought to be a mechanism to increase therapeutic response. Therefore, accurate identification of stem cell populations that are most clinically relevant is necessary. While many CSC identifiers (ALDH, OCT4, CD133, and side population) have been established, it is still not clear which population(s) will be most beneficial to targeted in patients. Therefore, there is a critical need to characterize CSCs with reliable markers and find their weaknesses that will make the CSCs amenable to therapy. Many signaling pathways are implicated for their roles in CSC initiation and maintenance. Therapeutically targeting pathways needed for CSC initiation or maintenance may be an effective way of treating HGS ovarian cancer patients. In conclusion, the prognosis for HGS ovarian cancer may be improved by combining CSC phenotyping with targeted therapies for pathways involved in CSC maintenance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1680.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: ovarian cancer; gynecologic oncology; gynecologic surgery; debulking surgery; PDS; laparoscopy
Online: 26 October 2023 (10:12:52 CEST)
Ovarian cancer affects thousands of women every year and represents the female cancer with the highest mortality rate. Surgery is currently the cornerstone of the treatment of this disease and several methods have been analyzed and developed to predict the possibility of obtaining a residual tumor of 0 (RT=0). The aim of this review is to analyze the data available in the literature about minimally invasive surgical methods to predict the optimal cytoreduction of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer undergoing primary debulking surgery (PDS). A review of the literature has been performed on the available data about the criteria of cytoreducibility during PDS for the surgical treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. The assessment of the extent of intra and extrabdominal pathology is essential to guide the surgeon in the most appropriate therapeutic choice for patients with ovarian cancer, so radiological methods (MRI, PET-scan and CT), surgical (mini-laparotomy, laparoscopy) and serological (CA-125, HE4) can provide a huge help for tailoring the therapeutic approach of these patients.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ondansetron; ovarian cancer; Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
Online: 2 July 2021 (13:06:09 CEST)
1) Background. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe mucocutaneous reactions, characterized by extensive necrosis and detachment of the epidermis. 2) Case presentation. We present a case of a 46-year-old patient with late-stage high-grade serous ovarian cancer who was primarily treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval debulking which was followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. At first recurrence, she was again treated with chemotherapy and due to severe abdominal pain, an elastomeric pump containing analgesics, anti-inflammatories and ondansetron was administered. In the same month, she was admitted to the hospital due to severe dysphagia and in the following days, she developed haemorrhagic vesiculobullous lesions on facial skin and trunk. Stevens-Johnson syndrome was confirmed and ondansetron as a leading cause was discontinued. Despite multimodal treatment, her condition deteriorated, and she died. 3) Discussion and conclusion. Although gynaecologists rarely encounter Stevens-Johnson syndrome, high mortality of the disease should ensure a low threshold for diagnosing and treating this disease.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: PARP inhibitor; angiogenesis; immune suppression; recurrent ovarian cancer
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:02:09 CEST)
In the post-PARP inhibitor era, potential changes in tumor biology after maintenance therapy have not been well investigated in recurrent ovarian cancer. We reported a case with alterations in the clinical and histological features of multiple relapsed disease associated with PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy. The patient with high-grade serous carcinoma exhibited BRCA wildtype and homologous recombination proficiency status, and suffered from three recurrences and surgeries accordingly. Olaparib maintenance had been used during the second-line therapy. We compared the differences in clinics and pathology among three recurrences and relapsed lesions. Disease-free survivals were dramatically decreased after the exposure to olaparib. At exploration of quaternary cytoreduction, the relapsed tumor was characterized by a carcinomatosis-like metastasis pattern and an easy tendency of bleeding. Tumor cytopathological changes and alterations were observed in both the tumoral and non-tumoral stroma, among relapsed tumor tissues derived from secondary, tertiary and quaternary cytoreduction. Histopathology indicated hemorrhage, necrosis, atypical tumor cells, massive angiogenesis, and decreased CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, particularly in the third relapsed disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show a unique metastatic pattern of angiogenic burst after PARP inhibitor maintenance therapy in ovarian cancer, which seemed to trigger invasive tumor growth and immune suppression. Further prospective studies and translational research focusing cytoreductive surgery after PARP inhibitor could progressively lead to an understanding of the biological behavior and metastatic patterns.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Ovarian Cancer; Epidemiology; Risk Factors; Screening; Diagnosis, Mortality; Incidence
Online: 28 October 2021 (11:41:05 CEST)
Abstract – Objective: Ovarian cancer, although not possessing a high incidence, is still the most common cancer-related deaths among women diagnosed with a gynecologic malignancy. The present study aims to highlight the epidemiology, risk factors of this disease and the significance of development of improved early detection strategies. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using current published English studies by searching PubMed and Google Scholar. The search strategy included the keywords “ovarian cancer”, “diagnosis”, “risk factors”, “screening”, “epidemiology”. Studies on incidence and mortality were also considered. Case reports were excluded.Results: The highest incidence and mortality rates are observed in Central and Eastern Europe, while rates are relatively low in Asia and Africa. These rates are highest among the white population (14.3 per 100,000) and lowest among blacks (10 per 100,000) and Asians (9.7 per 100,000). The risk factors for this disease includes a family history, hormonal factors, nutrition and diet and physical activity, with some of them playing protective roles in reducing risk of ovarian cancers. There are no reliable screening methods for ovarian cancers. The most common diagnosis methods include a transvaginal ultrasound and a blood test to detect CA125 markers.Conclusions: The mortality rate of ovarian cancer is gradually increasing; thus, preventative measures are required to reduce lifetime risk of ovarian cancers and improve mortality rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ovarian cancer; ALDH1A1; cancer stem cells; senescence; chemotherapy resistance
Online: 2 May 2022 (09:39:22 CEST)
Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease attributed to late-stage detection as well as recurrence and development of chemoresistance. Ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs) are hypothesized to be largely responsible for emergence of chemoresistant tumors. Although chemotherapy may initially succeed at decreasing the size and number of tumors, it leaves behind residual malignant OCSCs. In this study, we demonstrate that Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is essential for the survival of OCSCs. We identified a novel ALDH1A1 inhibitor, compound 974, and used 974 as a tool to decipher the mechanism of stemness regulation by ALDH1A1. Treatment of OCSCs with 974 significantly inhibited ALDH activity, expression of stemness genes, spheroid, and colony formation. In vivo limiting dilution assay demonstrated that 974 significantly inhibited CSC frequency. Transcriptomic sequencing of cells treated with 974 revealed significant downregulation of genes related to stemness and chemoresistance as well as senescence and senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP). We confirmed that 974 inhibited senescence and stemness induced by platinum-based chemotherapy in functional assays. Overall, these data establish that ALDH1A1 is essential for OCSCs survival and ALDH1A1 inhibition sup-presses chemotherapy induced senescence and stemness. Targeting ALDH1A1 using small molecule inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy therefore presents a promising strategy to pre-vent ovarian cancer recurrence and has potential for clinical translation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0251.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer; BMI; obesity; overweight; normal weight; statistical significance
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:57:58 CET)
A significant number of research studies have focused on determining whether BMI influences various types of cancer. The findings of these studies showed that people have to manage their BMIs to decrease their risk of developing various types of cancer, one of which is ovarian cancer. A PRISMA guideline for systematic review and meta-analysis was used to identify 20 research studies related to the topic to establish the truth or falsity of the findings. Later, their findings were synthesized. The synthesis of the findings of such research articles suggests that overweight and obesity increase an individual’s risk of developing ovarian cancer and experiencing severe symptoms of the disease. In such a manner, the current research study can conclude that effective management of BMI is necessary for decreasing the prevalence and mortality rates associated with ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0476.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Ovarian cancer; mapping-based; mapping-free; SNVs; survival prognosis
Online: 18 December 2020 (15:15:50 CET)
Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of deaths in gynecologic malignancies. Many possible mechanisms have been proposed via RNAseq and DNAseq technique recently. However, the driving factors are still obscure. The possible reasons are attributed to the incomplete human reference. This study integrated the canonical mapping-based and mapping-free protocols to extract reliable variations and novel events. We eventually obtained 450 reliable SNVs from the WES data and novel events from the RNAseq data, including 154 SNVs, 462 intron events, two repeats and six splice events. We identified six differentially expressed genes and six contigs that are significantly related to survival prognosis. The recurrent SNVs in significantly differentially expressed genes can be validated in an independent cohort of 20 Chinese ovarian cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0946.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SOX11; epithelial-mesenchymal; transition; E-cadherin; vimentin; ovarian; cancer; metastasis; survival
Online: 14 August 2023 (05:34:42 CEST)
Background: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancies with serous carcinoma being the most common histopathologic subtype. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) correlates with an increased metastatic potential, whereas the transcription factor SOX11 is overexpressed in diverse malignancies. Methods: In the present study, we aim to evaluate the potential role of the immunohistochemical expression of SOX11 in 30 serous ovarian carcinomas in association with E-cadherin and Vimentin expression as well as with patients’ clinicopathological data. Results: Most of the examined cases showed concurrent expression of E-cadherin and Vimentin, whereas SOX11 was expressed in a minority of the cases (26,7%). Interestingly, the positive cases had more frequently a metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis compared to the negative cases (p=0.09), an association, however, of marginal significance. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between E-Cadherin and SOX11 expression (p=0,0077) and a positive correlation between Vimentin and SOX11 expression (p=0,0130). Conclusions: The present work, for the first time, provides preliminary evidence SOX11 overexpression alongside E-cadherin loss in the promotion of EMT in serous ovarian cancer, thereby endorsing tumor metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1527.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Other Keywords: high grade serous ovarian cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; prognostic index
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:31:01 CEST)
Background: A prognostic index validated for the outcomes of advanced high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is still lacking. We therefore developed an ovarian neoadjuvant chemotherapy prognostic index (ONCPI) to enhance predictive accuracy. Methods: We analyzed clinicopathologic feature of advanced HGSOC patients receiving platinum-based NACT. Blood inflammatory composite markers were calculated and binary-transformed by optimal cutoffs. The omental hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides were selected for the assessment of chemotherapy response score (CRS). Logistic regression analyses and Cox proportional hazard regression model were utilized to develop a prognostic index. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that CRS and neutrophils-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) are independent risk factors for platinum-chemotherapy response. Meanwhile, Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression analysis revealed that CRS score was significantly correlated with PFS and OS, and NLR-high patients was associated with poor OS. We further developed an ONCPI model based on the CRS score and NLR level. Survival analysis suggested that patients with score 0 and 1 of ONCPI were significantly associated with improved PFS and OS. Conclusions: The ONCPI score emerges as a significant prognostic marker for predicting NACT outcomes in advanced HGSOC patients. Its integration into clinical practice and risk-stratified trial design is conceivable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0559.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Nori; human ovarian tetracarcinoma (PA1); Tatridin B; NSD2 inhibitor
Online: 29 December 2022 (09:57:46 CET)
Marine seaweeds are nature’s largesse resource in human well-being. Seaweed’s contribution to the food industry is being widened for its rich source of essential vitamins, minerals, and PUFA. ‘Nori’ is a dried sheet of red seaweed Porphyra sp. used to make ‘sushi’ a renowned cuisine in Japan, and other Southeast Asian countries. In this present study, commercial-grade ‘Nori’ was extracted and fractionated with different solvents, and subjected to evaluate the cytotoxic activity on human ovarian tetracarcinoma cells (PA1). As a result, the ethyl acetate fraction was found effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells with an IC50 value of 41.1 µg/mL. The main component responsible for anticancer activity was determined as a sesquiterpene lactone Tatridin B (3h-cyclodeca[b]furan-2-one, 4,9-dihydroxy-6-methyl-3,10-dimethylene-). Moreover, it was found effective in inhibiting NSD2, an important and recently proposed biomarker for several types of cancer. This is a hitherto report on the presence of this compound in ‘Nori’ showing potent anticancer activity on human ovarian tetracarcinoma (PA1).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: BRCA; breast cancer ovarian cancer; screening prevention; health policy genetics
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:15:09 CEST)
BRCA1 and 2 pathogenic variants increase lifetime risks of breast (50-75%) and ovarian cancer (15-20%). Guidelines recommend breast screening (MRI and mammogram) or risk-reducing mastectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy for ovarian cancer prevention. We sought to 1) characterize the population of BRCA1/2 carriers in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) 2) evaluate risk-reducing interventions 3) identify factors influencing screening and prevention adherence. Methods: This is a retrospective study from a population-based provincial cohort of BRCA1/2 carriers. Eligibility criteria for risk-reducing interventions were defined for each case and patients were categorized based on their level of adherence with recommended screening or prevention. Chi-squared and regression analyses were used to determine which factors influenced uptake and level of adherence. Results: 276 BRCA1/2 carriers were identified; 156 living NL females composed the study population. Unaffected females were younger at testing than those with a cancer diagnosis (44.4 y versus 51.7 y; p=0.002). Categorized by eligibility, 61.0%, 61.6%, 39.0% and 75.7% of patients underwent MRI, mammogram, risk-reducing mastectomy, and risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy, respectively. Individuals with breast cancer were more likely to have risk-reducing mastectomy (64.7% versus 35.3%; p<0.001), and those who attended specialty hereditary cancer clinic were more likely to be adherent with breast/ovarian cancer recommendations (73.2% versus 13.4%; p<0.001) and to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy(84.1% versus 15.9%; p<0.001). Conclusions: Nearly 40% of female BRCA1/2 carriers were not receiving breast surveillance according to evidence-based recommendations. Cancer risk reduction and uptake of breast imaging and prophylactic breast and pelvic surgeries are significantly higher in patients who receive dedicated specialty care. Organized hereditary cancer prevention programs will be a valuable component of Canadian health care systems and have the potential to reduce the burden of disease country-wide.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0088.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer; heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC); intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IP); cytoreductive surgery; secondary cytoreduction; interval cytoreduction
Online: 6 June 2018 (11:56:33 CEST)
Heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has several potential benefits. Higher doses of chemotherapy can be used with HIPEC because the plasma-peritoneal barrier results in little absorption into the blood stream. HIPEC offers higher peritoneal penetration in comparison to an intravenous (IV) regimen and does not have the traditional normothermic intraperitoneal (IP) regimen limitation of post-operative adhesions. Hyperthermia itself has cytotoxic effects and can potentiate antineoplastic effects of chemotherapy in part by increasing the depth of tumor penetration by up to 3 mm. For the treatment of ovarian cancer, HIPEC has been evaluated in the recurrent setting with secondary cytoreduction. Recent studies, including a prospective trial, have evaluated its role in primary management of ovarian cancer. This review summarizes previous and ongoing studies regarding the use of HIPEC in the management of ovarian cancer.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer metastasis, chemokines, cytoreductive surgery, Cytotoxic T cells, BDCA3 Dendritic cells.
Online: 10 June 2019 (16:03:23 CEST)
Nowadays the positive immune involvement in the eradication of tumor cells is assigned to the adaptive immune response. By awakening of in vivo responding T cells that are suppressed by the tumor and prevents immunological cure of the cancer. The adaptive immune response is a complex of different cells and protein molecules. Normally activated T cells are well-ordered by several late occurring inhibitors to contain the response to the unknown invaders and spare the normal cells. The tumor strengthens this inhibitory response to escape from immune elimination. Immunotherapy is to unleash the full capacity of the adaptive immune system by blocking this inhibitor response by monoclonal antibodies but with the potential drawback of autoimmune phenomena. Seen the success of the immunotherapy another feature of the immune system is overlooked. Cytokines and chemokines became in oblivion after their suspected necrosis of the tumor (TNF) did not fulfil their initial hope. When patients seek help for their complaints the ovarian cancer is in most cases already metastasized to the peritoneum and omentum. Here, we show that on the one hand chemokines produced by Th2, CD8 and NK cells inhibit cancer spreading and thus leads to a better operability and thus better survival. On the other hand, chemokine receptors are expressed by the tumor that are a decoy by binding chemokines that normally should attract antigen cross-presenting dendritic cells, which start an adaptive T cell response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0634.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: compound 3K; ovarian cancer; pyruvate kinase M2; autophagy; apoptosis
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:34:05 CEST)
Ovarian cancer is the common cause of death among gynecological cancers. Although ovarian cancer initially responds to chemotherapy, the frequent recurrence in patients remains a therapeutic challenge. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) plays a pivotal role in regulating cancer cell survival. However, its therapeutic roles remain unclear. Here, we investigated the anticancer effects of compound 3K, a specific PKM2 inhibitor, on autophagic and apoptotic pathway regulation in SK-OV-3 (PKM2-overexpressing human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line). The anticancer effect of compound 3K was examined using the MTT and colony formation assay in SK-OV-3. The results of tissue microarray showed that PKM2 expression positively correlated with the severity of the tumor. Moreover, the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins increased in SK-OV-3 following compound 3K treatment. Compound 3K induced AMPK activation, which was accompanied by the inhibition of mTOR. Additionally, this compound inhibited glycolysis, resulting in reduced proliferation in SK-OV-3. Compound 3K treatment suppressed tumor progression in vivo xenograft model. Our findings suggest that the inhibition of PKM2 by compound 3K affected Warburg effects and induced autophagic cell death. Therefore, the use of specific PKM2 inhibitors to block the glycolytic pathway and target cancer cell metabolism represents a promising therapeutic approach for treating PKM2-overexpressing ovarian cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer; checkpoint inhibitors; ICIs; immunotherapy; PARP; avelumab; pembrolizumab; nivolumab; bevacizumab; platinum
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:01:35 CEST)
Background: Ovarian cancer (OC) represents the eighth most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related deaths among the female population. In the advanced setting, chemotherapy represents the first-choice treatment, despite a high recurrence rate. In the last ten years, immunotherapy based on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has profoundly modified the therapeutic scenario of many solid tumors. We sought to summarize the main findings regarding the clinical use of ICIs in the OC. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Databases, and conference abstracts from international congresses (such as ASCO, ESMO, SGO) for clinical trials, focusing on ICIs both as monotherapy and as combinations in the advanced OC. Results: 20 studies were selected, of which 16 were phase I or II and 4 phase III trials. ICIs targeting PD1 (nivolumab, pembrolizumab), PD-L1 (avelumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab), and CTLA4 (ipilimumab, tremelimumab) were employed. No significant survival improvement was achieved; conversely, early terminations due to futility or toxicity were recorded. Combinations with chemotherapy, anti-VEGF, and, overall, PARP-inhibitors seem feasible and enhance the response rate and survival, notwithstanding a worse safety profile. Conclusions: The identification of biomarkers with a predictive role for ICIs’ efficacy is mandatory. Moreover, genomic and immune profiling of the OC might lead to an improved treatments selection and design of tailored trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0179.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: ovarian cancer; cannabis; phytocannabinoids; apoptosis; cytotoxicity; cell cycle; MAPK4; PARP1
Online: 9 September 2021 (11:57:38 CEST)
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Cannabis sativa is being used to treat different medical conditions. We sought to examine the effectiveness of combinations of cannabis compounds against OC. Cytotoxic activity was determined by XTT assay on HTB75 and HTB161 cell lines. Apoptosis and cell cycle were determined by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Gene expression was determined by quantitative PCR. The two most active fractions, F5 and F7, from a high Δ9–tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) cannabis strain extract and their standard mix (SM) showed cytotoxic activity against OC cells. The most effective phytocannabinoid combination was THC+cannabichromene (CBC)+cannabigerol (CBG). F5, F7 and SM affected cell cycle, led to cell apoptosis and to a marked reduction in cell migration. Moreover, these fractions act in synergy with niraparib, and were ~50 fold more cytotoxic to OC cells than to normal keratenocytes. Niraparib+F7 treatment was effective on OC patient's cells. F7 and the niraparin+fraction (F5 and F7) treatments reduced Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 4 (MAPK4) gene expression; this reduction may act in synergy with the niraparib inhibition of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) activity. Combinations of cannabis compounds and niraparib should be examined for efficacy in pre-clinical studies and clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1193.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: DNA methylation; DNA methyltransferases; DNMT, ovarian cancer; high grade ovarian cancer; relapsed ovarian cancer
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:05:58 CEST)
Background: Despite recent advances in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) treatment, recur-rence and mortality rates have not improved significantly. DNA hypermethylation has generally been associated with ominous prognosis and chemotherapy resistance, but the role of DNMTs in EOC remains to be investigated. Methods: In the current study, we systematically retrieved gene expression data from patients with EOC and studied the immunohistochemical expression of DNMTs in 108 primary and 26 relapsed tumors. Results: Our results showed that DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L RNA levels were higher and DNMT2 lower in tumors compared to non-neoplastic tissue, and DNMT3A and DNMT2 expression decreased from Stage II to Stage IV carcinomas. Proteomic data also suggested that DNMT1 and DNMT3A levels were increased in tumors. Similarly, DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3L protein levels were overex-pressed and DNMT2 expression was reduced in high grade carcinomas compared to non-neoplastic tissue and low-grade tumors. Moreover, DNMT1 and DNMT3L were increased in relapsed tumors compared to their primaries. DNMT3A, DNMT1 and DNMT3B mRNA lev-els were correlated with overall survival. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that DNMT1 and DNMT3L are upregulated in primary high grade EOC and further increase in relapses, whereas DNMT3A is upregulated only in the earlier stages of cancer progression. DNMT2 downregulation highlights a presumptive tumor-suppressor activity of this gene in ovarian car-cinoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0327.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Ovarian cancer; PARP inhibitors; epithelial to mesenchymal transition; drug response
Online: 13 April 2023 (14:30:07 CEST)
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, largely due to metastasis and drug resistant recurrences. Fifteen percent of ovarian tumors carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2, rendering them vulnerable to treatment with PARP inhibitors such as olaparib. Recent studies have shown that TGFβ can induce “BRCAness” in BRCA wild-type cancer cells. Given that TGFβ is a known driver of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the con-nection between EMT and metastatic spread in EOC and other cancers, we asked if TGFβ and EMT alter susceptibility of EOC to PARP inhibition. Epithelial EOC cells were transiently treated with soluble TGFβ and their clonogenic potential, expression and function of EMT and DNA repair genes, and response to PARP inhibitors compared with untreated controls. A second epithelial cell line was compared to its mesenchymal derivative for EMT and DNA repair gene expression and drug responses. We found that TGFβ and EMT resulted in downregulation of genes responsible for homologous recombination (HR) and sensitized cells to olaparib. HR efficiency was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, mesenchymal cells displayed sensitivity to olaparib, cis-platin, and the DNA-PK inhibitor Nu-7441. Therefore, treatment of disseminated, mesenchymal tumors may represent an opportunity to expand clinical utility of PARP inhibitors and similar agents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0305.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: ovarian cancer; lysophosphatidic acid; gelsolin; actin; lipid-protein interaction; predictive molecular modelling
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:07:10 CEST)
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a promising biomarker candidate to screen for ovarian cancer (OC) and potentially stratify and treat patients according to disease stage. LPA is known to target actin-binding protein gelsolin that is a key regulator of actin filament assembly. Previous studies have shown that the phosphate headgroup of LPA alone is inadequate to bind to the short chain of amino acids in gelsolin known as the PIP2-binding domain. Thus, the molecular-level detail of the mechanism of LPA binding is poorly understood. Here, we model LPA binding to the PIP2-binding domain of gelsolin in the gelsolin-actin complex through extensive ten microsecond atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We predict that LPA binding causes a local conformational rearrangement due to LPA interactions with both gelsolin and actin residues. These conformational changes are a result of the amphipathic nature of LPA, where the anionic phosphate, polar glycerol and ester groups, and lipophilic aliphatic tail mediate LPA binding via charged electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions. The negatively-charged LPA headgroup binds to the PIP2-binding domain of gelsolin-actin while its hydrophobic tail is inserted into actin, creating a strong LPA-insertion pocket that weakens the gelsolin–actin interface. The computed structure, dynamics, and energetics of the ternary gelsolin–LPA–actin complex confirms that a quantitative OC assay is possible based on LPA-triggered actin release from the gelsolin-actin complex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma; residual disease; recurrence; survival; endometriosis- associated
Online: 10 April 2023 (05:14:42 CEST)
A retrospective study including 49 women with ovarian clear cell carcinoma between January 2009 and December 2021 at Oxford cancer centre was done. The mean age was 63 years, with 78% post-menopausal. All women underwent cytoreductive surgery with no residual disease (R0) in 39 women. The follow-up time ranged between 12-144 months, with mean of 105.5 months. The 3-year OS was 73.4%, and 3-year PFS was 81.3%, with a mean of 101.7months (95%CI, 84.63-118.93). As expected, women with stage 1 disease had the best outcome. In comparing OS in respect to absence or presence of residual disease, the 3-year OS was 88.6% (95% CI 108.6-141.8), compared to 12.5% (95% CI 4.48-32.11) respectively (P<0.001). In multivariant analysis the variables included were CA 125 (< or >200 IU/ml), Hb (< or >115 g/L), albumin (< or >40 g/L), associated endometriosis, ascites, residual disease, and FIGO staging. FIGO stage was the only independent prognostic indicator of OS with (p<0.05). Surgery to achieve no residual tumour is necessary to improve the prognosis in advanced OCCC. At present, the true challenge is to predict which patients with early-stage disease are at higher risk of recurrence and would most benefit from adjuvant treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0390.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Ovarian Cancer; Features Classification; Self-Organizing Map; Optimal Neural Networks; Adaptive Harmony Search Optimization; Internet of Things
Online: 19 September 2018 (16:15:56 CEST)
Ovarian Cancer (OC) is a type of cancer that affects ovaries in women, and is difficult to detect at initial stage due to which it remains as one of the leading causes of cancer death. The ovarian cancer data generated from the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) was used and a novel approach was proposed for distinguishing the ovarian cancer by utilizing Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and Optimal Recurrent Neural Networks (ORNN). SOM algorithm was utilized for better feature subset selection and was also utilized for separating profitable, understood and intriguing data from huge measures of medical data. In supervised learning techniques, the SOM-based feature selection seems to be a tougher challenge because of the absence of class labels that would guide the search for relevant information to the classifier model. The classification approach can identify ovarian cancer data as benign/malignant. The ovarian cancer detection process can be improved by optimizing the weights of RNN structure using Adaptive Harmony Search Optimization (AHSO). The proposed model in this study can be used to detect cancer at early stages with high accuracy and low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0695.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: malnutrition; ovarian cancer; overall survival; nutritional risk screening score; nutrition; phase angle; progression-free survival
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:32:41 CET)
Background: Malnutrition was associated with worse survival outcomes, impaired quality of life, and deteriorated performance status across various cancer types. We aimed to identify risk factors for malnutrition in patients with epithelial ovarian(EOC) and impact on survival. Methods: In our prospective study, we included the patients with primary and recurrent EOC, tubal or peritoneal cancer conducted. We assessed serum laboratory parameters, body mass index, nutritional risk index, nutritional risk screening score(NRS-2002), and bio-electrical impedance analysis. Results: We recruited a total of 152. Patients >65 years-old, with ascites of >500 ml, or with platinum-resistant EOC showed statistically significant increased risk of malnutrition when evaluated by NRS-2002(p-values = 0.014, 0.001, and 0.007, respectively). An NRS-2002<3 was an independent predictive factor for complete tumor resectability (p=0.009). The patients with NRS-2002≥3 had a median overall survival(OS) of seven months (95% CI=0-24 months), as compared to the patients with NRS-2002<3 where median OS was 46 months(p=0,001). Phase angle(PhAα)≤ 4.5 was the strongest predictor of OS. Conclusion: Malnutrition is an independent predictor of incomplete cytoreduction in study population. It is an independent prognostic factor for poor OS. Preoperative nutritional assessment is an effective tool in identification of high-risk groups within EOC characterized by poor clinical outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: transcriptionally targeted oncolytic adenovirus; gynecologic cancer; human samples; cytokines; ovarian cancer; tumor stroma
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:25:49 CEST)
More than 1 million women are diagnosed annually worldwide with a gynecological cancer. Most gynecological cancers are diagnosed at late stage, either because lack of symptoms such as in ovarian cancer or limited accessibility to primary prevention in low-resource countries such as in cervical cancer. Here, we extend the studies of AR2011, a stroma-targeted and tumor microenvironment responsive oncolytic adenovirus (OAdV) whose replication is driven by a triple hybrid promoter. We show that AR2011 was able to replicate and lyse in vitro fresh explants obtained from human ovarian cancer. uterine cancer, and cervical cancer. AR2011 was also able to strongly inhibit the in vitro growth of ovarian malignant cells obtained from human ascites fluid. The virus could synergize in vitro with cisplatin even on ascites-derived cells obtained from patients heavily pretreated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. AR2011(h404) a dual transcriptionally targeted derived virus armed with hCD40L and h41BBL under the regulation of the hTERT promoter, showed a strong efficacy in vivo both on subcutaneous and intraperitoneally established human ovarian cancer in nude mice. Preliminary studies in an immunocompetent murine tumor model showed that AR2011(m404) expressing the murine cytokines was able to induce an abscopal effect. The present studies suggest that AR2011(h404) is a likely candidate as a novel medicine for intraperitoneal disseminated ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0564.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: ovarian cancer; complete cytoreduction; Artificial Intelligence; eXplainable Artificial Intelligence; upper abdominal perotonectomy; Machine Learning; SHAP values
Online: 10 October 2023 (08:12:44 CEST)
The Surgical Complexity Score (SCS) has been widely used to describe the surgical effort during advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cytoreduction. Referring to a variety of multi-visceral resections, it best combines the numbers with the complexity of the sub-procedures. Nevertheless, not all potential surgical procedures are described by this score. Lately, the European Society for Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) has established standard outcome quality indicators pertinent to achieving complete cytoreduction (CC0). There is a need to define what weight all these surgical sub-procedures comprising CC0 would be given. Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) could explain the impact of real-time features on the CC0 prediction. We analyzed prospectively collected data from 560 consecutive patients with FIGO-stage III-IV who underwent cytoreductive surgery between Jan 2014 and Dec 2019 at a UK tertiary referral centre. Following adaptation of the structured ESGO ovarian cancer report template, we employed the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) algorithm to model an exhaustive list of surgical sub-procedures. We applied the Shapley Additive explanations (SHAP) framework to provide global (cohort) explainability. We used Cox regression for survival analysis and constructed Kaplan-Meier curves. The XGBoost model predicted CC0 with an acceptable accuracy (area under curve [AUC] = 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.63–0.76). Visual quantification of the feature importance for the prediction of CC0 identified upper abdominal peritonectomy (UAP) as the most important feature, followed by regional lymphadenectomies. The UAP best correlated with bladder peritonectomy and diaphragmatic stripping (Pearson’s correlations > 0.5). Clear inflection points were shown by pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection and ileocecal resection/right hemicolectomy, which increased the probability for CC0. When UAP was solely added to a composite model comprising of engineered features, it substantially enhanced its predictive value (AUC = 0.80, CI = 0.75-0.84). The UAP was predictive of poorer progression-free survival (HR=1.76, CI 1.14- 2.70, P:0.01) but not overall survival (HR=1.06, CI 0.56-1.99, P:0.86). The SCS did not have significant survival impact. Machine Learning allows for operational feature selection by weighting the relative importance of those surgical sub-procedures that appear to be more predictive of CC0. Our study identifies UAP as the most important procedural predictor of CC0 in surgically cytoreduced advanced-stage EOC women. The classification model presented here can potentially be trained with a larger number of samples to generate a robust digital surgical reference in high output tertiary centres. The upper abdominal quadrants should be thoroughly inspected to ensure that CC0 is achievable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1681.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: ovarian cancer; MAGE A-10; NY-ESO-1; immunohistochemistry; response to platinumbased chemotherapy; platinum sensitivity; prognosis
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:47:53 CEST)
: Ovarian cancer has a dismal prognosis. Standard treatment following surgery relies on platinum-based chemotherapy. However, sizeable percentages of patients are unresponsive. Identification of markers predicting response to chemotherapy might help select eligible patients while sparing unresponsive ones treatment-associated toxicity. Cancer/testis antigens (CTA) are expressed by healthy germ cells and malignant cells of diverse histological origin. This expression profile identifies them as attractive targets of cancer immunotherapies. We analyzed correlations between expression of MAGE-A10 and New York esophageal-1 cancer (NY-ESO-1) CTAs at protein level and effectiveness of platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced-stage high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). MAGE-A10 and NY-ESO-1 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples from 93 patients with advanced-stage HGSOC treated at our institutions between January 1996 and December 2013. Correlation between expression of these markers and response to platinum-based chemotherapy, evaluated according to RECIST 1.1 criteria, platinum sensitivity, measured as platinum free interval (PFI), progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was explored. MAGE-A10 protein expression predicts unresponsiveness to platinum-based chemotherapy (p=0.005), poor platinum sensitivity (p<0.001), and poor PFS (p<0.001) and OS (p<0.001). Multiva-riate analysis identifies MAGE-A10 protein expression as independent predictor of poor platinum sensitivity (p=0.005) and shorter OS (p<0.001). Instead, no correlation was observed between NY-ESO-1 protein expression and response to platinum-based chemotherapy (p=0.832), platinum sensitivity (p= 0.168), PFS (p=0.126) and OS (p=0.335). MAGE-A10 protein expression reliably identifies advanced-stage HGSOC unresponsive to platinum-based chemotherapy. Targeted im-munotherapy could represent an important alternative therapeutic option in these cancers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Primary ovarian insufficiency; ovarian hypofunction; amenorrhea; follicular stimulating hormone; electrophysiological technology; bioelectrical stimulation
Online: 2 July 2020 (13:39:54 CEST)
Ovarian hypofunction or primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a common cause in the etiology of female infertility. It is a heterogeneous disorder, affecting approximately 1% of women before the age of 40. The characteristics of POI are menstrual disorders, including amenorrhea and delayed menstruation, accompanied by a raised gonadotrophin level and decreased estradiol level. In recent years, electrophysiology (EP) technology has been advancing rapidly in the diagnosis and treatments of numerous diseases. According to studies, bioelectrical stimulation (BES) therapy is an electrophysiology technology that plays significant roles in numerous diseases, including on the thin endometrium in patients with POI. In this review, the overall research progress of this electrophysiological technology has been discussed in relation to the advancement of primary ovarian insufficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: BRCA1, BRCA2, Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, Lynch Syndrome, Hereditary cancer, Family history screening. Risk assessment, Digital tool, Health information technology
Online: 25 July 2018 (09:59:26 CEST)
The number of individuals meeting criteria for genetic counseling and testing for hereditary cancer syndromes (HCS) is far less than the number that actually receive it. To facilitate identification of patients at risk for HCS, Counsyl developed a digital identification tool (digital ID tool) to match personal and family cancer history to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) BRCA-related Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (HBOC), Lynch syndrome, and polyposis testing criteria in one-to-one, automated fashion. The purpose of this study was to validate the ability of the digital ID tool to accurately identify histories that do and do not meet NCCN testing criteria. Methods: Third-party recorded three-generation pedigrees were retrospectively reviewed by a certified genetic counselor (CGC) to determine if independent events included in pedigree histories met NCCN guidelines, and were then sorted into groups: high risk events (meets criteria) and low risk events (does not meet criteria). Events were entered into the digital ID tool to determine the extent of its concordance with events sorted by CGC review. Statistical tests of accuracy were calculated at a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: 197 pedigrees were reviewed consecutively representing 765 independent events for analysis across groups. 382/382 (100%) high risk events identified by the digital ID tool and 381/383 (99.47%) low risk events identified by the digital ID tool were concordant with CGC sorting. The digital ID tool had a sensitivity of 100% (99.04-100% CI) and specificity of 99.48% (98.13-99.94% CI). The overall accuracy of the digital ID tool was estimated to be 99.74% (99.06-99.97% CI), reflecting the rate at which the digital ID tool reached the same conclusion as that of CGC review of pedigree events for the recommendation of genetic testing for individuals at risk for HCS. Conclusions: The digital ID tool accurately matches NCCN criteria in one-to-one fashion to identify at-risk individuals for HCS and may be useful in clinical practice, specifically for BRCA-related HBOC and Lynch Syndrome.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Ependymoma; teratoma; ovarian; immature teratoma
Online: 5 October 2020 (13:43:44 CEST)
Primary ovarian ependymoma is a rare neuroectodermal neoplasm that can arise from immature ovarian teratoma. Due to the paucity of this entity, a complete molecular analysis of these tumors has not been done, thus creating a challenge for finding an effective and safe therapeutic treatment. In limited literature, patient with primary ovarian ependymoma showed various responses to an array of individualized therapies ranging from surgeries and chemotherapies. Here, we present a 38-year-old female with persistent ovarian ependymoma with molecular profile similar to traditional central nervous system ependymoma that is irresponsive to multiple cytoreduction and clinical experimental therapies. Therefore, a prompt recognition and reporting of this entity can greatly aid in expanding the understanding and standardization of therapies for this neoplasm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0332.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: homologous recombination deficiency (HRD); biomarkers; ovarian cancer; DNA repair; BRCA1/2; poly (ADP–ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPi); next generation sequencing (NGS)
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:09:09 CEST)
Homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) has become an important prognostic and predictive biomarker for patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer who may benefit from poly-ADP ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARPi) and platinum-based therapies. HRD testing provides relevant information to personalize patients’ treatment options, and it has been progressively incorporated in diagnostic laboratories. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of in-house HRD testing deployable in a diagnostic clinical setting, comparing results from two commercially available next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based tumor tests (SOPHiA DDMTM HRD Solution and AmoyDx HRD Focus Panel) with the reference assay from Myriad MyChoice CDx. A total of 85 ovarian cancer samples were subjected to HRD testing. An overall strong correlation was observed across the three assays evaluated, regardless of the different underlying methods employed to assess genomic instability, with the highest pairwise correlation between Myriad and SOPHiA (R=0.87, p-value=3.39x10-19). The comparison of the assigned HRD status to the reference Myriad’s test revealed a positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 90.9% and 96.3% for SOPHiA’s test, while AmoyDx’s test achieved 75% PPV and 100% NPV. This is the largest HRD testing evaluation using different methodologies and provides a clear picture of the robustness of NGS-based tests currently offered in the market. Our data show that the implementation of in-house HRD testing in diagnostic laboratories is technically feasible and it can be reliably performed with commercial assays. Also, the turnaround time is compatible with clinical needs, being an ideal alternative to offer to a broader number of patients, while still maintaining high-quality standards at more accessible price tiers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1819.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: epithelial ovarian cancer; complete cytoreduction; estimated blood loss; estimated blood volume; blood transfusion; intra-operative mapping; machine learning; explainable artificial intelligence
Online: 27 October 2023 (14:21:45 CEST)
There is no well-defined threshold for intra-operative blood transfusion (BT) in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) surgery. We developed a Machine Learning (ML)-driven prediction algorithm to trigger and explain a communication alert for BT based on anticipated peri-operative events irrespective of BT policies. We analysed prospectively collected data from 403 EOC patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery between 2014 and 2019. We calculated the estimated blood volume (EBV) using the formula EBV = weight x 80 and set off 10%EBV as threshold for individual intervention. Based on the known estimated blood loss (EBL) we identified two groups. We employed Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for performance metrics. The model performance for the above threshold prediction was satisfactory (AUC 0.823, 95% CI 0.76-0.88). The top feature commonly shared between interrogators was operative time (OT). Intra-operative blood loss of at least 10%EBV was associated with OT>250 minutes, primary surgery, serous histology, performance status 0, R2 resection and surgical complexity score >4. Large bowel resection, stoma formation, ileocecal resection/right hemicolectomy, mesenteric resection, bladder and upper abdominal peritonectomy were amongst sub-procedures clearly associated with increased intervention risk. Precise prediction of blood requirements is not possible unless a rough estimate of OT is known in advance.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1066.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: cataract; BDUMP; ovarian cancer; paraneoplastic syndrome
Online: 17 October 2023 (10:52:10 CEST)
Background and Objectives: A 62-year-old patient presented with significant visual reduction in the last three months. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the right eye (RE) dropped from 20/20 on both eyes to 20/200 on the RE and counting fingers (CF) on the left eye (LE); respectfully. She was diagnosed with stage 4 ovarian cancer 1 month ago. Materials and Methods: Examination revealed significant progression of cataracts and subretinal fluid on the posterior pole with choroidal thickening. Multifocal, orange-pigmented elevated choroidal lesions were observed in the RE, while the view of the left eye fundus was obstructed by cataracts. OCT revealed bilateral choroidal thickening with overlying folds and subretinal fluid and ultrasound of the choroidal lesions showed moderate homogenous internal reflectivity. Results: The patient was diagnosed with BDUMP (bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation), a paraneoplastic syndrome characterised by simultaneous, bilateral, painless vision loss and rapidly acquired bilateral cataracts with serous retinal detachments. Cataract extraction had not obtained the expected visual recovery (RE: CF; LE 2/200, respectfully). Plasmapheresis demonstrated some success by stabilizing vision loss obtained by serous retinal detachments. Conclusion: The focus of treating BDUMP is aimed at the underlying malignancy. Vision typically deteriorates to near blindness within a year from presentation. Overall prognosis is generally poor and mean survival is reported at 12-15.7 months from the time of ocular diagnosis.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0022.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: menopause; infertility; platelet activation; ovarian rejuvenation
Online: 5 May 2022 (05:23:28 CEST)
Platelets are a uniquely mammalian physiologic attribute. As the only non-marine vertebrate class to experience menopause, humans have a substantial post-reproductive lifespan and are believed to have a limited, non-renewable oocyte supply. Ovarian reserve typically declines after about age 35yrs, marking losses which cannot be recovered by available fertility medications. When in vitro fertilization fails due to low or absent ovarian response, gonadotropin adjustments are often ineffectual and if additional oocytes are occasionally harvested, egg quality is usually poor. This problem was confronted by Greek researchers who developed a new surgical method to insert autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) into ovaries; the first ovarian PRP success to improve reproductive outcomes was published from Athens in 2016. This innovation influenced later research with condensed platelet-derived growth factors, leading to correction of oocyte ploidy error, normal blastocyst development, and additional term livebirths. Yet women’s health was among the last clinical domains to explore PRP, and its role in ‘ovarian rejuvenation’ remains unsettled. One critical aspect in this procedure is platelet activation, a commonly overlooked step in the cytokine release cascade considered essential for successful transition of undifferentiated ovarian stem cells to an oocyte lineage. Poor activation of platelets thus becomes an unforced error, potentially diminishing or even negating post-treatment ovarian follicular response. To answer this query, relevant theory, current disagreements, and new data on platelet activation are presented, along with clinical challenges for regenerative fertility practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0271.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: mesothelin; ovarian carcinoma; biomarker; mesothelin-targeting therapy
Online: 9 February 2022 (12:59:34 CET)
Mesothelin is a protein that is expressed in the mesothelial cell lining in the pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium. The gene of mesothelin encodes a precursor protein that is processed to yield mesothelin, which is attached to the cell membrane by a glycophosphatidylinositol linkage and a shred fragment named the megakaryocytic-potentiating factor. The biological functions of this substance in normal cells are still unknown. Experimental studies on knockout mice suggest that this substance does not play an important role in development and reproduction. In contrast, it has been observed that mesothelin is produced in abnormal amounts in several malignant neoplasms, such as mesotheliomas and pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Given that mesothelin is overexpressed in many solid tumours and has antigenic properties, this molecule could be considered a tumour marker or an antigenic target for many malignancies. Many molecular studies also have demonstrated that mesothelin is overexpressed in serous ovarian carcinomas and may bind to ovarian cancer antigen Ca-125, favouring the spread of the tumour in the abdominal cavity. 3 Here, we discuss the current knowledge of mesothelin and focus on its role in clinical and pathological diagnoses as well as its impact on the prognosis in serous ovarian carcinomas. We also briefly discuss the latest progress of mesothelin-targeting therapies for this aggressive and lethal neoplasm.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Reproductive Medicine Keywords: copper; gynecological diseases; Cu chelators; Cu ionophores; ovarian cancer; polycystic ovarian syndrome; cervical cancer; endometrial cancer; endometriosis
Online: 23 November 2023 (11:17:31 CET)
Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for the correct development of eukaryotic organisms. This metal plays a key role in many cellular and physiological activities, including enzymatic activity, oxygen transport, and cell signaling. Although the redox activity of Cu is crucial for enzymatic reactions, this property also makes it potentially toxic when found at high levels. Due to this dual action of Cu, highly regulated mechanisms are necessary to prevent both the deficiency and the accumulation of this metal since its dyshomeostasis may favor the development of multiple diseases, such as Menkes’ and Wilson’s diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, and cancer. As the relationship between Cu and cancer has been the most studied, we analyze how this metal can affect three fundamental processes for tumor progression: cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Gynecological diseases are characterized by high prevalence, morbidity, and mortality, depending on the case, and mainly include benign and malignant tumors. The cellular processes that promote their progression are affected by Cu, and the mechanisms that occur may be similar. We analyze the crosstalk between Cu deregulation and gynecological diseases, focusing on therapeutic strategies derived from this metal.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0030.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: angiogenesis inhibitors; VEGF inhibitors; ovarian cancer; progression-free survival; overall sur-vival; toxicity; systematic review; meta-analysis; randomized controlled trials; FDA approval of cancer drugs
Online: 2 February 2023 (05:26:47 CET)
(1)Background: Among new anti-angiogenetic agents being developed and everchanging guidelines indications, the question of benefits/safety ratio remains unclear. (2)Methods: we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 25 randomized controlled trials (15487 patients), evaluating overall survival – OS, progression free survival– PFS and toxicity (grade ≥3 adverse effects, type and number of all adverse effects. (3)Results: analysis showed improvement of pooled-PFS (HR 0.72, 95%CI 0.66–0.78, I2 = 77%, P<0.00001) regardless of treatment settings (first-line - HR 0.83, 95%CI 0.77-0.90, P<0.00001, recurrent cancer – HR 0.61, 95%CI 0.54-0.68, P<0.00001 or maintenance – HR 0.82, 95%CI 0.67-1.00, P=0.04) and type of anti-angiogenetic drug used (VEGF inhibitors, VEGF-R inhibitors or angiopoietin inhibitors). Improved OS was also observed (HR 0.95, 95%CI 0.91–0.99, P=0.02). OS benefits were only observed in recurrent platinum-sensitive or platinum-resistant cancers. Grade≥3 adverse effects were increased across all trials. Anti-angiogenetic therapy increased the risk of hypertension, infection, thromboembolic/ hemorrhagic events, gastro-intestinal perforations but not the risk of wound related issues, anemia or posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. (4)Conclusions: Although angiogenesis inhibitors improve PFS, there is little to no OS benefits. Given the high risk of severe adverse reactions a careful selection of patients is required for obtaining the best results possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0458.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SAMD9; RUNX2; SALL1; ovarian anatomy; renal structure
Online: 28 September 2021 (08:36:59 CEST)
Sterile alpha motif domain-containing protein 9 (SAMD9) is a regulatory protein centrally involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Mapped to 7p21.1, variants in SAMD9 have been reported in <50 pediatric cases worldwide, typically with early lethality. Germline gain-of-function SAMD9 variants are associated with MIRAGE Syndrome (myelodysplasia, infection, restricted growth, adrenal hypoplasia, genital anomalies, and enteropathy). Spalt like transcription factor 1 (SALL1) is a zinc finger transcriptional repressor located at 16q12.1 where only two transcript variants in SALL1 are known. RUNX2 (6p21.1) encodes a nuclear protein with a Runt DNA-binding domain critical for osteoblastic differentiation, skeletal morphogenesis, and serves as a scaffold for nucleic acids and regulatory factors involved in skeletal gene expression. RUNX2 and SALL1 are thus both ‘master regulators’ of tissue organization and embryo development. Here, we describe exome sequencing and copy number variants in two previously unknown mutations—R824Q in SAMD9, and Q253H in SALL1. A new multiexon 3’ terminal duplication in RUNX2 is also reported. This is the first known phenotype characterization for the intersection of all three variants in a healthy 46,XX adult. Focusing on developmental progress, ultrastructural renal anatomy, and selected reproductive aspects, we describe this unique genotype diagnosed incidentally during Covid-19 illness. Individual disruption in SAMD9, RUNX2, or SALL1 would be expected to give a bleak prognosis. However, the convergence discovered here appears to dampen severe pathology, perhaps by cross-gene silencing of effects normally deleterious when such changes occur alone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Amino acids, lipids, diet, low-fat diet, cancer therapy, cancer metabolism, triple-negative breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, metastasis
Online: 21 December 2022 (10:05:50 CET)
Patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) need new therapies to improve the low survival rates achieved with standard treatments. In this work, we show that the survival of mice with metastatic TNBC can be markedly increased by replacing their normal diet with artificial diets in which the levels of amino acids (AAs) and lipids are strongly manipulated. After observing selective anticancer activity in vitro, we prepared five artificial diets and evaluated their anticancer activity in a challenging model of metastatic TNBC. The model was established by injecting 4T1 murine TNBC cells into the tail vein of immunocompetent BALB/cAnNRj mice. First-line drugs doxorubicin and capecitabine were used as positive controls. AA manipulation led to modest improvements in mice survival when the levels or lipids were normal. Reducing lipid levels to 1% markedly improved the activity of several diets with different AA content. Mice fed the artificial diets as monotherapy lived longer than mice treated with doxorubicin and capecitabine. An artificial diet without 10 non-essential AAs, with reduced levels of essential AAs, and with 1% lipids improved the survival not only of mice with TNBC but also of mice with other types of metastatic cancers.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0709.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: intrinsic multi-drug resistance; acquired multi-drug resistance; circulating tumor cells; single cells; cell clusters; cell monolayer; multi-cellular spheroids; cytometry of reaction rate constant; ovarian cancer
Online: 30 July 2020 (09:01:50 CEST)
Does cell clustering influence intrinsic and acquired multi-drug resistance (MDR) differently? To address this question, we studied cultured monolayers (representing individual cells) and cultured spheroids (representing clusters) formed by drug-naïve (intrinsic MDR) and drug-exposed (acquired MDR) lines of ovarian cancer A2780 cells by cytometry of reaction rate constant (CRRC). MDR efflux was characterized by accurate and robust “cell number vs. MDR efflux rate constant (kMDR)” histograms. Both drug-naïve and drug-exposed monolayer cells presented unimodal histograms; the histogram of drug-exposed cells was shifted towards higher kMDR value suggesting greater MDR activity. Spheroids of drug-naïve cells presented a bimodal histogram indicating the presence of two subpopulations with different MDR activity. In contrast, spheroids of drug-exposed cells presented a unimodal histogram qualitatively similar to that of the monolayers of drug-exposed cells but with a moderate shift towards greater MDR activity. The observed greater effect of cell clustering on intrinsic than on acquired MDR can help guide the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting clusters of circulating tumor cells.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Reproductive Medicine Keywords: reproductive biology; ovarian function; PRP; extracellular matrix; entropy
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:31:12 CEST)
Diminished ovarian reserve can be regarded as a sentinel indicator to foreshadow severe follicular loss and, ultimately, systemic aging. The negative slope of human ovulatory fidelity begins with a robust follicular endowment which gradually declines over time. In contrast, the youthful ovarian phenotype requires the coordinated work of endothelial, granulosa, immune, perivascular, stromal and possibly germline stem cells. Such a diverse tissue matrix can, in general, be influenced by platelet (PLT)-derived factors but this has not yet been specifically confirmed in the ovary after platelet-rich plasma (PRP). How could a comparable response be validated? Here a prospective, experimental study is proposed whereby eligible patients already undergoing scheduled laparoscopy provide ovarian tissue via biopsy submitted for co-culture with autologous Ca+2 activated PRP. Recognizing the interlocking, central roles of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), incubated samples would be assessed for these in vitro before vs. after PRP exposure, in addition to stereomicroscopy. A mathematical model is available to track NF-κB oscillations and estimate gene expression, cell development, growth, apoptosis, and key immune and inflammatory actions. Since NF-κB and TNF-α are discharged in activated PLT releasate (or react to its cargo proteins) this audit permits extraction of response markers observed post-stimulus, thus linking discrete signals to transcriptional output, cellular fitness, and ovarian cytoarchitecture. From this, a hypothesis could emerge where intraovarian PRP is found to make no direct impact on follicles, although modified ovarian field function and curtailed local entropy incidentally favor optimized oocyte competence as a secondary effect.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1357.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Reproductive Medicine Keywords: mTOR; rapamycin; PRP; platelet cytokines; ovarian reserve; IVF
Online: 19 June 2023 (12:55:06 CEST)
No major breakthroughs have entered mainstream clinical fertility practice since egg donation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection decades ago, and oocyte deficits secondary to advanced age continue as the main manifestation of diminished ovarian reserve. In the meantime, several unproven IVF ‘accessories’ have emerged including so-called ovarian rejuvenation which entails placing fresh autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) directly into ovarian tissue. Among cellular responses attributed to this intervention are reduced oxidative stress, slowed apoptosis, and improved metabolism. Besides impacting the existing follicle pool, platelet growth factors might also facilitate de novo oocyte recruitment by specified gene upregulation targeting uncommitted ovarian stem cells. Because disordered activity at mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been shown to exacerbate or accelerate ovarian aging, PRP-discharged plasma cytokines combined with mTOR suppression by pulsed/cyclic rapamycin represents a novel fusion technique to enhance ovarian function. While beneficial effects have already been observed experimentally in oocytes and embryos with mTOR inhibition alone, this is the first discussion of intraovarian platelet cytokines followed by low-dose, phased rapamycin. For refractory cases, this investigational, tailored approach could amplify or sustain ovarian capacity sufficient to permit retrieval of competent oocytes via distinct but complementary pathways—thus reducing dependency on oocyte donation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Burmeister’s porpoise; reproduction; sexual maturity; testes; ovarian corpora
Online: 1 September 2022 (10:19:45 CEST)
The morphology and maturation process of gonads of 70 Burmeister´s porpoises, with body lengths ranging 135–183 cm (n= 34 females) and 64.5-182 cm (n= 36 males) were described. Samples were collected in six ports of central and northern Peru in 1987-1999. In the field, females were classified as immature, mature (resting, lactating, pregnant) and males as immature, pubescent and mature based on, respectively, the presence of ovarian corpora and the relative quantity of semen in cut epididymides. The ovaries of P. spinipinnis are ovoid or bean-shaped and flattened, with corpora modifying surface appearance. In the laboratory, ovaries were examined macro- and microscopically, measured, weighed and sliced in 1-3 mm sections. The number of corpora ovarica (lutea, albicantia, atretica) found in each ovary as well as their macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were documented in some detail. The follicles, their oocytes and nucleus were measured. Follicular development in P. spinipinnis is predominantly left-sided, but occurs in both ovaries in 16.3% of females, mainly in those with numerous corpora. Macroscopically, several corpora atretica with luteinization had characteristics similar to those of corpora albicantia, making microscopic determination essential. Inconclusive evidence of recent ovulation was found in January. Two of three immature females showed good follicular development in March and April. The body length at 50% sexual maturity in females was estimated at 152.7 cm. There was no evidence of reproductive senescence. The testes of P. spinipinnis are elongated and cylindrical. Of the 36 males examined macroscopically, 7 were immature, 5 pubescent and 24 mature. The histological analysis determining the presence and abundance of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa, the relative amount of interstitial tissue, the elongation and mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules and the relative size of the lumen allowed to confidently determine sexual maturity status. The field evaluation of maturity based on the presence of sperm in the epididymides is a useful but, in 8.3% of cases, not exact method. For males the body length at 50% sexual maturity was estimated at 157 cm. No histological evidence of male reproductive seasonality was found. Spermatogenesis was perceptible year-round and tubule diameters had non-specific variations for each month.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0141.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SAMHD1; NSCLC; breast cancer; ovarian cancer; solid tumors
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:05:00 CET)
SAMHD1 is a deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) triphosphohydrolase with important roles in the control of cell proliferation and apoptosis, either through the regulation of intracellular dNTPs levels or the modulation of the DNA damage response. However, SAMHD1 role in cancer evolution is still unknown. We performed the first in-depth study of SAMHD1 role in advanced solid tumors, by analyzing samples of 128 patients treated with chemotherapy agents based on platinum derivatives and/or antimetabolites and developing novel in vitro knock-out models to explore the mechanisms driving SAMHD1 function in cancer. Low or no expression of SAMHD1 was associated with a positive prognosis in breast, ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cancer patients. A predictive value was associated to low-SAMHD1 expression in NSCLC and ovarian patients treated with antimetabolites in combination with platinum derivatives. In vitro, SAMHD1 knock-out cells showed increased γ-H2AX and apoptosis suggesting that SAMHD1 depletion induces DNA damage leading to cell death. In vitro treatment with platinum-derived drugs significantly enhanced γ-H2AX and apoptotic markers expression in knock-out cells, indicating a synergic effect of SAMHD1 depletion and platinum-based treatment. SAMHD1 expression represents a new strong prognostic and predictive biomarker in solid tumors and thus, modulation of SAMHD1 function may constitute a promising target for the improvement of cancer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0099.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: premature ovarian failure (POF); PBMC, chemotherapy; cancer; ovary
Online: 6 August 2018 (07:56:50 CEST)
Cancer treatment with specific chemotherapeutic agents has been well documented to have an adverse impact on female fertility leading to premature ovarian failure (POF). The objective of this study was to investigate if chemotherapeutic induced POF can be reversed with an infusion of autologous nucleated peripheral blood cells (PBMC). To reach our goal, mice were treated with a single intraperitoneal injections of busulfan and cyclophosphamide to induce POF. This was followed by transfusion of PBMC. The ovarian morphology and functional parameters were monitored by radioimmunoassay, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry analysis. Our study showed that chemotherapy (CTX) protracted estrous cycle period and repressed E2 production. CTX decreased the expressions of steroidogenesis markers- CYP-17 synthesis, StAR and Connexin-43 protein expression from the ovarian follicles. We also observed reduced numbers and sizes of the primordial and primary follicles in CTX-treated mice compared to untreated controls (P < 0.05). When both CTX and untreated –control groups were stimulated with gonadotrophin, the control group produced ten times more ova than the CTX group. Finally, the treatment of premature ovarian failure induced by CTX with autologous PBMC transfusion resulted in over-expression and a statistically significant increase in several stem cell markers and restoration of fertility. Infusion with PBMC in CTX further decreased the estrous cycle length by 2.5 times (P < 0.01). We found that transfusion of autologous PBMC to mice with chemotherapy induced POF was very effective at restoring fertility. These results are similar to other studies using bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Hochu-ekki-to; immune modulation; polycystic ovarian syndrome
Online: 9 May 2017 (04:11:56 CEST)
The traditional herbal medicine, Hochu-ekki-to, has been shown to have preventive effects on viral infection and stress. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of Hochu-ekki-to on two stress-related rat models of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and treatment groups, the latter of which were subjected to stress induced by exposure to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or cold temperatures. After these stress inductions, rats were orally treated with dissolved Hochu-ekki-to once per day for 7 days. Rats subjected to the two different stressors exhibited upregulation of steroid hormone receptors (in ovaries) and reproductive hormones (in blood), and consequent stimulation of abnormal follicle development accompanied by elevation of Hsp 90 expression (in ovaries). Treatment with Hochu-ekki-to for 7 days after stress induction increased immune functions, reduced the stress-induced activation of Hsp 90, and normalized the levels of the tested steroid hormone receptors and reproductive hormones. Our findings suggest that stress stimulations may promote the activation of Hsp 90 via the dysregulation of steroid hormone receptors and reproductive hormones, but that post-stress treatment with Hochu-ekki-to improves reproductive and immune functions in the ovaries of stressed rats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0026.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ovarian cancer; melatonin; angiogenesis; VEGF; VEGFR; HIF-1α
Online: 6 March 2017 (06:34:02 CET)
Angiogenesis is a hallmark of ovarian cancer (OC) it promotes rapid cell growth and the associated metastasis. Identifying new bioactive compounds to target angiogenesis may provide valuable paradigms as therapeutic strategies. Melatonin is a well-characterized indoleamine that possesses important anti-angiogenic properties in a set of aggressive solid tumors. Herein, we evaluated the role of melatonin therapy on the angiogenic signaling pathway in OC of an ethanol-preferring rat model that mimics the same pathophysiological conditions occurring in women. OC was chemically induced with a single injection of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) under the ovarian bursa. After the rats developed serous papillary OC, half of the animals received i.p. injections of melatonin (200 µg/100 g body weight/day) for 60 days. Serum levels of melatonin were higher following therapy, and the expression of its receptor MT1R was significantly increased in OC-bearing rats, regardless of ethanol intake. TGFB1, a transforming growth factor-beta1, was reduced only after melatonin treatment. Importantly, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was severely reduced after melatonin therapy in animals given or not given ethanol. Conversely, the levels of VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) was diminished after ethanol consumption, regardless of melatonin therapy, and VEGFR2 was only reduced following melatonin. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was augmented with ethanol consumption, and notably, melatonin significantly reduced their levels. Collectively, our results suggest that melatonin attenuates angiogenesis in OC of an animal model of ethanol consumption; this provides a possible complementary therapeutic opportunity for concurrent OC chemotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1772.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: learning process; laparoscopic gynecology; gynecological surgery; laparoscopy; ovarian cyst
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:45:33 CEST)
Background: Laparoscopy for benign ovarian pathology is the appropriate surgical approach and it has a lot of well-known advantages. Minimal invasive gynecological surgery increases the quality of life for the patient. The learning process of laparoscopy is difficult and re-quires many interventions to acquire manual skills. The objectives of the study were to assess the learning process of laparoscopy for adnexal pathology surgery performed by beginner laparoscopists. Materials and Methods: This study included three gynecological surgeons who were beginners in laparoscopy and who were named A, B and C. We collected information about patients, diagnosis, surgical technique and complications. Results: We have analyzed the data from 159 patients. The most frequent primary diagnosis was functional ovarian cyst, and the laparoscopic cystectomy was performed in 49.1% of intervention. The need to convert a laparoscopy into laparotomy was necessary in 1.3% of patients. There were no cases of reintervention, blood transfusion or ureteral lesions. The duration of the surgical intervention varied statistically significantly according to patient's BMI and to the surgeon. After 20 laparoscopic interventions, a significant improvement was found in the time needed to perform ovarian cystectomy (operator A and B) and salpingectomy (operator C). Conclusions: The process of learning laparoscopy is laborious and difficult. We found a significant decrease in operating time after a number of twenty laparoscopic interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1315.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: ovarian torsion; large cyst; acute abdomen; case report; fertility; third presentation rule; ovarian serous cystadenoma; diagnostic process in primary care, case report
Online: 20 October 2023 (10:30:20 CEST)
Background. Ovarian cysts are common in premenopausal women but can present with vague, non-specific symptoms, making discovery more challenging. Most are benign and resolve spontaneously; however, they can present, as in this case, as ovarian torsions, which is a gynecological emergency. Case presentation. A twenty-year-old female had presented over 3–4 times per year for the last 6 years to her primary doctor citing intermittent abdominal pain, irregular menstruation, dyspnea, and an enlarging abdomen circumference. The doctor stated, she was “just fat” and could, benefit from a “special camp to lose weight”, so she stopped mentioning her concerns. Upon presenting to the emergency department with acute onset abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan showed a large cyst lesion filling the abdominal and pelvic cavity. Its origin appeared to be from the left adnexa. Surgery was performed, and an acute ovarian torsion caused by a 36 cm craniocaudal left ovarian cyst was found and removed along with the left fallopian tube and 16 L of fluid. Conclusions. The value of respecting the “third presentation” rule indicates to health care providers that any patient who presents with any /or other symptoms or complaint needs to be thoroughly investigated. In this case the patient presented recurring pelvic/abdominal concerns, irregular menstruation, which warranted further investigation to safeguard fertility and prevent errors of omission. It is important to consider the differentials and be aware of vague symptoms that may lead to early recognition and effective management to prevent adverse consequences, complications, or even death.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cytochromes P450; ovarian cancer; gynecologic cancers; pro-drug; xenobiotics; prognosis
Online: 4 September 2023 (11:58:30 CEST)
Over the past decade, significant developments have occurred in treatment strategies for ovarian cancer, yet targeted therapy with few side effects is still a major issue. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme family plays a vital role in the tumorigenesis process and metabolism of drugs, with a negative impact on therapy outcomes. Gaining more insight into CYP expression is crucial for understanding the pathophysiology of ovarian cancer since many isoforms are essential for the metabolism of xenobiotics and steroid hormones, which drive the disease's development. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear understanding of differential CYP expression in ovarian cancer and its implications for the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients, together with their polymorphisms' effect on chemotherapy metabolism. Finally, we provide our thoughts on opportunities to exploit metabolic CYP expression for novel therapeutic development to treat ovarian cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: biomarkers; immunotherapy markers; advanced serous ovarian carcinoma; immunohistochemistry; p53; MSI
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:39:48 CEST)
Abstract: Advanced high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma is a serious malignant neoplasm with a late diagnosis and high mortality rate. Even when treated with standard therapy, such as surgery followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy, the prognosis remains unfavorable. Im-munotherapy is a treatment alternative that requires further study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the expression of the immunotherapy markers: PD-1, PD-L1, CD8, MSI (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2), and p53 in the paraffin samples of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. A retrospective study of 28 southern Brazilian patients with advanced serous ovarian carcinoma (EC III or IV) was conducted between 2009 and 2020. The expression of these proteins was evaluated using im-munohistochemistry, and the results were correlated with the patients' clinicopathological data. At diagnosis, the mean age was 61 years, and the most common clinical stage (60%) was EC III. Among the cases, 84.6% exhibited p53 overexpression, 14.8% had MSI, 92.0% were sensitive to platinum, and more than 50.0% relapsed after treatment. Patients with MSI had a lower CD8/PD-1 ratio and more relapses (p=0.03). In conclusion, analysis of immunotherapeutic markers in paraf-fin-embedded samples of advanced serous ovarian carcinoma is feasible and may assist in prog-nosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: polycystic ovarian syndrome; granulosa cells; microrna regulation; dna methylation; biomarker
Online: 17 October 2019 (12:30:58 CEST)
Aberration in microRNA (miRNA) expression or DNA methylation is a causal factor for polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disorder and leading cause of infertility. However, the epigenetic interactions between miRNA and DNA methylation remain unexplored in PCOS. In this study, we conducted an integrated analysis of RNA-seq, miRNA-seq and MBD-seq on ovarian granulosa cells of PCOS and control groups to reveal the epigenetic interactions involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Firstly, we identified 830 genes and 30 miRNAs that were expressed differently in PCOS, and seven miRNAs were found to negatively regulate targeted mRNA expression. Next, in total, 130 miRNAs were found to be significantly differently methylated in promoter regions, while 13 were found to be associated with miRNA expression. Furthermore, the promoter hypermethylation of miR-429, miR-141-3p, and miR-126-3p was proven to suppress miRNA expression and therefore upregulate their corresponding genes, including XIAP, BRD3, MAPK14 and SLC7A5. Our results demonstrate that DNA methylation regulates miRNA expression and therefore controls its corresponding gene expression. The reactivation of the transcription of epigenetically silenced genes may be one of the key elements in PCOS pathogenesis. Meanwhile, the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the regulation of miRNA expression can provide a potential therapeutic target for PCOS in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: BRCA1; variants of uncertain clinical significance; VUS; germline variants; hereditary breast and ovarian cancer; breast cancer; genetic testing, ovarian cancer; variant classification; clinical annotation
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:12:03 CET)
Genetic testing allows for identification of germline DNA variations which are associated with a significant increase in risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. Detection of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant triggers several clinical management actions, which may include increased surveillance and prophylactic surgery for healthy carriers or treatment with PARP inhibitor therapy for carriers diagnosed with cancer. Thus, standardized validated criteria for annotation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants according to their pathogenicity are necessary to support clinical decision making and ensure improved outcomes. Upon detection, variants whose pathogenicity can be inferred by the genetic code are typically classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic, likely benign, or benign. Variants whose impact on function cannot be directly inferred by the genetic code are labeled as Variants of Uncertain Clinical Significance (VUS) and are evaluated by multifactorial likelihood models that use personal and family history of cancer, segregation data, prediction tools, and co-occurrence with a pathogenic BRCA variant. Missense variants, coding alterations that replace a single amino acid residue with another, are a class of variants for which determination of clinical relevance is particularly challenging. Here, we discuss current issues in variant classification by following a typical life cycle of a BRCA1 missense variant through detection, annotation and information dissemination. Advances in massively parallel sequencing have led to a substantial increase in VUS findings. Although comprehensive assessment and classification of missense variants according to their pathogenicity remains the bottle neck, new developments in functional analysis, high throughput assays, data sharing, and statistical models are rapidly changing this scenario.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0633.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Reproductive Medicine Keywords: natural products; polycystic ovarian syndrome; lipid profile; sex hormone; blood glucose
Online: 11 July 2023 (05:19:58 CEST)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in women, characterized by fluid-filled sacs in the ovaries and various symptoms including high androgen levels, endometrial irregularities, and cysts. While the cause of PCOS is unknown, it has been linked to genetic, endocrine, and metabolic factors, and there are several treatment options, including lifestyle modifications, medications, and surgery. Natural products, such as medicinal plants and fruits, are being explored as potential treatments for PCOS due to their bioactive compounds with pharmacological effects related to antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. Some of these compounds improve insulin sensitivity, reduce inflammation, and enhance glucose metabolism, which is beneficial for women with PCOS. This review examined the effects of natural products on PCOS, including their effects on ovarian histological changes, blood glucose, sex hormones, and lipid profile, based on animal and human studies. This study suggests that the use of natural products as complementary medicine can be a promising resource for the development of effective therapeutics for PCOS, but that further research is needed to fully understand their benefits
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; ovarian cancer; PARP inhibitors; Alu repeats; protein-protein interactions
Online: 13 February 2023 (07:54:35 CET)
Two related tumor suppressor genes, Brca1 and Brca2, attract a lot of attention from both fundamental and clinical points of view. Oncogenic hereditary mutations in these genes are firmly linked to the early onset of breast and ovarian cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms that drive extensive mutagenesis in these genes are not known. In this review we hypothesize that one of the potential mechanisms behind this phenomenon can be mediated by Alu mobile genomic elements. Linking mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to the general mechanism(s) of genome stability and DNA repair is critical to ensure the rationalized choice of anti-cancer therapy. Accordingly, we review the literature available on mechanisms of DNA damage repair where these proteins are involved in and how the inactivating mutations in these genes (BRCAness) can be exploited in anti-cancer therapy. We also propose a hypothesis that explains why breast and ovarian epithelial tissues are preferentially susceptible to mutations in BRCA genes. Finally, we discuss perspectives of novel therapeutic approaches for treating BRCAness cancers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: metformin; pregnancy; gestational diabetes; polycystic ovarian syndrome; type 2 diabetes; obesity
Online: 6 June 2018 (12:09:00 CEST)
Metformin use in pregnancy is increasing worldwide as randomised controlled trial (RCT) evidence is emerging demonstrating its safety and efficacy. The Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) RCT changed practice in many countries demonstrating that metformin had similar pregnancy outcomes to insulin therapy with less maternal weight gain and a high degree of patient acceptability. A multicentre RCT is currently assessing the addition of metformin to insulin in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes. RCT evidence is also available for the use of metformin for women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and for non-diabetic women with obesity. No evidence of an increase in congenital malformations or miscarriages has been observed even when metformin is started before pregnancy and continued to term. Body composition and metabolic outcomes at two, seven and nine years have now been reported for the offspring of mothers treated in the MiG study. In this review, we will briefly discuss the action of metformin and then consider the evidence from the key clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0088.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: p53; proteasome inhibitor; endometrial cancer; ovarian cancer; gain-of-function mutation
Online: 4 May 2018 (09:03:27 CEST)
Mutations in the “guardian of the genome” TP53 predominate in solid tumors. In addition to loss of tumor suppressor activity, a specific subset of missense mutations confers additional oncogenic properties. These “gain-of-function” (GOF) mutations portend poor prognosis across cancer types regardless of treatment. Our objective in this study was to identify novel therapeutic opportunities to overcome the deleterious effects of GOF TP53 mutants. Using gynecologic cancer cell lines with known TP53 mutational status, we established that treatment with a proteasome inhibitor induced cell death in cells with two recurrent GOF TP53 mutations (R175H and R248Q), and addition of a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) enhanced this effect. By contrast, p53-null cancer cells were relatively resistant to the combination. Towards understanding the mechanism, we found that proteasome inhibition promotes apoptosis of cells with TP53 GOF mutations, potentially through induction of the unfolded protein response. In line with the reported hyperstabilization of GOF p53 protein, cells treated with HDACi exhibited reduced levels of p53 protein. Together, these data form the basis for future clinical studies examining therapeutic efficacy in a preselected patient population with GOF TP53 mutations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: epithelial-mesenchymal transition; cytoskeleton; extracellular matrix remodeling; ovarian cancer; anoikis resistance; metastasis
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:10:00 CEST)
Background: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process where epithelial cells lose their adhesive properties and gain invasive, metastatic, and mesenchymal properties. Maintaining the balance between epithelial and mesenchymal stage is essential for tissue homeo-stasis. Many of the genes promoting mesenchymal transformation has been identified; however, our understanding of the genes responsible for maintaining the epithelial phenotype is limited. Our objective was to identify genes responsible for maintaining the epithelial phenotype and in-hibiting EMT. Methods: RNA seq was performed using an vitro model of EMT. CTGF expres-sion was determined by qPCR and Western blot analysis. Knockout of CTGF was done using the CTGF sgRNA CRISPR/CAS9. Tumorigenic potential was determined using NCG mice. Results: Knocked-out of CTGF in epithelial ovarian cancer cells leads to the acquisition of functional characteristics associated with the mesenchymal phenotype such as Anoikis resistance, cytoskel-eton remodeling, increased cell stiffness, and acquisition of invasion and tumorigenic capacity. Conclusions: We identified CTGF is an important regulator of the epithelial phenotype, and its loss is associated with early cellular modifications required for EMT. We describe a novel role for CTGF, regulating cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix interactions necessary for conserva-tion of epithelial structure and function. These findings provide a new window to understand the early stages on mesenchymal transformation
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0515.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: epigenetic; genomic imprinting; ovarian tissue cryopreservation; testicular tissue cryopreservation; Medically Assisted Reproduction
Online: 7 June 2023 (08:32:11 CEST)
Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) or testicular tissue cryopreservation (TTC) are effective and often the only options for fertility preservation in female or male patients due to oncological, medical, or social aspects. While TTC and resumption of spermatogenesis, either in vivo or in vitro, has still be considered an experimental approach in humans, OTC and autotransplantation has been applied increasingly to preserve fertility with more than 200 live births worldwide. However, the cryopreservation of reproductive cells followed by the resumption of gametogenesis, either in vivo or in vitro, may interfere with sensitive and highly regulated cellular processes. In particular, the epigenetic profile, which includes not just reversible modifications of the DNA itself but also post-translational histone modifications, small non-coding RNAs, gene expression and availability, and storage of related proteins or transcripts, have to be considered in this context. Due to complex reprogramming and maintenance mechanisms of the epigenome in germ cells, growing embryos, and offspring, OTC and TTC are carried out at very critical moments early in the life cycle. Given this background, the safety of OTC and TTC taking into account the epigenetic profile has to be clarified. Cryopreservation of mature germ cells (including Metaphase II oocytes and mature spermatozoa collected via ejaculation or more invasively after testicular biopsy) or embryos has been used successfully for many years in Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR). However, tissue freezing followed by in vitro or in vivo gametogenesis has become more attractive in the past, while few human studies have analysed the epigenetic effects, with most data deriving from animal studies. In this review, we highlight the potential influence of the cryopreservation of immature germ cells and subsequent in vivo or in vitro growth and differentiation on the epigenetic profile in humans and animals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cervical cancer; endometrial cancer; ovarian cancer; 2021 update; novel targeted therapies; immunotherapy
Online: 3 February 2022 (13:02:11 CET)
This review of the meaningful data from 2021 on cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers aims to provide an update of the most clinically relevant studies presented at important oncologic congresses during the year [the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress and the Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) Annual Meeting]. Despite the underlying existence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the last year has been notable in terms of research, with significant and promising advances in gynecologic malignancies. Several major studies reporting the effects of innovative therapies for patients with cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers might change the medical practice in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: endocannabinoid system; gynaecological cancers; endometrial cancer; cervical cancer; ovarian cancer, CB1R; CB2R; FAAH;
Online: 1 June 2018 (05:45:19 CEST)
Background: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a very heterogeneous array consisting of many proteins like ligands, enzymes and receptors synthetized in various tissues and immunity cells. The main endogenous ligands are unsaturated fatty acid derivatives like anandamide(AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol(2-AG), but many others are under study. Endocannabinoids are involved in both physiological and pathological conditions. ECS plays an important role in the regulation of main processes which lead to cancer and also in sex steroid hormone-related cancers. Methods: With focus on gynaecological cancers, main papers and review articles, up to April 2018, on the role of the ECS, were acquired by PubMed searches using the search terms: ‘cancer’, ‘cannabinoid’, ‘endocannabinoid’, ‘gynaecology’ and ‘malignancy’. Results: The review of recent literature data showed the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in numerous physiological and pathological conditions of the female genital tract up to the development of gynaecological malignancy as cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer. Conclusions: The endocannabinoid system has an important role in antitumor actions involving different signalling receptor and receptor-independent pathways. It represents an exciting challenge to researchers for its potential use in diagnosis and treatment of all gynaecological malignancies
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0436.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Reproductive Medicine Keywords: assisted reproductive technologies; ART; complications; in vitro fertilization; ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome; OHSS; systematic review
Online: 11 August 2023 (11:11:59 CEST)
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is the main severe complication of the ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. The aim of the current study was to identify the interventions for prevention of and reduction in the incidence and severity of OHSS in patients who undergo IVF not included in systematic reviews with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), assess and grade their efficacy and evidence base. The best available evidence for each specific intervention was identify, analyzed in terms of safety/efficacy ratio and of risk of bias, and graded using Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) hierarchy of evidence. A total of 15 interventions to prevent OHSS were included in the final analysis. In IVF population not at high risk for OHSS, follitropin delta for ovarian stimulation may reduce the incidence of early OHSS and/or preventive interventions for early OHSS. In high-risk patients, inositol pretreatment, ovulation triggering with low doses of urinary hCG, and the luteal phase administration of GnRH antagonist may reduce the OHSS risk. In conclusion, even if not supported by systematic reviews with homogeneity of the RCTs, several treatments/strategies to reduce the incidence and severity of OHSS have shown to be promising.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0320.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Ovarian Tumours; UNet; Convolutional Neural Networks; VGG 16; DenseNet; ResNet; Dice score; Jaccard score
Online: 13 April 2023 (10:50:53 CEST)
The difficulty in detecting tumors in earlier stages is the major cause of mortalities of patients, despite the advancements in treatment and research regarding ovarian cancer. Deep Learning algorithms are applied to serve the purpose of a diagnostic tool by applying them on CT scan images of the ovarian region. The images go through a series of pre-processing techniques and further the tumor is segmented using the UNet model. Instances are then classified into two categories – benign and malignant tumors. Classification is performed using Deep Learning models like CNN, ResNet, DenseNet, Inception-ResNet, VGG16 and Xception along with Machine Learning models such as Random Forest, Gradient Boosting, AdaBoosting, XGBoosting. DenseNet 121 emerges as the best model on this dataset even after applying optimization on the Machine Learning models by obtaining an accuracy of 95.7%. The current work demonstrates the comparison of multiple CNN architectures among themselves and with common Machine Learning algorithms, with and without optimization techniques applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0667.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Ovarian cancer; drug resistance; apoptosis; proteomics; combination; cytotoxicity; artemisinin; oleanolic acid; platinum drugs; cisplatin
Online: 30 August 2020 (12:06:32 CEST)
Background: In the present study, cisplatin, artemisinin and oleanolic acid were evaluated alone and in combination, on human ovarian A2780, A2780ZD0473R and A2780cisR cancer cell lines with aim of overcoming cisplatin resistance and side effects. Methods: Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT reduction assay. CI values were used as a measure of combined drug effect. MALDI TOF/TOF MS/MS and 2-DE gel electrophoresis were used to identify protein biomarkers in ovarian cancer and to evaluate combination effects. Results: Synergism from combinations was dependent on concentration and sequence of administration. Generally, bolus was most synergistic. 49 proteins differently expressed by 2 ≥ fold were: CYPA, EIF5A1, Op18, p18, LDHB, P4HB, HSP7C, GRP94, ERp57, mortalin, IMMT, CLIC1, NM23, PSA3,1433Z, and HSP90B were down-regulated, whereas hnRNPA1, hnRNPA2/B1, EF2, GOT1, EF1A1, VIME, BIP, ATP5H, APG2, VINC, KPYM, RAN, PSA7, TPI, PGK1, ACTG and VDAC1 were up-regulated, while TCPA, TCPH, TCPB, PRDX6, EF1G, ATPA, ENOA, PRDX1, MCM7, GBLP, PSAT, Hop, EFTU, PGAM1, SERA and CAH2 were not-expressed in A2780cisR cells. The proteins were found to play critical roles in cell cycle regulation, metabolism and biosynthetic processes and drug resistance and detoxification. Conclusion: Results indicate that appropriately sequenced combinations of cisplatin with ART and OA may provide a means to reduce side effects and circumvent platinum resistance.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Krukenberg Tumor; Neoplasm Metastasis; Ovarian Neoplasms; Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications; Case Report.
Online: 11 June 2020 (12:30:50 CEST)
BACKGROUND Krukenberg tumor is a rare metastatic tumor of the ovary with characteristic histopathological features known as signet-ring cells. It usually presents in women around 45 years of age, however, we present an uncommon case in a 38-year-old pregnant woman. We report this case because of the unusual findings, the uncommon presentation in this younger age bracket, its diagnostic challenge, and poor prognosis. CASE PRESENTATION We describe an unusual case of a young woman with a history of painful vaginal bleeding at 13 weeks of pregnancy and treated for abruptio placentae. In her routine prenatal visit at week 20 of pregnancy, she was found to have a uterine fundus greater than her gestational age and referred to the hospital to discard polyhydramnios. At her admission a pelvic ultrasound was performed with normal findings of a 25 weeks pregnancy, also showing bilateral enlarged ovaries with heterogeneous echogenicity. The MRI showed a left tumoral lesion with dimensions of 22.1 x 13.6 x 16.3 cm, with lobulated regular contours with displacement of peripheral structures and mild compression of the bladder, the left ureter, and the inferior vena cava. The lesion was heterogeneous with irregular borders. The patient was programmed for a cesarean section; during the operation, the abdominal cavity showed bilateral tumors compatible with MRI findings, the ovarian tumors were sent to pathology and the results showed poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma (WHO III) with extensive signet-ring cells, an indicative of Krukenberg tumor. CONCLUSION: The case presented is rare due to its presentation in a pregnant woman without identifiable risk factors for gastric cancer. The incidental finding suggests the pregnancy masked the clinical presentation of gastric cancer, and the rapid deterioration of the patient is consistent with the aggressiveness described in the literature. The limited descriptions of this neoplasm in our country and the torpid evolution of this case highlight the importance of further studies of this cancer in Mexico.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0310.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: older women; ovarian stimulation protocol; in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer; cumulative live birth rate; time to live birth; cost-effectiveness.
Online: 6 November 2023 (10:39:42 CET)
The decline in assisted reproductive technology (ART) success among older women, attributed to decreased oocyte quantity and quality, poses a significant challenge. Currently, no consensus ex-ists on the optimal ovarian stimulation protocol for older women undergoing IVF. This retrospec-tive registered cohort study aimed to compare cumulative live birth rates (CLBR), time to live birth (TTLB), and cost-effectiveness in women over 35 years using gonadotropin-releasing hor-mone agonist (GnRHa) or clomiphene-primed ovarian stimulation (CPOS). We performed pro-pensity score matching (PSM) on 2,871 IVF cycles in women over 35 who received either GnRHa or CPOS protocols, resulting in 375 cycles in each group to compare treatment outcomes. Addition-ally, a decision tree model was utilized to assess the cost-effectiveness of the two protocols. Fol-lowing PSM, both groups showed similar baseline characteristics. The CPOS protocol exhibited a higher cycle cancellation rate (13.07% vs 8.00%, p=0.032), yet maintained comparable fertilization and embryo quality. While CLBRs per initial cycle (41.07% vs. 45.33%, p=0.269) and delivery out-comes were similar between the groups after a 24-month follow-up, TTLB was longer in the CPOS group. Notably, the average cost per live birth in the CPOS group was 21.27% less than that in the GnRHa group (￥32,301.42 vs ￥39,174.22). In conclusion, for women over 35 undergoing IVF, the CPOS protocol demonstrated similar CLBR to GnRHa but with lower costs, suggesting its potential as a viable and cost-efficient ovarian stimulation option.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0716.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: borderline ovarian tumors; molecular features; mutations; genetic mutations; BRAF; KRAS; NRAS; ARID1A; CADM1; PIK3CA; CHEK2; CLAUDIN-1; ERBB2; loss of heterozygosity; PTEN; microsatellite instability
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:32:29 CET)
Borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs) show intriguing characteristics distinguishing them from other ovarian tumors. This unique type of non-invasive neoplasms is characterized by atypical growth of epithelial cells, nuclear atypia, and a moderate-level mitotic activity that places BOTs between benign tumors and invasive cancers. Similar to invasive carcinomas, BOTs can be categorized into six histological subtypes based on the type of epithelial cells present. The most prevalent subtypes are serous and mucinous BOTs, whereas endometrioid, clear cell, seromucinous, and borderline Brenner tumors are diagnosed less often. Noticeably, molecular changes found in BOTs can vary on a case-by-case basis, which warrants further research on the molecular landscape of these tumors. Identifying carcinogenic mutations through molecular analysis and developing targeted therapies represent significant advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian malignancies. A growing body of evidence indicates that BOTs often remain clinically dormant for extended periods before a molecular trigger initiates increased cell replication, potentially leading to carcinoma development or recurrence. Continued research in this area is crucial for improving risk assessment and developing personalized treatment approaches. While molecular studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of BOT pathogenesis, substantial research is still required to elucidate the relationship between ovarian neoplasms and extraneous disease, identify accurate prognostic indicators, and develop targeted therapeutic approaches. The aim of the present systematic review was to analyze the spectrum of molecular changes found in BOTs and discuss their significance in the context of the overall therapeutic approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0217.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Premature ovarian insufficiency, POI; Gene therapy; Menopause; SAL-like 4 genes, SALL4; Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); Basonuclin-1; Replication-incompetent adenoviral vector, Ad; Stem cells, SC.
Online: 12 September 2018 (11:06:42 CEST)
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a highly prevalent disorder, characterized by the development of menopause before age of 40. Most cases are idiopathic; however, in some women the cause of this condition (e.g. anticancer treatment, genetic disorders, and enzymatic defects) may be identified. Although hormone replacement therapy, the principal therapeutic approach for POI, helps to alleviate the related symptoms, this does not effectively solve the issue of fertility. Assisted reproductive techniques also lack efficacy in these women. Thus, the effective approach to manage the patients with POI is highly warranted. Several mechanisms, associated with POI, have been identified, including lack of FSH receptor functioning, alterations in the apoptosis control, mutations in Sal-like 4 genes, thymulin or basonuclin-1 deficiency etc. The above-mentioned may be good targets for gene therapy in order to correct defects, leading to POI. The goal of this review is to summarize the current experience on the POI studies, that employed gene therapy, and to discuss the possible future directions in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1155.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: miRNA; piRNA; mRNA; CA125; progesterone receptor (PGR); new-generation sequencing (NGS); quantitative RT-PCR; serous ovarian carcinoma; borderline cystadenoma; benign cystadenoma; formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks; blood plasma; cytoreduction
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:58:12 CEST)
Progesterone receptor (PGR) expression level determines biological characteristics of the serous ovarian carcinoma, and low PGR expression appears to be associated with chemoresistance and worse outcome. In this study, we aimed to find relationships between tumor progesterone receptor level and RNA-profile (miRNAs, piwiRNAs, and mRNAs), determining its biological characteristics and behavior. For this purpose, we applied next generation sequencing of small noncoding RNAs, quantitative RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry to analyze FFPE and frozen tumor samples as well as blood plasma from patients with benign cystadenoma (BSC), serous borderline tumour (SBT), low-grade and high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (LGSOC and HGSOC, respectively). We found significant upregulation of MMP7 and MUC16 and downregulation of PGR in LGSOC and HGSOC in comparison with BSC. The tissue content of miR-199a-5p, miR-214-3p, miR-424-3p, miR-424-5p, miR-125b-5p significantly inversely correlated with the expression level of MUC16 and blood serum CA125 concentration, and significantly directly correlated with the PGR expression level in tumor tissue. On the contrary, the tissue content of miR-16-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-93-5p, responsible for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cell, significantly directly correlated with the blood serum CA125 concentration and significantly inversely correlated with the PGR expression level in the tumor tissue. Levels of the EMT-associated miRNAs significantly directly correlated with the content of hsa_piR_022437, hsa_piR_009295, hsa_piR_020813, hsa_piR_004307, hsa_piR_019914 in tumor tissues. Among them, expression level of hsa_piR_004307 significantly inversly correlated with the PGR expression level in the tumor. Two optimal logistic regression models were developed based on the quantitation of hsa_piR_020813, miR-16-5p, hsa_piR_022437 or hsa_piR_004307, hsa_piR_019914, miR-93-5p in the tumor tissue, both of which significantly diagnose PGR-negative tumor phenotype with 93% sensitivity. According to FunRich3.1.3 functional enrichment analysis tool, 72 gene-targets of miRNA and piRNA identified here as markers of PGR-negative ovarian tumor phenotype were proven to be mutated in different cancers such as ovarian, breast, colorectal, liver, stomach, lung, endometrial, thyroid cancer. Among them, the blood plasma levels of miR-16-5p and hsa_piR_022437 can be used to diagnose PGR-negative tumor phenotype with 86% sensitivity before surgery and chemotherapy to choose the treatment strategy for this most aggressive type of ovarian cancer (for instance, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by cytoreduction in combination with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy) to increase the effectiveness of treatment and longevity of the patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0744.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Infertility; assisted reproductive technologies (ART); human embryonic stem cells (ESCs); Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs); Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs); Ovarian Stem Cells (OSCs); Spermatogonial Stem Cells (SSCs); ethics and legal implications
Online: 11 October 2023 (13:20:49 CEST)
Infertility” is a condition defined by the failure to establish a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular, unprotected sexual intercourse or due to an impairment of a person’s capacity to reproduce either as an individual or with his/her partner’. The authors have set out to succinctly investigate, explore and assess infertility treatments harnessing the potential of stem cells to effectively and safely treat infertility, in addition to the legal and regulatory complexities at the heart of stem cell research, with an overview of the legislative state of affairs in six major European countries. In couples who cannot benefit from assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to treat their infertility, stem cells-based approaches have been shown to be a highly promising approach. Nonetheless, lingering ethical and immunological uncertainties require more conclusive findings and data before such treatment avenues can become mainstream and applied large scale. The isolation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is ethically controversial, since their collection involves the destruction of human embryonic tissue. Overall, stem cell research has resulted in important new breakthroughs in the treatment of infertility. The effort to untangle the complex web of ethical and legal issues associated with such therapeutic approaches will have to rely on evidence-based, broadly shared standards, guidelines and best practices to make sure that the procreative rights of patients can be effectively reconciled with the core values at the heart of medical ethics.