ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0069.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; RGB; oats; rice; growth
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:48:41 CET)
Fusarium graminearum is a cereal pathogen responsible for economic losses worldwide every year. An understanding of its growth is key to control its infection, but current growth models are limited because their size-based approach provides little information about the mold's metabolism. Recently, a RGB (red, green and blue) imaging analysis demonstrated the predictability of F. graminearum color change as it grows in yeast extract agar (YEA). This study aimed to verify the same phenomenon in oats (aw = 0.94, 0.97 and 0.99) and rice (aw = 0.97, 0.98 and 0.99). Photos were taken using a professional camera and a smartphone (iPhone 6) after incubation and during the subsequent 16 days, and average RGB was quantified using ImageJ software. The photos showed very similar color variations, regardless of the type of grain or aw. The mold first adopted a k-selection strategy by growing as a mycelium and then a r-selection strategy, increasing spore production. All RGB channels showed positive Pearson correlations between them (p < 0.001) and it was possible to design a model showing two lag phases, the first prior to a mycelial phase and the second prior to a sporular phase at the end of the experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0212.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: oats; fusarium sambucinum species complex; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; mycotoxin
Online: 11 November 2021 (13:05:00 CET)
Oats are a nutrient rich cereal used for animal feed and growing in human consumption. This cereal can be affected by Fusarium spp., causing the disease Fusarium Head Blight. This disease is caused mainly by species within the Fusarium graminearum species complex, and are also responsible for producing mycotoxins that are harmful to humans and animals. This study aimed to investigate fungal diversity in Brazilian oat samples, focusing on the Fusarium sambucinum species complex and the presence of type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and its derivatives, and nivalenol) from two different regions; Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The isolated fungi from oat grains were identified as species from the genera: Fusarium, Phoma and Alternaria. The majority of Fusarium isolates belonged to the Fusarium sambucinum species complex; identified as F. graminearum s.s., F. meridionale and F. poae. In the RS region, F. poae was the most frequent fungus, while FGSC was the most frequent in the PR region. The majority of F. graminearum s.s. isolates were of the 15-ADON genotype, while some 3-ADON genotypes were identified; however, F. meridionale and F. poae were all of the NIV genotype. Mycotoxin analysis revealed that 92% and 100% of the samples from PR and RS were contaminated with type B trichothecenes, respectively. The oats from PR were predominantly contaminated with DON, whereas NIV was predominant in oats from RS. Analysis showed that 24% of the samples were contaminated with DON at levels higher than Brazilian regulations. Co-contamination of DON, its derivatives and NIV was observed in 84% and 57.7% of the samples from PR and RS, respectively. The results provide new information on Fusarium contamination in Brazilian oats, highlighting the importance for further studies on mycotoxins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0266.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Mycotoxins; Agricultural Practices; Mycotoxigenic Fungi; Fusarium; Oats; Cereals; Statistical Analysis; Agronomic
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:18:56 CEST)
Seven agronomic factors (crop season, farming system, harvest date, moisture, county, oat variety, and previous crop) were recorded for 202 oat crops grown across Ireland, and samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS for four major Fusarium mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin. Type A trichothecenes were present in 62% of crops, with 7.4% exceeding European regulatory limits. DON (6.4%) and ZEN (9.9%) occurrences were rela-tively infrequent, though one and three samples were measured over their set limits respectively. Overall, the type of farming system and the previous crop were the main factors identified to significantly influence mycotoxin prevalence or concentration. Particularly, adherence to an organic farming system and growing oats after a previous crop of grass were found to decrease contamination by type A trichothecenes. These are important findings and may provide valuable insights for many other types of cereals crops as Europe moves towards a much greater organic based food system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0142.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: celiac disease; avenins; genetic variability; immunoreactivity; clinical studies; oats (Avena sativa)
Online: 13 March 2019 (09:27:54 CET)
Oats represents a promising alternative to small-grain cereals from Triticeae group (wheat, barley, rye) for persons suffering from any form of gluten intolerance, especially celiac disease (CD), since oat-specific prolamins avenins reveal generally lower gluten content and immunoreactivity. Recent studies on avenin molecular structure revealed large genetic variability in avenin sequences affecting the spectrum of gluten peptides produced by hydrolases in human digestive tract. The aim of the present review is to summarise recent knowledge obtained in laboratory in vitro studies focused on the effect of avenin-derived peptides on reactivity of crucial components of human immune system such as dendritic cells (DC) and T-cells. The other part of the review summarises the results of clinical studies with CD patients including oat products in their diet. Since different clinical studies revealed contradictory results regarding potential safety of oats for CD patients, the focus has to be directed at genetic variability in oat avenins. Identification of avenin isoforms with minimum CD immunoreactivity will open up ways leading to designing novel oat cultivars suitable for CD patients. Knowledge on immunoreactivity of gluten peptides together with breeding new oat cultivars revealing minimum avenin immunoreactivity with respect to CD as well as application of food processing technologies leading to gluten content reduction should result in development of gluten-free oats safe for celiacs.