Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: microbiomes; next generation sequencing, plant yield; rhizobacteria; rhizosphere; sustainable agriculture
Online: 25 January 2018 (17:41:19 CET)
Rhizosphere microbiomes which have been implicated to enhance plant growth and yield are modulated or influenced by a couple of environmental factors such as soil type, plant cultivar, climate change and anthropogenic activities. In particular, anthropogenic activity such as the use of nitrogen-based chemical fertilizers is associated with environmental destruction and this call for a more ecofriendly strategy to increase nitrogen level of agricultural land. This feat is attainable by harnessing nitrogen-fixing endophytic and free-living rhizobacteria. Rhizobium, Pseudomonas, Azospirillum and Bacillus have been found to have positive impacts on crops by enhancing both above and belowground biomass and could therefore play positive roles in achieving sustainable agriculture. Thus, it is needful to study these rhizosphere microbiomes with more sophisticated culture-independent technologies such as next generation sequencing (NGS) with the prospect of discovering novel bacteria with plant growth promoting traits. This review is therefore aimed at discussing factors that can modulate rhizosphere microbiomes with focus on the contributions of nitrogen fixing bacteria towards sustainable agricultural development and the techniques that can be used for their study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: microbial communities; plant-microbe interractions; rhizodeposition; SEED subsystem; shotgun metagenomics
Online: 7 July 2022 (06:05:13 CEST)
The plant microbiome is involved in enhancing nutrient acquisition, plant growth, stress tolerance and reduces chemical inputs. The identification of microbial functional diversity offers the chance to comprehend and engineer them for various agricultural processes. Using a shotgun metagenomics technique, this study examined the functional diversity and metabolic potentials of microbial communities in the rhizosphere soybean. 18 genera were selected out of which six are prominent in sample AB, the prominent genera are Geobacter, Nitrobacter, Burkholderia, Candidatus, Bradyrhizobium and Streptomyces. Twenty-one functional categories were present with 14 of the functions being dominant. The dominant functions include carbohydrates, fatty acids, lipids and isoprenoids, amino acids and derivatives, sulfur metabolism, and nitrogen metabolism. Kruskal- Wallis test was used to test samples’ diversity differences. There was a significant difference in the diversity with p-value of 0.04. ANOSIM was used to analyse the similarities of the samples, p-values and R-values of the samples were 0.01 and 0.5835 respectively. Phosphorus with p-value of0.718 and 64.3% contribution was more prominent among the soil properties that have influence on functional diversity of the samples. Given the functional groups reported in this study, it is clear that soil characteristics had an impact on on the functions role of the rhizospheric microbiome of soybean
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0394.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: academic institution; career progression; gender imbalance; glass ceiling; professionals
Online: 17 February 2021 (13:30:25 CET)
Compared to their men counterparts, women do not rapidly climb up the leadership ladder due to a glass ceiling obstacle. This study aims to explore the inhibiting factors demotivating Africa women's leadership pursuit in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). A qualitative approach was adopted using online open-ended questions to seek narratives from African women leaders on their roles and experiences of a STEM career. Data were collected using a non-probability, purposive sample of African women leaders in STEM in African research institutes and universities. Forty-two women in leadership positions in 12 African countries participated in the study, which was content analyzed, seeking patterns and themes to explore the narratives. A common thread exists in the tone and life experiences of the African women leaders in STEM. Scholarship, supportive organizational structure, commitment, hard work, and tenacity were all experienced as enablers of the career path process and their attained positions. The education level contributed to a strong leadership position. Women experience less acceptance than males in STEM leadership as the organizational culture still devalues women in leadership positions in several African countries. The study's contribution, the limitations, recommendations, and managerial implications are discussed, with suggestions for further research are made.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0451.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: plant-microbe interactions, signaling molecule, root exudate, disease suppression, crop production
Online: 7 July 2023 (08:33:10 CEST)
Plant roots host various microorganisms around and inside their roots, known as the root microbiome. To become healthy and productive, plants should keep under surveillance niches around the roots to recognize disease-causing microbes and similarly exploit the services of beneficial microorganisms in nutrient acquisition, stress mitigation and growth promotion. Here we presented the communication strategies between plant roots and root-associated microbes in improving plant growth and yield. Understanding how plant root and root-associated microbes communicate is vital in designing ecofriendly strategies for targeted disease suppression and improved plant growth that will help in sustainable agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2031.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Kpètè Kpètè; microbiological contaminant; Enterobacteria; resistance genes; Staphylococcus spp
Online: 30 May 2023 (04:02:20 CEST)
This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of the bacteria isolated and characterized from the kpètè kpètè used to produce two fermented beers in Benin. Species were identified by specific biochemical tests such as catalase, coagulase, and API 20 E. Antibiotic sensitivity was tested according to the French Society of Microbiology Antibiogram Committee. The crystal violet microplate technique and conventional PCR evaluated biofilm production to identify genes encoding virulence and macrolide resistance. Our data shows that Kpètè Kpètè used to produce beers are contaminated by Enterobacteriaceae species (Klebsiella terrigena, Enterobacter aerogens, Providencia rettgeri, Chryseomonas luteola, Serratia rubidae, and Enterobacter cloacae) and Staphylococcus spp. These multidrug-resistant strains can produce biofilms with a strong predominance of Enterobacter aerogens, Klebsiella terrigena (100%), and Staphylococcus spp (60%). Enterobacter cloacae (4%) and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (5.55%) harbor the macrolide resistance gene. For other strains, these genes were not detected. Foods contaminated with bacteria resistant to antibiotics and carrying a virulence gene could constitute a potential public health problem. There is a need to increase awareness campaigns on hygiene rules in preparing and selling these traditional beers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0883.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Corn; sustainable production; SDG2; combination
Online: 13 July 2023 (04:53:56 CEST)
In the face of persistent soil degradation in Benin due to poor agricultural practices, including excessive use of chemical fertilizers, there is an urgent need to seek solutions that integrate microorganisms of interest. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of combining three strains of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on maize production in northern Benin. The study involved 34 growers in Ouénou, Bagou, and Kokey. The experimental set-up consisted of three elementary plots with three treatments. Growth parameters were measured every 15 days, from the 15th to the 60th day after sowing, on ten plants per plot. Plant nutritional status, grain yield and mycorrhization were measured. Results showed that biostimulant + 50% NPK_Urea had similar positive effects on growth parameters to those induced by the application of 100% NPK_Urea. Gains of 30.25 to 36.35% were recorded in plant height at Kokey. On the other hand, biostimulant+ 50% NPK_Urea induced a better phosphorus uptake of 21.08 to 27.77%. In addition, the grain yield of mycorrhizal plants was 8.37% higher than that of plants receiving 100% NPK_Urea at Ouénou. These results show that this technology could be integrated into the agricultural system to promote sustainable maize growing in Benin.