ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: cytokines; pulmonary; COVID-19; CORADS; moderate; severe
Online: 22 November 2022 (09:56:04 CET)
Aim: In individuals with COVID-19, the study assessed the relationship between cytokine expression and pulmonary dysfunction. These correlations may help to suggest strategies for prevention and therapies of coronavirus disease outbreak. Patients and methods: 50 healthy participants and 100 COVID-19 patients participated in this study. COVID-19 participants were subdivided into moderate and severe groups based on the severity of their symptoms. In both patients and controls, measurements of white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, and IL-35 were estimated. All the patients performed chest CT and CO-RADS score was assessed. Results: All patients had increased WBCs count and CRP, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-18, and IL-35 levels than healthy controls. While WBCs, CRP, and cytokines like IL-1β and IL-6 showed significantly higher levels in the severe group as compared to moderate patients, IL-4, IL-35, and IL-18 showed comparable levels in both disease groups. Furthermore, CO-RADS score was positively connected with WBCs, CRP, and cytokine levels (IL-35, IL-18, IL-6, IL-4 and IL-1β) in both groups, and lymphocyte levels in all patient groups considerably decreased as compared to the controls. CO-RADS score, also demonstrated a positive correlation with lymphocytes in the moderate COVID-19 patients, whereas in the severe patients, it demonstrated a negative correlation with lymphocytes. Conclusion: Severe COVID-19 patients, compared to individuals with moderate illness and healthy controls, patients had lower lymphocyte counts and increased CRP with greater WBCs counts. In contrast to moderate COVID-19 patients, severe COVID-19 patients had higher levels of IL-1β and IL-6, but IL-4, IL-18, and IL-35 between both illness categories at close levels. CO-RADS 5 was the most frequent category in both moderate and severe cases. Patients with a typical CO-RADS involvement had a higher CRP and white blood cell count with a lower lymphocyte count than the others. Cytokine levels were considered a surrogate markers of severe lung affection in COVID 19 patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Lymphocytes; liver function biomarkers; WBCs; and CRP
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:28:34 CEST)
Abstract Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the clinical laboratory features of moderate and severe COVID-19 patients among a cohort of the Egyptian population. The study also aimed to assess the accuracy—sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of various detected parameters in predicting the severity of COVID-19 infection. Patients and methods: One hundred diagnosed COVID-19 patients and fifty healthy participants in total were involved in current study. COVID-19 patients were categorized based on how severe their symptoms into two groups. Estimates were made for serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as white blood cells (WBCs) count, lymphocytes count, and hemoglobin content (Hb) content. Results: COVID-19 patients displayed increased serum levels of liver enzymes and CRP as well as WBCs count when compared to healthy individuals. On the other hand, Hb content, lymphocytes count, and albumin level fell in all COVID-19 patients. The severe group showed a statistically significant rise in liver enzymes, WBCs, and CRP levels, compared with moderate group. WBCs and lymphocytes counts were closely correlated with age, ALT, LDH, and CRP in all cases. WBCs and lymphocytes counts also had a negative correlation with albumin Level. Additionally, WBCs count, lymphocytes count, LDH activity and CRP level have higher AUC in severe than in moderate cases. WBCs count, LDH activity and CRP level have AUC above 0.80 in the severe group. Conclusion: The current investigation found a significant correlation between WBCs count, lymphocytes count, CRP level and liver injury in COVID-19 patients. WBCs count, lymphocytes count, LDH activity and CRP level were effective indicators for determining the severity of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0193.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: liver; Neuropilin-1; Toll-like receptors; COVID-19
Online: 10 August 2022 (05:05:04 CEST)
Purpose: The study aimed to investigate if there were any links between liver function biomarkers and immunoglobulins levels in serum, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and neuropilin-1 (NRP1) in COVID-19 patients. The study also aimed to assess the accuracy—sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) by the receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis for immunoglobulins levels and TLRs expressions. Patients and Methods: This study included 150 patients (100 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and 50 healthy volunteers as a control group). Patients with COVID-19 were subdivided into two groups according to the severity of symptoms (moderate and severe, with 50 patients each). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), immunoglobulin (Ig) G, and IgM levels were estimated. TLRs (TLR2 and TLR4) and NRP1 gene expression in blood samples were investigated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). ROC analysis was also applied to determine the accuracy of various detected parameters in predicting the possibility of COVID-19 infection. Results: In COVID-19 patients, serum parameters related to liver function, except serum albumin, CRP, IgG, IgM, and TLR2, TLR4, and NRP1 mRNA expression levels, significantly elevated compared to controls. Severe COVID-19 patients exhibited significantly higher liver enzymes (ALT, AST and LDH), CRP, and TLR2 mRNA expression levels and lower albumin levels than the moderate group. In the moderate and severe groups, ALT, CRP, TLR2, and TLR4 had a significant positive correlation with IgM levels. ALT, AST, LDH, CRP, TLR2, and TLR4 showed a significant positive correlation with IgG levels in both groups. In both the moderate and severe groups, NRP1 expression was found to be significantly correlated with CRP, IgG, IgM, TLR2, and TLR4. In contrast, serum albumin levels exhibited a significant negative correlation with IgG and IgM levels only in the severe group, but they showed a significant negative correlation with TLR2, TLR4, and NRP1 expression in both moderate and severe groups. Serum ALT and AST activities were positively correlated with NRP1 expression in the moderate group but not in the severe group and as well as TLR2 and TLR4 expression in both the moderate and severe groups. ROC analysis indicated that AUC was higher than 0.800 for serum IgM level and TLR4 gene expression in moderate COVID-19 group. Conclusions: The increased liver function biomarkers in serum and NRP1 expression are closely correlated with sustained activations in humoral and innate immune responses during COVID-19 infection. As a result, TLR2, TLR4, and NRP1 could be targets for limiting COVID-19 infection and impairment effects on liver function. Moreover, detection of IgM level in serum and TLR4 expression in blood have a good accuracy in predicting the possibility of infection with COVID-19 in moderate cases.