ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0109.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: dust; bioavailability; particle sizes; heavy metals; health risk; exposure
Online: 17 October 2017 (03:59:40 CEST)
In this study, we attempted to verify the hypothesis that total metals bound to dust of different particle sizes may reflect pollution levels, but cannot predict its bioavailability and risks in human health assessments. Dust samples were collected using active sampling method; during the dry season months of November, 2014 to March, 2015 at different locations in Akure (7˚10ʹN and 5˚15ʹE). The samples were sorted into different particle sizes (< 10µm, 10 – 50 µm, >50µm), analyzed for some physicochemical properties and assessed for metals bioavailability using two-step physiological extraction method. The amount of metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn) released in each particle sizes were determined using Perkin-Elmer 6000 Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) analysis. The results showed that bioavailability of some metals (Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn) decreases with increasing particle sizes, however, the reverse trend was observed for Mn, Cu and Fe concentrations. This may be attributed to some combination of physicochemical characteristics of the dust and metal speciation. Hence, it was concluded that metal bioaccessibility in dust can best be described by the knowledge of physicochemical characteristics. The exposure dose of the metals showed that cancer risks due to inhalation were very high when compared to other exposure routes (ingestion and dermal contact). The calculated non-cancer (HQ) and cancer risk (HI) for humans in the area showed values higher than unity, indicating possibility of the metals’ body burden.