ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0446.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Mongolia; Tanan sag; Fault basin; Lithologic reservoir; Fracturing; Hydrocarbon accumulation mode; Distribution of the oil reservoir
Online: 8 May 2023 (04:49:41 CEST)
According to the structural features, sedimentary evolution, types of sedimentary facies, source rocks features, diagenesis evolution, reservoir features and hydrocarbon formation mechanism, exploration status and hydrocargon resource potential, this article analyzed the major control fac-tors and hydrocarbon distribution rules of the lithologic reservoirs in continental fault basin. The research shows that three major control factors and one coupled factor (fractures act as a tie) in-fluence hydrocarbon formation of lithologic traps in Nantun Formation of Tanan Sag, which in-clude sand body types, effective source rocks and effective reservoirs. With the increase in depth, enough hydrocarbon generate in source rock under thermal evolution. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion are more intensive when it comes to the depth threshold and critical conditions of hydrocarbon supplying are met. Traps that surrounded or contacted by source rock, or communi-cated by fault are qualified to form reservoirs. As buried depth increases, hydrocarbon genera-tion-expulsion intensity grows and the trap is more petroliferous. Hydrocarbon accumulation and reservoir formation are also controlled by sandbody accumulation conditions. When it meets the critical conditions of hydrocarbon generation and concrete oil and gas are charged in, better phys-ical properties of sandbody always indicate more hydrocarbon accumulation in the trap. Alloca-tion of sand type, effective source rock and effective reservoir is optimized under the effect of fractures, and coupled hydrocarbon reservoir with these three elements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0406.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Array electromagnetics, magnetotellurics, controlled source electromagnetics, microseismics, reservoir monitoring, enhanced oil recovery, recovery factor improvement
Online: 23 September 2021 (12:27:38 CEST)
Focusing geophysics to improve recovery factor of hydrocarbon reservoirs adds value and contributes toward ZERO carbon footprint by increasing the recovery factor by of 30-40 % and thus reducing the cost/carbon emission per produced barrel. Thus, the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) market is expected to grow more than 3.5% annually. This will be even more fueled by the Green-House-Gas (GHG) reduction and subsequent CO2 injection into the reservoirs as they are being produced. Presently, geophysics only ac-counts for a small percentage of this market, thus its growth is inevitable since more deterministic observation lead higher operating efficiency. Imaging the fluids (hydro-carbon, water, and CO2) is a key component to optimized production and injection. We designed a novel electromagnetic (EM) acquisition system that combines mul-ti-physics fluid imaging and acquires surface and borehole data with high fidelity. Borehole calibration is needed to upscale reservoir data and parameters to measurement scale. Multiple electromagnetic methods are used as well as microseismics in one layout for Exploration and Production (E & P) problems. Multi-components in electromagnetics allows resolving oil and water-bearing zones equally well while achieving the best ac-curacy suitable for repeat measurements. Because sedimentary basins are intrinsically anisotropic, considering 3-dimensional anisotropy is essential from measurement and 3D modeling viewpoint. Thus, the results have the better subsurface images. Here, we combine hardware design, methodology, 3D modeling, processing, and interpretations into an integrated technology and demonstrate the success with verifiable case histories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0791.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: catalytic hydrocracking; aquathermolysis; heavy oil; FeSO4; NiSO4; water-soluble catalysts; resins and asphaltenes; destructive hydrogenation; in-situ upgrading
Online: 12 July 2023 (08:28:47 CEST)
Aquathermolysis is a promising method to upgrade heavy oil in reservoir conditions. However, application of catalysts can significantly promote transformation of the heavy fragments (resins and asphaltenes) and heteroatom-containing compounds of crude oil mixture into low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. In this paper, the comparison study of the catalytic performance of the water-soluble metal salts such as NiSO4 and FeSO4 on the aquathermolytic upgrading of heavy oil samples produced from Ashal’cha reservoir was carried out at a temperature of 300 °C for 24 hours. Iron nanoparticles contributed to the highest viscosity reduction degree - 60% in contrast to the viscosity of the native crude oil sample. The viscosity alteration is reasoned by the changes in the group composition of heavy oil after catalytic (FeSO4) aquathermolysis, where the content of resins and asphaltenes were reduced by 17% and 7%, respectively. Moreover, the aquathermolytic upgrading of heavy oil in the presence of FeSO4 led to an increase in the yield of gasoline fraction by 13% and diesel fraction by 53%. The H/C ratio, which represents the hydrogenation of crude oil, increased from 1.52 (before catalytic upgrading) to 1.99 (after catalytic upgrading). The results of Chromatomass (GC-MS) and Fourier-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies confirmed the intensification of destructive hydrogenation of resins and asphaltenes in the presence of the water-soluble catalysts. According to XRD and SEM-EDX results, the metal salts are thermally decomposed during the aquathermolysis process into the oxides of corresponding metals and particularly sulfided by the sulfur-containing aquathermolysis products.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Tight sandstone; Low resistivity contrast oil pay; Reservoir Characteristic; Control mechanism; Longdong West area.
Online: 15 January 2021 (13:02:42 CET)
The log interpretation and evaluation of Chang 8 tight sandstone reservoir in Longdong West area, Ordos Basin, is facing great challenges due to the existence of low resistivity contrast oil pays. To better guide the exploration of oil resources in this area, the characteristics and control mechanism of low resistivity contrast oil pays were studied in this research. Firstly, according to the relative value of apparent resistivity increase rate of the target formation, the reservoir was divided into two types: low resistivity contrast oil pay (LRCP) and high resistivity oil pay (HRP). Then, the reservoir characteristics were studied by comparing and analyzing the experimental data, formation water data and logging data collected from the two reservoir types. On this basis, the control mechanism of LRCP was studied and summarized into reservoir micro factors and regional macro factors, respectively. It is found that the reservoir rock composition between LRCP and HRP is basically the same. Compared with HRP reservoir, the average porosity and permeability of LRCP reservoir are relatively better, but the pore structure is relatively poorer because of the high content of micro pores. When the filling pressure of crude oil is sufficient enough, the high oil saturation can be formed in LRCP reservoir. The high irreducible water saturation and high formation water salinity are the main micro factors reduced the reservoir resistivity. Besides, the difference of hydrocarbon expulsion capacity of source rock and the regional difference of formation water salinity are the macro factors influenced the distribution of LRCP and HRP from vertical and horizontal of the region. The formation of LRCP is controlled by the comprehensive influence of reservoir micro factors and regional macro factors. And the comprehensive consideration of the influence of micro factors and macro factors on LRCP is suggested during the log interpretation and evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0221.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: palaeo-oil reservoir; aromatic hydrocarbons; thermochemical sulphate reduction (TSR); Qinglong antimony deposit; Nanpanjiang basin
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:53:43 CEST)
In Qinglong ore field, paleo-oil reservoir is found to be associated with antimony deposits, and they have close genetic relationship. In this study, aromatics geochemistry of paleo-oil reservoir bitumen was studied to further discuss the thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) reaction and the mechanism of antimony mineralization. A total of 124 aromatic compounds were identified by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis in bitumen samples, including abundant phenanthrene series, dibenzothiophene series, fluoranthene series, chrysene series, and a small number of fluorene series, naphthalene series, dibenzofuran series, biphenyl series, triaromatic steroid series. Aromatic parameters such as trimethylnaphthalene index (TMNr), methylphenanthrene index (MPI), methylphenanthrene distribution fraction (MPDF, F1 and F2), methyldibenzothiophene parameter (MDR), C28TAS-20S/(20R+20S), and benzofluoranthene/benzo[e]pyrene indicate Qinglong paleo-oil reservoir is in over maturity level. The abundance of phenanthrene and chrysene aromatic compounds and a small amount of naphthalene series, benzofluoranthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, anthracene, retene, perylene and biphenyl suggest that the parent material of the paleo-oil reservoir was mainly low aquatic organisms, mixed with a small amount of higher plant. The detected a certain number of compounds, such as retene, triaromatic steroid series and perylene, the ternary diagram of DBF–DBT–F and binary plot of Pr/Ph–DBT/P, DBT/(F+DBT)–DBF/(F+DBF) and Pr/Ph–DBT/DBF reveal that the source rock of the paleo-oil reservoir was formed in the marine environment of weak oxidation and weak reduction. The comprehensive analysis shows that the Qinglong paleo-oil reservoir originated from Devonian source rocks, just like other paleo-oil reservoirs and natural gas reservoirs in the Nanpanjiang basin. Abundant dibenzothiophene series were detected, indicating that the paleo-oil reservoir underwent a certain degree of TSR reaction. We believe that the paleo-gas reservoir formed by the evolution of paleo-oil reservoir participated in antimony mineralization, that is, hydrocarbon organic matter acted as reducing agent and transformed SO42− in oilfield brine into H2S through TSR, providing reduced sulfur and creating environmental conditions for mineralization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0693.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Shale oil reservoir; Flow parameters in porous media; FIB-SEM experiment; Pore network model (PNM); Quasi-static flow
Online: 9 June 2023 (09:22:11 CEST)
The pore-throat radius of shale oil reservoir is extremely small, and it is difficult to accurately obtain the absolute permeability and oil-water two-phase relative permeability of actual oil reservoir through conventional core experiments. However, these parameters are very important for reservoir numerical simulation. In this paper, a method for characterizing flow parameters based on pore network model that considers differential pressure flow and diffusion flow is proposed. Firstly, a digital core was reconstructed using focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) from the Gulong shale reservoir in the Songliao Basin, China, and a pore network model was extracted. Secondly, quasi-static single-phase flow and two-phase flow equations considering diffusion were established in the pore network model. Finally, pore throat parameters, absolute permeability, and oil-water two-phase permeability curves were calculated, respectively. The results show that the pore throat distribution of Gulong shale reservoir is mainly concentrated in the nanometer scale, the mean pore radius is 87 nm, the mean throat radius is 41 nm, and the mean coordination number is 3.97; The calculated permeability considering diffusion is 0.000124mD, which is approximately twice the permeability calculated without considering diffusion; The irreducible water saturation of the Gulong shale reservoir is approximately 0.26, and the residual oil saturation is approximately 0.73. The method proposed in this paper can provide an important approach for characterizing the flow parameters of similar shale oil reservoirs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0446.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: petroleum; oil market; oil; statistics
Online: 28 September 2022 (15:35:31 CEST)
The energy matrix worldwide has been going through difficulties in its discussions - such as irregular exploration, inefficient public policies, and arbitrariness concerning diplomatic and political definitions of those involved in this market. This work's general objective consists in analyzing associations and statistical inferences of the largest world oil producers, assimilating the contributions and singularities of this market from 1993 to 2020. Based on the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), it was possible to identify the possible inferences and contributions of the ten largest oil producers in the world in more than two decades using statistical analysis through correlation, regression, and statistical analysis of variables. According to the research and the literature on the area, the oil market proposes support to its discussions, mainly in its productive approaches. It is possible to identify this market as a solid link to geopolitical actions, distributing the possibilities through economic bias and socio-cultural and historical factors on a global level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1883.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: transition zone; initial oil saturation; residual oil saturation; permeability; oil viscosity
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:52:22 CEST)
Due to its economic benefits and the ability to reduce carbon emissions on a large scale, the CCUS-EOR project has been widely promoted and implemented globally. By using carbon dioxide flooding, oil water transition zone reservoirs that were once considered worthless may have new potential for development because of its rich geological reserves and high quality carbon sequestration conditions. Unlike water flooded layer, the oil in the TZ is unsaturated rather than residual oil after water flooding, which would lead to special oil-water seepage law of initial oil saturation. It is necessary to clarify special oil-water seepage law of oil-water transition zone to evaluate its production & storage potential. In this paper, we present a series of experiments to characterize the relationship between residual oil saturation and initial oil saturation. Cores in four different permeability and oil in four different viscosity are used to simulate different reservoir conditions, and that CO2 immiscible flooding experiments for each cores permeability and oil viscosity are performed with four different initial oil saturation. A total of 36 sets of CO2 flooding experiment data are used to draw the initial oil saturation & residual oil saturation chart. The results show that the residual oil saturation depends on the initial oil saturation rather than constant under certain conditions of core and oil. Under the condition of low permeability and high oil viscosity, the influence of initial oil saturation on residual oil saturation is relatively strong. The initial oil saturation & residual oil saturation chart can accurately calculate the residual oil saturation, initial water cut and final recovery based on the core permeability, oil viscosity and the initial oil saturation which is the first time to put forward this kind of chart and of the great significance to evaluate the recovery potential of the TZ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: olive oil; sunflower oil; spicy olive oil; canned eel; colour; sensory analysis
Online: 9 April 2022 (01:36:15 CEST)
The different vegetable oils used in canned fish as filling medium have a preserving effect and contribute to the palatability of the product. In this study, the colour of European eels and the filling medium (sunflower oil, olive oil or spicy olive oil) was measured at different steps of the canning process. The sensorial characteristics of canned eels packed in the different oils were also evaluated. Colour scores (CieLab values) were higher in canned eels packed in sunflower and spicy olive oil than in canned eels packed in olive oil. The changes in colour parameters depended on the type of oil, the stage of the process and the storage time. Colour changes in canned eels packed in olive oil were highest during the sterilization process. Spicy olive oil was the filling medium in which the colour change was greatest, probably due to the migration of some of the spice components into the oil. Organoleptic properties were directly related to the type of oil used as the filling medium. The canned eels packed in sunflower oil were those awarded the highest scores in consumer tests, although the preferences varied depending on the age and gender of the consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0250.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Peanut oil body; caproic acid; demulsification; oil quality
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:13:03 CEST)
Aqueous enzymatic method is a green oil extraction technology with limited industrial application owing to the need for demulsification of the oil body intermediate product. Existing demulsification methods have problems including low demulsification rates and high costs, such that new methods are needed. Free fatty acids produced by lipid hydrolysis can affect the stability of peanut oil body (POB) at a certain concentration. After screening even-carbon fatty acids with carbon chain lengths below ten, caproic acid was selected for demulsification of POB using response surface methodology and a Box–Behnken design. Under the optimal conditions (caproic acid concentration, 0.22%; material-to-liquid ratio, 1:4.7 (w/v); time, 61 min; and temperature, 79 C), a demulsification rate of 97.87% was achieved. Caproic acid not only adjusted the reaction system pH to cause aggregation of the POB interfacial proteins, but also decreased the interfacial tension and viscoelasticity of the interfacial film with increasing caproic acid concentration to realize POB demulsification. Compared with pressed oil and soxhlet-extracted oil, the acid value and peroxide value of caproic acid demulsified oil were increased, while the unsaturated fatty acid content and oxidation induction time were decreased. However, the tocopherol and tocotrienol contents were higher than those of the soxhlet-extracted oil. This study provides a new method for the demulsification of POB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: omega-3; omega-6; fatty acids; camelina oil, flaxseed oil; canola oil; canine nutrition
Online: 15 July 2021 (18:17:06 CEST)
This study aimed to determine whether camelina oil is safe for use in canine diets, using canola oil and flax oil as controls as they are similar and generally regarded as safe (GRAS) for canine diets. Thirty privately-owned adult dogs of various breeds (17 females; 13 males), with an average age of 7.2 ± 3.1 years (mean ± SD) and body weight (BW) of 27.4 ± 14.0 were used. After a 4-week wash-in period using sunflower oil and kibble, dogs were blocked by breed, age, and size, and randomly allocated to one of three treatment oils (camelina (CAM), flax (FLX), or canola (OLA)) at a level of 8.2 g oil/100g total dietary intake. Body condition score (BCS), BW, food intake (FI), and hematological and select biochemical parameters were measured at various timepoints over a 16-week feeding period. All data were analyzed with ANOVA using PROC GLIMMIX of SAS. No biologically significant differences were seen between treatment groups for BW, BCS, FI, hematological and biochemical results. Statistically significant differences noted among some serum biochemical results were considered small and due to normal biological variation. These results support a conclusion that camelina oil is safe for use in canine nutrition.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: palm oil industry; palm oil milling; process safety; leadership; culture
Online: 7 December 2022 (08:58:35 CET)
Several studies have highlighted the importance and evolution of process safety leadership and culture in various industries. However, none has focused on the palm oil milling industry yet. This paper critically reviews the latest developments in the palm oil milling process and unit operations leading to process safety concerns. It also discusses the Principle of 3C that is applied to explain repeat accidents and the four-level safety culture in the palm oil milling industry. For this purpose, the author presents case studies of two key palm oil companies in Malaysia. Overall, this paper offers guidelines to leaders in the palm oil milling industry about the required process safety leadership and culture to be understood in order to improve their safety outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0417.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: lecithin; ginger oil; essential oil; nano-lipid; drug delivery system
Online: 30 June 2022 (08:00:31 CEST)
Lipid nanoparticles have an interesting part of drug delivery system. In this study, the modification of the convention nano-lipid based soybean lecithin was demonstrated. Ginger oil derived Zingiber officinale was used along with lecithin, cholesterol and span 80 to fabricate nano-lipid (GL nano-lipid) using thin-film method. Through TEM and confocal microscope, GL nano-lipid exposes the liposome- like morphology. The average size of the resultant nanoparticles was 249.1nm with monodistribution (PDI= 0.021). The ζ-potential of GL nano-lipid was negative as similar to as prepared nano-lipid based lecithin. GL nano-lipid express the highly stable over 60 days of storage at room temperature in term of size, ζ-potential. A shift of pH value from alkaline to acid was detected in lecithin nano-lipid, while with the incorporation of ginger oil, pH value of nano-lipid dispersion was around 7.0. Furthermore, due to the rich of shogaol-6 and other active compounds in ginger oil, the GL nano-lipid is endowed with intrinsic antibacterial feature. In addition, the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and live/dead imaging revealed the excellent biocompatibility of GL nano-lipid. Notably, GL nano-lipid was capable to carry the hydrophobic agents as curcumin and perform a pH-dependent release profile. A subsequent characterization are a suitable potential for drug delivery system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0329.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: palm oil industry; palm oil milling; carbon footprint; GHG emissions; sustainability
Online: 17 November 2022 (08:58:55 CET)
Palm oil production involves unit operations that lead to greenhouse gas emissions. A typical mill is estimated to produce greenhouse gas emissions of 637–1,131 kg CO2 eq/t crude palm oil. There has been a huge effort to reduce the carbon footprint of palm oil mills. However, the data from such research have not been consolidated. This paper reviews significant information, results, and conclusions derived from studies in the literature. The latest developments in palm oil milling operations and information on greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Current initiatives in reducing carbon footprint of palm oil mills are discussed along with an assessment of the technologies employed. These include the conventional method of capturing biogas from palm oil mill effluent and emerging approaches such as converting palm sludge oil into biodiesel, deploying enzyme-assisted oil extraction, and converting biomass into fuel for energy generation as an alternative to coal and other fossil fuels. The importance of self-sufficiency is deliberated because a self-sufficient palm oil mill is estimated to reduce emissions by 457 kg CO2 eq/t crude palm oil compared to a mill that requires an external power supply. Methods with the greatest positive effect on the carbon footprint are identified for further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0405.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: deep frying; olive oil; sesame oil; sesame lignans; Total Polar Compounds
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:11:31 CEST)
Fresh potatoes were deep-fried in olive oil (OO) & extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and their blends with 5%, 10% and 20% v/v sesame oil (SO). This is the first report on the use of sesame oil as natural source of antioxidant for olive oil deep-frying. Oil was evaluated for Peroxide Value (PV), Free Fatty Acids (FFA), K232, K270, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and Total Phenols (TP) until Total Polar Compounds (TPCs) reached 25%. Sesame lignan transformations were monitored through Reverse-phase HPLC. While TPCs in olive oils increased at a steady rate, the addition of 5%, 10% and 20% v/v SO created a time window lasting 1, 2 and 3 hours, respectively, where TPCs were constant. SO addition to OO increased the total frying time. Furthermore, the addition of SO reduced the peroxides formation rate for both OO and EVOO. EVOO was more resistant to oxidation than OO as measured by TPCs and TEAC, while frying time raised from 21.5 to 25.25 h when EVOO replaced OO. The increase in frying time for olive oil but not for extra virgin olive oil, after SO addition, is pointing out a niche market for extra virgin olive oil in deep-frying.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0241.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: tribotechnical diagnostics; engine oil; wear out; oil change interval; risk analysis
Online: 12 October 2020 (12:44:36 CEST)
This article focuses on the issue of motor oils used in the engines of off-road mobile machinery (NRMM), more specifically tractors. The primary goal of the paper is to determine the appropriate replacement interval for these oils. The physical properties of the examined samples were first determined by conventional instruments. Furthermore, the concentration of abrasive metals, contaminants, and additive elements were measured using an optical emission spectrometer. Lastly, the content of water, fuel, glycol, and the products of oxidation, nitration, and sulphation were determined by using infrared spectrometry. The measured values were compared to the limit values. Based on the processing and evaluation of these analyses, the overall condition of the oils was assessed and subsequently the optimal exchange interval of the examined oils was determined. In addition, a risk analysis of the outage was performed. Due to the high yields of crops, farmers can lose a significant amount of product when a tractor is not functioning during the harvest period. This loss for calculated in the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0493.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: oriental lacquer; oil-modified refined lacquer; drying oil; blending; wood coating
Online: 22 October 2018 (12:17:02 CEST)
Oriental lacquer, a natural and renewable polymeric coating, comes from the sap produced by lacquer trees. For practical application, oriental lacquer must be refined to reduce excess water and enhance its quality. In this study, drying oils were blended with oriental lacquer during the refining process to prepare an oil-modified refined lacquer (OMRL). The type and adding amount (0, 10, and 20% by wt.) of drying oils for wood coatings utilization were evaluated. Rhus succedanea oriental lacquer is composed of 54.1% urushiols, 34.3% water, 7.2% plant gum, and 4.4% nitrogenous compounds, and drying oils, including tung oil (TO), linseed oil (LO), and dehydrated castor oil (DCO) were used as materials in this study. The results show that the drying oil acts as a diluent, which reduces the viscosity and enhances the workability and could shorten the touch-free drying time and speed up the hardened drying of the OMRL. The results also indicate that the hardness, mass retention, Tg, tensile strength, abrasion resistance, and lightfastness of OMRL films decrease as more drying oils are blended. Conversely, the bending resistance, elongation at break, impact resistance increase, and particularly, the gloss, is greatly improved through the blending of more drying oils. In conclusion, the LO-modified refined lacquer (RL) has the highest film gloss and the DCO-modified RL has the shortest drying time for coating; otherwise, the film properties are similar among the three types of drying oil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0331.v1
Online: 22 October 2021 (13:10:46 CEST)
Oil pollution of extraction areas is an undesirable phenomenon, but very present, es-pecially in old farms. In the context in which the depollution of these areas, in Roma-nia, is carried out from public funds, this fact is more and more difficult to achieve. That is why the effect of pollutants on the environment is being analyzed more and more, it often remains that the depollution is done naturally. This material analyzes the effect of metals present in crude oil (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Ni, Mn, As, Cd, V, Cr, S), on the soil affected by a historical accidental pollution in the Moinesti area, Romania. This article presents the results of analyzes performed by metal detection techniques, namely optical emission spectrophotometry with inductive coupled plasma and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metals determined in the polluted soil were statis-tically analyzed regarding the dispersion, standard deviation and coefficient of varia-tion compared to the control sample and compared with the results from two areas in Romania. The risk of exploitation of polluted areas was also analyzed, namely the method of pollution indices and the method of combining the effects of pollutants
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0261.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase; Dementia; Essencial oil
Online: 15 September 2021 (13:14:49 CEST)
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by a progressive decline of cognitive functions. The class of drugs used for the treatment are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Essential oils have contributed to folk medicine and discovery of new drugs for a long time. The purpose of the study was to investigate the in vitro and in silico the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, as well as acute toxicity of the essential oil of Lippia origanoides. EOLO was obtained by hydrostelting and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The inhibition assay of acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity was evaluated in vitro, as well as in silico by docking. The effects of EOLO on hematological, biochemical and behavioral parameters were analyzed in mices. We expose that EOLO shows good anti-acetylcholinesterase activity and low toxicity, possibly resulting from the action of the majority compounds thymol, carvacrol and p-cymene. The anti-acetylcholinesterase potential in vitro demonstrating a 70% inhibition. The docking results elucidated the participation of the major phenolics in AChE inhibition by interacting with the catalytic cavity of AchE. The acute oral toxicity test classified as low toxicity. These results contribute to expand the knowledge about essential oil of Lippia origanoides. Therefore, appears to be promising for herbal medicine production with anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2145.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: high-temperature tolerance; microemulsion; enhanced oil recovery; tight oil reservoirs; imbibition mechanisms
Online: 31 August 2023 (09:32:58 CEST)
Microemulsions with excellent properties have shown significant potential for enhancing oil recovery from tight formations through spontaneous imbibition. This work present a high-temperature-tolerant lower-phase microemulsion (HTLP-ME) using a microemulsion dilution method. The properties and morphological characteristics of HTLP-ME were evaluated and proposed a enhanced spontaneous imbibition oil recovery mechanism using imbibition tests and CT scanning technology. The results show that the optimum concentration of HTLP-ME is 0.2wt% has a superior thermal stability, small particle size, lower IFT, good wettability alteration ability, and minimum adsorption loss. Imbibition and CT experiments showed that the longer the imbibition distance, the better is the effect on spontaneous imbibition oil recovery. Furthermore, the solubilization coefficient and self-driving force were defined and calculated to quantitatively analyze the imbibition mechanisms. The imbibition mechanisms demonstrate that the reduction of oil/solid adhesion is due to the synergistic effect of IFT reduction and wettability alteration, and the ability to increase the imbibition distance through a larger self-driving force.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0021.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: lemongrass oil; Ligusticum chuanxiong oil; Aphis citricola van der Goot; botanical aphicides
Online: 6 September 2016 (11:52:51 CEST)
In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO) and lemongrass oil (LO) against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis revealed that main compounds from LCO were Z-Ligustilide (44.58%) and Senkyunolide A (26.92%), and that of LO were geranial (42.16%) and neral (32.58%), respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola, with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC) value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4: 1, w/w). Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. Chuanxiong oil · Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO · LO EC) was developed, which was confirmed to meet the requirements of a commercial pesticide by quality test. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO · LO EC (1000 fold dilution) was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC) on A. citricola 7 days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0684.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: polyurethane sponge; reduced graphene oxide; silicone oil; magnetic; superhydrophobic/superoleophilic; oil/water separation
Online: 12 September 2023 (02:47:38 CEST)
Wastewater treatment from oils and oil products, organic mixtures are a very relevant topic that can be successfully used to solve problems of serious environmental pollution, such as oil spills, industrial oily wastewater discharges and water treatment in the water treatment process. In this work, we have developed new superhydrophobic magnetic polyurethane (PU) sponges functionalized with reduced graphene oxide (RGO), MgFe2O4 nanoparticles, and silicone oil (SO) as a selective and reusable sorbent for purification and separation of wastewater from oils and organic solvents. The surface morphology and wettability of the sponge surface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a contact angle analysis system, respectively. The results showed that the obtained PU sponge PU/RGO/MgFe2O4/SO had excellent mechanical and water-repellent properties, reusable properties (more than 20 cycles), as well as fast (immersion time 20 sec) and excellent adsorption capacity (16.61- 44.86 g / g), and good magnetic properties made it easy to separate the sponge from the water with a magnet. And the presence of RGO in the composition of the nanomaterial improves the separating and cleaning properties of materials, and also leads to an increase in the absorption capacity of oil and various organic solvents. The synthesized PU sponge has great potential for practical applications due to its facile fabrication and excellent oil-water separation property.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0489.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Petroleum Resources; Contract Structure; Production Sharing Agreement; International Oil Company; National Oil Company
Online: 26 December 2022 (12:03:54 CET)
Most developing countries with petroleum resources are constrained in the ability to refine their oil and gas resources. This virtually results in the involvement of the International Oil Company (IOC) by the National Oil Company (NOC) of a particular nation to enter into an agreement to achieve the production of oil based on an agreed framework. However, in cur-rent development, there is little focus on the contractual agreement, particularly on the pro-duction sharing agreement by the IOC in the exploration of petroleum resources of developing countries. The primary objective of this paper is to critically explore the contract structure of production sharing agreement by the IOC in the exploration and development of petroleum resources in developing countries. Content analysis was used as the methodology of the study after examining several literatures. The findings indicate that the contract structure of the production sharing agreement (PSA) between NOC and IOC plays a significant role in the cost and risk of exploration and development of oil. In addition, it is noted that the joint committee of the NOC and IOC plays a paramount role in monitoring the operations of PSA between the NOC and IOC. Hence, from the gross oil production, the NOC gets its share as profit while IOC gets its share income tax. As an instrument of contract structure in the oil and gas sector, PSA needs further entrenchment between IOC and NOC to avoid likely issues that can emanate between the two parties in the face of current developments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0456.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Rainfall; Temperature; oil palm; Malaysia
Online: 17 June 2021 (10:17:15 CEST)
Abstract: The effect of some weather parameters (rainfall and temperature) on the production of oil palm in Peninsular Malaysia was investigated. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0 version), with descriptive statistics, time series analysis, and multiple linear regression (MLR) carried out. SPSS and Microsoft Excel 2010 were used to analyse the results. The MLR model determined the strength of the relationship between oil palm yield (dependent variable) and the changing variables of temperature and rainfall (independent variables). The regression output returned three components; regression coefficients, regression statistics and ANOVA. The findings of the study revealed medium to high rainfall variability at the rate of 0.0008. This implies that rainfall is increasing over time with variations in its amount and intensity. As rainfall increases oil palm FFB production is predicted to increase at a slow rate of 0.0009. The estimation of average annual temperature indicated an increase of 5.6℃ at the rate of 0.0357℃ per year with a temperature maximum of 32.01℃ and minimum of 25.45℃. The result also revealed an increase in oil palm yield at the rate of 0.2581 per year with a mean value of 176247.6. Overall, there is a significant difference in the impact of rainfall and temperature on oil palm yield. This signifies that rainfall has a significant impact on oil palm yield (FFB) compared to temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0542.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Downstream oil palming; Management; Technopolitan
Online: 27 October 2020 (09:04:36 CET)
This study determines the management of downstream oil palm development in the technopolitan areas of Pelalawan Regency. The study object was analyzed qualitatively in stages, including the development, potential, and management of downstream oil palm. The results show that the downstream oil palm facilitates the development of various ideas, innovations, and knowledge from the use of products with high selling value. This supports the government, academia, business, and society in implementing Good Agricultural Practice (GAP). The downstream oil palm development in Pelalawan Regency is managed in an integrated, competitive, and sustainable manner. This allows all stakeholders and society (independent smallholders) to receive economic, social, and environmental benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0442.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sea; remote sensing; oil pollution
Online: 27 July 2018 (06:19:37 CEST)
Oil spills are adverse events that may be very harmful to ecosystems and food chain. In particular, large sea oil spills are very dramatic occurrence often affecting sea and coastal areas. Therefore the sustainability of oil rig infrastructures and oil transportation via oil tankers are linked to law enforcement based on proper monitoring techniques which are also fundamental to mitigate the impact of such pollution. Within this context, in this study a meaningful showcase is analyzed using remotely sensed measurements collected by the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) operated by the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) constellation. The showcase presented refers to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil incident that occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. It is one of the world's largest incidental oil pollution event that affected a sea area larger than 10,000 km2. In this study we exploit, for the first time, dual co-polarization SAR data collected by the Italian CSK X-band SAR constellation showing the key benefits of HH-VV SAR measurements in observing such a huge oil pollution event, especially in terms of the very dense revisit time offered by the CSK constellation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: biophenols; olive oil; polyphenols; hydroxytyrosol
Online: 1 May 2017 (10:09:39 CEST)
The biophenol integral extraction protocol from vegetation water developed in the early 2000s for the three-phase olive mill was adapted to a large two-phase mill operating in Sicily during the 2016/2017 season. The new set-up allows extensive recovery of olive phenolics, transforming previous waste into a source of revenues for the milling company and of valued bioproducts for its bioeconomy partner, while eliminating a source of potential pollution altogether.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0115.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: engine oil; internal combustion engine; oil additive; additive degradation; mass spectrometry; antiwear additives; ZDDP
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:25:28 CEST)
Engine oil degradation and tribological properties are strongly interrelated. Hence, understanding the chemical processes resulting in additive depletion and degradation products is necessary. In this study, in-service engine oils from petrol and diesel vehicles were analyzed with conventional and advanced methods (mass spectrometry). Additionally, the effect of the utilization profile (short- vs. long-range) was studied. Petrol engine oils generally showed accelerated antioxidant and antiwear degradation and higher oxidation, especially in case of a short-range utilization profile, which can be attributed to the higher air-to-fuel ratio (more rich combustion) compared to diesel engines. A detailed overview of oxidation and nitration products, as well as degradation products resulting from zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate and boron ester antiwear additives, diphenylamine antioxidants and salicylate detergents is given. A side-reaction between oxidation products (aromatic carboxylic acids) and the boron ester antiwear is highlighted. This reaction was only detected in the petrol engine oils, where the oxidation products were measured in a high abundance. However, no side reaction was found in the samples from the diesel vehicle, since there the aromatic carboxylic acids were largely absent due to lower oxidation.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: ASP flooding; low permeability oil layer; partial quality tool; maximum injection pressure; oil recovery
Online: 13 November 2019 (03:38:54 CET)
In order to solve the problem of the poor oil displacement effect of high molecular weight alkali/surfactant/polymer (ASP) solution in low permeability reservoirs, Daqing Oilfield uses a partial quality tool to improve the oil displacement effect in low permeability reservoirs. Without changing the oil displacement capability of high molecular weight ASP solution in high permeability oil layers, the ASP solution is actively sheared in low permeability oil layers by using a partial quality tool to increase the injection capability of the solution and improve the overall oil recovery. In order to study the ability of the partial quality tool to improve the oil displacement effect, firstly, the matching degree of high molecular weight ASP solution to low permeability cores is studied, and the ability of quality control tools to change the molecular weight is studied. Then, experimental research on the pressure and oil displacement effect of high molecular weight ASP solution before and after the actions of the partial quality tool is carried out. The results show that ASP solutions with molecular weights of 1900 × 104 and 2500 × 104 have a poor oil displacement effect in low permeability reservoirs. After the action of the partial quality tool, the injection pressure is reduced by 5.22 MPa, and the oil recovery is increased by 7.79%. The injection pressure of the ASP solution after shearing by the partial quality tool is lower than that of the ASP solution with the same molecular weight and concentration without shearing, but the oil recovery is lower. On the whole, the use of the partial quality tool can obviously improve the oil displacement effect in low permeability reservoirs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0634.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: virgin coconut oil; oil adulteration; Fourier transform infrared; multivariate curve resolution; genetic algorithm; control chart.
Online: 9 May 2023 (10:22:27 CEST)
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a functional food with important health benefits. Its economic interest encourages fraudsters to deliberately adulterate VCO with cheap and low-quality vegetable oils for financial gain, causing health and safety problems for consumers. In this context, there is an urgent need for rapid, accurate and precise analytical techniques to detect VCO adulteration. In this study, the use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with Multivariate Curve Resolution - Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) methodology was evaluated to verify purity or adulteration of VCO with reference to several low-cost commercial oils such as sun-flower, maize and peanut oils. Control charts were developed to assess the purity of oil samples using MCR-ALS scores values calculated from a data set of pure and adulterated oils. In addition, quantification models were developed using MCR-ALS with correlation constraint for adulterated coconut oil to assess the blend composition. Different data pre-treatment strategies were tested in order to best extract the information contained in the sample fingerprints, and the calibration models were optimised using a genetic algorithm (GA) to select the most important variables. The models gave satisfactory results in external validation procedure, with absolute errors of less than 4.6 % for samples adulterated with sunflower, maize and peanut oils.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0349.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: oil-in-water emulsion; seawater; oil pollution detection; radiance reflectance; Monte Carlo simulation, spectral index
Online: 19 November 2021 (12:28:40 CET)
The presented results of simulations take into account the optical parameters of the selected sea region (from literature data on the southern Baltic Sea) and two optically extreme types of crude oil (from historical data) which exist in the form of a highly diluted oil-in-water emulsion (10 ppm). The spectral index was analyzed based on the results of modelling the radiance reflectance distribution for almost an entire hemisphere of the sky (zenith angle from 0 to 80o). The spectral index was selected and is universal for all optically different types of oil (wavelengths 650 and 412 nm). The possibility of detecting pollution in the conditions of the wavy sea surface (as a result of wind of up to 10 m/s) was studied. It has been also shown that if the viewing direction is close to a direction perpendicular to the sea surface, observations aimed at determining the spectral index are less effective than observation under the zenith angle of incidence of sunlight for all azimuths excluding the direction of sunlight specular reflection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0081.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: spectral reflectance; vegetation indices; vegetation; remote sensing; oil spill; mangrove forest; oil pollution; Landsat 8
Online: 23 September 2016 (06:19:49 CEST)
This study is aimed at demonstrating application of vegetation spectral techniques for detection and monitoring of impact of oil spills on vegetation. Vegetation spectral reflectance from Landsat 8 data were used in the calculation of five vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), adjusted resistant vegetation index 2 (ARVI2), green-infrared index (G/NIR) and green-shortwave infrared (G/SWIR) from the spill sites (SS) and non-spill (NSS) sites in 2013 (pre-oil spill), 2014 (oil spill date) and 2015 (post-oil spill) for statistical comparison. The result shows that NDVI, SAVI, ARVI2, G/NIR and G/SWIR indicated certain level difference between vegetation condition at the SS and the NSS were significant with p-value <0.5 in December 2013. In December 2014 vegetation conditions indicated higher level of significant difference between the vegetation at the SS and NSS as follows where NDVI, SAVI and ARVI2 with p-value 0.005, G/NIR - p-value 0.01 and GSWIR p-value 0.05. Similarly, in January 2015 a very significant difference with p-value <0.005. Three indices NDVI, ARVI2 and G/NIR indicated highly significant difference in vegetation conditions with p-value <0.005 between December 2013 and December 2014 at the same sites. Post—spill analysis show that NDVI and ARVI2 indicated low level of significance difference p-value <0.05 suggesting subtle change in vegetation conditions between December 2014 and January 2015. This technique is essential for real time detection, response and monitoring of oil spills from pipelines for mitigation of pollution at the affected sites in the mangrove forest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: nanoemulsion; wound healing effect; essential oil
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:29:35 CEST)
This study develops an efficient, low-temperature process for formulating a nanoemulsion-based gel encapsulating Pituranthos tortuosus's essential oil, investigating its wound healing potential. The novel process ensured stable encapsulation of the medicinal plant's oil. The nanoemulsion was characterized using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, followed by in vitro and in vivo tests to examine wound healing efficacy. Results revealed the gel's excellent stability, high encapsulation efficiency, and significant wound-healing effects. This research provides a new method for formulating Pituranthos tortuosus's essential oil nanoemulsion-based gel, emphasizing the potential role of plant-based therapies in healthcare advancement, and invites further exploration into the therapeutic applications of essential oil-encapsulating nanoemulsions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1164.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Inflammation; excipients; oil phases; nanoemulsion; distribution
Online: 16 May 2023 (11:44:41 CEST)
Inflammation is the response of the immune system to infection and injury, with complex interactions with the body, tissues and cells, and plays an important role in the initiation and progression of many diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Traditional excipients functioning as drug delivery systems can reduce the side effects of systemic distribution of inflammatory drugs. Oil phase, a common excipient in nanoemulsions (NEs), has the advantages of assisting the formation of emulsions, loading lipophilic drugs, thermodynamic stability, wide sources, low price and easy availability. In particular, some of them, like linolenic acid and medium chain triglyceride (MCT), also function as inhibitors of systemic inflammation marker and vascular inflammation marker. However, the influences of different oil phases on the construction of NEs and their distribution in vivo have not been fully investigated. Herein, Tween 80 and ethyl alcohol were screened out as emulsifiers and co-emulsifiers, and three different oil phases used in clinical practice widely, including MCT, oleic acid (OA), and ethyl oleate (EO), were selected as the oil phase to prepare NEs delivery platform. Three NEs had consistent size, potential, morphology, excellent stability and mitochondrial localization function. Importantly, they exhibited superior cellular uptake capacity in inflammatory-injuried human umbilical vein endothelial cells and significantly targeted the brain, lung, heart and thoracic aorta in the lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse and zebrafish larvae inflammation models. Meanwhile, the fluorescence intensities of three NEs were different in these organs, suggesting that their differential enrichment might provide alternative delivery platform for disease treatment in the corresponding organs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0435.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: biopolymers; nanoparticles; garlic essential oil; packaging
Online: 23 December 2022 (02:01:47 CET)
Edible films were produced combining pectin (P) matrix with chitosan nanoparticle (CSNP), polysorbate 80 (T80), and garlic essential oil (GEO) as an antimicrobial agent. The CSNP were analyzed for their size and stability, and the films, throughout their contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical and thermal properties, WVP and antimicrobial activity. Four filming-forming suspension were investigated: PGEO (control); PGEO@T80; PGEO@CSNP; PGEO@T80@CSNP. The average particle size was 317nm with zeta potential reaching +21.4 mV, which indicated colloidal stability. The wettability of the films exhibited values of 65°, 43°, 78°, 64° respectively. In antimicrobial tests, the films containing GEO showed inhibition only by contact for S.aureus. For E. coli, the inhibition occurred only in films containing CSNP and by direct contact in the culture. The results indicate a promising alternative for designing stable antimicrobial nanoparticles for application in novel food active packaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0186.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Sustainability Reporting; Law; Upstream Oil; Gas
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:26:59 CEST)
sustainability reporting, critical paradigm, upstream oil, and gasThe operating activities of the upstream oil and gas industry directly impact the environment. This industry faces significant social challenges and directly impacts the environment. Many Reputable international sustainability institutions organize sustainability awards. However, community conditions do not have a positive impact on sustainability practices. There are vari-ous serious violations related to sustainability, environmental pollution, multiple cases of cor-ruption, human rights, and other violations. In contrast, the companies receiving this award also received inspection findings of violations committed by The Audit Board of the Republic of In-donesia. This study uses critical discourse analysis that begins with phenomena related to viola-tions of sustainability reporting from scientific journals and other references using a systematic literature review approach over the last ten years. It produces a critical paradigm that is not val-ue-free, which is the basis for framing thought utilizing the theory of hegemony. The results of this study indicate that the upstream oil and gas industries are obliged to implement Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices and Sustainability Reports (SR), has biased factors that are contrary to the sustainability concept and are not under the sustainability award based on evi-dence obtained from the stages of manuscript analysis with systematic literature review
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0300.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Post Quantum Cryptography, Oil and Vinegar
Online: 13 December 2020 (21:31:13 CET)
Public key encryption methods are often used to create a digital signature, and where Bob has a public key and a private key. In order to prove his identity, he will encrypt something related to the message with his private key, and which can then be checked with his public key. The main current methods of public-key encryption include RSA and ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography), and which involve computationally difficult operations. But these operations have not been proven to be hard in an era of quantum computers. One well-known hard problem is the solving of quadratic equations with $m$ equations with $n$ variables. This is a known NP-hard problem, even in a world of quantum computers. These can be used as post-quantum signature schemes and which involve multivariate equations. In order to understand these methods, this paper outlines a simple example of implementing the oil and vinegar method, and where we have a number of unknown oil variables and a number of known vinegar variables, and where the vinegar variables help convert the hard problem into an easy one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Bioadsorbents; biodiesel; waste cooking oil; purification
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:03:26 CET)
The dry washing method is an alternative to replace water washing, thereby reducing the negative impacts of contamination. However, commercial adsorbents come from industrial processes that, due to their composition, may not be such a sustainable resource in the global biodiesel production process. In this study, the use of organic residues, such as sawdust, coconut fiber, nutshell, rice husk and water hyacinth fiber, were proposed as bioadsorbents for the purification of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO). Quality parameters such as the acid value, water content, and free and total glycerin content were evaluated and compared with those of commercial resins such as Magnesol® and Amberlite™. Promising results were obtained using sawdust during the purification process, achieving a 31.6% reduction in the acid value compared to that of unpurified biodiesel, the reduction was 31.3% more efficient than Amberlite™. Sawdust adsorbed free glycerin at 55.8%, being more efficient than Amberlite™. The total glycerin values were similar between commercial resins and sawdust. A water content values were similar than Amberlite™ and better than that with Magnesol®, at 4.3% and 39.81%, respectively. These results show that sawdust can be used as an alternative bioadsorbent in a dry purification method for biodiesel being a residue with less environmental impact.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0497.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Fish oil; Prevention; CHD; Meta-analysis
Online: 21 September 2020 (07:20:59 CEST)
To evaluate the efficacy of fish oil for protection against coronary heart disease (CHD), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of fish oil for protection against CHD. We retrieved relevant articles published from January 1966 to January 2020 by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science databases. RCTs of fish oil in preventing CHD were selected. The study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool with RevMan 5.3 software. The first selection involved 350 citations. After screening and evaluation of suitability, 19 RCTs adjusted for clustering were included in the meta-analysis. All selected manuscripts considered that fish oil was effective in preventing CHD, secondary outcome measures included angina, sepsis and death. Compared with the control group, fish oil may confer significant protection against CHD (odds ratio = 0.84; 95% confidence interval: 0.72–0.98). There was no significant difference in the incidence of secondary outcomes between the observation group and the control group (P > 0.05). The above results show that fish oil plays an important role in reducing CHD and cardiovascular events. However, because of the suboptimal quality of the studies included into the meta-analysis, these results do not justify adding fish oils systematically to the heavy pharmaceutical assortment already recommended in CHD patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: absorption; oil content; water injection; treatment
Online: 9 January 2020 (09:44:35 CET)
Implementation of waterflood is with injected pressured water to reservoir to escalation oil production. Produced water is the dominated result from oil and gas mechanism in this world meanwhile 65% of water is injected back to the well for pressure maintenance, 30% for discharge aquifier condition and surface. For shaly sand, produced water usually bring coarse and suspended sand to the surface. Therefore, this sand level is needed to declining to avoid plugging in injection well until certain economic condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0385.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Oil palm; Liquefaction; Residue; Polyhydric alcohols
Online: 30 April 2018 (18:50:24 CEST)
Resides derived from liquefaction of oil palm trunk in the presence of polyhydric alcohol with different liquefaction temperature and time were characterized to provide a new approach to understand some fundamental aspects of the liquefaction reaction. Higher temperature and longer reaction time resulted in lower residue content, indicating more decomposition of components of oil palm trunk. The amorphous polymer comprised of lignin, hemicellulose, starch, and cellulose with non-crystalline structure are firstly degraded at low liquefaction temperature, followed by the decomposition of crystalline region of cellulose. Although it was relatively difficult to destroy the ordered structure of cellulose, most of them could be liquefied via prolonging reaction time or enhancing reaction temperature. Nevertheless, it was found that re-condensation of liquefied products occurred during the liquefaction process when higher temperature of 180 oC was used after 60 min, leading to the gradual increase of residue content with increase of reaction time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: oil; seawater; suspension; detection; radiance reflectance
Online: 24 August 2016 (10:18:14 CEST)
Oil floating on the sea surface can be detected by both passive and active methods using the ultraviolet-to-microwave spectrum, whereas oil immersed below the sea surface can signal its presence only in visible light. This paper presents an optical model of a sea area deeply polluted by an oil suspension (10 ppm) located in a layer (thickness 5 m) separated from the sea surface by a clear layer (thickness 1 m). The impact of wavelength and state of the sea surface on reflectance changes is shown based on the results of Monte Carlo ray tracing. A two-wavelength index of reflectance is proposed to detect oil suspended in the water column (645-469 nm).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0644.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Argania spinosa Skeels (L.); oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; Tetrahymena pyriformis; virgin argan oil; virgin olive oil
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:29:58 CEST)
Virgin Argan Oil (VAO) is extracted from the fruits of the Moroccan endemic species argan [Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels]. It is known for its richness in polyunsaturated fatty acids and its unique composition in tocopherols conferring a panoply of pharmacological properties, documented in several studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of VAO against oxidative and nitrosative stress induced in cells of the model species Tetrahymena pyriformis. As a comparison, well-known Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) from Olea europaea L. was used instead. Both oils were subjected to a preliminary analysis of phytochemicals and properties of interest. Oxidative stress in T. pyriformis cells was induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at 350µM, whereas sodium nitroprusside (SNP) nitrosative stress was induced using a 1mM concentration. Neither of these concentrations caused relevant changes in cell viability. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated in the cell cultures by using H2-DCFDA dye. The activity and cell localization of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was evaluated as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH) and the malondialdehyde (MDA) generated after lipid peroxidation. Finally, the presence and localization of intracellular lipid droplets was assessed by using Nile red. The treatment of cultures with H2O2 produced significant increases in the activity of CAT, SOD and GPX and in the level of GSH, as also did the SNP treatment. MDA level was increased by both the treatments. VAO and VOO treatment were found to protect T. pyriformis from oxidative stress and increased cells defense in nitrosative stress. In another hand VAO and VOO decreased significantly MDA level increased by H2O2 treatment and failed after SNP treatment. The quantification of fluorescence signal obtained from immunolocalization of antioxidant enzymes confirmed the results obtained after the evaluation of their activities. Interestingly the level of ROS and the number of lipid droplets increased by H2O2 treatment was significantly decreased by VAO and VOO co-treatments. VAO and VOO represent strong antioxidants, playing an important role in protecting cells against oxidative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1017.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: sources of oil and gas; phases of oil and gas; hydrocarbon geochemistry; enrichment mechanisms; Xihu Sag
Online: 17 July 2023 (10:34:13 CEST)
The Pingbei area is the main accumulation area of oil and gas in the Xihu Sag. The phase characteristics of oil and gas in this area are complex, and the understanding of their genesis is still unclear. In this paper, based upon discussions of crude oil and natural gas geochemical data, integrated with local geological features, we discuss the sources, migration, and phase state characteristics of oil and gas in the Pingbei area of the Xihu Sag. The study results showed that the crude oil and natural gas in the Pingbei area are coal-derived and the oil and gas produced by the humic organic matter during the maturity stage. The oil and gas source correlation showed that crude oil and natural gas have good affinity with the Eocene Pinghu Formation (PF) coal-bearing source rocks. Crude oil has the characteristics of near-source accumulation and short-distance migration while natural gas is supplied from a dual source: the coal-derived hydrocarbon rocks of PH in the deep part of the study area, supplemented by the coal-derived hydrocarbon rocks of PH on the bottom of the slope, and adjacent hydrocarbon-bearing sub sag. The distribution characteristics and geochemical migration indices of hydrocarbon showed that the oil generated from the hydrocarbon source rocks of PH in the deep Pingbei area mainly migrates vertically along the fault connecting the reservoir and the source rocks to the trap, where it accumulates, while the natural gas exhibits deep and large faults that mainly migrate vertically, supplemented by its lateral migration along the composite transport system composed of faults and sandstone layers in the slope zone. The mechanisms of produced, exhausted, and geochromatographic effects (PGE), as well as evaporative fractionation (EF) and phase-controlled migration fractionation (PMF), result in the obvious discrepancy of hydrocarbon’s properties on the vertical profiles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1558.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: olive oil; extra virgin olive oil; phenolic bioactive compounds; cognitive decline; hydroxytyrosol; tyrosol; cognitive performance; neuroprotection
Online: 21 June 2023 (13:17:20 CEST)
Epidemiological studies have shown that consuming olive oil rich in phenolic bioactive compounds is associated with a lower risk of neurodegenerative diseases and better cognitive performance in aged populations. Since oxidative stress is a common hallmark of age-related cognitive decline, incorporating exogenous antioxidants could have beneficial effects on brain aging. In this review, we firstly summarize and critically discuss the current preclinical evidence and the potential neuroprotective mechanisms. Existing studies indicates that olive oil phenolic compounds can modulate and counteract oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, two relevant pathways linked to the onset and progression of neurodegenerative processes. Secondly, we summarize the current clinical evidence. In contrast to preclinical studies, there is no direct evidence in humans of the bioactivity of olive oil phenolic compounds. Instead, we have summarized current findings regarding nutritional interventions supplemented with olive oil on cognition. A growing body of research indicates that high consumption of olive oil phenolic compounds is associated with better preservation of cognitive performance, conferring an additional benefit, independent of the dietary pattern. In conclusion, the consumption olive oil rich in phenolic bioactive compounds has potential neuroprotective effects. Further research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms and potential clinical applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1168.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: oil spill modeling; meteorological and hydrodynamic forcing; wave models; met-ocean data; forecasting; biogeochemical models; oil biodegradation.
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:49:30 CEST)
Oil spills may have devastating effects on marine ecosystems, public health, the economy, and coastal communities. Therefore, scientific literature contains various up-to-date, advanced oil spill predictive models, capable to simulate the trajectory and evolution of an oil slick generated by the accidental release from ships, hydrocarbons production, or other activities. To predict in near real time oil spill transport and fate with increased reliability these models are usually coupled operationally to synoptic meteorological, hydrodynamic, and wave models. The present study reviews the available different met-ocean forcings that have been used in oil spill modeling, simulating hypothetical or real oil spill scenarios, worldwide. Nine state-of-the-art oil spill models are critically examined in terms of the met-ocean data used as forcing inputs in the simulation of twenty-four case studies. Results illustrate that most oil spill models are coupled to different resolution, forecasting meteorological and hydrodynamic models, posing, however, limited consideration in the forecasted wave field (expressed as the significant wave height, the wave period and the Stokes drift) that may affect oil transport, especially at the coastal areas. Moreover, the majority of oil spill models lacks any linkage to the background biogeochemical conditions, hence, limited consideration is given in processes like oil biodegradation, photo-oxidation and sedimentation. Future advancements in oil spill modeling should be directed towards the full operational coupling with high-resolution atmospheric, hydrodynamic, wave, and biogeochemical models, improving our understanding in the relative impact of each physical and oil weathering process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1723.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: rapeseed; nitrogen; yield; oil content; molecular mechanisms
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:24:14 CEST)
Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil crops in China. Improving oil production of rapeseed is an important way to ensure the safety of edible oil in China. Oil production is an important index to reflect the quality of rapeseed and is determined by oil content and yield. Applying nitrogen is an important way to ensure a high yield. However, increasing nitrogen application would decrease oil content. Thus, it is critical to screen elite germplasm resources with stable or improved oil content under high nitrogen and to investigate the molecular mechanisms of nitrogen regulation of oil accumulation. In this paper, we review the effects of nitrogen levels on rapeseed yields and oil content, aiming to reveal the mechanisms of nitrogen regulation in oil accumulation and thereby provide a theoretical basis for breeding varieties with high oil content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0412.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Nanofluids; Clay; Nanocomposites; Polyacrylamide; Enhanced Oil Recovery
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:15:08 CEST)
EOR is a process that helps maximize recoverable oil reserves, extend field life and increase recovery rates, and is an important tool for companies to maintain production and increase return on investment. In this article, the performance of nanoclay on aqueous phase viscosity, wettability, and recycled oil in core fluidization in polyacrylamide nanofluid has been investigated in different experiments and EOR. We have used polymers due to the properties of polymers in increasing rheology and effective mobility and controlling stability and variability to resume growth oil in nanofluids. Adding 5% by weight of salt to polymer-clay nanofluid has also been investigated in samples comparable to pure nano clay without salt. The viscosity of this suspension increases by about 50% by adding a certain amount of salt. If the same amount of salt is added to the polymer diluent, the viscosity decreases drastically. The results of the wettability test also show that clay has a better potential to change the wettability in the tendency to salt. In core fluidization tests, the highest efficiency of 30% was obtained in the third recycling in the combination of clay nanoparticles and sulfone copolymer. The highest efficiency was obtained in the third scenario in core fluidization tests, that is; A combination of resin nanoparticles and sulfone copolymer. Their detailed behavior in the characteristics of wettability, rheology, and core fluidization is analyzed in this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0103.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: oil spill; bioremediation; sorption; hydrophobic sorbent; fungi
Online: 1 June 2023 (14:12:51 CEST)
The study investigates the effects of immobilizing the fungi on the straw's performance as an oil sorbent. The buoyancy of the straw with fungi was found to be unaffected by the immobilization process. Even when sorbed with oil, the straw floated on the water’s surface throughout the 14-day test period. The sorption kinetics of the oil appeared similar in straw with and without immobilized fungi, regardless of beaker shaking. However, the fraction of non-extractable oil was higher in the straw with fungi and shaking compared to the straw without shaking. This observation suggests the potential initiation of oil mining. Based on these results, it is suggested that instead of leaving the straw with fungi and oil in the water, removing it may be beneficial and allow for oil degradation and straw decomposition on land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0062.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: inhibition; dairy products; cheese; essential oil; pathogens.
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:12:53 CEST)
“Minas Frescal” cheese is a high moisture product, subject to the proliferation of several microorganisms. Essential oils are natural antimicrobial alternatives that can increase the quality of dairy products. This study aimed to analyze the antimicrobial action of oregano (Origanum vulgare) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) essential oils against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. An antimicrobial test by diffusion and microdilution was performed to calculate the MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration). The behavior of E. coli in “Minas Frescal” cheese added with oregano oil was evaluated. The MIC of oregano oil was 0.25% against E. coli and 1% against S. aureus. For rosemary essential oil, the MIC was 8% of against E. coli. There was no activity of rosemary oil against S. aureus. The MBC observed for oregano essential oil was 1% and 0.25% respectively for S. aureus and E. coli. Bacterial analysis during cheese storage with E. coli indicated inhibition of microorganisms by oregano essential oil at a concentration of 0.25%. No alterations were observed regards to physical-chemical attributes. The use of essential oil as an antimicrobial agent has potential for industrial use, and type of microorganism, oil and sensory reflexes in the product must be observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0471.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: ferrous particle; permanent magnet; oil sensor; sensitivity
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:35:00 CEST)
This study aimed to improve sensitivity of ferrous particle sensors used in various mechanical systems such as wind power gearboxes to detect abnormalities by measuring the amount of ferrous wear particles generated by metal-to-metal contact. Existing sensors collect ferrous particles using a permanent magnet. However, its ability to detect abnormalities is limited because it only measures amounts of ferrous particles collected on the top of the sensor. To overcome this limitation, this study evaluated sensibility of an existing sensor using a multi-physics analysis method and improved it by changing the core shape inside the sensor. The detection ability of the improved sensor was analytically shown to be better than the existing sensor. This study highlights the use of analytical methods and multi-physics analysis for developing a ferrous particle sensor and presents a method to compare sensibility analytically. Results of the improved sensor are expected to enhance the ability to detect abnormalities in the lubrication system where ferrous wear particles are generated. This study will contribute to the development of more effective ferrous particle sensors, which can potentially improve the performance and reliability of mechanical systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1070.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rapeseed; agronomic characteristics; oil quality; SNPs; GWAS
Online: 27 April 2023 (10:13:01 CEST)
Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most oil crop, and its commercial value is contingent upon its agronomic characteristics and oil quality. In this study, 73,226 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 95 rapeseed mutant lines derived from gamma rays and their original cultivar (‘Tamra’) obtained from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) was investigated gene ontology (GO) analysis and genome-wide association study (GWAS). GWAS was conducted on agronomic (plant height, ear length, thousand seed weight and seed yield) and oil (fatty acid and crude fat) traits. GO analysis showed that many genes displaying SNPs were involved in cellular processes, intracellular anatomical structures and organic cyclic compound binding. A total of 149 significant SNPs were associated with the agronomic traits (76 SNPs) and oil traits (73 SNPs). Bna.A05p02350D (SFGH) and Bna.C02p22490D (MDN1) were selected as novel candid genes for thousand seed weight. In addition, Bna.C03p14350D (EXO70) and Bna.A09p05630D (PI4Kα1) were selected as novel candidate genes for the erucic acid and crude fat content, respectively. These findings could facilitate the identification of optimal genotypes for breeding new cultivars, and association studies represent an economically efficient tool for mutant screening and the selection of elite rapeseed-breeding lines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0766.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Hot air-frying; Food; Technology; Oil intake
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:27:36 CEST)
Hot air frying is a new method of frying food, where the use of a small amount of oil is optional but recommended. The objective of this review was to know the state of the art of hot air frying technology, focusing on trends, and thus obtain new ideas for future work in this area of food. In conclusion, the availability of advanced devices will increase the demand for hot air fryers as demonstrated by the trend generating a great economic and social impact. This new technology not only provides health benefits, but also has environmental advantages. In addition, work focusing on food (i.e. tortilla chips, plantain chips, eggs and meats) is recommended, since there are not enough studies on the subject. Currently, research is being conducted on home fryers, so the use of fryers and their impact at the industrial level is a developing area that will require further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0134.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: altitude; components; essential oil; linalool; Origanum majorana
Online: 7 March 2023 (13:44:15 CET)
Altitude is an important ecological factor that significantly affects essential oil content, yield and composition. The Origanum majorana, belonging to Origanum genus of Lamiaceae family, is a species with antibacterial and antiviral effects, widely used as a spice and also used in folk medicine for treatment of diseases such as asthma, indigestion, headache and rheumatism. In this study, conducted to examine the effects of altitude on essential oil content and composition of origanum majorana, plant samples were collected from the southern region of Turkey at the beginning of flowering period from seven different altitudes (700-800 m, 800-900 m, 900-1000 m, 1000-1100 m, 1100-1200 m, 1200-1300 m and 1300-1400 m) at 100 m intervals. The highest percentage of essential oil (6.50%) obtained by hydro-distillation was determined at 700-800 m altitudes. The GC-MS analyses revealed that low altitude affected some essential oil components positively. The linalool ratio, which is the major component of the essential oil of Origanum majorana species, was the highest at 700-800 m (79.84%) altitudes. Borneol (0.97%), linalool oxide (1.28%), trans-linalool oxide (1.47%), caryophyllene (2.78%), a- humulene (0.21%), germacrene-D (0.31%) and bicyclogermacrene (2.64%) components yielded high values at 800-900 m altitudes. Thymol (6.28%) and a-terpineol (1.04%), which have an important place in the essential oil composition, increased at 1100-1200 m altitudes; a- terpinene (0.17%), cis-sabinene hydrate (0.82%), terpinene-4-ol (0.55%) and carvacrol (21.50%) increased at 1300-1400 m altitudes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0317.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: olive oil; trade; gravity equation; migrant network
Online: 19 December 2022 (03:54:13 CET)
We investigate the determinants of U.S. bilateral imports of olive oil and their dynamics from shocks in foreign supplies and changes in U.S. olive oil demand, using an augmented gravity framework that leads to an equilibrium of bilateral trade flows from olive oil exporters to the U.S. market. The empirical specification is applied at the disaggregated HS-6 level in a panel dataset, and three estimation techniques (truncated OLS, PPML, Heckman), for which the latter two account for zero trade flows, the extensive margin of trade and the potential censored distribution of exports with zero trade flows. We run Reset and HPC tests to qualify our results. On the supply side, exporters’ capacity to exports, multilateral trade resistance, and immigrants’ networks into the US are strong determinants of the bilateral trade flows for both aggregate olive oil exports and for virgin olive oil exports, On the consumer side, U.S. GDP, the import unit value, and immigrant network effects are robust determinants of bilateral flows as well for aggregate and virgin olive oil trade flows. Migrants’ stock, exporters’ GDP and population, and total exports revenues increase the probability of an exporter entering the U.S. market. We could not find robust evidence of consumer behavior being influenced by popular press measures of the emergence of Mediterranean diet and olive oil, or measures of cultural globalization of U.S. consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Employment; Governance Indicators; Oil Economy; Reforms; Welfare
Online: 5 January 2021 (10:28:29 CET)
Many countries are raising questions on the intentions behind Saudi reforms. The low oil prices in 2008-09 were the awakening call for Saudis, and later in 2014, it became the reason to look for the economy that is less dependent on oil. The article studies the initiated social reforms and social impact of foreign cultural activities. It scrutinizes the Saudi social fabric under the social exchange theory and looks for the positive and negative effects of cultural exchanges. The paper also considers the COVID-19 situation in KSA as it has broken the chain of cultural events planned all over the country to promote tourism and improve the image of KSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0496.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: resource management; oil curse; footprint; fiscal policy
Online: 19 November 2020 (08:41:25 CET)
The resource curse indicates that economic growth performs poorly in countries with significant natural resources. Nevertheless, certain countries rich in energy managed to protect their resource riches in the long run. It is necessary to enforce effective policies in resource-rich countries to fully leverage the advantages which can come from the abundance of natural resources. This study aimed to evaluate how oil-rich countries would avoid resource flows by successful fiscal and management policies. By taking the guidance of Norway and implementing fiscal policy focused on tax rules on its oil management, it is proposed that oil-exporting countries benefit significantly. The framework attempts to mitigate this resource curse and utilise oil revenues in the interest of the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0455.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Essential oil; Eucalyptol; Molecular docking
Online: 31 March 2020 (10:16:13 CEST)
Background: COVID-19, a member of corona virus family is spreading its tentacles across the world due to lack of drugs at present. Associated with its infection are cough, fever and respiratory problems causes more than 15% mortality worldwide. It is caused by a positive, single stranded RNA virus from the enveloped coronaviruse family. However, the main viral proteinase (Mpro/3CLpro) has recently been regarded as a suitable target for drug design against SARS infection due to its vital role in polyproteins processing necessary for coronavirus reproduction.Objectives: The present in silico study was designed to evaluate the effect of Eucalyptol (1,8 cineole), a essential oil component from eucalyptus oil, on Mpro by docking study.Methods: In the present study, molecular docking studies were conducted by using 1-click dock and swiss dock tools. Protein interaction mode was calculated by Protein Interactions Calculator.Results: The calculated parameters such as RMSD, binding energy, and binding site similarity indicated effective binding of eucalyptol to COVID-19 proteinase. Active site prediction further validated the role of active site residues in ligand binding. PIC results indicated that, Mpro/eucalyptol complexes forms hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bond interactions and strong ionic interactions.Conclusions: Therefore, eucalyptol may represent potential treatment potential to act as COVID-19 Mpro inhibitor. However, further research is necessary to investigate their potential medicinal use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0198.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: transplanter; hydraulic oil; temperature; viscosity; proportional valve
Online: 18 January 2020 (09:24:36 CET)
This study was conducted to develop a PID control algorithm considering viscosity for the planting depth control system of a rice transplanter using various hydraulic oils at different temperatures and to evaluate the performance of the control algorithm, and compare the performance of the PID control algorithm without considering viscosity and considering viscosity. In this study, the simulation model of the planting depth control system and a PID control algorithm were developed based on the power flow of the rice transplanter (ERP60DS). The primary PID coefficients were determined using the Ziegler–Nichols (Z–N) second method. Routh’s stability criteria were applied to optimize the coefficients. The pole and double zero points of the PID controller were also applied to minimize the sustained oscillations of the responses. The performance of the PID control algorithm was evaluated for three ISO (The International Organization for Standardization) standard viscosity grade (VG) hydraulic oils (VG 32, 46, and 68). The results show that the control algorithm considering viscosity is able to control the pressure of the proportional valve, which is associated with the actuator displacement for various types of hydraulic oils. It was noticed that the maximum pressure was 15.405 bars at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ℃ for all of the hydraulic oils. The settling time and steady-state errors were 0.45 s at 100 ℃ for VG 32, and 0% for all of the conditions. The maximum overshoots were found to be 17.50% at 100 ℃ for VG 32. On the other hand, the PID control algorithm without considering viscosity could not control the planting depth, because the response was slow and did not satisfy the boundary conditions. The PID control algorithm considering viscosity could sufficiently compensate for the nonlinearity of the hydraulic system and was able to perform for any of temperature-dependent viscosity of the hydraulic oils. In addition, the rice transplanter requires a faster response for accurately controlling and maintaining the planting depth. Planting depth is highly associated with actuator displacement. Finally, this control algorithm considering viscosity could be helpful in minimizing the tilting of the seedlings planted using the rice transplanter. Ultimately, it would improve the transplanter performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: electrical heating; heavy oil; visocsity; energy efficiency
Online: 12 January 2020 (13:25:53 CET)
This paper presents a review of the electrical heating method for heavy oil recovery based on past, current, and future prospects of electrical heating. Heavy oil is one of the potential crude oil used as a link to reduce the crisis of light oil used today. The obstacle of heavy oil is a high viscosity and density in which thermal injection is a method for heavy oil recovery, but it results in economic and environmental issues. Electrical heating is one of the thermal methods by transferring heat into the reservoir. The basic process of electrical heating is to increase the mobility of the oil. Because the temperature rises, it can reduce oil viscosity and makes it easier for heavy oil to flow. The past and current developments have been carried out to fill up the gap of electrical heating projects. The future prospects must meet energy efficiency, and the excessive heat will damage formation that must be tackled in the future prospect. the works adopt several electrical heating projects and applications in the world where the works give a brief future prospect of electrical heating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0268.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Soybeans, Soxhlet extraction, Oil extract, solvent, Yield
Online: 26 August 2019 (13:54:14 CEST)
This work is aimed at promoting a healthier means of livelihood by investigating insignificant areas of pollution. In this work, soy candles produced from soybeans were proven as healthier alternatives to paraffin candles. Soxhlet extraction method was used with hexane as solvent. The extracted oil were then solidified. The wax was moulded into candle and tests were carried out to prove its claims as a safer alternative to paraffin wax. The results supported this claims that soy candles is more economical and produced lesser soot than the paraffin candles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0114.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: remittances; oil price shocks; Egypt; VAR modelling
Online: 9 August 2019 (03:40:43 CEST)
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyse the dynamic relationship between remittances inflows of Egyptians working abroad and asymmetric oil price shocks. Design: This study uses a vector autoregressive (VAR) model to explain the impulse response functions (IRFs) and the forecast error variance decomposition (FEVD). The rationale behind using these tools is its ability to examine the dynamic effects of our variables of interest. Findings: The impulse response functions confirmed that remittance inflows have various responses to asymmetric oil price shocks. For instance, inflowing remittances increase in response to positive oil price shocks, while it decreases in response to negative oil price shocks. Also, the results indicate that the responses are significant in the short and medium-run and insignificant in the long run. The magnitude of these responses reaches its peak or trough in the third year. Further, the variance decomposition reveals that oil price decreases are more influential than oil price increases. Originality: This means that remittances inflows in Egypt are pro-cyclical with oil price shocks. That explained by the fact that more than one-half of those remittances sent from GCC countries where real economic growth is very pro-cyclical with the oil prices. This empirical assessment will help policymakers to determine the behaviour of remittances and highlights the impact of different kinds of oil prices shocks on remittances. Unlike the little existing literature, this study is the first study applied the VAR model using a novel dataset spanning 1960-2016.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0218.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Salvia officinalis, Essential oil, GC-MS, Sudan
Online: 25 February 2019 (08:50:48 CET)
Abstract: In this study the essential oils of Salvia officinalis growing in Sudan, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas chromatography mass spectrometer, forty tow compounds were identified. The essential oil composition of S.officinalis found that it had many important compounds. The detected main compounds were oxygenated monoterpenes followed monohydrocarbone, squiterpenes and other compounds. The main essential oil constituents were α-terpineol (33.07%), camphor (11.57%), α-pinene (8.96%) camphene (5.09%) β-cymen (5.40 %) caryphyllene (3.76%) β-myrcene (3.65%) β-menth1-en-b-ol (3.45%) bomeol (3.38%) β-pinene (2.74%) Epiglobulol (2.59%) 1,8 Cineol (2.24%) and trans-β- terpinyl butanone(2.00% ).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0404.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: adhesive; bamboo charcoal; castor oil; composites; polyurethane
Online: 23 August 2018 (05:15:45 CEST)
Polyurethane (PU) foam adhesives were prepared from castor oil as a polyol with isocyanate poly (4,4′-methylene diphenyl isocyanate) (PMDI) using a solvent-free process. The NCO/OH molar ratio used for the preparation of PU foams was 1.5. Water, organosiloxane and dibutyltin dilaurate were blowing agent, surfactant and catalyst, respectively. Effects of the ratio of blowing agent and catalyst were adjusted to optimize the properties. The results show that 4 wt% of castor oil of catalyst and blowing agent minimizes water absorption and maximizes volume expansion in the PU foams. FT-IR analysis shows that urethane bond was formed by hydroxyl group of castor oil and –NCO group of isocyanate PMDI. More blowing agent and catalyst could improve the volume expansion ratio and reduce water retention of PU foams. It was found that Moso bamboo charcoal (Phyllostachys pubescens) or/and China fir wood particle (Cunninghamia lanceolate) composites with setting densities of 500 and 600 kg/m3 can be prepared from optimized castor oil-based PU foam adhesive at 100 °C for 5 min under a pressure of 1.5 MPa. Increasing the amount of bamboo charcoal decreases the equilibrium moisture content, water absorption and internal bonding strength of the composite. Notably, bamboo charcoal composite exhibits excellent dimensional stability. The optimized density and bamboo charcoal percentages of the composite were 500 kg/m3 and 50 to 100%. The castor oil-based PU composites containing bamboo charcoal fulfilled the CNS 2215 standards for particleboard. This dimensionally stable, low-density bamboo charcoal composite has high potential to replace current indoor building materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0386.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: essential oil; Psoralea corylifolia; cytotoxicity; encapsulation; solubilisation
Online: 25 June 2018 (12:00:52 CEST)
Babchi (Psoralea corylifolia) oil is an important essential oil used in several traditional medicines to cure various disorders. This phytotherapeutic agent possesses number of pharmacological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antitumor. However, volatile nature, poor stability and solubility of babchi oil (BO) restrict its pharmaceutical applications. Hence, the aim of the present work was to encapsulate this oil in β-cyclodextrin nanosponges (NS) in order to overcome above limitations. To fabricate nanosponges, β-cyclodextrin was crosslinked with diphenyl carbonate in different molar ratios viz.1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10. The blank nanosponges were loaded with babchi oil using freeze-drying method. Particle size of the babchi oil loaded nanosponges was found to lie between 200-500 nm, with low polydispersity index. Further, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and electron microscopy were carried out for characterization of babchi oil nanosponges. Results obtained from spectral analysis ascertained the formation of inclusion complexes. Additionally, solubilisation efficiency of the babchi oil was checked in distilled water and found enhanced by 4.95 times with optimized β-cyclodextrin nanosponges. The cytotoxicity study was carried out by MTT assay using HaCaT cell lines. A significant improvement in photostability of essential oil was also observed by inclusion in nanosponges. Lastly, the optimized formulation was tested for antibacterial activity using Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Hence, encapsulation of BO in nanosponges resulted in efficacious carrier system in terms of solubility, photostability as well as safety of this oil along with handling benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0254.v1
Online: 18 May 2018 (05:21:32 CEST)
The patterns of food consumption in general and those of meat, in particular, are constantly changing. These changes are due not only to socio-economic and cultural trends that affect the whole society but also to the specific lifestyles of consumer groups. Due to the importance of consumer lifestyle, the objectives of this study were i) to identify the profiles of lamb meat consumers according to their orientation toward convenience, as defined by their eating and cooking habits; ii) to characterize these profiles according to their socio-economic characteristics and their preferences regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic quality signals of lamb meat; and iii) to analyze the willingness to pay for lamb confit. In this study, four types of consumers have been differentiated according to their lifestyles related to lamb consumption. These groups, due to their characteristics, could be called "Gourmet", "Disinterested", "Conservative" and "Basic". The Gourmet group has characteristics that make it especially interesting to market a product such as lamb confit; however, this group is unaware of this product. Therefore, a possible strategy to expand the commercialization of light lamb and the confit product would be guided marketing to this niche market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0028.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Oil revenue; External debt; Economic growth; ARDL
Online: 4 December 2017 (17:33:46 CET)
Oil revenues and external debt might have stimulated economic growth in the oil exporting countries via investment in capital projects. The paper estimated economic growth on oil revenues and external debt after controlling public investment and population growth over the period 1970-2015. Following the confirmation of the order of integration, our analysis is based on autoregressive distributed lag bound testing to cointegration approach. The key findings are that oil revenues and public investment contributes to Nigeria’s economic growth. However, our findings also indicate that external debt and population growth retards growth. The study suggests that minimizing fiscal deficits and unnecessarily foreign loans by creating tax avenues through the development of the non-oil sectors would reduce the dependency syndrome on a single commodity (oil) in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0131.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: polyurethane foams; castor oil; crude glycerol; biopolyols
Online: 20 April 2017 (04:27:10 CEST)
Rigid polyurethane foams were synthesized using a renewable polyol from the simple physical mixture of castor oil and crude glycerol. The effect of the catalyst and blowing agent in the foams properties was evaluated. The use of physical blowing agent (cyclopentane and n-pentane) allowed obtaining foams with smaller cells in comparison with the foams produced with a chemical blowing agent (water). The increase of water content caused a decrease of density, thermal conductivity, compressive strength and Young's modulus, which indicates that the increment of CO2 production contributes to the formation of larger cells. Higher amount of catalyst in the foam formulations caused a slight density decrease and an increase small significance of thermal conductivity, compressive strength and Young's modulus values. These green foams presented properties that indicate a great potential to be used as thermal insulation, as density (23 - 41 kg m-3), thermal conductivity (0.0128 – 0.0207 W m-1 K-1), compressive strength (45 - 188 kPa) and Young's modulus (3 - 28 kPa). These biofoams are also environmental friendly alternatives and can aggregate revenue to biodiesel industry, contributing for reduction of this fuel prices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0137.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: waste cooking oil; phthalic anhydride; copolymerization; microwaves
Online: 17 March 2017 (07:36:52 CET)
Solvent free copolymerization of epoxides derived from fatty acid esters of waste cooking oil with phthalic anhydride using (salen)CrIII Cl as catalyst and n-Bu4NCl/DMAP as co-catalyst was carried out for the first time under microwave irradiation, where reaction time was reduced from number of hours to minutes. The polyesters were obtained with molecular weight (Mw = 3084-6740 g/mol) and dispersity values (D = 1.18-1.92), when (salen)CrIII Cl/n-Bu4NCl was used as catalysts. While in case of DMAP as a co-catalyst, polyesters with improved molecular weight (Mw = 5537-6925 g/mol) and narrow dispersity values (D = 1.07-1.28) were obtained even at reduced concentrations of (salen)CrIII Cl and DMAP. The obtained products were characterized and evaluated by attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) Techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0201.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Bayesian Vector Autoregression (BVAR), Modeling, Forecasting, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Economic Growth, Revenue, Oil sector, Non-oil Sector
Online: 17 December 2018 (15:56:09 CET)
The present reality about the Nigerian economy calls for investment and development in the non-oil sector. This becomes necessary as a result of fall in the oil price in the global market. This paper examined the Bayesian Vector Autoregression (BVAR) modeling and forecasting of the dynamic interrelationship between Economic growth and revenue from the oil and non-oil sectors in Nigeria. To achieve this, annual data on Gross Domestic Product (GDP), revenue from oil and non-oil sectors were collected from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) bulletin, the sample from 1981 to 2008 was used for analysis, while sample from 2009 to 2014 was used for model validation. Six (6) versions of Sims-Zha BVAR models were compared for out-of-sample forecast, the result revealed the superiority of the BVAR6 model over the other BVAR models. Lastly, evidence from the decomposition forecast errors revealed that revenue of oil sector contributed 7.69% to GDP while revenue from non-oil sector contributed 0.12% to GDP in Nigeria. This paper therefore recommended that the present government should encourage investment that is geared toward development in the non-oil sector, of which it has the capacity to improve the Economic growth of the Nigerian economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1470.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: vegetable analog; vegetable oil; storage stability; freeze storage
Online: 21 September 2023 (10:30:40 CEST)
Studies on the long-term stability of meat analogs stored under frozen conditions are lacking. Here, we aimed to assess the storage stability of vegetable oil-supplemented meat analogs and analyze the effects of temperature and storage period on their physiochemical characteristics. The meat analogs were prepared by adding 30 g castor oil, orange oil, palm oil, shortening, or margarine vegetable oil based on 100 g of textured vegetable protein. They were then stored at −18 or −60 °C for 6 months and analyzed at one-month intervals. The meat analog supplemented with orange oil had the highest water content, liquid-holding capacity, hardness, and antioxidant activity. During frozen storage, temperature barely affected the meat quality. The storage stability of all meat analog samples was maintained for 6 months, although the quality was slightly reduced with an increase in storage duration. Coliform group bacteria were not detected regardless of the storage condition. Orange oil improved the juiciness of meat analogs, and the quality of samples was maintained for at least 6 months under frozen storage. The findings of this study are relevant to the development and promotion of vegetable meat as an alternative to animal meat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0591.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Krill oil; Ultraviolet; Skin photoaging; Marine-derived ingredients
Online: 8 August 2023 (14:07:26 CEST)
Krill oil (KO) shows promise as a natural marine-derived ingredient for improving skin health. This study investigated its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-wrinkle, and moisturizing effects on skin cells and UVB-induced skin photoaging in hairless mice. In vitro assays on HDF, HaCaT, and B16/F10 cells, and in vivo experiments on 66 hairless mice, were conducted. Mice received oral KO administration (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) once a day for 15 weeks and UVB radiation three times a week. In vitro, KO significantly countered UVB-induced oxidative stress, reduced wrinkles, and prevented skin water loss by enhancing collagen and hyaluronic synthesis. In vivo, all KO dosages showed dose-dependent inhibition of oxidative stress-induced inflammatory photoaging-related skin changes. Skin mRNA expressions for hyaluronan synthesis and collagen synthesis genes also increased dose-dependently after KO treatment. Histopathological analysis confirmed that Krill Oil (KO) ameliorated the damage caused by UVB-irradiated skin tissues. These findings suggest that KO may be a valuable intervention to mitigate UVB-induced skin photoaging and address various skin concerns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1546.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: tribology; stainless steel; vegetable oil lubrication; MoS2 nanotubes
Online: 22 July 2023 (17:12:56 CEST)
We present functionalization of AISI 316L surfaces by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser texturing in order to modify the surface morphology with crosshatch and dimple patterns. We performed tribological analysis under lubrication with sunflower and jojoba oil with and without addition of solid lubricant, MoS2 nanotubes. In connection to friction/wear response we analysed laser-textured surface wettability, oil spreadability and oil retention capacity. We have shown, that the crosshatch pattern generally exhibited lower friction than the dimples pattern, with the addition of MoS2 nanotubes not having any significant effect on the coefficient of friction under the investigated contact conditions. This was additionally with better oil spreadability and oil retention capacity results of crosshatch textured surface. Furthermore, texturing reduced wear of the stainless steel surfaces but led to approximately one order of magnitude larger wear rate of the steel counter-body, primarily due to the presence of hard bulges around the textured patterns. Overall, the crosshatch pattern showed better oil retention capacity and lower friction in combination with different vegetable oils, thus making it a promising choice for improving tribological performance in various environmentally friendly applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: smallholders; palm oil; characterisation; environmental degradation; sustainability; Cameroon
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:16:16 CEST)
During the extraction of palm oil by smallholders in Cameroon, the use of enormous quantities of water results in palm oil mill effluent (POME), which contains substances that are deleterious to the environment at concentrations above the threshold values. A detailed description of the various processes involved is imperative so as to develop methods of reducing loss and minimising the environmental effect caused by the wastes produced. In this study, we characterise the small-holders’ palm oil production sector in Cameroon, along its entire production chain. The main demographics of smallholder farmers are adult males (64.4%) and married (46.7%) with low levels of formal education (51.1% attained only primary education). Plantation establishment involves deforestation of pristine vegetation (46.7%) as well as replacing other farming systems. Processing is carried out by the farmers with their own mills (48.9%) bought at exorbitant prices. Access to finances (51.1%) remains a key limitation to plantation expansion and the adoption of innovations in this sector. Workers’ health issues abound (75.6%) and are treated mainly using ethnomedicine (31.1%), and there is little or no social security; thus, sick workers generally pay their own bills (64.4%). Issues of environmental pollution from production to waste processing abound with solid waste mainly burnt (57.8%) and POME directed into open pits and streams (37.8%) where they become a nuisance and serve as breeding grounds for mosquitoes (51.1%); these issues will require greater state involvement for mitigation. Our findings suggest that farmers in the palm oil sector have deep knowledge base and competence, but government intervention are needed to stimulate further growth in this important sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1953.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Candida parapsilosis; Antifungal agent; Nanoliposomes; Nigella sativa oil
Online: 28 June 2023 (07:23:02 CEST)
The aim of current study is adjusted and synthesized liposomal compound of N. sativa and evaluation its antifungal properties against C. parapsilosis isolates. Fifteen clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis complex isolates were obtained from hospitalized patients affected by candidemia in Mashhad city, Iran, along with a reference strain of C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019) were assessed by flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) method, as described previously. N. sativa is encapsulated in liposomal Nanocariers by using thin film hydration technique. At the beginning liposomal nanoparticles was characterized and confirmed with the dynamic light scattering technique (DLS) and Transmission electron microscopy. Then minimum inhibitory concentration of liposomal N. sativa oil was conducted with the CLSI M27 A3 protocol and finally Cytotoxicity function of N. sativa oil liposomal nanocarriers on PBMCs was investigated and confirmed with MTT assay by the results of this research N. sativa oil-Lip-NP didn’t show any toxic effect on PBMCs and The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of free N. sativa oil and liposomal formulation with inhibitory effects on candida isolates was between 128 - 8, 250 - 31.25 µg ml also MIC50 and MIC90 were 125,187 and 32,96, µg ml respectively. Due to the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, particle size, non-toxic effect, and higher cell viability of N. sativa oil -Lip-NP, it could be considered a more effective approach to treating fungal infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Biodiesel; Tung oil; Diesel engine; Performance; Exhaust emissions
Online: 31 May 2023 (08:19:22 CEST)
In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of the engine were investigated with varying ratios of tung oil-based biodiesel blends (B10, B20, and B50) and 0# diesel under different operating conditions. The experimental results indicated that both the power and torque of B10 increased compared with 0# diesel, which increased by 1.9% and 6.6%. But the power and torque of B20 and B50 decreased slightly. The fuel consumption rate increased slightly with an increasing percentage of biodiesel added. In general, the overall emissions of tung oil-based biodiesel blends were lower compared to 0# diesel. Compared to 0# diesel, the CO-specific emissions of B10 decreased by 42.86% at medium and large load, and NOX-specific emissions of tung oil-based biodiesel blends were reduced at all load conditions, except for B50. In addition, HC-specific emissions were all reduced, especially for B20 decreased by 27.54% at 50% load. With the increase of the biodiesel blend ratio, the smoke decreased significantly. Among the blends tested, B50 showed the greatest reduction of 38.05% at 2000 rpm. Overall, it can be asserted that using biodiesel presents a favorable alternative fuel option that can lead to a more environmentally friendly exhaust output.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1222.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Palm Oil; Performance; Sustainability Supply Chain; Systematic Literature
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:12:03 CEST)
Indonesia has emerged as one of the leading producers and exporters of palm oil, as supported by data from the Central Bureau of Statistics in 2021, which indicate that Indonesian palm oil exports reached an impressive value of US$ 18.44 billion, or IDR 258 trillion, in 2020, marking an 18.43 percent growth compared to the previous year. Furthermore, the domestic market for palm oil and palm kernel oil remains substantial, despite improvements in export quantities. Various industries, including cooking oil refineries, specialty fats, shortening, margarine, bath soaps, and oleochemicals, present potential markets for palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO). The palm oil industry encompasses four related sub-sectors, namely growers, millers, refiners, and oleochemicals, forming an integrated value chain from upstream to downstream. The current focus on environmental, economic, and social sustainability is driving companies to adopt internal green activities and expand their efforts into sustainability supply chain management (SSCM). Implementing SSCM practices is often seen as economically beneficial, as research has demonstrated their positive impact on firm performance from a resource perspective. Within the palm oil industry, a wide range of green management applications are being utilized. This study aims to examine and highlight the existing sustainable management practices across the entire palm oil supply chain, with a particular emphasis on producing high-quality palm oil. To achieve this objective, the paper utilizes a systematic review methodology, The number of papers analyzed were 62 articles published which involves an extensive review of relevant literature to identify research trends, gaps, and issues. The study seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge by expanding the theory of organizational readiness in preparing globally competitive palm oil products. The research findings hold practical significance for practitioners and academics, providing a comprehensive roadmap for implementing green management applications at the organizational level in the palm oil industry's upstream-to-downstream chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0590.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Catalytic pyrolysis; plum seed; TGA; bio-oil; zeolite
Online: 9 May 2023 (07:51:05 CEST)
In terms of obtaining fuels as well as chemicals with or without catalysts at different conditions, the plum seed stands out as an alternative biomass source. Under varying heating rates (10, 50, and 100ºC min-1) and pyrolysis temperatures (400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C), the plum seed was pyrolysed at constant sweep gas flow at a constant rate (100 cm3min-1) in a tubular fixed bed reactor. According to the results, an oil yield reaching to a maximum of %45 was procured at the heating rate of 100 ºCmin-1 and the pyrolysis temperature of 550ºC in non-catalytic procedure. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in optimum conditions with two selected commercial catalysts, namely ZSM-5 and PURMOL-CTX and clinoptilolite (natural zeolite, NZ) with catalyst ratio of 10 % of raw material. Along with the catalyst addition, the quantity and the quality of bio-oil increased including the calorific value, removal of oxygenated groups, and hydrocarbon distribution. An increase related to the desirable products like phenols, alkene, and alkane and a decrease in undesirable products like acids were observed in the presence of catalysts. When all the results are considered and evaluated, using zeolite materials in the pyrolysis as catalysts is a recommendable option to achieve enhanced chemicals and fuels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0191.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii; Etlingera elatior; antibiofilm activity; essential oil
Online: 14 September 2022 (04:37:05 CEST)
The current study investigates the antibiofilm properties of essential oil extracted from the Flower of a Zingiber plant used in traditional medicines. EO from Etlingera elatior (Jack) R. M Smith tested against one of the critical nosocomial pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii. The antibiofilm studies of Flower essential oil (FEO) by crystal violet staining method exhibited maximum inhibition of 80% at a concentration of 0.7% oil. The biochemical assays and microscopic analysis showed that the FEO significantly reduced extracellular polymeric substance production. Furthermore, FEO reduced the survival rate of A. baumannii in human blood. The chemical composition of extracted FEO was analyzed by Gas chromatography- Mass spectrometry. Dodecanal, 1-dodecanol, and alpha-pinene were identified as the major compounds. Concerning previous research, our study is the first investigation of the antibiofilm property of E. elatior flower oil. More detailed studies are required to identify the compound responsible for biofilm inhibition and its mode of action against A. baumannii biofilms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0386.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Clove essential oil; biological activity; chemical composition, extraction.
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:19:49 CEST)
Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L. Myrtaceae) is an aromatic plant widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries, rich in volatile compounds and antioxidants such as eugenol, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Clove essential oil has received considerable interest due to its wide application in the perfumery, cosmetic, health, medical, flavoring, and food industries. Clove essential oil has relevant biological activities to human health, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, and insecticide. This review describes the effect of the extraction method (hydrodistillation, steam distillation, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, cold pressing, and supercritical fluid extraction) on the chemical composition of essential oil and its correlation with their biological activities. Likewise, are summarized the main compounds and their reported biological activities. Furthermore, the main applications in clove essential oil in the food industry are presented. Finally, this review presents the new biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anesthetic, antinociceptive and anticancer, which are beneficial for human health. This review aims to compile the effect of different methods of extracting clove essential oil on chemical composition, food applications, as well as a current description of biological activities of interest to human health. Biological activities have increased interest in research into this essential oil and its future applications in the food or pharmaceutical industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: petroleum; metagenomics; core microbiota, functional potential, oil fields
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:29:57 CEST)
Microorganisms inhabiting subsurface petroleum reservoirs are key players in biochemical transformations. The interactions of microbial communities in these environments are highly complex and still poorly understood. This work aimed to assess publicly available metagenomes from oil reservoirs and implement a robust pipeline of genome-resolved metagenomics to deci-pher metabolic and taxonomic profiles of petroleum reservoirs worldwide. Analysis of 301,2 Gb of metagenomic information derived from heavily flooded petroleum reservoirs in China and Alaska to non-flooded petroleum reservoirs in Brazil enabled us to reconstruct 148 MAGs of high and medium quality. At the phylum level, 74% of MAGs belonged to bacteria and 26% to ar-chaea. The profiles of these MAGs were related to the physicochemical parameters and recovery management applied. The analysis of the potential functional core in the reservoirs showed that the microbiota was specialized for each site, with 31.7% of the total KEGG orthologies annotated as functions (1,690 genes) common to all oil fields, while 18% of the functions were site-specific, i.e., present only in one of the oil fields. The oil reservoirs with lower level of intervention were the most similar to the potential functional core, while the oil fields with longer history of water in-jection had greater variation in functional profile. These results show how key microorganisms and their functions respond to the distinct physicochemical parameters and interventions of the oil field operations such as water injection and expand the knowledge of biogeochemical trans-formations in these ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0073.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ultrasonic; Carbon dioxide; Enhanced oil recovery; Unconventional reservoirs
Online: 3 August 2021 (11:25:12 CEST)
CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has been proven its capability to explore the unconventional tight oil reservoirs and potential for geological carbon storage. Meanwhile, the extremely low permeability pores exaggerate the difficulty CO2 EOR and geological storage processing in the actual field. This paper initiates the ultrasonic-assisted approach to facilitate the oil-gas miscibility development and finally contribute to unlock more tight oils. First, the physical properties of crude oil with and without ultrasonic treatments were experimentally analysed through gas chromatography (GC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and viscometer. Second, the oil-gas minimum miscibility pressures (MMPs) were measured from the slim-tube test and the miscibility developments with and without ultrasonic treatments were interpreted from the mixing-cell method. Third, the nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) assisted coreflood tests were conducted to physically model the recovery process in porous media and directly obtain the recovery factor. Basically, the ultrasonic treatment (40KHz and 200W for 8 hours) was found to substantially change the oil properties, with viscosity (at 60°C) reduced from 4.1 to 2.8mPa·s, contents of resin and asphaltene decreased from 27.94% and 6.03% to 14.2% and 3.79%, respectively. The FTIR spectrum shows the unsaturated C-H bond, C-O bond and C≡C bond in macromolecules were broken from ultrasonic, which caused the macromolecules (e.g., resin and asphaltenes) to be decomposed into smaller carbon-number molecules. Accordingly, the MMP was determined to be reduced from 15.8 to 14.9MPa from the slim-tube test and the oil recovery factor increased by over 10%. This study reveals the mechanisms of ultrasonic-assisted CO2 miscible EOR in producing tight oils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0060.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: oil, nanocomposite membranes, PVDF-TrFE, photoreactor, and sunlight.
Online: 5 April 2019 (11:48:43 CEST)
Production of wastewater related to the oil and gas industries is increasing over the years. The compounds found in industrial wastewater typically show high toxicity, and in this way, they have become a primary environmental concern. Several techniques have been applied in industrial effluents remediation. In spite of the efforts, these techniques are yet ineffective to treat oily wastewater before it can be discharged safely to the environment. Membrane technology is an attractive approach to treat oily wastewater. This is dedicated to the immobilisation of TiO2 nanoparticles on poly (vinylidene fluoride–trifluoro ethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) porous matrix by solvent casting. Membranes with interconnected pores with an average diameter of 60 micrometres and the contact angle of 97°, decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles, are obtained. The degradation of oily wastewater demonstrated the remarkable photocatalytic efficiency of the nanocomposite membranes: under sunlight irradiation for 7 hours, colourless water was obtained. These results show the suitability of TiO2/P(VDF–TrFE) nanocomposite for photocatalytic applications for oily wastewater remediation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: Castor oil; Ascorbic acid; Bowel preparation; Polyethylene glycol
Online: 1 April 2019 (13:42:38 CEST)
Our aim was to evaluate efficacy and safety of 30mL CaO alone or plus Asc in bowel preparation before colonoscopy. Two hundred and forty six patients were allocated randomly to ingest 2L PEG with 30mL CaO, 1L PEG with 30mL CaO plus 5g Asc, or 3L PEG. We used Boston Bowel Preparation Scale (BBPS) to evaluate bowel preparation efficacy. We also determined other outcomes such as procedure time, polyp or adenoma detection rate and adverse events (AEs). Of 282 patients recruited, 36 were excluded. Groups were matched for baseline characteristics except weight (P = 0.020) and body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.003). Patient’s satisfaction were higher in 2L PEG-CaO (P = 0.016) and 1L PEG-CaO-Asc groups (P = 0·017). Patients’ compliance was 67.5%, 71.4% and 80.5% in 3L PEG, 2L PEG-CaO and 1L PEG-CaO-Asc groups (P = 0.014). Adequate bowel preparation rate was 75%, 78.57% and 53.66% in 3L PEG, 2L PEG-CaO and 1L PEG-CaO-Asc groups (P = 0.021). There were no differences in terms of remaining outcomes. Despite an increase in patients’ satisfaction and compliance, 1L PEG-CaO-Asc significantly decreased adequate bowel preparation rate. However, 2L PEG-CaO improved the patients' satisfaction and compliance and increased adequate bowel preparation rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0219.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Lycopene, Blakeslea trispora, fermentation, vegetable oil, orange peel
Online: 25 February 2019 (08:54:39 CET)
The production of lycopene from different substrates by Blakeslea trispora in fermentation was investigated. Lycopene productions from 4 and 6 % glucose (pH 6.5) in shake flask fermentation were 77.7 and 28.1 mg L-1. A maximum lycopene concentration of 944.8 mg L-1 was detected with 4 % glucose supplemented with 1.0 % sunflower oil in fermentor studies. Zygospores of B. trispora are the morphological forms, which are responsible for the production of the lycopene. The highest level of zygospores was correlated with the highest amount of intracellular lycopene in the total biomass dry weight. The media containing only orange peel (1 %) gave a 4.9 mg L-1 lycopene production in a fermentor. The presence of oils as substrates resulted in enhanced mold growth and subsequent higher lycopene production. Substrates containing linoleic acid compounds led to high lycopene production. The data showed that the biosynthesis of lycopene starts in most cases simultaneously in the early growth phase even in trace amounts and the amount of lycopene formation increased continuously from 2 to 7 days.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0167.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Condition monitoring; Predictive maintenance; Oil analysis; Urban buses.
Online: 7 November 2018 (14:36:00 CET)
The paper presents a case study and a model for condition monitoring of Diesel engines’ oil of urban buses, through the accompaniment of the evolution of its degradation, with the objective to implement a predictive maintenance policy. Along time, because the usage, there is some decay in the lubricant properties. However, in normal functioning conditions, the lubricants properties, at the time the manufacturers recommend its changing, regardless of they are within the safety limits. Then, based on the accompaniment of the lubricants’ oil condition, the intervals of oil replacement can be enlarged what implies the availability increasing and the corresponding production increasing of the equipment. The model presented in this paper shows its potential to be spread to other types of equipment and organisations that want can implement similar maintenance policies, to achieve the best availability based on the real equipment health conditioning conditions
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0505.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: renewable energy, microwave, free fatty acid, crude oil
Online: 26 September 2018 (10:31:20 CEST)
A novel method proposed in the production of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel has been investigated experimentally. In this study, we report the results of biodiesel processing with electromagnetic induction technology. The method used is to compare the results of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel processing between conventional, microwave and electromagnetic induction. The degumming, transesterification, and esterification process of the 3 methods are measured by stopwatch to obtain time comparison data. Characteristics of viscosity, density, and Fatty Acid Metil Ester (FAME) were obtained from testing of a Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GCMS) at the Polytechnic Chemistry Laboratory of the State of Malang. The results show that the biodiesel produced by this method satisfies the biodiesel standards and their characteristics are better than the biodiesel produced by conventional and microwave methods. The electromagnetic induction method also offers a fast and easy route to produce biodiesel with the advantage of increasing the reaction rate and improving the separation process compared to other methods. This advanced technology has the potential to significantly increase biodiesel production with considerable potential to reduce production time and costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0391.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: cigarette filter; superhydrophobic; highly selective; absorbent; oil spillage
Online: 19 September 2018 (21:36:11 CEST)
Ecological and environmental damage caused by oil spillage has attracted great attention. Used cigarette filter (CF) has also caused negative environmental consequences. Converting CF to economical materials is a feasible way to address these problems. In this study, we demonstrate a simple method for production of a highly hydrophobic absorbent from CF. CF was modified by using different volume ratios of octadecyltrichlorosilane and methyltrimethoxysilane. When the volume ratio was 3:2, the modified CF had the high water contact angle of 155°. It could selectively and completely absorb silicone oil from an oil-water mixture and showed a good absorption capacity of 38.3 g/g. The absorbed oil was readily and rapidly recovered by simple mechanical squeezing, and it could be reused immediately without any additional treatments. The as-obtained superhydrophobic modified CF retained an absorption capacity of 80% for pump oil and 82% for silicone oil after 10 cycles. The modified CF showed good elasticity in the test of repeated use. The present study provides novel design of a functional material for development of hydrophobic absorbents from used CF via a facile method toward oil spillage cleanup as well as a new recycling method of CF to alleviate the environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0338.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Ocimum spp.; essential oil; aromatic profiles; Thai food
Online: 18 September 2018 (09:47:32 CEST)
The research objectives of this study are to analyse the volatile compositions of different basil types available in Thai markets and to descriptively determine their aromatic qualities. Essential oils were hydro-distillated from fresh leaves of 2 Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) varieties namely, white and red and other basil species, including Tree basil (O. gratissimum), Sweet basil (O. basilicum var. thyrsiflorum) and Lemon basil (O. citriodorum). Oil physicochemical characteristics and volatile chromatograms from Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the chemical compositions. Methyl eugenol, estragole and eugenol were among the major chemicals found in the essential oils of these basil types. Classification by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) advised that these Ocimum spp. samples are grouped based on either the distinctive anise, citrus aroma (estragole, geranial and neral) or spice-like aroma (β-methyl eugenol, caryophyllene and α-cubebene). The essential oil was also used for descriptive sensorial determination by five trained panelists, using the following developed terms: anisic, citrus, herb, spice, sweet and woody. The panelists were able to differentiate essential oil of white Holy basil from red Holy basil based on the intensity of the anisic attribute, while the anise and citrus scents were detected as dominant in the Lemon basil, Tree basil and Sweet basil essential oils. The overall benefit from this research was the elucidation of aromatic qualities from Thai common Ocimum species in order to assess their potential as the raw materials for future food research and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0481.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: waste mineral oil; Mn additive; engine performance; emission
Online: 31 May 2018 (13:27:48 CEST)
The heat values of waste mineral oils are equal to the heat value of the fuel oil. However, heat value alone is not sufficient for the use of waste mineral oils. as fuel. However, the critical physical properties of fuels such as density and viscosity need to be adapted to the system in order to be used. In this study, the engine oils used in the first 10,000 km of the vehicles were used as waste mineral oil. An organic-based Mn additive was synthesized to improve the properties of the waste mineral oil. It was observed that mixing the Mn additive with the waste mineral oil at different doses (4, 8, 12 and 16 ppm) improves the viscosity of the waste oil and the flash point. The resulting fuel was evaluated for emission using different loads in a 5 kW capacity generator to compare the fuel with standard diesel fuel and to determine the effect of Mn addition. In the experimental study, it was observed that the emission characteristics of the fuel obtained from waste mineral oil were worse than diesel fuel, but some improvement with Mn addition. As a result, we found that the use of waste mineral oils in engines in fuel standards was not appropriate, but may be improved with additives.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: reciprocating pump; oil station; pipeline; vibration; pressure pulsation
Online: 7 December 2017 (14:46:23 CET)
Due to the periodic movement of the piston in the reciprocating pump, the fluid will cause pressure pulsation, and the vibration of the pipeline will lead to instrument distortion, pipe failure and equipment damage. Therefore, it is necessary to study the vibration phenomena of the reciprocating pump pipeline based on the pressure pulsation theory. This paper starts from the reciprocating pump pipe pressure pulsation caused by fluid, pressure pulsation in the pipeline and the excited force is calculated under the action of the reciprocating pump. Then, the numerical simulation model is established based on the pipe beam model, and the rationality of the numerical simulation method is verified by the indoor experiment. Finally, a case study is taken as an example to analyze the vibration law of the pipeline system, and proposed the stress reduction and vibration reduction measures. The main conclusions are drawn from the analysis: (1) Excited force is produced in the bend or tee joint, and it can also influence the straight pipe in different levels; (2) In this pipeline system, the pump discharge pipe has a larger vibration amplitude and lower natural frequency; (3) The vibration amplitude increases with the pipe thermal stress, and when the oil temperature is higher than 85°C, it had a greater influence on the vertical vibration amplitude of the pipe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1319.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: oil reservoir; thermal profile; geothermal profile; flow rate injection
Online: 20 September 2023 (05:01:48 CEST)
Every simplification has the potential to add a systematic error to the measured value. Sometimes, the addition does not render the measurement useless. In the case of oil well flow measurements based on the thermal properties of the fluid in the well, the addition of a systematic error of up to 20% can occur if the variation in the internal energy of the fluid and, most importantly, the transient nature of heat transfer in the completion are not taken into account. This error is a mathematical consequence of the simplifications chosen. To work within the first hours of good operation, given the need for immediate application in a prototype water injection well developed and installed at the UFRN, this article presents an analytical solution for calculating the flow rate by solving the differential equations obtained by applying the principles of mass and heat transfer. As a result, at the cost of greater complexity, the systematic error drops to values of less than 1% in the first two hours of operation of the well, as seen throughout this document.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0286.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: essential oil; enzymatic antioxidants; drought; glutathione; lipid peroxidation; proline
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:25:57 CEST)
As abiotic stress, drought limits plant growth and minimizes productivity. The increased request for valuable essential oil extracted from geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L.) is mainly associated with plant growth, which is adversely affected by drought. Melatonin (MT) has been used to enhance plant growth under abiotic stress, however, its impact to overcome drought stress of aromatic plants including geranium is poorly investigated. In the current investigation, MT application at 100 µM was applied under 100 % (well-watered) or 50 % (drought stress) of FC to verify this role. Drought stress markedly reduced growth parameters, herb yield, and total chlorophyll; however, MT alleviated these effects. In contrast, drought enhanced the essential oil percentage in geranium leaves. Despite the reduction in oil yield caused by drought, MT application mitigated this reduction and improved both oil yield and oil components. Besides, MT treatment enhanced the accumulation of total phenols, glutathione, and proline and improved the activity of ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase with possible alleviation of drought-induced oxidative damage. Therefore, it reduced both H2O2 and malondialdehyde accumulation, and finally maintained membrane integrity. Overall, this is the first report that reveals that MT application can improve geranium resistance to drought by enhancing the antioxidant potential and protecting the cell membrane from oxidative damage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome; children; fibers; peppermint oil; herbal remedies
Online: 4 September 2023 (03:48:50 CEST)
The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome in children involves multiple factors. Thus, treatment options are variable, targeting diet and the child’s and parents’ behav-ior, involving pharmacological and psychological interventions or neuromodulation. Parents are increasingly interested in complementary and alternative therapies for children with irritable bowel syndrome, especially when other treatments have been tried without relieving the child’s symptoms. This paper looks into current evidence for the benefits and side effects of herbal remedies and spices in pediatric patients with IBS. The benefits of peppermint oil, STW5, Psyllium fiber, Curcuma, ginger, and other herbal medicines are discussed based on findings in the current literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1994.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Crude oil-contaminated Soil; PAHs; Bioluminescent bacteria; Ecotoxicity assessment
Online: 29 August 2023 (13:16:06 CEST)
The oil spilled from the Gulf war caused land pollution and various petroleum compounds. Among petroleum compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known for toxicity, and have been designated as carcinogenic, mutagenic, and endocrine disrupting substances by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). According to the USEPA, toxic equivalents quotient (TEQ), and mutagenic equivalents quotient (MEQ) can be calculated by multiplying the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) and mutagenic equivalency factor (MEF) by the concentration of PAHs. The USEPA calculates the relative TEF for other PAHs by setting the TEF value of benzo(a)pyrene, which is highly toxic, to 1. Relative MEF is also calculated in the same way. In this study, the TPH concentrations of crude oil-contaminated soils collected from the Burgan in Kuwait were measured to be 5, 8, and 20% and TEQ and MEQ of the soils were calculated by multiplying the 16 PAHs concentrations measured for each sample by TEF and MEF, respectively. When the TPH concentration was increased by 4 times from 5% to 20%, the TEQ was increased by about 9 times and the MEQ was increased by about 10 times. Therefore, it was concluded that as the TPH concentration increases, the carcinogenicity and mutation rate increase greatly. In addition, ecotoxicity assessment was performed using luminescent bacteria to compare the relationship between the calculated TEQ and MEQ and actual ecotoxicity, and benzo(a)pyrene among 16 PAHs showed a coefficient of determination of 0.95. In this study, ecotoxicity in PAHs-contaminated environment can be estimated by analyzing benzo(a)pyrene as a representative substance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1805.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Açaí seeds; Chemical activation; Pyrolysis; Bio-oil; Acidity; Antioxidants
Online: 25 August 2023 (13:36:35 CEST)
This study explores the impact of temperature and molarity on the pyrolysis of Açaí seeds (Euterpe Oleraceae, Mart.) activated with KOH on the yield of bio-oil, hydrocarbon content of bio-oil, an-tioxidant activity of bio-oil and chemical composition of aqueous phase. The experiments were carried out at 350, 400, and 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, with 2.0 M KOH, and at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, with 0.5 M, 1.0 M and 2.0 M KOH, in laboratory scale. The composition of bio-oils and aqueous phase determined by GC-MS, while the acid value, a physical-chemical property of fundamental importance in biofuels, of bio-oils and aqueous phases by AOCS methods. The an-tioxidant activity of bio-oils determined by the TEAC method. The solid phase (biochar) charac-terized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The diffractograms identified the presence of Kalicinite (KHCO3) in biochar, and those higher temperatures favor the formation peaks of Kalicinite (KHCO3). The pyrolysis of Açaí seeds activated with KOH show bio-oil yields from 3.19 to 6.79 (wt.%), aqueous phase yields between 20.34 and 25.57 (wt.%), solid phase yields (coke) between 33.40 and 43.37 (wt.%), and gas yields from 31.85 to 34.45 (wt.%). The yield of bio-oil shows a smooth exponential increase with temperature. The acidity of bio-oil varied between 12.3 and 257.6 mgKOH/g, decreasing exponentially with temperature, while that of aqueous phase between 17.9 and 118.9 mgKOH/g, showing and exponential decay behavior with temperature, demonstrating that higher temperatures favor not only the yield of bio-oil but also bio-oils with lower acidity. For the experiments with KOH activation, the GC-MS of bio-oil identified the presence of hydro-carbons (alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, and aromatics) and oxygenates (carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones, and esters). The concentration of hydrocarbons varied between 10.19 to 25.71 (area.%), increasing with temperature, while that of oxygenates from 52.69 to 72.15 (area.%), decreasing with temperature. For the experiments with constant temperature, the concentrations of hydrocarbons in bio-oil increase exponentially with molarity, while those of oxygenates de-crease exponentially, showing that higher molarities favor the formation of hydrocarbons in bio-oil. The antioxidant activity of bio-oils decreases with increasing temperature, as the content of phenolic compounds decreases, and decreases with increasing KOH molarity, as higher molarities favors the formation of hydrocarbons. Finally, it can be concluded that chemical activation of Açaí seeds with KOH favors the not only the yield of bio-oil but also the content of hydrocarbons. The study of process variables is of utmost importance in order to clearly assess reaction mechanisms, economic viability and design goals that could be derived from chemically activated biomass pyrolysis processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0871.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Lacquer Lian; Py-GC/MS; Urushi; Boiled tung oil
Online: 10 August 2023 (14:41:29 CEST)
Seven pieces of Lacquer Lian from Warring States Period to Yuan Dynasty were analyzed by means of cross-section observation, Raman spectroscopy (RS) and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy (THM-Py-GC/MS). The results demonstrate that Lacquer Lian was consisted by three layers, including pigment layer, undercoat layer and ground layer, and lacquering techniques had undergone minimal changes from Warring States Period to Yuan Dynasty, the red mineral pigment was cinnabar, the lacquer sap was urushi. Furthermore, Boiled tung oil was found in the ground layer of lacquerwares from Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0721.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Consortium; Essential oil; FYM, Mentha; Organic farming; Soil health
Online: 9 August 2023 (05:21:02 CEST)
Mentha is one of the predominant cash crops in India. However, it is a heavy feeder of nutrients. Organic sources of nutrients not only help in adequate nutrition but also maintain favorable physicochemical and biological soil environments. The present study was conducted to evaluate the response of different combinations of nutrients with microbial bio-fertilizer on mentha crops from 2020 to 2022. The experiment was carried out in the Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications and eight treatments viz; T1 - Control, T2 - RDF (N 75 kg ha-1, P2O5 20 kg ha-1), T3 - RDF + water soaking of roots, T4 - RDF + root soaking with bio-fertilizer, T5 - RDF + bio-fertilizer @ 10 kg ha-1, T6 - 100% N from FYM + water soaking of roots, T7 - 100% N from FYM + root soaking with bio-fertilizer and T8 - 100% N from FYM + bio-fertilizer @ 10 kg ha-1. The treatment T8 (100% N from FYM + bio-fertilizer @10 kg ha-1) significantly outperformed and recorded the highest growth and yield attributes viz; emergence count, stools count, plant height, leaf area index, leaf stem ratio, fresh and dry herb yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0623.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: oil pulling; oral health; gingivitis; dentistry; dentistry innovations; polyphenols
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:29:53 CEST)
Objectives The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of extra virgin olive oil (EVO) and fruity oil for the treatment of gingivitis. Materials and Methods. A sample of 75 patients with gingivitis induced by plaque bacteria, over 18 years of age, was divided into three groups: a study group A with extra virgin olive oil, a study group B with fruity oil and a control group C. In the two study groups, Evo oil was administered as a mouthwash in patients with gingival inflammation. The protocol included a daily application of the product for 30 days, with three recalls 15 days apart. Clinical parameters of plaque formation and gingivitis - plaque index (PI), bleeding index (BI) were assessed at each recall and scored on a specific periodontal chart. The control group re-ceived no mouthwash treatment to normal daily oral hygiene procedures, and the same clinical parameters as the study group were evaluated. Data were evaluated using SPSS 27.0 software for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chica-go, IL, USA). Then, the pre- and post-treatment values of the groups were compared using the t-student test, set-ting P < 0.05 as the significance level. Results Comparison with the three groups showed that extra virgin olive oil was an adjuvant in the treatment of gingival inflammation, improving PI and BI. In group A, mean plaque index had a 48% reduction and bleeding index 64% reduction, after 30 days. In group B, the mean plaque index had a 35% reduction and a bleeding index reduction of 43%, after 30 days. Conclusion The collected data showed significant improvements in the formation of bacterial plaque and gingi-vitis. the exact mechanism of such treatment is still to be elucidated. As a result of this, further studies with a different sample of patients to those used and a comparison with other products need to be addressed to verify and demonstrate the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effect of the components of this natural product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1024.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanocrystalline cellulose; corn starch; nanocomposite film; virgin coconut oil
Online: 14 June 2023 (09:35:30 CEST)
Corn starch-based nanocomposite films usually have low moisture barrier properties. The addition of virgin coconut oil (VCO) as a hydrophobic component can improve the nanocomposite film's characteristics, especially the film's permeability and elongation properties. This study aimed to determine the role of VCO with various concentrations (0,3,5 wt%) on the physical, mechanical, and water vapor transmission characteristics of corn starch/NCC-based nanocomposite films. The results showed that the concentration of 3 wt% VCO was most effective in reducing the WVTR value of nanocomposite films with a value of 4.721 g/m2.h. While the value of tensile strength was 4.243 MPa, elongation 68.58%, modulus of elasticity 0.062 MPa, thickness 0.219 mm, lightness 98.77, and water solubility 40.51%. However, the addition of 5 wt% VCO was more effective in increasing the elongation properties of the film. The addition of VCO gave the appearance of a porous film surface and a finer structure was formed. The FTIR test on corn starch nanocomposite films with the addition of VCO did not show any new absorption peaks. The results of this study may provide opportunities for the development of nanocomposite films as biodegradable packaging in the future.