ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: OpenFOAM; overset meshing; NACA 0018; high Reynolds number; CFD
Online: 18 July 2019 (11:29:28 CEST)
The open source CFD code OpenFOAM has emerged as one of the most popular alternative to commercial CFD solvers. The recent version of OpenFOAM supports overlapping grids, so called Overset mesh. In this type of mesh, one or more sub-collection of control volumes (or cells) are allowed to overlap with other set of cells. This allows for great flexibility in modelling Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) problems. Fluid mesh can be standard structured mesh of a rectangular/cuboidal/or cylindrical domain. The structure mesh can be generated separately by creating multiple layers around a given body. The overset mesh functionality allows for overlapping or immersing this structured mesh inside the fluid mesh and a relevant FSI or moving dynamics problems can be solved. The idea of overset mesh has been around since eighties but its support in OpenFOAM is very recent. Most CFD codes which support overset mesh have either been in-house or commercial CFD codes. OpenFOAM's support for overset is the first major open source code resource available for CFD problems. The aim of this research is to solve a classical benchmark airfoil problem using OpenFOAM overset mesh and compare the numerical results with experimental result. We report here flow simulations results around NACA 0018. The result obtained from overset mesh compares convincingly well with experimental results. Computations have been carried out for Reynolds numbers in the range of 105 with angle of attack ranging from α= 5 degree to α= 30 degree with an interval of 5 degree. Turbulence is incorporated using k - ε turbulence model. This study helps developing confidence in using OpenFOAM overset support for more complicated flows and moving dynamics. This report is complemented with a brief description of finite volume discretization using overset mesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0218.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: bearing; lubrication; CFD; OpenFOAM®; meshing
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:55:48 CEST)
Efficiency improvement is the new challenge in all fields of design. In this scenario the reduction of power losses is becoming more and more a main concern also in the design of power transmissions. Appropriate models to predict power losses are therefore from the earliest stages of the design phase. The aim of the project is to carry on lubrication simulations of several variants of a cylindrical-roller-bearing to understand the lubricant distribution and the related churning power losses. Several strategies to reduce the computational effort have been used. Among them the sectorial symmetry and three innovative meshing strategies (purely analytical with and without interfaces and analytical/subtractive) that have been implemented in the OpenFOAM® environment. The results of the different approaches were compared among them and with experimental observations showing good agreement and reasonable savings in terms of computational effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: numerical wave tank; internal wavemaker; CFD; wave generation; OpenFOAM
Online: 22 January 2019 (12:09:25 CET)
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations, based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) models, are a useful tool for a wide range of coastal and offshore applications, providing a high fidelity representation of the underlying hydrodynamic processes. Generating input waves in the CFD simulation is performed by a numerical wavemaker (NWM), with a variety of different NWM methods existing for this task. While NWMs, based on impulse source methods, have been widely applied for wave generation in depth averaged, shallow water models, they have not seen the same level of adoption in the more general RANS based CFD simulations, due to difficulties in relating the required impulse source function to the resulting free surface elevation for non-shallow water cases. This paper presents an implementation of an impulse source wavemaker, which is able to self-calibrate the impulse source function to produce a desired wave series in deep or shallow water at a specific point in time and space. Example applications are presented, for a numerical wave tank (NWT), based on the opensource CFD software OpenFOAM, for wave packets in deep and shallow water, highlighting the correct calibration of phase and amplitude. Also, the suitability for cases requiring very low reflection from NWT boundaries is demonstrated. Possible issues in the use of the method are discussed and guidance for good application is given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0556.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction; OpenFOAM; One-way approach; Structural Analysis
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:10:19 CET)
This study addressed a Fluid-Structure Interaction of an open Water test for vp1304 propeller to predict pressure and stress distributions with a low cost and high precision method. The most striking aspect of such a method(one-way coupling) is to use one hydrodynamic solution for the number of different structural sets involved in other materials or different layup methods and combinations of layers. An open-access software(OpenFOAM) with an open-source code solver is used to simulate the fluid domain. Abaqus is used To evaluate and predict the deformation and strength of the blade with the Finite Element Method(FEM). The coupling approach is based on dry condition, which means the added mass effects due to propeller blades vibration is neglected. The pressures imposed on the blades are extracted from the fluid solver for each time step. Then, These pressures role as a load condition for the structure solver. This approach was verified in the last paper(wedge impact); a key factor for the present solution is the rotational rate interrelated between two solution domains, which is explained in this paper. Finally, the blades' stress and strain are calculated and compared in each advance coefficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0412.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids & Plasmas Keywords: two-phase flow; compressible flow; interfacial flow; computational hydrodynamic; computational gas dynamic; finite volume method; OpenFOAM; All-Mach number solver
Online: 31 May 2022 (07:09:48 CEST)
In this paper, we present the extension of the pressure-based solver designed for the simulation of compressible and/or incompressible two-phase flows of viscous fluids. The core of the numerical scheme is based on the hybrid Kurganov— Noele — Petrova/PIMPLE algorithm. The governing equations are discretized in the conservative form and solved for velocity and pressure, with the density evaluated by an equation of state. The acoustic-conservative interface discretization technique helps to prevent the unphysical instabilities on the interface. The solver was validated on various cases in wide range of Mach number, both for single-phase and two-phase flows. The numerical algorithm was implemented on the basis of the well-known open-source Computational Fluid Dynamics library OpenFOAM in the solver called interTwoPhaseCentralFoam. The source code and the pack of test cases are available on GitHub: https://github.com/unicfdlab/hybridCentralSolvers
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: tank transfer function; neural networks; machine learning; OpenFOAM; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:17:20 CEST)
Experimental test facilities are generally characterised using linear transfer functions to relate the wavemaker forcing amplitude to wave elevation at a probe located in the wavetank. Second and third order correction methods are becoming available but are limited to certain ranges of waves in their applicability. Artificial intelligence has been shown to be a suitable tool to find even highly nonlinear functional relationships. This paper reports on a numerical wavetank implemented using the OpenFOAM software package which is characterised using artificial intelligence. The aim of the research is to train neural networks to represent non-linear transfer functions mapping a desired surface-elevation time-trace at a probe to the wavemaker input required to create it. These first results already demonstrate the viability of the approach and the suitability of a single setup to find solutions over a wide range of sea states and wave characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0113.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: computational fluid dynamics; OpenFOAM; docked vessel; gas pollutants
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:12:08 CEST)
Docked ships are a source of contamination for the city while they keep their engine working. Plumes emissions from large boats can carry a number of pollutants to the nearby cities causing a detrimental effect on the life quality and health of local citizens and ecosystems. A computational fluid dynamics model of the harbour area of Tromsø has been built in order to model the deposition of CO2 gas emitted by docked vessels within the city. The ground level distribution of the emitted gas has been obtained and the influence of the wind speed and direction, vessel chimney height, ambient temperature and exhaust gas temperature has been studied. The deposition range is found to be the largest when the wind speed is low. At high wind speeds, the deposition of pollutants along the wind direction is enhanced and spots of high pollutant concentration can be created. The simulation model is intended for the detailed study of the contamination in cities near the coast or an industrial pollutant source of any type of gas pollutants and can easily be extended for the study of particulate matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0201.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: FFR, Blood Flow Simulation, coronal stenosis, Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA), OpenFOAM
Online: 11 January 2023 (11:56:16 CET)
A novel physiologically based algorithm (PBA) for the computation of fractional flow reserve (FFR) in coronary artery trees (CATs) using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is proposed and developed. The PBA is based on the extension of Murray's law and additional inlet conditions prescribed iteratively, and is implemented in OpenFOAM for testing and validation. 3D models of CATs are created using CT scans and computational meshes, and the results are compared to in-vasive coronary angiographic (ICA) data to validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the PBA. The discrepancy between calculated and experimental FFR is within 2.33-5.26% in steady-state and transient simulations, respectively, when convergence is reached. The PBA is a reliable and physiologically sound technique compared to the current lumped parameter model (LPM), which is based on empirical scaling correlations and requires nonlinear iterative computing for conver-gence. The accuracy of the PBA method is further confirmed using the FDA nozzle, which demonstrates good alignment with CFD-validated values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Magnetorheological Fluids; Computational Fluid Dynamics; Discrete Element Method; Immersed Boundary Method; OpenFOAM; LIGGGHTS
Online: 2 February 2023 (11:34:36 CET)
Magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) are smart materials consisting of micro-scale magnetizable particles suspended in a carrier fluid. The rheological properties of a MRF can be changed from a fluid-state to a solid-state upon the application of an external magnetic field. This study reports the development of a particle-level simulation code for magnetic solid spheres moving through an incompressible Newtonian carrier fluid. The numerical algorithm is implemented within an open-source finite-volume solver coupled with an immersed boundary method (FVM-IBM) to perform fully-resolved simulations. The particulate phase of the MRF is modeled using the discrete element method (DEM). The resultant force acting on the particles due to the external magnetic field (i.e., magnetostatic polarization force) is computed based on the Clausius-Mossotti relationship. The fixed and mutual dipole magnetic models are then used to account for the magnetic (MAG) interactions between particles. Several benchmark flows were simulated using the newly-developed FVM-IBM-DEM-MAG algorithm to assess the accuracy and robustness of the calculations. First, the sedimentation of two spheres in a rectangular duct containing a Newtonian fluid is computed without the presence of an external magnetic field, mimicking the so-called drafting-kissing-tumbling (DKT) phenomenon. The numerical results obtained for the DKT case study are verified against published data from the scientific literature. Second, we activate both the magnetostatic polarization and the dipole-dipole forces and resultant torques between the spheres for the DKT case study. Next, we study the robustness of the FVM-IBM-DEM-MAG solver by computing multi-particle chaining (i.e., particle assembly) in a two-dimensional (2D) domain for area volume fractions of 20% (260 particles) and 30% (390 particles) under vertical and horizontal magnetic fields. Finally, the fourth computational experiment describes the multi-particle chaining in a three-dimensional (3D) domain allowing to study fully-resolved MRF simulations of 580 magnetic particles under vertical and horizontal magnetic fields.